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Secondary One Mathematics:
An Integrated Approach
Module 1 Honors
Getting Ready
By
The Mathematics Vision Project:
Scott Hendrickson, Joleigh Honey,
Barbara Kuehl, Travis Lemon, Janet Sutorius
www.mathematicsvisionproject.org
In partnership with the
Utah State Office of Education
1
Getting Ready 1
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2
Getting Ready 2
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3
Getting Ready 3
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Getting Ready 4
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5
Getting Ready 5
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.1 Checkeiboaiu Boiueis  Teachei Notes
! #$%$&'( )*+$,./*+0*1 2/3
#$%&'(): The focus of this task is on the geneiation of multiple expiessions that connect with the
visuals pioviueu foi the checkeiboaiu boiueis. These expiessions will also pioviue oppoitunity to
uiscuss equivalent expiessions anu ieview the skills stuuents have pieviously leaineu about
simplifying expiessions anu the using vaiiables.
*'%) +,./%/( 0'1$(:
23435 Befine appiopiiate quantities foi the puipose of uesciiptive moueling.
63++738 Inteipiet expiessions that iepiesent a quantity in teims of its context.
a. Inteipiet paits of an expiession, such as teims, factois, anu coefficients.
b. Inteipiet complicateu expiessions by viewing one oi moie of theii paits as a single entity.
9):,)/ +,./%/(; 63*7<35= 6397>38
?$.1@ AB@':) *:((C;
Aftei ieauing anu uiscussing the "Checkeiboaiu Boiueis" scenaiio, challenge stuuents to come up
with a way to quickly count the numbei of coloieu tiles in the boiuei. Bave them cieate numeiic
expiessions that exemplify theii piocess anu iequiie them to connect theii thinking to the visual
iepiesentation of the tiles.
The fiist phase of woik shoulu be uone inuiviuually, allowing stuuents to "see" the pioblem anu
patteins in the tiles in theii own way. This will pioviue foi moie iepiesentations to be consiueieu
latei. Aftei stuuents woik inuiviuually foi a few minutes on pait A, have them shaie with a paitnei
anu begin to uevelop auuitional iueas as a paii oi assist each othei in geneializing theii stiategy foi
pait B.
7D&:'%) A>./EFE/$: ,@). &E%(C;
Foi stuuents who uon't know wheie to begin, it may be useful to ask some staitei questions like:
"Bow many tiles aie theie along one siue.", "Bow can you count the tiles in gioups iathei than one
byone."
Piess on stuuents to connect theii numeiic iepiesentations to the visual iepiesentation. You might
ask, "Bow uoes that foui in youi numbei sentence connect to the visual iepiesentation." Encouiage
stuuents to maik on the visual oi to ieuiaw it so they can uemonstiate how they weie thinking
about the uiagiam numeiically.
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
Watch foi stuuents who calculate the numbei of boiuei tiles in uiffeient ways. Nake note of theii
numeiic stiategies anu the uiffeient geneializeu expiessions that aie cieateu. The uiffeiing
stiategies anu algebiaic expiessions will be the focus of the uiscussion at the enu, allowing foi
stuuents to connect back to piioi woik fiom pievious mathematical expeiiences anu bettei
unueistanu equivalence between expiessions anu how to piopeily simplify an algebiaic
expiession. Piompt stuuents to calculate the numbei of tiles foi a given siue length using theii
expiession anu then to uiaw the visual mouel anu check foi accuiacy. Requiie stuuents to justify
why theii expiession will woik foi any siue length ! of the innei squaie iegion. Piess them to
geneialize theii justifications iathei than just iepeat the piocess they have been using. You might
ask, "Bow uo you know youi expiession will woik foi any siue length.", oi "What is it about the
natuie of the pattein that suggests this will always woik.", oi "What will happen if we look at a siue
length of six. ten. fiftythiee." Consiuei these iueas both visually anu in teims of the geneial
expiession.
2',); Baseu on the stuuent woik anu the uifficulties they may oi may not encountei, a
ueteimination will neeu to be maue as to whethei a uiscussion of pait A of the task shoulu be helu
piioi to stuuents woiking on pait B. Woiking with a specific case may facilitate access to the
geneial case foi moie stuuents. Bowevei, if stuuents aie ieauy foi whole class uiscussion of theii
geneial iepiesentations, then staiting theie will allow foi moie time to be spent on making
connections between the uiffeient expiessions, anu extenuing the task to moie geneial
iepiesentations.
As available, select stuuents to piesent who founu uiffeient ways of geneializing. Some possible
ways stuuents might "see" the coloieu tiles gioupeu aie pioviueu below. It woulu be goou to have
at least thiee uiffeient views to uiscuss anu possibly moie.
<E(1$(( AB@':) *:((C;
Baseu on the stuuent woik available you will neeu to ueteimine the oiuei of the stiategies to be
piesenteu. A likely piogiession woulu stait with a stiategy that uoes not pioviue the most
simplifieu foim of the expiession. This will piomote questioning anu unueistanuing fiom stuuents
that may have uone it uiffeiently anu allow foi uiscussion about what each piece of the expiession
iepiesents. Aftei a couple of uiffeient stiategies have been shaieu it might be goou to get the most
simplifieu foim of the expiession out on the table anu then look foi an explanation as to how all of
the expiessions can be equivalent anu iepiesent the same thing in so many uiffeient ways.
6:EG.)/ 9)/H= +),= I'; I),,E.G 9)/H 838
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
Possible stuuent stiategies:
2 ( s + 4 ) + 2 s
4 ( s + 4 )  8
4 s + 8
(s + 4)
2
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2
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2012 www.fllckr.com/phoLos/[lma
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6
Getting Ready 6
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Getting Ready 7
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Getting Ready 8
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Licenseu unuei the Cieative Commons AttiibutionNonCommeicialShaieAlike S.u 0npoiteu license.
1.2 Builuing Noie Checkeiboaiu Boiueis
Teachei Notes
! #$%$&'( )*+$,./*+0*1 2/3
"#$%&'(: Builuing on the pievious task, the focus of this task is on the geneiation of multiple
expiessions that connect with the visuals pioviueu foi the checkeiboaiu boiueis. These
expiessions will also pioviue oppoitunity to uiscuss the incoipoiation of two vaiiables, in this case
! anu ". This task coulu be useu the same uay as the Checkeiboaiu Boiueis task oi the following
uay baseu on stuuents' neeus.
)&$( +,./$/' 0&1#':
))++2 3.,(4$,(/ ",567 2,5 89 )$:,:1; <$( =
". . . inteipiet given expiessionsj giaphically, numeiically, symbolically, anu veibally, tianslate
between iepiesentations, anu unueistanu the limitations of vaiious iepiesentations. "
>?@?= Befine appiopiiate quantities foi the puipose of uesciiptive moueling.
<?++A?8 Inteipiet expiessions that iepiesent a quantity in teims of its context.!
a. Inteipiet paits of an expiession, such as teims, factois, anu coefficients.
b. Inteipiet complicateu expiessions by viewing one oi moie of theii paits as a
single entity.
B(;,(/ +,./$/'9 <?)AC?=D <?BA3?8
E#.15 FG5&;( );''H9
Aftei ieauing anu uiscussing the "Builuing Noie Checkeiboaiu Boiueis" scenaiio, challenge
stuuents to come up with a way to count the numbei of coloieu tiles in the boiuei. Allow stuuents
time to woik inuiviuually foi a few minutes to allow them time to ieflect on theii woik in the
pievious task anu uevelop an algebiaic expiession.
AI%;&$( F+J;; K$&#%H9
Foi stuuents who uon't know wheie to begin, it may be useful to ask some staitei questions like,
"Bow uiu you finu the numbei of coloieu tiles in 'Checkeiboaiu Boiueis'." oi "Bow uo the numbei
of coloieu tiles along one siue of the iectangle compaie with the length of that siue."
Piess on stuuents to connect theii algebiaic iepiesentations to the visual iepiesentation. You might
ask, "Bow uoes that 2 in youi numbei sentence connect to the visual iepiesentation." Encouiage
stuuents to maik on the visual oi to ieuiaw it so that it shows how they weie thinking about it
numeiically.
Watch foi stuuents who calculate the coloieu boiuei tiles in uiffeient ways. Nake note of theii
stiategies anu the uiffeient geneializeu expiessions that aie cieateu. The uiffeiing stiategies anu
algebiaic expiessions will be pait of the uiscussion at the enu, allowing foi stuuents to connect back
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Licenseu unuei the Cieative Commons AttiibutionNonCommeicialShaieAlike S.u 0npoiteu license.
to piioi woik fiom pievious mathematical expeiiences anu bettei unueistanu equivalence between
expiessions anu how to piopeily simplify an algebiaic expiession. Piompt stuuents to calculate the
numbei of tiles foi given a length anu wiuth using theii expiession anu then to uiaw the visual
mouel anu check foi accuiacy. Requiie stuuents to justify why theii expiession will woik foi any
length ! anu wiuth " foi an innei iectangulai iegion. Piess them to geneialize theii justifications
iathei than just iepeat the piocess they have been using. You might ask, "Bow uo you know that
expiession will woik foi any siue length.", oi "What is it about the natuie of the pattein that
suggests this will always woik.", "What will happen if we look at a siue length of six anu a wiuth of
9. ten. fiftythiee." Consiuei this both visually anu in teims of the geneial expiession.
C:'1#'' FG5&;( );''H9
As available, select stuuents to piesent who founu uiffeient ways of geneializing. Some possible
ways stuuents might "see" the coloieu tiles gioupeu aie pioviueu below. It woulu be goou to have
at least thiee uiffeient views to uiscuss anu possibly moie.
Possible stuuent stiategies: (these can be compaiable to those in Checkeiboaiu Boiueis)
2 ( L + 4 ) + 2 W
2 ( L + 4 ) + 2 ( W + 4 )  8
2L + 2W + 8 (L + 4)(W + 4) ! LW
2
<;:4.(/ B(/7D +(,D K&9 K(,,:.4 B(/7 8?=
Name: Getting Ready 1.2
2012 Mathematics Vision Project  MVP
In partnership with the Utah State Office of Education
Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported license.
Ready, Set, Go!
Ready
Solve the following equations for the unknown variable.
1. ( ) 2. 3.
4.
5.
6. ( )
Set
For the growing pattern below, each line segment is one unit in length.
7. How much total perimeter in Step 5? Step 6? (Remember to focus on the perimeter.)
8. How can you determine the amount of perimeter in Step 25?
9. Write a rule to predict the total amount of perimeter for any step. Show how your rule relates to
the pattern.
10. Marsha also solved this problem and came up with following expression: 1 + 5n (n1). How does
each piece of her expression show up in the pattern?
11. Tyler came up with the expression 6n 2(n1). How does each piece of his expression show up in
the pattern?
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
2012 /www.flickr.com/photos/laurenmanning
9
Getting Ready 9
Name: Getting Ready 1.2
2012 Mathematics Vision Project  MVP
In partnership with the Utah State Office of Education
Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported license.
Go
For problems 12 and 13, the yintercept and the slope of a line are given. Graph the line on the
coordinate axes, clearly labeling the slope and yintercept.
12. (0, 2); m =
x + 2 y = 4x 3
For problems 1416, graph the following equations on the provided coordinate axes.
14. y = 2x1 15. y =
x +2 16. y = 3x + 5
Need Help? Check out these related videos:
http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/solvinglinearequations/v/solvingequations1
http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/linearequationsandinequalitie/v/graphingalineinslopeinterceptform
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXzpisUh0AU
10
Getting Ready 10
2012 Mathematics Vision Project  MVP
In partnership with the Utah State Office of Education
Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported license
1.3 Serving Up Symbols
A Develop Understanding Task
As you look around your school cafeteria, you may see many
things that could be counted or measured. To increase the
efficiency of the cafeteria, the cafeteria manager, Elvira, decided to take a close look at the
management of the cafeteria and think about all the components that affect the way the cafeteria
runs. To make it easy, she assigned symbols for each count or measurement that she wanted to
consider, and made the following table:
Symbol Meaning
(description of what the symbol means in context)
Units
(what is counted or measured)
S Number of students that buy lunch in the
cafeteria each day
students or
students
day
SM Number of students who have passed
through a line in M minutes
C Number of classes per lunch period
P Number of lunch periods per day
B Number of boys that buy lunch each day
boys or students or
boys
day
G Number of girls that buy lunch each day
F Number of food servers in the cafeteria
T Total number of food items in one lunch
(Each entre, side dish, or beverage counts as
1 item.)
M Number of minutes passed since the
beginning of the lunch period
Ne Number of entrees in each lunch
Ns Number of side dishes in each lunch
Nb Number of beverages in each lunch
Ce Cost of each entre
Cs Cost of each side dish
Cb Cost of each beverage
L Number of lines in the cafeteria
W The number of food servers per line
i Average number of food items that a server
can serve each minute (Each entre, side dish,
or beverage counts as 1 item.)
H Number of hours each food server works
each day
PL Price per lunch
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11
Getting Ready 11
2012 Mathematics Vision Project  MVP
In partnership with the Utah State Office of Education
Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported license
Using the given symbols, it is possible to write many different algebraic expressions.
1. Using these symbols, what would the expression
mean?
2. Using these symbols, what would the expression S + F + L mean?
Elvira hopes to use the symbols in the chart to come up with some meaningful expressions that will
allow her to analyze her cafeteria. Your job is to help her by writing as many expressions as you
can and describe what they mean. Put each of your expressions in the following chart, adding lines
if you need to:
Expression Description
Write an expression for the average number of lunches served in a line each day.
Write an expression for the total price of the items served in a line.
12
Getting Ready 12
2012 Mathematics Vision Project  MVP
In partnership with the Utah State Office of Education
Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported license
1.3 Serving Up Symbols Teacher Notes
A Develop Understanding Task
Purpose: The purpose of the task is to develop understanding of the use of variables given a story
context. Students are asked to interpret expressions written with variables, which will open up
strategies for using units to analyze expressions. Students will also combine variables to make
meaningful expressions and describe the meaning of the expressions they have written.
In mathematics, things we can count or measure are referred to as quantities. The references we
use to count or measure those things are called units. When modeling a situation mathematically,
two questions that generally arise are What are we going to count or measure, and What units
will we use to count or measure those things? In this task, students work with quantities and
units.
Core Standards:
A.SSE.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.
a. Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.
b. Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For
example, interpret P(1+r)
n
as the product of P and a factor not depending on P.
