You are on page 1of 21






Acknowledgement Summary

3 4

Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3

Introduction About the company Management responsibilities Quality management unit head 5 6 8

Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Finding and analysis Quality System And Techniques Followed By The Company Statistical Quality Control Tools And Technique Inspection & Test Status Quality Records Internal Quality Audits Training Questionnaire Surveys Study I- Best measure/indicator for quality Study II-BALAJI s definition of quality Study III-Parties involved in quality improvement 2.8 15 14 9 10 12 12 13 13

Application and Relevance of the Quality Concepts Studied in the Course FORMS Management review 18

Chapter3 3.1 3.2

Conclusions Recommendation Conclusions

19 19 19

A task or project cannot be completed alone. It requires the effort of many individuals. We take this opportunity to thank all those who helped me complete this project. We express our sincere gratitude to Mr. Jagbhooshan Gupta, the Managing Director of M/s BALAJI CONSTRUCTION for giving us the opportunity to visit their company and provide us with every possible assistance. We further would like to thank Mr. AMARJIT Singh, Architect and Engineer and Mr. Amrinder Singh Building Structure Specialist for lending a helping hand and to provide required information and in-depth knowledge related to the project. We also would like to thank our teacher Mrs. Kanupriya and Mr. Manas Behra for giving us a chance to practically experience the Corporate Sectors Quality Issues, Management and Control Issues.


We have studied and analyzed the following for BALAJI CONSTRUCTION There are levels of quality control system and techniques followed to achieve it. The quality standards met by the company.. Statistical quality control tools and techniques followed in the company. Reasons and benefits of using those techniques.

Application and relevance of the Quality Concepts studied in the course i.e. Things which are taught in the class how they have been practically used in the company for meeting the quality standards Briefly we have studied about M/s BALAJI CONSTRUCTION. Its mission, vision, methods,

procedures adopted by this company to meet the quality standards.

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION 1.1About The Company

M/s BALAJI CONSTRUCTION is a Ghaziabad based company established in 2009. The construction company is well versed with execution of grass Root projects of civil construction of medium and heavy industries. Mainly paper plants, chemical plants, food plants etc. Besides Industrial construction work related to commercial and buildings. BALAJI CONSTRUCTION has been through major transitions under the leadership of Mr.Jagbhooshan Gupta with the commitment of providing high quality job in limited time bound frame. The companys work is ensured by all the necessary licenses for all the types of works that are carried out, including General contracting activity on structural works, fulfilling the function of a construction manager. General contract specialists put into life innovative architectural projects on the world quality standard level. The company performs the whole range of engineering services. Its fundamental principles in working with customers and partners are timeliness and quality. The division holds tenders among subcontracting organizations, coordinates all works, conducts the quality control of the works that are carried out. Fulfilling obligations is the key condition of the reputation of BALAJI brand. Great attention is paid to production standards. Construction site is an element of urban environment. Keeping it clean and in order is a mandatory rule, observed by the company. Using advanced technologies, newest machines and mechanisms allows to reduce the time of construction considerably and to improve quality. Some units are already commissioned and are now operated and maintained for peoples benefit, some are being constructed. They are all interesting in their own way, every specialist of the company has put a bit of their work in each project. Initiative and qualified staff maintain the development of the company.

To be a leader in construction sector with a commitment towards professionalism & quality excellence. To embrace challenges in work regardless of its size & complexity as challenge is the mother of growth. We stand for our commitment & above all we stand for our clients success. Our aim is to create a world where honest, transparent & committed work is given prime importance with no compromise on quality.

To reach the challenging standards of design & build.To develop & retain a reputation of providing professional, innovative & efficient services to our clients. To achieve excellence in everything we do.To be recognized as a BALAJI & premier company in our industry.

1.2 Management Responsibility

This clause identifies the responsibility of top management and the need for effective leadership. It describes the responsibilities and authorities for personnel who manage, perform and verify work which could affect the quality standards of the organization.