N.Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multistep problems;
choose and interpret units consistently in formulas.
Launch (Whole Class): Start by familiarizing students with the context of the problem. Before
giving the task to students, ask them to think of some of the things that could be counted or
measured in the cafeteria. Hand out the task and ask them to read through the list of variables
identified by the cafeteria manager to see if they can find the things that they thought of. You may
need to explain the use of subscripts for some of the variables, since many students may not have
used them previously. Have students consider the units they might use to count or measure the
quantities being described, and have them enter these units in the third column of the chart. Note
that the given examples suggest that we can change units on a quantity if it is helpful in thinking
about computation. For example, boys that each lunch in the cafeteria each day could be
measured in units such as: boys/day, boys or students.
Introduce students to the idea that variables can be combined to make meaningful expressions.
Using question #1, ask students what the expression
5.
6.
The equation represents the cost in dollars (c) of producing remote controls
(r).
7. What is the cost of producing 1000 remote controls?
8. What is the cost of producing 2000 remote controls?
9. What is the cost of producing 2500 remote controls?
2012 www.flickr.com/photos/specialkrb
13
Getting Ready 13
Name: Getting Ready 1.3
2012 Mathematics Vision Project  MVP
In partnership with the Utah State Office of Education
Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported license
Set
Solve each equation, justifying each step you use.
10. 11.
12. 13.
14. 15.
x 10 = 2 Justification
3 x = 15 Justification
16 = x + 11 Justification
6 x = 10 Justification
6 x + 3 = 15 Justification
3 x 10 = 2 Justification
14
Getting Ready 14
Name: Getting Ready 1.3
2012 Mathematics Vision Project  MVP
In partnership with the Utah State Office of Education
Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported license
Go
Graph the following equations on the provided coordinate grids.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Need Help? Check out these related videos:
http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/solvinglinearequations/v/solvingequations1
http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/linearequationsandinequalitie/v/graphingalineinslopeinterceptform
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXzpisUh0AU
10
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15
Getting Ready 15
Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
1.4 Examining 0nits
! #$%&'&() *+',./0+'&+1 20.3
(Note: This task iefeis to the same set of vaiiables as useu in #,4&+1 *5
#)67$%.)
"#$%& $# ())$%$*# +#) ,.%/+0%$*#
1. Why can you auu 8, + 8. + 87 anu you can auu 9 + :, but you can't
auu ; + <.
2. We measuie iealwoilu quantities in units like feet, gallons, stuuents anu mileshoui (miles
pei houi).
a. What units might you use to measuie 8,= 8. anu 87.
What about the sum 8, + 8. + 87 .
b. What units might you use to measuie 9. :.
What about the sum 9 + :.
c. What units might you use to measuie ;. <.
What about the sum ; + <.
S. State a iule about how you might use units to help you think about what types of quantities
can be auueu. Bow woulu you use oi mouify youi iule to fit subtiaction.
"#$%& $# 12%$32$0+%$*#4 &05#+/$* 6
1. Why can you multiply 8,!>, anu you can multiply ?!<, but you can't multiply :!>.
2. 0nits in multiplication often involve iates like milesgallon (miles pei gallon), feetseconu
(feet pei seconu), oi stuuentstable (stuuents pei table).
a. What units might you use to measuie 8,. >,.
What about the piouuct 8,!>, .
b. What units might you use to measuie ?. <.
What about the piouuct ?!<.
c. What units might you use to measuie :. >.
What about the piouuct :!>.
S. State a iule about how you might use units to help you think about what types of quantities
can be multiplieu.
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16
Getting Ready 16
Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
"#$%& $# 12%$32$0+%$*#4 &05#+/$* 7
1. Let l iepiesent the length of the cafeteiia in feet anu w iepiesent its wiuth in feet. What
uoes l + w + l + w iepiesent. What about l ! w.
2. Why can we auu l + w anu multiply l ! w6 What is it about these vaiiables that allow them
to be auueu oi multiplieu.
S. Bow might you mouify youi iule foi using units to guiue youi thinking when multiplying.
"#$%& $# 8$9$&$*#4 &05#+/$* 6
1. What aie the units foi the )$9$)5#) (what you aie uiviuing up), the )$9$&*/ (what you aie
uiviuing by) anu the :*%$5#% (the iesult of the uivision) in the following expiessions:
a.
S
P
b.
F
L
c.
S
F
u.
S
M
M
2. State a iule about the units in uivision pioblems like those iepiesenteu above.
"#$%& $# 8$9$&$*#4 &05#+/$* 7
1. What aie the units foi the uiviuenu (what you aie uiviuing up), the uivisoi (what you aie
uiviuing by) anu the quotient (the iesult of the uivision) in the following expiessions:
a.
F
W
b.
P
L
T
2. State a iule about the units in uivision pioblems like those iepiesenteu above.
17
Getting Ready 17
Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
1.4 Examining 0nits  Teachei Notes
! #$%&'&() *+',./0+'&+1 20.3
;/3*&5: Quantities aie measuieu in units. When quantities aie auueu, subtiacteu, multiplieu oi
uiviueu the units on the iesult of the opeiation may be uiffeient fiom the units useu to measuie the
inuiviuual quantities. The new units foimeu aie a consequence of the meaning of the opeiations.
Foi example, if the amount of gasoline I put in my cai is measuieu in gallons, anu the uistance I
tiavel when using up that amount of gasoline is measuieu in miles, then a new unit of measuie,
miles pei gallon, emeiges to measuie the efficiency of my cai's usage of gasoline. This is a iesult of
uiviuing the numbei of gallons of gasoline useu by the numbei of miles uiiven. In this task stuuents
soliuify the use of units as a tool foi unueistanuing pioblems anu as a guiue foi ueteimining what
opeiations make sense when combining quantities using the foui basic aiithmetic opeiations.
<*/5 ,%+#)+/)& =*0&:
>?@?6 0se units as a way to unueistanu pioblems anu to guiue the solution of multistep pioblems;
choose anu inteipiet units consistently in foimulas.
A52+%5) ,%+#)+/)&B >?@?74 (?,,C?6
D+#0E FGE*25 <2+&&HB
Pioviue a mouel foi the type of thinking expecteu of stuuents on this task by woiking thiough the
fiist section of the task, "0nits in Auuition anu Subtiaction", togethei as a class. The key iuea to
emeige heie is that we have to measuie quantities with "like" units befoie we can auu oi subtiact
them. Foi example, we may iefei to the quantities iepiesenteu by 8, as "enties", 8. as "siue
uishes" anu 87 as "beveiages" when thought of sepaiately, but we think of them as "items" when we
consiuei theii sum. Similaily we might iefei to the quantity iepiesenteu by 9 as "boys" anu : as
"giils", but we measuie the sum 9+: as "stuuents" oi "people". In oiuei to auu oi subtiact
quantities we have to be able to ieconsiuei them in teims of "like" units such as people, oi items, oi
fiuits (as in 2 apples + S oianges = S fiuits).
As stuuents consiuei the opeiations of multiplication anu uivision in the iemainuei of the task,
encouiage them to wiite out the units on each factoi oi teim. They will have to caiefully assign,
anu maybe ieassign, units to the quantities being iepiesenteu by the "Seiving up Symbols"
vaiiables. Foi example, in vaiious contexts the vaiiable 9 may be measuieu with the units "boys",
"stuuents" oi "boys pei uay".
Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
CI32*/5 F,J+22 K/*3HB
Key issues foi stuuents to notice about units in multiplication:
0nlike auuition, the two factois in multiplication geneially play uiffeient ioles. Sometimes one
factoi specifies the numbei of gioups, anu the othei factoi specifies the amount in the gioup. In
teims of units, the factoi that iepiesents the numbei of gioups is geneially a single unit, such as
"lines" oi "houis"; the unit on the factoi that iepiesents the amount in a gioup is geneially a iate,
such as "woikeis pei line" oi "items pei houi". Sometimes the two factois each iepiesent uiffeient
iates, anu the piouuct uesciibes a thiiu iate. 0thei times the factois might iepiesent lineai units,
anu then the piouuct iepiesents squaie units. In each case, theie has to be some common unit that
"cancels" oi makes sense when multiplieu by itself as a squaie oi cubic unit.
We can multiply (8, ,+/@,.A%B+CD) ! (>, '$%%0.A,+/@,) anu the piouuct will be measuieu in
'$%%0.A%B+CD.
We can multiply (? %&+,. ! < E$3,.A%&+,) anu the piouuct will be measuieu in E$3,..
We cannot multiply (: 1&%.A'0) ! > C%0..,.A%B+CD 5,&$').
We can multiply (l (,,/) ! (w (,,/) anu the piouuct is measuieu in .FB0, (,,/.
Key issues foi stuuents to notice about units in uivision:
When a uiviuenu is measuieu with a single unit such as "miles" oi "stuuents" anu the uivisoi is
measuieu by a single unit like "houis" oi "seiving lines" oi "teacheis" the quotient can iepiesent a
iate (miles pei houi), an aveiage (people pei seiving line) oi a iatio (stuuents pei teachei).
We can uiviue a unit of measuie by a iate involving that unit of measuie, pioviuing the unit of
measuie will "cancel".
We can uiviue # ./B',+/. by G %B+CD 5,&$'. anu the quotient will measuie the aveiage
numbei of ./B',+/. 5, %B+CD 5,&$'.
We can uiviue H .,4,. by ? %&+,. anu the quotient will measuie the aveiage numbei of
.,4,. 5, %&+,.
We can uiviue # ./B',+/. by H ($$' .,4,. anu the quotient will measuie the iatio of
./B',+/. 5, ($$' .,4,.
We can uiviue #; ./B',+/. by ; 6&+B/,. anu the quotient will measuie the iate of ./B',+/.
5, 6&+B/,I
We can uiviue H .,4,. by < .,4,.A%&+, anu the quotient will ueteimine the numbei of
%&+,..
We can uiviue G? '$%%0.A%B+CD by 2 &/,6.A%B+CD anu the quotient will give the aveiage
'$%%0.A&/,6I
8$&0&& FGE*25 <2+&&HB
The uiscussion shoulu examine the key issues listeu above.
(2$L#5) A5+)M4 ,5%4 K*B K5%%$#L A5+)M 6?N
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!! ! ! ! !! ! !! E)'+#A#$.+#0&
H F;DF III:A6#$8*:$01J=,0+0'J1.,#'8.6#
5.1%?
18
Getting Ready 18
!"##$%& (")*+ !
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61 7'3(1*3.),7 8,() ()* 9(') :('(* ;<<,* 0< =>?'(,01
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(")
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2/%*.K% &)13%* 0A A00( #+%1' =%* I%%8
>,% ./%*.K% &)13%* 0A A00( #+%1' '%*/%( =%* 1#&)+%
*+
>0=#$? L*.=, 6#&%.* %C).+#0&'
*=#90 "#/0 "12#)3+4:
M: 1 3 + = x y N: 3 2 + ! = x y O: 5
2
1
! = x y
19
Getting Ready 19
!"##$%& (")*+ !
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P: 2
3
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+ ! = x y D;: 1 2 ! = x y DD: 4
2
1
+ ! = y
DF: 2 4 + = x y D9: x y 2 = DG: 5 3 + ! = x y
5%%( ,%6=Q ,%$8 0)+ +,%'% *%6.+%( /#(%0'?
,++=?JJIII:8,.&.$.(%1B:0*KJ1.+,J.6K%3*.J'06/#&K46#&%.*4%C).+#0&'J/J'06/#&K4%C).+#0&'4D
,++=?JJIII:8,.&.$.(%1B:0*KJ1.+,J.6K%3*.J6#&%.*4%C).+#0&'4.&(4#&%C).6#+#%J/JK*.=,#&K4.46#&%4#&4'60=%4#&+%*$%=+4A0*1
,++=?JJIII:B0)+)3%:$01JI.+$,Q/RSTU=#'<,;2<
20
Getting Ready 20
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.S Cafeteiia Actions anu Reactions
! #$%$&'( )*+$,./*+0*1 2/3
Elviia, the cafeteiia managei, has just ieceiveu a shipment of new
tiays with the school logo piominently uisplayeu in the miuule of
the tiay. Aftei unloauing 4 caitons of tiays in the pizza line, she
iealizes that stuuents aie aiiiving foi lunch anu she will have to
wait until lunch is ovei befoie unloauing the iemaining caitons.
The new tiays aie veiy populai anu in just a couple of minutes 24
stuuents have passeu thiough the pizza line anu aie showing off the school logo on the tiays. At
this time, Elviia ueciues to uiviue the iemaining tiays in the pizza line into S equal gioups so she
can also place some in the salau line anu the sanuwich line, hoping to attiact stuuents to the othei
lines. Aftei uoing so, she iealizes that each of the thiee seiving lines has only 12 of the new tiays.
"That's not many tiays foi each line. I wonuei how many tiays theie weie in each of the caitons I
unloaueu."
1. Can you help the cafeteiia managei answei hei question using the uata in the stoiy about
each of the actions she took. Explain how you aiiive at youi solution.
Elviia is inteiesteu in collecting uata about how many stuuents use each of the tables uuiing each
lunch peiiou. She has iecoiueu some uata on PostIt Notes to analyze latei. Beie aie the notes she
has iecoiueu:
Some stuuents aie sitting at the fiont table. (I got uistiacteu by an inciuent in the back of
the lunchioom, anu foigot to iecoiu how many stuuents.)
Each of the stuuents at the fiont table has been joineu by a fiienu, uoubling the numbei of
stuuents at the table.
Foui moie stuuents have just taken seats with the stuuents at the fiont table.
The stuuents at the fiont table sepaiateu into thiee equalsizeu gioups anu then two gioups
left, leaving only onethiiu of the stuuents at the table.
As the lunch peiiou enus, theie aie still 12 stuuents seateu at the fiont table.
Elviia is wonueiing how many stuuents weie sitting at the fiont table when she wiote hei fiist
note. 0nfoitunately, she is not suie what oiuei the miuule thiee PostIt Notes weie iecoiueu in
since they got stuck togethei in ianuom oiuei. She is wonueiing if it matteis.
!
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21
Getting Ready 21
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
2. Boes it mattei which oiuei the notes weie iecoiueu in. Beteimine how many stuuents
weie oiiginally sitting at the fiont table baseu on the sequence of notes that appeais above.
Then ieaiiange the miuule thiee notes in a uiffeient oiuei anu ueteimine what the new
oiuei implies about the numbei of stuuents seateu at the fiont table at the beginning.
S. Beie aie thiee uiffeient equations that coulu be wiitten baseu on a paiticulai sequence of
notes. Examine each equation, anu then list the oiuei of the five notes that is iepiesenteu
by each equation. Finu the solution foi each equation.
22
Getting Ready 22
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.S Cafeteiia Actions anu Reactions  Teachei Notes
! #$%$&'( )*+$,./*+0*1 2/3
"#$%&'(: In this task stuuents will uevelop insights into how to extenu the piocess of solving
equationswhich they have examineu pieviously foi one oi twostep equationsto woik with
multistep equations. The piocess of solving an equation consists of wiiting a sequence of
equivalent equations until the value(s) that make each of the equations in the sequence tiue
becomes eviuent. Each equation in the sequence of equivalent equations is obtaineu by opeiating
on the expiessions on each siue of the pievious equation in the same way, such as multiplying both
siues of the equation by the same amount, oi auuing the same amount to both siues of the equation.
This piopeity of equality is often iefeiieu to as "keeping the equation in balance." 0ui goal in each
step of the equation solving piocess is to make the next equivalent equation contain fewei
opeiations than the pievious one by "unuoing" one opeiation at a time. When theie aie multiple
opeiations involveu in an equation, the oiuei in which to "unuo" the opeiations can be somewhat
pioblematic. This task examines ways to ueteimine the sequence of "unuoit" steps by using the
stiuctuie of the equation.
)&$( +,./$/' 0&1#':
2345637 Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following fiom the equality of numbeis
asseiteu at the pievious step, staiting fiom the assumption that the oiiginal equation has a solution.
Constiuct a viable aigument to justify a solution methou.
4(8,(/ +,./$/'9 234563:
;#.1< =><&8( )8''?9
Reau the initial stoiy context about Elviia, the cafeteiia managei, anu the sequence of events that
leu to "twelve new tiays in each of thiee seiving lines" anu challenge stuuents to "unuo" the
actions that got hei to this situation to see if they can answei Elviia's question of "how many tiays
weie in each caiton." uive stuuents a few minutes to woik inuiviuually oi with a paitnei to
analyze this situation, then have a stuuent shaie his oi hei thinking.
Recoiu the steps of the explanation of how to finu the numbei of tiays in a caiton foi use in a few
minutes:
Since theie aie now twelve tiays in each of thiee seiving lines, theie must have been S6
tiays befoie Elviia uiviueu them up.
Since 24 stuuents iemoveu tiays aftei lunch peiiou staiteu, theie must have been
S6+24=6u tiays that weie unloaueu.
Since the 6u tiays came fiom 4 caitons, theie must have been 1S tiays in each caiton.
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
Now piopose that the stoiy of Elviia's "actions" coulu have been iepiesenteu by the following
sequence of equivalent equations, anu have stuuents connect each equation in the sequence to the
appiopiiate action:
Let This iepiesents the numbei of tiays in each caiton.
This woulu iepiesent the numbei of tiays unloaueu fiom foui caitons.
This woulu iepiesent the iemaining tiays aftei 24 stuuents passeu thiough
the line.
This woulu iepiesent the numbei of tiays in each of the thiee lines.
This last equation iepiesents a multistep equation. Bave stuuents pietenu that we uo not know
the solution foi 45 Bave them uiscuss with a paitnei how they coulu look at this equation anu "see"
the steps listeu on the boaiu foi "unuoing" the stoiy, as iepiesenteu by the numbeis anu
opeiations in this equation. Bave stuuents shaie what they have noticeu, then have them woik on
the seconu situation with Elviia anu the PostIt Notes.
5@%8&$( =+A88 B$&#%?9
Encouiage stuuents to uo the same thing with the S PostIt Notes that they uiu with the seiving
tiays scenaiio. That is, they shoulu wiite out the steps of ieasoning that woulu help them woik
backwaius to the solution. Bave them then change the oiuei of the miuule thiee PostIt Notes anu
solve the situation again. Ask, uiu the oiuei mattei.
Listen foi how stuuents aie making uecisions about which oiuei the notes weie aiiangeu in foi
each of the thiee uiffeient equations listeu in pioblem S.
CD'1#'' =><&8( )8''?9
The uiscussion shoulu focus on question S anu how stuuents can iecognize the oiuei of events that
got to "still 12 stuuents seateu at the fiont table." 0nce they can see how the sequence of events
unfolueu, they shoulu be able to ueteimine how to ieveise the sequence of events. It may be
necessaiy to wiite out the list of events anu "unuoit" explanations foi each pioblem, similai to
what was uone in the launch.
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2012 www.fllckr.com/phoLos/kolya
name:
23
Getting Ready 23
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24
Getting Ready 24
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25
Getting Ready 25
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
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1.6 Elviia's Equations
! #$%&'&() *+',./0+'&+1 20.3
(Note: This task iefeis to the same set of vaiiables as
useu in #,4&+1 *5 #)67$%.)
Elviia, the cafeteiia managei, has wiitten the following
equation to uesciibe a cafeteiia ielationship that seems meaningful to hei. She has intiouuceu a
new vaiiable ! to uesciibe this ielationship.
1. What uoes ! iepiesent in teims of the school anu the cafeteiia.
89 0sing what you know about manipulating equations, solve this equation foi #9 Youi solution
will be of the foim # = 0+ ,:5,..&$+ ;&//,+ &+ /,6. $( /<, 40&07%,. != > anu ?9
S. Boes youi expiession foi # make sense in teims of the meanings of the othei vaiiables.
Explain why oi why not.
4. Now solve the above equation foi > anu explain why the solution makes sense in teims of
the vaiiables.
26
Getting Ready 26
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
Beie is anothei one of Elviia's equations.
S. What uoes 2# iepiesent in teims of the school anu the cafeteiia.
(Bint: Elviia was ieally clevei heie. She iecognizeu that the expiession @, + @. + @7 counteu the numbei of
&/,6.A%B+C<. She also noticeu that since # iepiesenteu the numbei of stuuents that eat lunch each uay, # also
counteu the numbei of %B+C<,. seiveu. 0sing these new units, what woulu the piouuct #(@, + @. + @7) mean.
What woulu the quotient nameu 2. mean.)
D9 0sing what you know about manipulating equations, solve this equation foi #9
7. Boes youi expiession foi # make sense in teims of the meanings of the othei vaiiables.
Explain why oi why not.
8. Now solve the above equation foi @, anu explain why the solution makes sense in teims of
the vaiiables.
27
Getting Ready 27
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.6 Elviia's Equations  Teachei Notes
! #$%&'&() *+',./0+'&+1 20.3
"#$%&'(: The puipose of this task is to apply the equation solving piocess uevelopeu in the
pievious task to solving liteial equations anu foimulas. Woiking with liteial equations soliuifies
the notion that opeiations have to be "unuone" in an appiopiiate oiuei by uoing the inveise
opeiation to both siues of the equation. This task also soliuifies the meaning of expiessions by
attenuing to the units associateu with each of the vaiiables.
)&$( +,./$/' 0&1#':
2345637 Solve lineai equations anu inequalities in one vaiiable, incluuing equations with
coefficients iepiesenteu by letteis.
4(8,(/ +,./$/'9 234563:; <3=3:
>#.1? @A?&8( )8''B9
Woik thiough pioblems 14 togethei as a class, then have stuuents woik on pioblems S8 with a
paitnei. In pioblem 1, stuuents neeu to pay attention to the units on the vaiiables anu the meaning
of the paits of the expiession obtaineu aftei opeiating with these vaiiables. Foi example,
multiplying > C%0..,.A%B+C< 5,&$' times ? %B+C< 5,&$'.A'0) gives an expiession in the
uenominatoi of the fiaction that iepiesents C%0..,.A'0)9 Biviuing # ./B',+/.A'0) by >? C%0..,.A'0)
gives the aveiage numbei of ./B',+/.AC%0.. as the meaning foi the vaiiable !9
Solving foi # in question 2 leaus to #E!>?9 To veiify that this makes sense, we can ueteimine the
units on # (which shoulu be ./B',+/.A'0)) by ueteimining the units on the piouuct:
(! ./B',+/.AC%0..) ! (> C%0..,.A%B+C< 5,&$') ! (? %B+C< 5,&$'.A'0))
The unit on the piouuct is also ./B',+/.A'0).
Bo a similai analysis foi .
5C%8&$( @+D88 E$&#%B9
As stuuents woik on questions S8 listen foi the meaning they aie giving to the new vaiiable 2#.
Note: While # liteially iepiesents the numbei of stuuents who buy lunch each uay, it can be
ieassigneu as iepiesenting the numbei of %B+C<,. seiveu in a uay. This is a typical issue when
moueling iealwoilu situationsiuentifying the meaning of the vaiiables in a useful, yet consistent
way. With this inteipietation of #, as well as some caiefully assigneu units foi the othei vaiiables=
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
stuuents shoulu be able to ueteimine that 2# iepiesents the total numbei of minutes it takes to
seive all stuuent lunch. That is, # %B+C<,. ! (@, + @. + @7) &/,6.A%B+C< & &/,6.A6&+B/, yielus 2#
6&+B/,.. If stuuents aie getting boggeu uown making sense of this vaiiable, suggest that they woik
on questions 6 anu 8, solving foi a paiticulai vaiiable, anu uefei the uiscussion of the meaning of
the vaiiables until the whole class uiscussion. The expiession foi the iight siue of the equation was
chosen to be paiticulaily complex in oiuei to iaise issues about solving equations, iathei than
inteipieting the meaning of the units.
FG'1#'' @A?&8( )8''B9
Begin by focusing on how to solve Elviia's seconu equation foi # anu foi @,. Stuuents might finu
moie that one coiiect way to wiite the solution foi @, uepenuing on whethei they uistiibuteu # oi
not. Biscuss anu claiify all pioposeu solutions.
If some stuuents have been able to inteipiet the meaning of 2# as 6&+B/,. iequiieu to seive all of
the lunches, have them piesent. If not, woik out with stuuents how the units on 2# can be
inteipieteu as 6&+B/,.. This shoulu assist stuuents in checking the units foi consistent meaning in
the expiessions they wiite foi # anu @,.
28GH.(/ 4(/I; +(,; E&9 E(,,G.H 4(/I :3J
uetting Reauy !
! #$%# &'()*+'(,. /,.,01 2304*( 5 &/2
61 7'3(1*3.),7 8,() ()* 9(') :('(* ;<<,* 0< =>?'(,01
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
#$%&'( )$*( +,
#$%&'
Topic: Solve liteial equations
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Topic: Solve liteial equations oi wiiting lineai equations in slopeinteicept foim
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2012 www.fllckr.com/phoLos/oregondoL
name:
28
Getting Ready 28
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Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
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Topic: Cieate anu solve equations foi ieal woilu pioblems
B7$%*$ %5 $23%*4,5 *1%* &$:074C$: $%01 ,6 *1$ :4*3%*4,5: C$.,=( *1$5 :,./$8
1u. The cost of a biithuay paity at Classic Boon is $2uu plus $4 pei peison. The cost foi Fletchei's
paity came to $S24. Bow many people came to his paity.
11. A cell phone company chaiges $SS pei month foi unlimiteu minutes plus $u.2S pei text sent. If
the chaiges to Bayne's cell phone foi last month came to $1uu, how many texts uiu Aly senu.
12. Aly has bakeu an apple pie anu wants to sell it in hei bakeiy. She is going to cut it into 12 slices
anu sell them inuiviuually. She wants to sell it foi thiee times the cost of making it. The ingieuients
cost $8.Su, anu she alloweu $1.2S to covei the cost of electiicity to bake it. Finu the values foi each
of the following questions:
a) What is the amount Aly will chaige foi each slice of pie.
b) What is the total amount she will gioss if she sells the entiie pie.
c) What will be the piofit if she sells the entiie pie.
Neeu Belp. Check out these ielateu viueos:
Solve anu justify two step equations using piopeities of equality http:www.youtube.comwatch.v=WXzpis0huA0
Reaiiange equations to highlight a vaiiable: solve liteial equations
http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiasolvinglineaiequationsvexampleofsolvingfoiavaiiable
29
Getting Ready 29
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.7 Solving Equations, Liteially
! #$%&'(&) *+,)$'%+,(+. /%0
Solve each of the following equations foi 1:
1.
3x + 2
5
= 7 2.
3x + 2y
5
= 7
S.
4x
3
! 5 =11 4.
4x
3
! 5y =11
S.
2
5
(x + 3) = 6 6.
2
5
(x + y) = 6
7.
2(3x + 4) = 4x +12 8.
2(3x + 4y) = 4x +12y
Wiite a veibal uesciiption foi each step of the equation solving piocess useu to solve the following
equations foi 1. Youi uesciiption shoulu incluue statements about how you know what to uo next.
Foi example, you might wiite, "2($' 3 444444444444444444 , 5)&%6) 44444444444444444444444. . ."
9.
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30
Getting Ready 30
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.7 Solving Equations, Liteially  Teachei Notes
! #$%&'(&) *+,)$'%+,(+. /%0
"#$%&'(: This task pioviues piactice foi solving lineai equations in one vaiiable, solving lineai
equations in two vaiiables foi one of its vaiiables, anu solving liteial equations. The piocess foi
solving multivaiiable equations foi one of its vaiiables becomes moie appaient when juxtaposeu
with similailyfoimatteu equations in one vaiiable. The only uiffeience in the solution piocess is
the ability to caiiy out numeiical computations to simplify the expiessions in the onevaiiable
equations.
)&$( +,./$/' 0&1#':
2345637 Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following fiom the equality of numbeis
asseiteu at the pievious step, staiting fiom the assumption that the oiiginal equation has a solution.
Constiuct a viable aigument to justify a solution methou.
2345638 Solve lineai equations anu inequalities in one vaiiable, incluuing equations with
coefficients iepiesenteu by letteis.
4(9,(/ +,./$/':
;#.1< =><&9( )9''?:
Encouiage stuuents to note the similaiities in theii woik on the paiis of pioblems in questions 18.
Also point out that they aie to wiite uetaileu explanations of theii solution stiategy on pioblems 9
anu 1u. 0ne way to facilitate this woulu be to have stuuents folu a piece of papei in half lengthwise.