Management Board Commitment The Managing Board is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the Quality System is continually and consistently monitored and improved. The means by which they show their commitment to the Quality Management System development, implementation and improvement is through implementing the following points: 1) Client Focus: Management Board communicate the importance of meeting client requirements and ensure that a client focus is maintained throughout the system processes. Valuable Clientele List: i. ii. ITI, Odhal, Distt SIRSA. Construction of road in sector- 45

2) Quality Policy & objectives: The Management Board is responsible for establishing or approving the Quality policy & objectives during Management Reviews and communicating it through the company.

3) Responsibility, Authority and Communication: The Management Board should ensure that: Adequate available resources and job responsibilities/authorities are defined in theQuality Manual, Procedures and Work instructions for key personnel. Employees have the necessary training, specifications and equipment to effectivelycarry out their work. Active communication by monthly management meetings, weeklyproject meetings and daily site meetings take place, whereby through all these means the effectiveness of the Quality Management System is communicated. The responsibilities and authorities related to the Management System are definedand are communicated as necessary. The Management Board appoints theQuality Management Unit team and its Head. They have specificresponsibilities and authority related to the QMS as will be defined and are responsible for maintaining of the QMS through scheduled audits that will becommunicated during Review Meetings to ensure its suitability.

4) Review Business Performance Information The Management Board is responsible for reviewing the various performance indices thatindicate the overall performance of the organization and how the implementation of QMS isaffecting it.

1.3 Quality Management Unit Head

Quality Management Unit Head is not expected to solve all of the system problems, but he hasthe responsibility of providing the different departments with the tools necessary for them toeffectively address the problems of the system.

The QMU Head is responsible for:1. Establishing a Baseline and Action Plan to identify what needs to be done to revise ordevelop the companys QMS 2. Providing procedures, checklists and various forms to the different departments to createreferences for measuring progress 3. Verify that the companys QMS, documentation, and practices are complete and correctaccording to ISO Standards by ensuring the different forms, and checklists are used/ putin action by the different departments. 4. Conducting audits which will are undertaken by the QMU team who are trained inauditing and not directly responsible for the functions being audited within the Company. 5. Reviewing the findings of internal/ external audits and identifying any areas of recurringproblems or potential improvements. 6. Ensure internal audits of the Quality System are undertaken at least quarterly per annumto confirm that the function concerned is implemented, effective and adhering to theCompany's Quality System. 7. Retaining documents or relevant tests and documentation which help to demonstrate theeffectiveness of the Quality System.


2.1 Quality System And Techniques Followed By The Company

The Quality System is designed to provide an assurance to clients through documented records that all contracts will be completed in accordance with the agreed time, cost and quality. The Quality System followed by the Company is based on the ISO9001:2000 standards and requirements which provide a base from which to build the efficiency of the Quality System of the Company. The classification for QMS documents are as follows:Level 1: Quality Assurance Manual This is the top level of the quality documentation and it includes all documents describing the organization and covers all of the elements, which make up the quality system. These includequality policy (short, concise statements of the organizations guiding principles), general responsibilities, general administrative rules, references to quality procedures. Level 2: Quality Procedures The quality procedures provide a definitive methodology to carry out a particular task in a controlled manner. These procedures have been developed after lengthy discussions with various discipline personnel involved in the day to day running of that particular activity. These provide organizational know-how; they briefly show inputs, outputs, activities and responsibilities for each process.

Level 3: Instructions; the day-day instructions for a task The levels 1 and 2 form a network that connects the instructions which contain technical or professional know-how. It is important to find the balance between what is essential to record in order to do the job properly and what can be assumed from the performing operators knowledge through their training and education. The instruction has to ensure that every appropriate trained operator is able to follow it (not only the author of the instruction). It is possible to keep these

instructions to a minimum, simply by stating what training/skills the operator should have in order to do the job. Others refer to equipment/software instruction manuals. They can also bereplaced by software prompts and "help-routines or checklists. Wherever it is possible usetemplates and checklists, preferably in electronic form, and incorporate the instructions in them.

2.2 Statistical Quality Control Tools And Techniques

The use of statistics is essential in interpreting the results of testing on a small sample. Without adequate interpretation, small sample testing results can be quite misleading. There are two types of statistical sampling which are commonly used for the purpose of quality control in batches of work or materials: 1. Instead of using defective and non-defective classifications for an item, a quantitative quality measure or the value of a measured variable is used as a quality indicator. This testing procedure is referred to as sampling by variables.