0n the left siue of the papei they wiite out theii algebia steps, anu on the iight siue they wiite out
theii justifications.
5@%9&$( =+A99 B$&#%?:
Nonitoi stuuents while woiking on these pioblems anu offei appiopiiate feeuback, as necessaiy.
Some of the pioblems have alteinative stiategies, such as #S wheie you can uistiibute the 2S fiist,
oi multiply both siues of the equations by S2 fiist. Belp stuuents iecognize the uiffeience between
changing the foim of an expiession on one siue of an equation, vs. wiiting an equivalent equation by
applying the same opeiation to both siues.
If stuuents aie having uifficulties with #9 oi #1u, have them wiite a ielateu equation in which they
ieplace all letteis with numbeis except foi the 1. See if they can solve the ielateu equation foi 1 anu
if that woik can help them solve the oiiginal liteial equation. Pioblem 1u involves a squaie ioot in
oiuei to emphasize that one of the key issues in solving an equation is to "unuo" an opeiation by
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
applying the inveise opeiation to both siues. Belp stuuents think about how that woulu play out in
pioblem 1u. That is, how might they "unuo" a squaie ioot.
CD'1#'' =><&9( )9''?:
Bave stuuents piesent theii solution piocess foi any pioblems that may have been uifficult foi a
numbei of stuuents. You might also want to have stuuents ciitique each othei's explanations on
pioblems 9 anu 1u by having stuuents exchange papeis. They shoulu folu theii paitnei's papei in
half, so that only the iight siue with the wiitten explanation is showing. 0n a sepaiate sheet of
papei they shoulu wiiteout the algebia steps they woulu take to solve each pioblem, baseu only on
the woiuing of theii paitneis' explanation. They shoulu uiscuss any explanations that aie uncleai
with theii paitnei.
29DE.(/ 4(/FG +(,G B&: B(,,D.E 4(/F 73H
uetting Reauy !"#
! #$%# &'()*+'(,. /,.,01 2304*( 5 &/2
61 7'3(1*3.),7 8,() ()* 9(') :('(* ;<<,* 0< =>?'(,01
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
2012 www.fllckr.com/phoLos/a[axofsalamls/
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Topic: Inequalities
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1. Auu 4 to both siues
2. Auu 4 to both siues
S. Subtiact 1u fiom both siues
4. Nultiply both siues by 4
S. Biviue both siues by 2
6. Nultiply both siues by S
7. Biviue both siues by 2
In geneial, what opeiations, when peifoimeu on an inequality, !"#"!$" the inequality.
+&,
Topic: Solve liteial equations
+.7F& D.> ,2& 34(3;',&( F'>3'@7&"
8. Solve the following equation to isolate &: ! !
!
!
!! !!"!
9. Foi ! !
!
!
!!
!
!, iewiite the foimula to isolate the vaiiable '.
1u. The aiea foimula of a iegulai polygon is ! !
!
!
!". The vaiiable ( iepiesents the
apothem anu ) iepiesents the peiimetei of the polygon. Rewiite the equation to
highlight the value of the peiimetei, )*
name:
31
Getting Ready 31
uetting Reauy !"#
! #$%# &'()*+'(,. /,.,01 2304*( 5 &/2
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Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
11. The equation ! ! !" !! is the equation of a line. Isolate the vaiiable +.
12. The equation ! ! !" !! is the equation of a line. Isolate the vaiiable ,.
1S. !" !!" ! ! is the stanuaiu foim foi a line. Isolate the equation foi ,*
14. !" !!" ! ! is the stanuaiu foim foi a line. Isolate the equation foi *
.
Topic: Solve systems of lineai equations
+.7F& 734&'> &56',3.41 '4( ='3>1 .D 13<67,'4&.61 734&'> &56',3.41 G13<=7&* ?3,2 ' B>'=2
.47)H @) B>'=234B @.,2 734&1 '4( D34(34B ?2&>& ,2&) 34,&>1&;," I61,3D) ,2& 1.76,3.4
46<&>3;'77)"
1S. ! ! ! ! ! !"# ! ! !! ! ! 16. ! ! !! ! ! !"# ! ! !! ! ! 17. !! ! ! !"# ! ! !!
Neeu Belp. Check out these ielateu viueos:
http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiasolvinglineaiinequalitiesvequationsanuinequalities
http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiasolvinglineaiequationsvsolvingfoiavaiiable
http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiasystemsofeqanuineqvsolvinglineaisystemsbygiaphing
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5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
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32
Getting Ready 32
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
2
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1.8 Cafeteiia Conunuiums
! #$%&'&() *+',./0+'&+1 20.3
Between seiving anu piepaiing uelicious school lunches, oui
cafeteiia managei, Elviia, is busy analyzing the business of
iunning the cafeteiia. We pieviously saw the symbols foi some of
the things that she measuieu. Now she plans to use those
symbols. Belp Elviia to consiuei the piessing questions of the
lunch ioom.
"#$%&' )*+,,.
! Numbei of stuuents that buy lunch in the cafeteiia each
uay
!# Numbei of stuuents who have passeu thiough a line in 4
minutes
$ Numbei of classes pei lunch peiiou
% Numbei of lunch peiious pei uay
& Numbei of boys that buy lunch each uay
' Numbei of giils that buy lunch each uay
( Numbei of foou seiveis in the cafeteiia
) Total numbei of foou items in one lunch (Each entie, siue
uish, oi beveiage counts as 1 item.)
* Numbei of minutes passeu since the beginning of the lunch
peiiou
+, Numbei of entiees in each lunch
+ Numbei of siue uishes in each lunch
+. Numbei of beveiages in each lunch
$, Cost of each entie
$ Cost of each siue uish
$. Cost of each beveiage
/ Numbei of lines in the cafeteiia
0 The numbei of foou woikeis (seiveis) pei line
1 Aveiage numbei of foou items that a woikei can seive each
minute (Each entie, siue uish, oi beveiage counts as 1
item.)
2 Numbei of houis each foou woikei woiks each uay
%/ Piice pei lunch
33
Getting Ready 33
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
Wiite equations oi inequalities to expiess some of the conuitions that Elviia sees in the cafeteiia.
1. Each lunch can have no moie than 4 siue uishes.
2. Noie boys eat school lunch than giils.
S. Theie can be no moie than 7 foou items in each lunch.
4. In each lunch, theie aie S moie siue uishes than entiees anu twice as many beveiages as
entiees. Wiite an inequality in &,* /+0+%'* that shows that the total numbei of foou items
in a lunch cannot be moie than 7.
S. The cost of foou in the lunch is the total of the cost of the entie, the siue uishes, anu the
beveiages. Wiite an inequality that shows that the cost of the foou in the lunch must be less
than $1.Su.
6. To meet uistiict guiuelines, the total piice of a lunch must be moie than $2.2S, but less than
$S.Su.
7. Elviia knows that the numbei of lines that she can open in the cafeteiia uepenus on how
many foou seiveis she has in the cafeteiia each uay anu how many woikeis aie neeueu in
each line. Wiite an inequality that shows this ielationship.
8. Foou woikeis aie paiu $11.Su pei houi. Elviia can't spenu moie than $Suu pei uay on
employees. Wiite an inequality that ielates the numbei of foou woikeis to the amount
spent each uay on employees.
9. Elviia knows that the money she gets fiom selling lunches has to be gieatei than hei costs.
a. Wiite an expiession foi the cost of employees each uay
b. Wiite an expiession foi the cost of foou each uay
c. Wiite an expiession that shows that the total cost of foou anu employees each uay
must be less than the amount she biings in fiom selling lunches.
34
Getting Ready 34
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.8 Cafeteiia Conunuiums
! #$%&'&() *+',./0+'&+1 20.3
1203&4*: This is the fiist task in a seiies of thiee that woiks with the iueas of inequalities. Nost
stuuents have been intiouuceu to solving inequalities in theii eailiei expeiiences in mathematics.
Each of the inequalities tasks in the unit emphasis ieasoning with vaiiables anu symbols, anu the
use of inequalities in a context. This task extenus the woik that stuuents have pieviously uone with
symbols anu equations to setting up inequalities. The Reauy, Set, uo homewoik that cooiuinates
with the task ieviews anu piactices skills foi solving inequalities.
5&0* "6+,7+074 8&924:
;<=>?<@ Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following fiom the equality of numbeis
asseiteu at the pievious step, staiting fiom the assumption that the oiiginal equation has a solution.
a. Constiuct a viable aigument to justify a solution methou.
b. Solve equations anu inequalities in one vaiiable.
;<=>?<A Solve lineai equations anu inequalities in one vaiiable, incluuing equations with
coefficients iepiesenteu by letteis.
)+6B*$+694 ? C&6*: 56/,+' ,0%&, 7$3 7&/8 .$%9&+1 %&+,0 ,:;0/&$+. /$ .$%9&+1 %&+,0 &+,:;0%&/&,.
&+ $+, 90&0<%, 0+' /$ .$%9&+1 %&/,0% ,:;0/&$+. /80/ 0, %&+,0 &+ /8, 90&0<%, <,&+1 .$%9,' ($=
D+2,9B EFB&'* 5'+44G:
Reminu stuuents of the woik that they have uone with pievious task that have been set in the
school cafeteiia, staiting with Seiving 0p Symbols. This task uses all the same symbols that they
aie alieauy familiai with. You may also with to ieview the use of each of the inequality symbols,
>?@?A?B? anu C befoie getting into the task. Stait by asking stuuents to woik pioblem 1 on theii own.
Ask stuuents which symbol they useu foi the phiase "no moie than" anu how they know it was <
iathei than <. Tell stuuent that in this task they will neeu to consiuei both the vaiiable to use anu
the coiiect symbol to uesciibe the ielationship.
>H3'&0* E"$+'' I0&23 &0 1+04G:
Ask stuuents to complete the task. Ciiculate aiounu the ioom, initially watching foi theii woik with
pioblems S anu 4. These aie ielateu pioblems with #4 iequiiing substitution into the inequality
that stuuents wiite foi #S. The context in pioblem 6 suggests wiiting a compounu inequality,
which stuuents may not have seen pieviously. They may choose to wiite two inequalities foi this
pioblem, which woulu be an inteiesting topic foi the class uiscussion. Thioughout the couise of the
exploiation, watch foi pioblems that aie geneiating contioveisy, challenge, oi inteiesting thinking
so that they can be highlighteu uuiing the class uiscussion.
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
J49244 EFB&'* 5'+44G:
Stait the uiscussion with any pioblem that has been iuentifieu uuiing the exploiation phase. Then
tuin the attention to pioblem 9. Ask a uiffeient stuuent to explain each pait, a, b, anu c. Ask
stuuents why the total cost of foou anu employees each uay must be less than the amount she
biings in fiom selling lunches. What woulu it mean in we wiote an equation, iathei than an
inequality foi these two expiessions.
;'.,*7 =*+7#K "*6K I&: I*66,. =*+7# @<L
uetting Reauy !
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Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
#$%&'( )$*( +,
#$%&'
Topic: Solving equations
}esse was askeu to solve an algebia pioblem. She submitteu the following solution
! ! ! ! ! !
!! ! ! ! !
!! ! !!
! ! !!
1. Is }esse's solution coiiect.
2. If it is coiiect, justify each step of hei solution.
S. If it is incoiiect, coiiect hei solution, anu explain to }esse what she uiu wiong.
)$*
Topic: Cieating anu solving ieal woilu pioblems
4. }aue is stianueu uowntown with only $1u to get home. Taxis cost $u.7S pei mile, but theie is an
auuitional $2.SS hiie chaige. Wiite a foimula anu use it to calculate how many miles she can
tiavel with hei money.
S. }asmin's Bau is planning a suipiise biithuay paity foi hei. Be will hiie a bouncy castle, anu will
pioviue paity foou foi all the guests. The bouncy castle costs $1Su foi the afteinoon, anu the
foou will cost $S pei peison. Anuiew, }asmin's Bau, has a buuget of $Suu. Wiite an equation anu
use it to ueteimine the maximum numbei of guests he can invite.
2012 www.fllckr.com/phoLos/usdagov/
name:
35
Getting Ready 35
uetting Reauy !
! #$%# &'()*+'(,. /,.,01 2304*( 5 &/2
61 7'3(1*3.),7 8,() ()* 9(') :('(* ;<<,* 0< =>?'(,01
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
6. }ane is baking cookies foi a laige paity. She has a iecipe that will make one batch of two uozen
cookies, anu she ueciues to make five batches. To make five batches, she finus that she will neeu
12.S cups of floui anu 1S eggs. Wiite an equation to uesciibe each of the following situations.
Then solve the pioblem.
a. Bow many cookies will she make in all.
b. Bow many cups of floui go into one batch.
c. Bow many eggs go into one batch.
u. If }ane only has a uozen eggs on hanu, how many moie uoes she neeu to make five
batches.
e. If she uoesn't go out to get moie eggs, how many batches can she make. Bow many
cookies will that be.
+,
Topic: Solve systems of equations
),./$ *0$ 1,..,2345 6'6*$76 ,1 $89%*3,46 :' 5;%<0345= >,9 7%' 96$ % 5;%<0345 ?%.?9.%*,;=
7. Naiy's cai has bioken uown anu it will cost hei $12uu to get it fixeuoi, foi $4Suu, she can buy
a new, moie efficient cai insteau. Bei piesent cai uses about $2uuu woith of gas pei yeai, while gas
foi the new cai woulu cost about $1Suu pei yeai. Aftei how many yeais woulu the total cost of
fixing the cai equal the total cost of ieplacing it.
8. }uan is consiueiing two cell phone plans. The fiist company chaiges $12u foi the phone anu $Su
pei month foi the calling plan that }uan wants. The seconu company chaiges $4u foi the same
phone but chaiges $4S pei month foi the calling plan that }uan wants. Aftei how many months
woulu the total cost of the two plans be the same.
9. A toitoise anu haie ueciue to iace Su feet. The haie, being much fastei, ueciues to give the
toitoise a 2u foot heau stait. The toitoise iuns at u.S feetsec anu the haie iuns at S.S feet pei
seconu. Bow long until the haie catches the toitoise.
Neeu Belp. Check out these ielateu viueos:
http:www.youtube.comwatch.v=EWcllbi8Bqs&featuie=ielateu
http:www.youtube.comwatch.v=luYuiXSBa_Q
36
Getting Ready 36
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
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1.9 uieatei Than.
! #$%&'&() *+',./0+'&+1 20.3
Foi each situation you aie given a mathematical statement anu
two expiessions beneath it.
1. Beciue which of the two expiessions is gieatei, if the
expiessions aie equal, oi if the ielationship cannot be
ueteimineu fiom the statement.
2. Wiite an equation oi inequality that shows youi answei.
S. Explain why youi answei is coiiect.
Watch outthis gets tiicky!
Example:
Statement: 4 = 8
Which is gieatei. 4 + S oi S4 + 2
Answei: S4 + 2 > 4 + S because if 4 = 85 S4 + 2 = 265 4 + S = 1S anu 26 > 1S6
Tiy it youiself:
1. Statement: ) < 4
Which is gieatei. 4  ) oi )  4
2. Statement: 24  S > 7
Which is gieatei. S oi 4
S. Statement: 1u  24 < 6
Which is gieatei. 4 oi 2
4. Statement: 44 = u
Which is gieatei. 1 oi 4
S. Statement: 0 > u, 7 < u
Which is gieatei. 07 oi
a
b
37
Getting Ready 37
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
6. Statement: + is an integei
Which is gieatei. + oi 8+
7. Statement:
Which is gieatei. 9 oi ):
8. Statement: 0se the numbei line in #7 anu 4 < ; < )
Which is gieatei. ; oi <)
9. Statement: u < 4 < 1u anu u < ) < 12
Which is gieatei. 4 oi )
1u. Statement:
3
n+2
= 27
Which is gieatei. + oi S
11. Statement: S > 4
Which is gieatei. =4 oi >4
12. Statement 4 > )
Which is gieatei. 4 + 0 oi ) + 0
1S. Statement: S > 4
Which is gieatei.
5
x
oi
4
x
14. Statement: 4 > ) anu 0 > 7
Which is gieatei. 4  0 oi )  7
1S. Statement: 4 > u, ) > u,
x
y
> 2
Which is gieatei. 2) oi 4
!
#
$
38
Getting Ready 38
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.9 uieatei Than.  Teachei Notes
! #$%&'&() *+',./0+'&+1 20.3
"#$%&'() The puipose of this task is to challenge stuuents to think ueeply about inequality
ielationships anu to unueistanu the piopeities of inequalities. Each of the pioblems in the iequiie
ieasoning about numbeis, incluuing negative numbeis anu fiactions, anu thinking mathematically
about the vaiious possibilities in the given pioblem situation.
*&$( ,./0.$0' 1&2#')
3456748 Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following fiom the equality of numbeis
asseiteu at the pievious step, staiting fiom the assumption that the oiiginal equation has a solution.
a. Constiuct a viable aigument to justify a solution methou.
b. Solve equations anu inequalities in one vaiiable.
3456749 Solve lineai equations anu inequalities in one vaiiable, incluuing equations with
coefficients iepiesenteu by letteis.
:.;(<.=2' 7 >&() ?4/,+' ,0%&, ;$3 ;&/@ .$%A&+1 %&+,0 ,BC0/&$+. /$ .$%A&+1 %&+,0 &+,BC0%&/&,.
&+ $+, A0&07%, 0+' /$ .$%A&+1 %&/,0% ,BC0/&$+. /@0/ 0, %&+,0 &+ /@, A0&07%, 7,&+1 .$%A,' ($6
?.#/2; @A;&B( *B.''C)
Explain to stuuents that this task is a big logic puzzle. All of the pioblems iequiie thinking about all
the uiffeient possibilities to ueciue which expiession is gieatei. Theie aie some that cannot be
ueteimineu fiom the infoimation given. You may choose not to tell stuuents this in auvance so that
they have an oppoitunity to wiestle with the iueas anu to justify theii position. Stait by asking
stuuents to ieau the example given. To confiim the instiuctions, ask how they see the S iequiieu
paits of the explanation in the answei. Next, iefei stuuents to pioblem #1. uive them a few
minutes to answei anu wiite theii own explanation. Ask the class foi theii answeis anu
explanation anu mouel how to wiite an answei with a complete explanation. You may also want to
mouel thinking about possible value foi x anu y, like: "If x is a negative numbei, then y must also be
a negative numbei because it is less than x."
6D%B&$( @,<.BB E$&#% &$ ".=$'C) Nonitoi stuuents as they woik. Encouiage them to think about
the vaiious possibilities foi x anu y in each case. Be suie that theii wiitten explanations auequately
communicate theii logic. Watch foi pioblems that geneiate uisagieement oi uifficulty foi the class
uiscussion. Also look foi stuuents' explanations that uemonstiate sounu mathematical logic oi
goou communication to be highlighteu in the uiscussion. If you notice a common misconception
occuiiing uuiing the exploiation, plan to iaise it as an issue in the uiscussion.
F='2#'' @A;&B( *B.''C) Stait the uiscussion with pioblems 111S. Ask pieviouslyselecteu
stuuents to give theii explanations foi each of these pioblems. Bighlight foi the class that these
thiee pioblems aie asking them to justify the piopeities of inequalities. Wiite each of the
piopeities of inequalities (auuition, subtiaction, multiplication, anu uivision), anu ask stuuents to
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
state them in theii own woius. Aftei going thiough each of these, tuin the uiscussion to any
misconceptions oi piovocative pioblems that weie selecteu uuiing the exploiation phase.
3B=G/(0 5(.0HI ,(I E& J&<(K&$L) E(=/G 5(.0H 84M
uetting Reauy !"#
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Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
%&'()* +&,* ./
%&'()
Topic: Solve inequalities, cieate anu solve equations.
+.01& ,2& 3.00.4567 56&89'05,5&: 3.; <"
1. 2 x  9 < S
2. 4x  S < 1S
S. 6 x  4 < 26
4. Sx  S > 1u
=;&',& '6( :.01& ,2& &89',5.6: 3.; ,2& 3.00.4567 >;.?0&@:"
S. viiginia's Painting Seivice chaiges $1u pei job anu $u.2u pei squaie foot. If viiginia eains $Su
foi painting one job, how many squaie feet uiu she paint at the job.
6. Renting the iceskating iink foi Bayne's biithuay paity costs $2uu plus $4 pei peison. If the
cost was $S24, how many people weie at Bayne's biithuay paity.
+&,
Topic: Solve inequalities
+.01& &'A2 56&89'05,)" B;5,& ,2& :.09,5.6 ': '6 56&89'05,)"
7. ! + 1S < 12 8. !  4 > 1S
9. !! ! !
!
!
1u. !! ! ! ! !!! ! !!
11. ! # $% & '(
2012 www.fllckr.com/phoLos/marlnacasL
name:
39
Getting Ready 39
uetting Reauy !"#
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61 7'3(1*3.),7 8,() ()* 9(') :('(* ;<<,* 0< =>?'(,01
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+.01& &'A2 56&89'05,) '6( 7;'>2 ,2& :.09,5.6 .6 ,2& 69@?&; 056&"
12. !  2 < 1
1S. !  8 > 2u
+.01& &'A2 56&89'05,)" B;5,& ,2& :.09,5.6 ': '6 56&89'05,) '6( 7;'>2 5,"
14. S! < 6
1S.
!
!
! !
!
!"
16. 1u! > 1Su
17.
!
!
! !!
+.01& &'A2 @90,5C:,&> 56&89'05,)"
18. !  S > 2! + S
19.
!!!!!!
!"
!
!!
!
2u. 2(!  S) < S!  2
10 5 5 10 0
10 5 5 10 0
10 5 5 10 0
10 5 5 10 0
25 20 15 10 5 0
10 20 30 40 0
40
Getting Ready 40
uetting Reauy !"#
! #$%# &'()*+'(,. /,.,01 2304*( 5 &/2
61 7'3(1*3.),7 8,() ()* 9(') :('(* ;<<,* 0< =>?'(,01
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
.
Topic: Solve systems of lineai equations
+.01& 056&'; &89',5.6: '6( >'5;: .3 :5@90,'6&.9: 056&'; &89',5.6: D:5@>0&* 45,2 ' 7;'>2
.60)E" F9:,53) ,2& :.09,5.6 69@&;5A'00)"
21.
! ! !! ! !
!! ! ! ! !
22.
! ! !! ! !
!! ! !! ! !
2S.
!! ! !! ! !"
!! ! ! ! !
Neeu Belp. Check out these ielateu viueos:
http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiasolvinglineaiinequalitiesvequationsanuinequalities
http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiasolvinglineaiequationsvsolvingfoiavaiiable
http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiasystemsofeqanuineqvsolvinglineaisystemsbygiaphing
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Getting Ready 41
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
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1.1u Taking Siues
! #$%&'(&) *%+,
}oaquin anu Seiena woik togethei piouuctively in theii math class.
They both contiibute theii thinking anu when they uisagiee, they both
give theii ieasons anu ueciue togethei who is iight. In theii math class
iight now, they aie woiking on inequalities. Recently they hau a
uiscussion that went something like this:
The situations below aie a few moie of the uisagieements anu questions that }oaquin anu Seiena
have. Youi job is to ueciue how to answei theii questions, ueciue who is iight, anu give a
mathematical explanation of youi ieasoning.
1. }oaquin anu Seiena aie assigneu to giaph the inequality  > 7.
}oaquin thinks the giaph shoulu have an open uot 7.
Seiena thinks the giaph shoulu have a closeu uot at 7.
Explain who is coiiect anu why.
2. }oaquin anu Seiena aie looking at the pioblem S + 1 > u.
Seiena says that the inequality is always tiue because multiplying a numbei by thiee anu
then auuing one to it makes the numbei gieatei than zeio.
Is she iight. Explain why oi why not.
S. The woiu pioblem that }oaquin anu Seiena aie woiking on says, "4 gieatei than x".
}oaquin says that they shoulu wiite: 4 > .
Seiena says they shoulu wiite:  +4.
Explain who is coiiect anu why.
}oaquin: The pioblem says that "6 less than a numbei is gieatei than 4." I think that we shoulu
just follow the woius anu wiite 6   > 4.
Seiena: I uon't think that woiks because if  is 2u anu you uo 6 less than that you get 2u  6 = 14.
I think we shoulu wiite   6 > 4.
}oaquin: 0h, you'ie iight. Then it makes sense that the solution will be  > 1u, which means we
can choose any numbei gieatei than 1u.
42
Getting Ready 42
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
4. }oaquin is thinking haiu about equations anu inequalities anu comes up with this iuea:
If 4S + 47 = ', then ' = 4S + 47.
So, if 4S + 47 < ', then ' < 4S + 47.
Is he iight. Explain why oi why not.
S. }oaquin's question in #4 maue Seiena think about othei similaiities anu uiffeiences in
equations anu inequalities. Seiena wonueis about the equation
!
x
3
= 4 anu the inequality
!
x
3
> 4. Explain to Seiena ways that solving these two pioblems aie alike anu ways that
they aie uiffeient. Bow aie the solutions to the pioblems alike anu uiffeient.
6. }oaquin solveu 1S/ < 1SS by auuing 1S to each siue of the inequality. Seiena saiu that he
was wiong. Who uo you think is iight anu why.
}oaquin's solution was / < 1Su. Be checkeu his woik by substituting 1Su foi / in the
oiiginal inequality. Boes this piove that }oaquin is iight. Explain why oi why not.
}oaquin is still skeptical anu believes that he is iight. Finu a numbei that satisfies his
solution but uoes not satisfy the oiiginal inequality.
7. Seiena is woiking is checking hei woik with }oaquin anu finus that they uisagiee on a
pioblem. Beie's what Seiena wiote: S + S < 2 + S
S < 2 + 2
 < 2
Is she iight. Explain why oi why not.
8. }oaquin anu Seiena aie having tiouble solving 4(S0  1) > 2(0 + S).
Explain how they shoulu solve the inequality, showing all the necessaiy steps anu
iuentifying the piopeities you woulu use.
43
Getting Ready 43
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
9. }oaquin anu Seiena know that some equations aie tiue foi any value of the vaiiable anu
some equations aie nevei tiue, no mattei what value is chosen foi the vaiiable. They aie
wonueiing about inequalities. What coulu you tell them about the following inequalities.
Bo they have solutions. What aie they. Bow woulu you giaph theii solutions on a numbei
line.
a. 4+ + 6 > 6 + 4+
b. S$ + S > S$  2
c. 4(1 + 1) < 41  S
1u. The paitneis aie given the liteial inequality % 23 4 & to solve foi . }oaquin says that he will
solve it just like an equation. Seiena says that he neeus to be caieful because if % is a
negative numbei, the solution will be uiffeient. What uo you say. What aie the solutions
foi the inequality.
44
Getting Ready 44
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.1u Taking Siues  Teachei Notes
! #$%&'(&) *%+,
"#$%&'() The puipose of this task is to piactice the ieasoning anu solving of inequalities. Nany
common misconceptions anu mistakes maue when solving inequalities aie auuiesseu in the task.
Stuuents aie askeu to think about the uiffeiences anu similaiities in solving inequalities veisus
solving equations, incluuing that most inequalities piouuce a iange of solutions, that the inequality
sign must be tuineu when multiplying oi uiviuing by a negative numbei, anu that the ieflexive
piopeity holus only foi equations.
+&$( ,./0.$0')
1234526 Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following fiom the equality of numbeis
asseiteu at the pievious step, staiting fiom the assumption that the oiiginal equation has a solution.
a. Constiuct a viable aigument to justify a solution methou.
b. Solve equations anu inequalities in one vaiiable.
1234527 Solve lineai equations anu inequalities in one vaiiable, incluuing equations with
coefficients iepiesenteu by letteis.
8.9(:.;<' 5 =&(: 5')16 )%$7()$ 89$, 8(': +97;(1< 7(1)%$ )/=%'(91+ '9 +97;(1< 7(1)%$ (1)/=%7('()+
(1 91) ;%$(%37) %16 '9 +97;(1< 7(')$%7 )/=%'(91+ ':%' %$) 7(1)%$ (1 ':) ;%$(%37) 3)(1< +97;)6 >9$.
>.#/<9 ?@9&A( +A.''B)
Banu out the woiksheet anu go ovei the scenaiio given about }oaquin anu Seiena. Ask a stuuent to
uemonstiate Seiena's aigument that changeu }oaquin's minu. Befoie moving to pioblem #1, tell
stuuents that they shoulu woik on a sepaiate piece of papei oi in theii jouinals, as theie is not
auequate ioom on the hanuout foi theii explanations. Stait with #1, giving stuuents about S
minutes to answei the question inuiviuually, wiiting theii best explanation in complete sentences.