2. The acceptance or rejection of a lot is based on the number of defective (bad) or non-defective (good) items in the sample. This is referred to as sampling by attributes.


Control Of Non-Conforming Works Non-conformances are defined as the failure to meet plans and/or specifications upon the completion of a discrete and measurable element of construction (i.e. individual pre-cast units, individual concrete placements, lift of earthwork, etc.). To prevent non-conforming goods being inadvertently used in production, strict control is exercised in accordance with documented procedures to ensure Works which do not conform to specified requirements are identified and, if possible, segregated from the construction flow. The contractor ensures that non-conformances are recorded and reviewed for appropriate corrective action. These are logged and filed centrally and monitored to ensure that each defect has been properly remedied. The proposed corrective action to rectify a nonconforming item is then submitted to the designated authority for review and approval and no corrective action is carried out until written permission is obtained from the owner consultant/ designated authority.

Corrective And Preventative Action

A Corrective Action procedure is formulated by contractor to provide guidelines for identification of the non-conformance, investigation into the cause of the non-conformance and identification of a corrective action to prevent recurrence. The nominated QMU will investigate the cause of non-conforming works through analysis of all relevant processes, work operations and quality records. The procedure explains the means through which the nominated QMU should apply controls to ensure that Corrective Actions will be taken and will be effective. For example Quality Control checklists are placed on each site, Concrete cube testing and Concrete pour records should be maintained on each site identifying in which structural element each load of concrete has been used, etc.. The effectiveness of the action taken is monitored through follow-ups and if it proves to be effective, the action is reflected in amendments to procedures or work instructions.

Customer complaints are processed to ensure that they are brought to a documented conclusion. Any source of information to identify preventive action such as processes, work operations, audit results, results records and customer complaints are reviewed at the Management Review meetings.


2.3 Inspection & Test Status

The inspection and test status of items in the process of being built into the product is identified in accordance with approved project procedures. This identification is maintained throughout all stages of construction. The method of identifying the inspection andtest status may be, tagging, color code, test records, inspection records or other suitably agreed methods. Hold Tag is used to isolate nonconforming items or items with incompleteinspections from construction use until such time as the nonconformance has been resolved orthe inspection has been completed. Records are maintained to verify any inspection authority that shall be responsible for therelease of the goods.

Inspection Measuring AndTest Equipment

The Contractor supply and maintain all measuring and testing equipment necessary to perform the required inspections and tests to ensure that material conforms to the requirements of the Contract. Any inspection, measuring or test equipment required to give precise, accurate results are calibrated to recognized standards or specifications. Any items of equipment, required to verify the conformance of a product, which requires calibration, shall be calibrated by an approved laboratory, who shall supply a certificate, signed by an authorized person to confirm conformance of the equipment.

2.4 Quality Records

It maintains; who keeps what records, where the records are kept, and for how long. Quality Records are maintained to demonstrate the conformity of the completed works to the specification and the effective operation of the companys QMS. Examples of records include Safety Incident Reports, Accident Records and Construction Quality Records such as Construction Inspection Reports, photos, checklists, test results,etc. Procedures are provided to define the scope and retention of Quality Records. Storage and filing is carried out according to approved procedures to ensure the records are easily retrieved for reference purposes and in a suitable location, which shall minimize possible deterioration through environmental conditions or loss.


2.5 Internal Quality Audits

The contractor prepares an internal audit plan and procedure(s) to meet requirements at each stage of construction, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the QMS, and to identify actions for continual improvement. The plan appoints schedule for conducting the internal audits according to the status and importance of the activities which affect the quality system. The QMU documents the audit results and communicate them to the appropriate personnel and management to ensure that timely action is taken as a result of the audit findings. A proposed corrective action is submitted for approval in the event of any non-compliance and a follow up audit is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the corrective action taken.

2.6 Training
BALAJI s Management maintain a training plan or program to ensure allpersonnel are fully competent to carry out their assigned tasks. A Training Plan/Program should be developed to: List all job functions and establish training requirements for each function. Show competency requirements for each job function. Evaluate and assure achievement of competency and effectiveness of training.

These trainings could include company sponsored training, on-site training, procurementtraining, safety training, seminars and conferences. For example training on quality and safety could be given to all new starters. Finally, records of the procedures used, plans developed, training needs, training provided andthe evaluation conducted are maintained.


2.7 Questionnaire Surveys

Study I
25% respondents said that they were aware of quality programs in construction industry; 75% said they were not aware of such programs. 20% of the respondents said that their company has a quality program; 80% said that this was not the case. What do you consider the best measure/indicator for quality in construction industry? Please rank from 0 (least important) to 10 (most important).
Rank: 0-10 Overall customer satisfaction Management commitment to quality Being asked to come back to do more work (return business) Skilled work force Training and education The amount of call backs / rework Regular inspections The length of warranty (in years) companies can give on their work General construction standards Quality Awards Certified quality programs such as the ISO 9000 and 14000 series

8.2 8.1 8.1 8.0 7.5 6.9 5.5 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.2

Results show that BALAJI consider customer satisfaction, management commitment to quality, return business and a skilled work force the best measures for quality. Official standards, quality awards and certified quality programs are considered far less important.

Study II
BALAJI s definition of quality Definition of Quality Overall Response Dont use a definition for quality, or non-applicable to our 3% work Looks good, works good, or proud to put companys name 22% on the finished product Meets all customers expectations or demands for the 24% finished product Meets design or code requirements, minimal call-backs or 17%

rework needed Able to guarantee the finished product will not fail or have problems Total



Results show that BALAJIs own perception of quality and customer satisfaction, are the aspects most often associated with quality. Meeting design codes and a warranty are less important.

Study III
Parties involved in quality improvement Are your employees involved in efforts to improve quality? Does an employee quality-training program exist at the company? Do you require vendors and subcontractors to use a Quality Program? Do you promote Partnering on your projects? 23% 25% 30% 13%

Results show that employees of the own company are often involved in quality improvement. Suppliers and subcontractors are most of time not involved.

2.8 Application And Relevance Of The Quality Concepts Studied In The Course
1) Check sheet - Simple data check-off sheet designed to identify type of quality problems at each work station; per shift, per machine, per operator. 2) Flowcharts- Flowcharts are made whenever a new contract is signed to explain the client how and when things will be done and also for ones own convenience. 3) Benchmarking -There is a separate department for this work. This department sees the performances for other companies in the same field. It tries to figure out what are the combinations of things that can lead to a better output i.e. a better quality, profit and customer satisfaction.


1. Management Review





3.1 Recommendations
The company can computerize the quality control systems by using improved software and data base management system to maintain the quality records, performance records, daily reviews, etc.. Strengthen QMU by allocating separate fund to the unit. Quality measures should be monitored, not only before and after the processes, but also during the process. Monitoring should be continuous. Giving more importance to Meeting design codes and a warranty. Focus more on safety measures for the site workers. Practicing of Japanese 5S for conducive working environment.

3.2 Conclusions
Even with lot of quality control measures, implementation of these measures is not up to the mark. The company should make use of the currently available technologies to improve the quality control measures. BALAJI Constructor often have an attitude of: Looks good, feels good which is a measure that is hard to quantify: it is hard to find a quantifiable outcome measure of quality in construction industry. One of the most important results is to define quality specifically, and then quantify it. Customer satisfaction is an obvious outcome measure, but most of the time, this measure is not adequately quantified in construction industry. The primary barrier to management system implementation success in BALAJI seems to be the nature of the construction process: the projects are very large, seldom situated in the same location and labor intensive; the workforce tends to be transient; demand fluctuates, subject to the clients perception of the value of the construction project.


A second barrier to quality implementation is the many parties involved in the construction process. The construction industry has traditionally consisted of three primary participants: the owner (or customer), the designer/engineer, and the (general) contractor. A third barrier to quality implementation is non-standardization: Very often, products are one-offs and the production processes are to some extent different from each other. Hence, no universal standard or specification can be applied to the product, which leads to difficulties in quality assurance. The BALAJI CONSTRUCTION Ltd. should look more into these barriers and work towards finding suitable solutions for such barriers.