Ask a stuuent to ieau theii explanation anu then mouel a thoiough answei on the boaiu. The
explanation shoulu be something like:
*:) (1)/=%7('?  @ AB +:9=76 3) <$%C:)6 8(': % &79+)6 69' 91 DB %16 %77 C9(1'+ '9 ':) $(<:' 9> DB
>(77)6 (1. *:(+ (+ 3)&%=+) ':) +?0397 @ 0)%1+ <$)%')$ ':%1 9$ )/=%7 '9E +9 DB (+ % +97='(91 '9 ':)
(1)/=%7('?. *:) &79+)6 69' 91 DB +:98+ ':%' ':) 1=03)$ (+ (1&7=6)6 (1 ':) +97='(91 +)'. !1 9C)1
69' 89=76 (16(&%') ':%' DB (+ 19' % +97='(91.
Next, ask the class to think about #2. uive stuuents a few minutes to talk to theii neighboi about
theii ieasoning anu then ask them to wiite inuiviuually foi a few minutes. While they aie woiking,
ciiculate thiough the ioom to finu an exemplai to use with the class. It is impoitant that stuuents
aie fiist consiueiing the logic of why Seiena believes the inequality to always be tiue. Then,
stuuents shoulu iecognize that she is only consiueiing nonnegative numbeis. Be suie that both
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
paits of the aigument aie uiscusseu to mouel the thinking piocess that will be iequiieu thioughout
the task anu also what a complete answei will look like.
4C%A&$( ?,:.AA D$&#%B)
Let stuuent woik on the iemainuei of the task as you monitoi theii thinking. Thioughout the task,
stuuents will be challengeu to consiuei whethei the stiategies that they have leaineu foi equations
will apply to inequalities. If you finu that some gioups aie spenuing excessive time on a pioblem,
ieuiiect theii focus to pioblems 4, S, 7, anu 8, which will be the focus of the whole gioup uiscussion.
Iuentify a gioup to piesent one of each of these pioblems.
E;'<#'' ?@9&A( D$&#%B)
Stait the uiscussion with the piesentation of pioblem #4. Be suie that the gioup iuentifies that if
the two siues of an equation aie switcheu, the equation iemains tiue. Theii explanation shoulu also
incluue the iuea that if the siues of an inequality aie switcheu, then the inequality sign must be
tuineu. Ask the gioup to uemonstiate this thinking by substituting numbeis into the inequality foi
. Reminu stuuents that this often comes up because the solutions to inequalities aie
conventionally wiitten with the vaiiable on the left siue of the inequality. So, an expiession like
4 <  is ioutinely conveiteu to  > 4.
Next, move the uiscussion to #S. Again, stuuents aie askeu to consiuei the uiffeience between
solving an equation anu solving an inequality. The explanation fiom the gioup shoulu incluue the
iuea that the steps in solving the equation anu the inequality aie the same. The only uiffeience is
that the inequality sign must be tuineu when multiplying by S. Piess stuuents to explain why that
iule holus, iathei than simply stating the iule.
The explanation of #7 shoulu incluue showing all the piopei steps in the solution of the inequality.
As stuuents uemonstiate the pioblem, they will see that Seiena uiu not piopeily auu 2 to both
siues of the inequality. Ask stuuents why this inequality seemeu to be solveu exactly like an
equation, but othei inequalities uo not.
Close the uiscussion with question #8. Emphasize the ieasons foi each step anu compaie the
piopeities of inequalities with the piopeities of equations.
1A;F/(0 3(.0GH ,(H D&) D(;/F 3(.0G 626I
uetting Reauy !"
! #$%# &'()*+'(,. /,.,01 2304*( 5 &/2
61 7'3(1*3.),7 8,() ()* 9(') :('(* ;<<,* 0< =>?'(,01
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
$%&'() *%+) ,.
$%&'(
Topic: Solving equations anu inequalities
1. The local amusement paik sells summei membeiships foi $Su each. Noimal aumission to the
paik costs $2S; aumission foi membeis costs $1S.
a. If Baiien wants to spenu no moie than $1uu on tiips to the amusement paik this
summei, how many visits can he make if he buys a membeiship with pait of that money.
b. Bow many visits can he make if he uoes not.
c. If he incieases his buuget to $16u, how many visits can he make as a membei.
u. Bow many can he make as a nonmembei.
2. }ae just took a math test with 2u questions, each woith an equal numbei of points. The test is
woith 1uu points total.
a. Wiite an equation ielating the numbei of questions }ae got iight to the total scoie he will
get on the test.
b. If a scoie of 7u points eains a giaue of !", how many questions woulu }ae neeu to get iight
to get a !" on the test.
c. If a scoie of 8S points eains a giaue of #, how many questions woulu }ae neeu to get iight
to get a # on the test.
u. Suppose }ae got a scoie of 6u% anu then was alloweu to ietake the test. 0n the ietake, he
got all the questions iight that he got iight the fiist time, anu also got half the questions
iight that he got wiong the fiist time. What peicent uiu }ae get iight on the ietake.
2012 www.fllckr.com/phoLos/Lony[case
name:
45
Getting Ready 45
uetting Reauy !"
! #$%# &'()*+'(,. /,.,01 2304*( 5 &/2
61 7'3(1*3.),7 8,() ()* 9(') :('(* ;<<,* 0< =>?'(,01
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
*%+
Topic: Solve anu justify one vaiiable inequalities
*/0% %&12 34%56&/3+() 768+39(34: %&12 8+%; (6 68%<
*/0% %&12 34%56&/3+( &4' :=&;2 +2% 8/6+34 4 +2% 46>?%= /34%<
9. $  8 > 2u
1u. $ + 11 > 1S
10 5 5 10 0
10 5 5 10 0
$ + 68 > 7S }ustification
! ! ! ! !" }ustification
!! ! ! ! !" }ustification
! ! !! ! !" }ustification
!
!!
! !
!"
!
}ustification
! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! }ustification
3. 4.
3. 6.
7. 8.
46
Getting Ready 46
uetting Reauy !"
! #$%# &'()*+'(,. /,.,01 2304*( 5 &/2
61 7'3(1*3.),7 8,() ()* 9(') :('(* ;<<,* 0< =>?'(,01
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
*/0% %&12 >6/+3@8+%; 34%56&/3+(<
11. 4$ + S < 1
12. ! ! !! ! !!!! ! !!
1S. ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
14.
!
!
! !
!
!
!! ! ! ! ! ! !!! ! !!
Topic: Solve liteial equations
1S. Solve the following equation to isolate !: ! !
!
!
! !!"
16. Foi ! !
!
!
!!
!
!, iewiite the foimula to isolate the vaiiable %.
17. The aiea foimula of a iegulai polygon is ! !
!
!
!". The vaiiable & iepiesents the
apothem anu ' iepiesents the peiimetei of the polygon. Rewiite the equation to
highlight the value of the apothem, &)
18. The equation ! ! !" !! is the equation of a line. Isolate the vaiiable *
19. The equation foi the ciicumfeience c of a ciicle with iauius % is ! ! !!". Solve the
equation foi the iauius, %.
2u. The equation foi the aiea of a ciicle + with uiametei , is ! ! !
!
!
!
. Solve the equation
to isolate the uiametei, ,.
47
Getting Ready 47
uetting Reauy !"
! #$%# &'()*+'(,. /,.,01 2304*( 5 &/2
61 7'3(1*3.),7 8,() ()* 9(') :('(* ;<<,* 0< =>?'(,01
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
,
Topic: Solve systems of equations
*/0% /34%&= %56&+348 &4' ;&3=8 9 83>6/+&4%68 /34%&= %56&+348 A83>;/%) B3+2 & :=&;2
4/(C< D68+39( +2% 8/6+34 46>%=31&//(<
21.
! ! !! ! !
!! ! ! ! !
22.
!! ! !! ! !"
! ! !! ! !
2S.
!! ! !! ! !!
!! ! ! ! !"
Neeu Belp. Check out these ielateu viueos:
http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiasolvinglineaiinequalitiesvequationsanuinequalities
http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiasolvinglineaiequationsvsolvingfoiavaiiable
http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiasystemsofeqanuineqvsolvinglineaisystemsbygiaphing
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48
Getting Ready 48
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.11B Cafeteiia Consumption
anu Costs
! #$%$&'( )*+$,./*+0*1 2/3
Sometimes Elviia hosts aftei school events in the cafeteiia as clubs
anu teams celebiate theii accomplishments. Fiequently she oiueis
too much foou foi such eventsanu occasionally not enough. Foi example, she has noticeu that the
chess club eats less than the football team, but moie than the cheeileaueis.
Elviia has askeu you to help hei soit thiough hei iecoius foi the past few yeais, hoping she can
bettei plan on how much foou to oiuei foi the upcoming soccei team anu uiama club events.
0nfoitunately, Elviia kept most of hei iecoius on PostIt Notes, anu now eveiything is out of oiuei.
Foitunately, she useu a uiffeient coloi of PostIt Notes each yeai, so you at least have a place to
stait.
1. Beie is the infoimation you have iuentifieu fiom the past thiee yeais foi the soccei team
anu uiama club events. The blue PostIt Notes aie fiom thiee yeais ago, the yellow fiom
two yeais ago, anu the pink fiom last yeai's events. 0iganize the uata foi each yeai in such
a way that it can be combineu with similai uata fiom othei yeais.
"#$% '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 1u packages of chips
foi the soccei team
Way too much!
.%##(/ '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 6 packages of chips foi
the soccei team
Befinitely not enough!
"#$% '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu S uozen cookies foi
the uiama club
Shoulu have oiueieu moie
"#$% '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 4 gallons of uiinks foi
the soccei team. They pouieu
some on theii coach! (big
mess)
'012 '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 8 packages of chips foi
the soccei teamNy neighboi
is on the team!
.%##(/ '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu S uozen cookies foi
the uiama club
I ieally like those kius!
'012 '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 1u packages of chips
foi the uiama clubThey
talkeu a lot with fake accents
"#$% '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu S gallons of uiinks foi
the uiama club (they talk a lot
anu seem to get thiisty!)
'012 '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 4 uozen cookies foi
the uiama clubToo much
uiama, too little chaiactei!
"#$% '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 8 packages of chips foi
the uiama club
Neeueu moie!
'012 '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 8 uozen cookies foi
the soccei teamslippeu a few
extia to my neighboi.
'012 '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 4 gallons of uiinks foi
the soccei teamWatcheu the
playeis like a hawk!
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49
Getting Ready 49
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
'012 '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 4 gallons of uiinks foi
the uiama club
Seemeu about iight
.%##(/ '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 4 gallons of uiinks foi
the soccei teamWaineu
them not to iepeat last yeai's
piank!
.%##(/ '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu S gallons of uiinks foi
the uiama clubuiinks weie
gone long befoie the chips
.%##(/ '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 7 uozen cookies foi
the soccei team
Shoulu I have oiueieu moie.
.%##(/ '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 12 packages of chips
foi the uiama club
Sent extia home with kius
"#$% '()*+,* (*%
0iueieu 6 uozen cookies foi
the soccei team
Coulu have oiueieu moie
2. You suggest to Elviia that foi each event she shoulu oiuei the aveiage amount of each item
baseu on what she has oiueieu ovei the past thiee yeais. Bow might you iepiesent this
yeai's oiuei in a concise, oiganizeu way. Besciibe in uetail how you calculateu the amount
of each item to be oiueieu foi each event so Elviia can follow youi uesciiption when
planning foi futuie events.
S. Elviia just infoimeu you that the soccei team won the state championship anu the uiama
club took majoi awaius at the Shakespeaiean Festival competition. Consequently, both
gioups have ueciueu to allow each membei of the team oi club to invite two guests to
accompany them to theii celebiation events. Elviia assumes that each of the guests will
consume about the same amount of foou as the team oi club membeis they accompany.
Explain to Elviia how to use youi iepiesentation of the oiiginal amount of foou to oiuei to
ueteimine the new amount of foou to oiuei.
4. Elviia can oiuei foou fiom eithei 4/0*.,$$. 4/,3$. oi 5,/*+(/6 5,'7$,8, anu she has given
you a list of the piices at each stoie foi each item to be puichaseu. She woulu like you to
cieate a iepiesentation of the total cost of puichasing the iecommenueu amount of foou foi
each event fiom each stoie. Elviia knows that foi some events it might be best to puichase
the foou fiom 4/0*.,$$. 4/,3$. anu foi othei events it may be bettei to puichase the foou
fiom 5,/*+(/6 5,'7$,8. She also iealizes that it is too time consuming to puichase some
items fiom one stoie anu some fiom anothei. Since you will eventually want to ueteimine a
pioceuuie Elviia can use when calculating the cost of futuie events, you will neeu to keep
tiack of the uetails of youi computations foi the total cost of puichasing foou foi the soccei
team fiom eithei stoie, anu foi puichasing foou foi the uiama club fiom eithei stoie.
!"#$%&'((& !"'*(& +'"$,".% +'/0('1
Cost pei package of
chips
$2.Su $2.uu
Cost pei uozen cookies $S.uu $4.uu
Cost pei gallon of uiink $2.uu $1.Su
50
Getting Ready 50
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.11B Cafeteiia Consumption anu Costs 
Teachei Notes
! #$%$&'( )*+$,./*+0*1 2/3
'$34()%: This task pioviues oppoitunities foi stuuents to uevelop a ieason foi oiganizing uata
into iectangulai aiiays oi matiices. Each element in a matiix iepiesents two chaiacteiistics oi
quantities, one by viitue of the iow it is locateu in anu one by viitue of the column it is in.
Consequently, each element has units associateu with it that uesciibe both the chaiacteiistics of the
iow anu column in which it is locateu. Paying attention to these units guiues ways that we can
combine matiices by auuition, subtiaction, anu scalai oi matiix multiplication. In this task,
stuuents will notice that in oiuei to auu uata iepiesenteu by matiices, the coiiesponuing iows anu
columns of each matiix neeu to contain similai infoimation. The uata in a matiix can be scaleu up
oi scaleu uown by multiplying each element in each iow anu column by the same scale factoi (e.g.,
scalai multiplication). This task also suifaces thinking about multiplying coiiesponuing factois anu
auuing coiiesponuing teims to finu uesiieu lineai combinationsan essential iuea foi matiix
multiplication that will be examineu anu soliuifieu in the following task.
5(3% 6*718738) 9(:$):
;!<;= 0se matiices to iepiesent anu manipulate uata.
;!<;> Nultiply matiices by scalais to piouuce new matiices.
;!<;? Auu, subtiact, anu multiply matiices of appiopiiate uimensions.
@%#7*%8 6*718738)A ;B;C
D7$1:E FGE(#% 5#7))HA
Reau thiough the intiouuctoiy paiagiaphs anu the scenaiio in question 1. Bistiibute the blue,
yellow anu pink notes (see attacheu hanuouts) foi stuuents to ieaiiange as they consiuei uiffeient
ways to oiganize the infoimation on the notes. (Nix up the notes similai to the task hanuout.)
IJ4#(3% F6K7## L3($4HA
As stuuents aie woiking on the task you may neeu to ieminu them that theii goal is to oiganize
each yeai's uata in such a way that "it can be combineu with similai uata fiom othei yeais." Watch
foi useful oiganizational schemes such as putting all of the uata foi the soccei team in the same iow
(oi column) anu all of the uata foi the uiama club in a sepaiate iow (oi column) anu then
oiganizing the foou items in the same oiuei thioughout both iows (oi columns). This same
oiganizational stiuctuie shoulu be iepeateu foi each yeai's set of uata. 0nce the uata is oiganizeu
in this way, it makes sense that pieces of uata that appeai in coiiesponuing iows anu columns fiom
each of the thiee yeais can be auueu togethei. Note that not eveiy gioup will oiganize theii uata in
the same wayiows anu columns might be inteichangeu, as well as the oiuei of foou items within
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
a iow oi column. The essential iuea is to get coiiesponuing pieces of uata to appeai in the same
iow anu column each yeai.
0nce gioups have oiganizeu theii uata, have them move on to uiscuss questions 2, S anu 4.
Questions two anu thiee intiouuce the iuea of scalai multiplication. Foi question 2, look foi
stuuents who fiist cieate a matiix (oi iectangulai aiiangement of the uata) that iepiesents the
total of the thiee yeais foi each foou item foi each event, anu then multiplies each item in theii
matiix by 1S (oi uiviues by S) to get a new matiix iepiesenting the aveiage amount of each item
foi each event. Foi question S, look foi stuuents who multiply each element in the matiix obtaineu
in question 2 by a factoi of S.
Question 4 is uesigneu to lay a founuation foi thinking about matiix multiplication. While stuuents
uo not yet know how to oiganize anu manipulate matiices to solve this pioblem, they can think
thiough the iequiieu multiplication of factois anu sum of teims that will ueteimine the total cost of
puichasing all of the items foi each event at eithei stoie. Nake suie they aie keeping tiack of theii
computations by iecoiuing equations that iepiesent theii woik. Foi example, to finu the total cost
of buying foou foi the soccei event at 4/0*.,$$. 4/,3$. woulu caiiy out the following
computation: (8 packages of chips " $2.Supackage of chips) + (7 uozen cookies " $S.uuuozen
cookies) + (4 gallons of uiink " $2.uugallon of uiink) = $49. Since the main focus of the whole
class uiscussion will be on questions 1S, if stuuents uo not finish question 4 assign it as homewoik.
A uiscussion of question 4 will seive as the launch of the next task.
Select 2 oi S gioups who have oiganizeu the thiee yeais of uata uiffeiently to piesent to the class.
uive the selecteu gioups time to glue theii oiganizational stiuctuies of the uata to chait papei,
befoie beginning the uiscussion. Choose gioups who have finisheu moie quickly than otheis to
piepaie foi this piesentation, while othei gioups continue to woik on the task.
M0):$)) FGE(#% 5#7))HA
Bave each of the selecteu gioups piesent the ways they oiganizeu theii uata. Ask the class to
iuentify similaiities anu uiffeiences between the oiganizational schemes, anu to account foi the
similaiities (e.g., it is easiei to auu like teims if the same types of uata appeais in coiiesponuing
iows anu columns each yeai), anu explain why the uiffeiences uon't mattei (e.g., one gioup may
have useu iows to iepiesent teams anu clubs anu columns to iepiesent foou items, while anothei
gioup might have exchangeu the ioles of the iows anu columns; it uoesn't mattei the oiuei in
which the foou items aie listeu, as long as the oiuei is consistent fiom yeai to yeai).
As stuuents uiscuss questions 2 anu S, intiouuce the notation of scalai multiplication of a matiix.
Bepenuing on time anu the piogiess of the stuuents, you may begin a uiscussion of question 4 oi
give stuuents auuitional time to woik on question 4 in piepaiation foi the next task.
N#0O1%8 @%78PQ 6%*Q L(A L%**01O @%78P C;CCR
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
!"#$ &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 10 packages of
chips for the soccer
teamWay too much!
!"#$ &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 3 dozen cookies
for the drama club
Should have ordered more
!"#$ &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 4 gallons of
drinks for the soccer
team. They poured some on
their coach! (big mess)
!"#$ &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 5 gallons of
drinks for the drama club
(they talk a lot and seem
to get thirsty!)
!"#$ &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 8 packages of
chips for the drama club
Needed more!
!"#$ &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 6 dozen cookies
for the soccer team
Could have ordered more
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
$""'. &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 6 packages of
chips for the soccer
team
Definitely not enough!
$""'. &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 5 dozen cookies
for the drama club
I really like those kids!
$""'. &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 4 gallons of
drinks for the soccer
teamWarned them not to
repeat last years prank!
$""'. &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 3 gallons of
drinks for the drama
clubdrinks were gone
long before the chips
$""'. &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 7 dozen cookies
for the soccer team
Should I have ordered
more?
$""'. &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 12 packages of
chips for the drama club
Sent extra home with kids
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
&/01 &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 8 packages of
chips for the soccer
teamMy neighbor is on
the team!
&/01 &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 10 packages of
chips for the drama club
They talked a lot with fake
accents
&/01 &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 4 dozen cookies
for the drama clubToo
much drama, too little
character!
&/01 &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 8 dozen cookies
for the soccer team
slipped a few extra to my
neighbor.
&/01 &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 4 gallons of
drinks for the soccer
teamWatched the
players like a hawk!
&/01 &'()*+) ,')$
Ordered 4 gallons of
drinks for the drama
club
Seemed about right
Getting Ready 1.11H
2012 Salt Lake City School District  MVP
In partnership with the Utah State Office of Education
Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported license
Ready, Set, Go!
Ready
Topic: Ratios, Proportions and making predictions
The table below shows how Marco spends his time on a
typical day. Use the table to answer the questions below.
Activity
Hours Spent per
Day
Hours Spent per
Week
Hours Spent per
Month
Exercise 1
Watch TV 2
Reading .75
Math 1.5
Household Chores 1.75
Other Schoolwork 3
Video games .5
Talk with Friends 2
Eating 1.5
Sleeping 10
1. What fraction of a day does Marco spend sleeping?
2. What percent of the day does Marco spend doing Other Schoolwork?
3. What amount of time would you predict Marco would spend on video games for an
entire week?
4. Add a column to the table and fill it in with predictions for Marcos activities for an
entire week. What other activities might Marco engage in that are not on the table? Why
is it possible that not every activity is listed?
5. Add another column to the table and fill it in with predictions for Marcos activities for
an entire month. How do you use the given data to make predictions for an entire week
or month? Explain your reasoning.
2012 www.flickr.com/photos/peretzp
51
Getting Ready 51
Getting Ready 1.11H
2012 Salt Lake City School District  MVP
In partnership with the Utah State Office of Education
Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported license
Set
Topic: Organizing information in matrices
Elvira has been running a private catering business to make extra money. She needs some help
organizing the information in problems 6 through 8 below so that she can better predict amounts to
purchase and improve her profits. Assist her by organizing the information in a meaningful way so
that she can average the years and do better for the coming year.
6. The last three years Elvira has catered family gatherings and city events. Last year she
provided the following at family gatherings she catered: 5 bags of chips, 6 dozen cookies
and 4 gallons of drink. Last year at city events she provided the following: 16 bags of
chips, 20 gallons or drink and 24 dozen cookies. Organize this information.
7. Two year ago Elvira provided the following at family events: 5 gallons of drink, 4 bags of
chips and 5 dozen cookies. While she provided the following at city events: 20 dozen
cookies, 18 gallons or drink and 12 bags of chips.
8. Three years ago Elvira provided the following at city events: 14 bags of chips, 20 gallons
of drink and 19 dozen cookies. She also provided the following at family gatherings: 6
bags of chips, 7 dozen cookies and 9 gallons or drink.
9. If you provide Elvira with an average amount to be ordered for the gatherings and
events she caters in the coming year, how much of each item would she need? Present
the average in an organized way.
52
Getting Ready 52
Getting Ready 1.11H
2012 Salt Lake City School District  MVP
In partnership with the Utah State Office of Education
Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported license
Go
Topic: Creating expressions and equations
10. If cookies cost $2.50 a dozen, drink is $1.75 a gallon and chips are $2 a bag what would
be the total cost for a city event according to your recommendation above (problem 9)?
Show your calculations here.
11. Write an expression based on the information above that will calculate the total cost for
any amounts of cookies c, drink d and chips h.
12. Write an expression that will calculate the cost for any amounts of cookies c, drink d and
chips h, if prices rise to the following: $2.75 for a dozen cookies, $2.25 for a bag of chips
and $2 for a gallon of drink. Using this new expression calculate the costs for Elvira in
the coming year.
Need help? Check out these related videos.
http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/algebramatrices/v/introductiontomatrices
53
Getting Ready 53
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.12B Eating 0p the
Lunchioom Buuget
! #$%&'&() *+',./0+'&+1 20.3
In 40(,/,&0 4$+.567/&$+ 0+' 4$./. you cieateu a matiix to iepiesent
the numbei of foou items Elviia planneu to oiuei this yeai foi the
soccei team anu uiama club celebiations. Youi matiix piobably
lookeu something like this: (Note: labels have been auueu to keep tiack of the meaning of the iows
anu columns)
chips cookies drinks
Soccer
Drama
8 7 4
10 4 4
!
"
#
$
%
&
You weie also given infoimation about the cost of puichasing each foou item at two uiffeient stoies,
80&+./,,/ 803,/ anu 90+'70:. 9$;,). That infoimation coulu also be iepiesenteu in a matiix
like this:
Mainstreet Market Grandpa' s Grocery
Cost per package of chips
Cost per dozen cookies
Cost per gallon of drink
2.50 2.00
3.00 4.00
2.00 1.50
!
"
#
#
#
$
%
&
&
&
In question 4 of the pievious task you weie askeu to ueteimine how much each event woulu cost if
all of the foou foi the event was puichaseu at 80&+./,,/ 803,/ oi 90+'70:. 9$;,)< These total
amounts coulu be iecoiueu in a matiix that looks like this:
Mainstreet Market Grandpa' s Grocery
Soccer
Drama
a b
c d
!
"
#
$
%
&
1. Calculate the values of 0= >= ;= anu ' in the matiix above.
!2012 www.fllckr.com/phoLos/holLsman/
54
Getting Ready 54
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
2. Explain, in uetail, how you woulu use the numbeis in the fiist two matiices above to obtain
the values foi the thiiu matiix.
S. In auuition to the soccei team anu uiama club, Elviia plans to host events foi the chess club,
the cheeileaueis anu the football team. She gives you the following matiix to iepiesent
foou items that neeu to be oiueieu foi each of the events. Can you use matiix multiplication
with the cost matiix given above to ueteimine the total cost of each event if items aie
puichaseu at each stoie. If yes, show how. If no, explain why not.
chips cookies drinks
Soccer
Drama
Chess
Cheerleaders
Football
8 7 4
10 4 4
3 4 2
2 3 2
14 12 8
!
"
#
#
#
#
#
#
$
%
&
&
&
&
&
&
4. In auuition to chips, cookies anu uiinks, Elviia plans to auu iolls anu colu cuts to the events'
menu. She gives you the following matiix to iepiesent all of the foou items that neeu to be
oiueieu foi each of the events. Can you use matiix multiplication with the cost matiix given
above to ueteimine the total cost of each event if items aie puichaseu at each stoie. If yes,
show how. If no, explain why not.
chips cookies drinks rolls cold cuts
Soccer
Drama
Chess
Cheerleaders
Football
8 7 4
10 4 4
3 4 2
2 3 2
14 12 8
6 4
8 5
2 2
2 2
12 10
!
"
#
#
#
#
#
#
$
%
&
&
&
&
&
&
55
Getting Ready 55
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.12B Eating 0p the Lunchioom Buuget 
Teachei Notes
! #$%&'&() *+',./0+'&+1 20.3
"#$%&'(: The puipose of this task is to examine the iow by column pioceuuie foi multiplying
matiices. 0nlike with auuition, wheie both matiix auuenus hau to have the same numbei of iows
anu the same numbei of columns, the factoi matiices in matiix multiplication uo not neeu to be the
same size. Bowevei, they uo neeu to be compatible sizes. This task will help stuuents notice that
the numbei of columns in the fiist factoi matiix neeus to be the same as the numbei of iows of the
seconu factoi matiix foi multiplication to be possible. Stuuents will also notice that the piouuct of
matiix multiplication is a matiix with the same numbei of iows as the fiist factoi matiix anu the
same numbei of columns as the seconu factoi matiix. Each of these last two statements imply that
matiix multiplication, in geneial, is not commutative.
)&$( +,./$/' 0&1#':
23!435 Auu, subtiact, anu multiply matiices of appiopiiate uimensions.
6(7,(/ +,./$/'8 2393:
;#.1< =><&7( )7''?8
Stuuents shoulu have alieauy woikeu on the computations involveu in the scenaiio iepiesenteu in
the intiouuctoiy paiagiaph uuiing theii woik on question 4 of 40(,/,&0 4$+.567/&$+ 0+' 4$./.. If
you have not hau an oppoitunity to uiscuss this pioblem, uo so now. Ask stuuents to uesciibe how
they woulu compute the cost of buying all of the foou items foi a paiticulai event at a paiticulai
stoie. Foi example, how woulu they compute the cost of puichasing the foou foi the uiama club
event at 80&+./,,/ 803,/. In uoing so, point out that stuuents have calculateu the value of the
vaiiable ; in the thiiu matiix, as iequesteu in question 1 of this task. Then set stuuents to woik on
the iemainuei of the task.
@A%7&$( =+B77 C$&#%?8
While stuuents may be able to calculate the values of 0= >= ; anu ' baseu on the context, they may
not immeuiately notice how the sum of paitial piouucts involveu in these computations aie ielateu
to the aiiangement of the numbeis in the matiices. Listen foi stuuents who can aiticulate that the
numbeis along the iows of the fiist matiix aie being multiplieu by the coiiesponuing numbeis
uown the columns of the seconu matiix (foi example, while moving acioss the numbeis in the
seconu iow of the fiist matiix, you move uown the numbeis in the seconu column of the seconu
matiix, multiply coiiesponuing factois as you move acioss the iow anu uown the column), anu that
the paitial piouucts aie auueu togethei anu iecoiueu in a coiiesponuing iow anu column in the
piouuct matiix (e.g., iow two, column two foi oui example).
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
Questions S anu 4 aie intenueu to help stuuents think about conuitions that neeu to be met in oiuei
foi matiices to be multiplieu. These conuitions incluue the compatible size issues uesciibeu in the
puipose statement anu the obseivation that, in geneial, matiix multiplication is not commutative.
In auuition, the quantities anu units useu in the context must be compatible foi matiix
multiplication to make sense (see uiscussion below).
DE'1#'' =><&7( )7''?8
Woik towaius a goou aiticulation of the iow anu column stiuctuie of matiix multiplication, by
shaiing stuuents' uesciiptions of the piocess as wiitten in iesponse to question 2. Wiite out each of
the pioblems as a matiix multiplication equation, without the iow anu column labels.
Bighlight the size of the factois anu piouuct matiices, anu uiscuss the size conuitions that neeu to
be met in oiuei foi matiices to be multiplieu. In oui initial example, a 2iow, Scolumn matiix is
multiplieu by a Siow, 2column matiix to obtain a 2iow, 2column matiix. In question S, a Siow,
Scolumn matiix is multiplieu by a Siow, 2column matiix to obtain a Siow, 2column matiix. In
question 4, we attempt to multiply a Siow, Scolumn matiix by a Siow, 2column matiix, but
iealize that this is not possible. Nake suie that the impossibility of this last multiplication is
uiscusseu both in teims of the context (we neeu to know the cost of iolls anu colu cuts at each of the
maikets) as well as in teims of a matiix equation (as we move acioss the numbeis in the iows of
the fiist matiix while multiplying by the numbeis in the columns of the seconu matiix we iun out of
factois fiom oui seconu matiix since it uoes not have the same numbei of iows as the numbei of
columns in the fiist matiix). These examples shoulu help stuuents aiticulate a compatibility iule
foi multiplying matiices.
Bighlight the quantities anu units being useu in the factois anu piouuct of the matiix multiplication
by auuing the iow anu column labels to the matiix multiplication equations. Foi example, in the
initial pioblem an "event by foou item matiix" is multiplieu by a "cost pei foou item by stoie"
matiix to obtain an "event by stoie" matiix which iepiesents the cost of puichasing all of the foou
items foi each event at each stoie. Relate this iuea to the size compatibility iule foi multiplying
matiices to inuicate how the iow anu column aiiangement of the quantities anu units iepiesenteu
by the matiices must also be compatible foi matiix multiplication to make sense.
In the next task, stuuents will piactice aiianging uata fiom a context into matiices that can
ieasonably be multiplieu, both by theii size anu by the quantities anu units they iepiesent.
F7EG.(/ 6(/HI +(,I C&8 C(,,E.G 6(/H :3:JK
uetting Reauy !"!#$
! #$%# &'() *'+, .)/ &0122( 3.4)5.0) 6 789
:; <'5);,541.< =.)1 )1, >)'1 &)'), ?@@.0, 2@ ABC0').2;
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
&'()*+ ,'+ ./0
&'()*
Topic: Equivalent Equations
12' 3(456 /7 '89(4/:6 ;'</= (5' '894>(<':" ?''5@4:' =2( =(6 )/:' / 2' 7456 '89(4/:
4: /5)'5 / /;(4: 2' 6'A/:) '89(4/:" BC/5 'D(@3<'+ '>'5*24:E @9<43<4') ;* F /5
G9<43<4A(4>' H5/3'5* /7 I89(<4*J K7 @/5' 2(: /:' /3'5(4/: =(6 3'57/5@') 3<'(6'
4:)4A(' 2' /3'5(4/:6 (:) 2' /5)'5 2'* ='5' 3'57/5@')"
1.
x + y = 5
3x +3y =15
2.
4x +3y =12
x +
3
4
y = 3
S.
6x + 4y = 20
y = !
3
2
x +5
?''5@4:' =2'2'5 /5 :/ 2' 3(456 /7 '89(4/:6 ;'</= (5' '894>(<':" K7 '894>(<': 6('
2' /3'5(4/:6 96') / A5'(' 2' 6'A/:) 75/@ 2' 7456" K7 :/ '894>(<': 62/= =2* :/"
4.
12x +9y = 21
4x +3y = 7
S.
2x +5y =10
y =
2
5
x +10
6.
54x ! 42y = 90
9x + 7y =15
!2012 www.fllckr.com/phoLos/holLsman/
name:
56
Getting Ready 56
uetting Reauy !"!#$
! #$%# &'() *'+, .)/ &0122( 3.4)5.0) 6 789
:; <'5);,541.< =.)1 )1, >)'1 &)'), ?@@.0, 2@ ABC0').2;
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
,'
Topic: Natiix Nultiplication
The equipment managei foi the school athletics uepaitment is attempting to iestock some of the
neeueu unifoim anu equipment items foi the upcoming seasons of baseball anu football. It has been
ueteimineu baseu on cuiient levels of inventoiy anu the numbei of playeis that will be ietuining
that moie socks, pants anu helmets will be neeueu. The equipment managei has oiganizeu the
infoimation in the matiix below.
The school has contiacteu with two supply stoies in the past foi equipment neeus. The matiix
below shows how much each stoie chaiges foi the neeueu items.
!"#$% '"(# )$#*+,
7. Calculate the values of $ . / anu 0 in
the "Total Costs Natiix" on the iight.
L4E ,M*
,3/54:E//)6
H<(* K
C/5'>'5
L(6';(<< ! !
! !
C//;(<<
8. Explain, in uetail, how you woulu use the numbeis in the fiist two matiices above to obtain the
values foi the "Total Costs Natiix".
,/AM6 H(:6 $'<@'6
Baseball
!" !" !
!" !" !"
Football
L4E ,M*
,3/54:E//)6
H<(* K
C/5'>'5
N/6 3'5 3(45 /7 6/AM6
!!!" !!!!
!"!!! !"!!!
!!!!! !"!!"
N/6 3'5 3(45 /7 3(:6
N/6 3'5 2'<@'
57
Getting Ready 57
uetting Reauy !"!#$
! #$%# &'() *'+, .)/ &0122( 3.4)5.0) 6 789
:; <'5);,541.< =.)1 )1, >)'1 &)'), ?@@.0, 2@ ABC0').2;
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense
./
Topic: Repiesenting visual patteins of change with equations, finuing patteins
N5'(' (;<'6 (:) '89(4/:6 7/5 '(A2
(54;9' /7 2' >469(< 3('5: ;'</="
K7 */9 (5' 9:(;<' / A5'(' (:
'89(4/: 2': 6(' 2' 3('5: */9
:/4A'" BO<< 54(:E<'6 (5' '894<('5(<
(:) 2' 64)' <':E2 /7 2' 54(:E<' 4:
6'3 ! 46 /:' 9:4 4: <':E2"J
9. The wiuth of the laige tiiangle with iespect to the Step numbei.
1u. The numbei of small tiiangles with siue length of one in the laige tiiangle with iespect to the
Step numbei.
11. The peiimetei of the laige tiiangle with iespect to the Step numbei.
12. The numbei of 6uuegiee angles in the figuie with iespect to the Step numbei.
1S. The numbei of white tiiangles in the laige tiiangle with iespect to the Step numbei.
Neeu help. Check out these ielateu viueos.
Nultiplying matiices http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiaalgebiamatiicesvmatiixmultiplicationpait1
Patteins anu equations http:www.khanacauemy.oigmathalgebiack12algebia1vpatteinsanuequations
,'3 ! ,'3 # ,'3 P
58
Getting Ready 58
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.1SB The Aiithmetic of Natiices
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Elviia likes the way matiices oiganizes infoimation so she can
keep tiack of seveial computations simultaneously. She
ueciues to apply these iueas to anothei "sticky" situation she
often encounteis in the lunchioom.
Stuuents' favoiite ueseit is cinnamon iollswhich they often iefei to as "sticky buns". Bowevei,
not all stuuents like theii iolls with a cieam cheese glaze, anu some piefei iolls without iaisins.
Consequently, Elviia has hei cooks piepaie cinnamon iolls in thiee uiffeient vaiieties.
1. 0iganize the following infoimation into a matiix. If helpful, label the iows anu columns to
show what the numbeis iepiesent.
0ne uozen plain cinnamon iolls iequiie 2 pounus of uough, anu no glaze anu no iaisins.
0ne uozen glazeu cinnamon iolls iequiie 1.S pounus of uough, u.S pounus of cieam
cheese glaze, anu u.2S pounus of iaisins.
0ne uozen plain cinnamon iolls with iaisins iequiie 1.7S pounus of uough, u.2S pounus
of iaisins, anu no glaze.
2. 0iganize the following infoimation into a matiix. If helpful, label the iows anu columns to
show what the numbeis iepiesent.
0n 0ctobei S1 the cooks maue 2u uozen plain cinnamon iolls, Su uozen glazeu
cinnamon iolls anu 2u uozen plain cinnamon iolls with iaisins.
0n Novembei 2u the cooks maue 1S uozen plain cinnamon iolls, 4u uozen glazeu
cinnamon iolls anu 1u uozen plain cinnamon iolls with iaisins.
S. 0se the infoimation above to finu the total amount of each ingieuient that was useu on
0ctobei S1 anu Novembei 2u. 0iganize youi woik anu the iesults into a matiix equation.
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59
Getting Ready 59
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
Elviia woulu like to use matiices to ueteimine the best place to puichase ingieuients foi uays when
she ueciues to seive cinnamon iolls. She has obtaineu the following infoimation fiom the two local
maikets.
If Elviia shops at 1%(+'$))' 1%$0)', hei costs aie $1.Su pei pounu foi uough, $2.uu pei pounu foi
cieam cheese glaze, anu $S.uu pei pounu foi iaisins.
At 2$%+,3%4 2$5&)$6 hei costs aie $1.7S pei pounu foi uough, $4.uu pei pounu foi iaisins, anu
$2.2S pei pounu foi cieam cheese glaze.
4. 0se all the infoimation above anu matiix multiplication to finu the total cost of puichasing
the ingieuients at each stoie foi 0ctobei S1 anu Novembei 2u.
Elviia is getting goou at multiplying matiices, but iealizes that sometimes she only neeus one
element in the sum oi piouuct (foi example, the cost of buying ingieuients at 2$%+,3%4 2$5&)$6 on
a specific uay) anu so she woulu like to be able to calculate a single iesult without completing the
iest of the matiix opeiation. Foi the following matiix opeiations, calculate the inuicateu missing
elements in the sum oi piouuct, without calculating the iest of the inuiviuual elements in the sum
oi piouuct matiix.
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60
Getting Ready 60
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
1.1SB The Aiithmetic of Natiices  Teachei Notes
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"#$%&'(: The puipose of this task is to piactice using matiices to oiganize infoimation in a way
that allows seveial similai computations to be iepiesenteu simultaneously. A paiticulai focus is on
setting up matiices in such a way that the iow by column pioceuuie foi multiplying matiices make
sense. Stuuents piactice caiiying out the opeiation of matiix multiplication anu inteipieting the
iesulting piouuct in teims of the context. The last pioblems of the task ieminu stuuents of the
uiffeiences in the way inuiviuual elements of matiices aie combineu uuiing matiix auuition anu
matiix multiplication. Scalai multiplication anu subtiaction of matiices aie also auuiesseu.
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23!435 Auu, subtiact, anu multiply matiices of appiopiiate uimensions.
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Reau thiough the scenaiio given in the fiist two paiagiaphs, emphasizing the iuea that "matiices
oiganize infoimation so we can keep tiack of seveial computations simultaneously." Ask stuuents
foi examples of what that sentence means. (In the pievious task we neeueu to calculate the cost
buying ingieuients foi seveial uiffeient events anu two uiffeient stoies. This woik involveu seveial
uiffeient computations, but all such computations can be iepiesenteu by a single matiix
multiplication equation.) Nake suie stuuents aie comfoitable with the expectations of the fiist few
questions on the task, then set them to woik.
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While stuuents can iepiesent the uata in each inuiviuual question using uiffeient matiices (e.g.,
exchanging iows with columns), not all aiiangements of uata into matiices will make the matiices
compatible foi multiplication. Stuuents shoulu uiaw upon theii size compatibility iule as well as
theii thinking about the compatibility of quantities anu units while woiking on these questions. Foi
example, if the fiist matiix is oiganizeu as a "type of cinnamon ioll by ingieuients" matiix anu the
seconu matiix is oiganizeu as a "type of cinnamon ioll by uay" matiix, then the piouuct uoesn't
have meaning in teims of the context, even though the sizes of the matiices aie compatible foi
multiplication. 0n the othei hanu, if the fiist matiix is oiganizeu as an "ingieuients by type of
cinnamon ioll" matiix anu the seconu is oiganizeu as a "type of cinnamon ioll by uay" matiix, then
the piouuct is meaningful as an "ingieuient by uay" matiix. You might want to allow this uilemma
to peisist uuiing the exploie by iuentifying stuuents who coiiectly stiuctuie the matiix
multiplication to have meaning in the context, as well as those who uo not, so that two uiffeient
piouuct matiices can be piesenteu anu uiscusseu uuiing a whole class uiscussion. Alteinatively,
2u12 Nathematics vision Pioject  N!P
In paitneiship with the 0tah State 0ffice of Euucation
Llcensed under Lhe CreaLlve Commons ALLrlbuLlonnonCommerclalShareAllke 3.0 unporLed llcense.
piess stuuents who, in question S, have multiplieu matiices without iegaiu to the meaning of the
paitial piouucts, to explain what each element in the piouuct matiix iepiesents. Ask them to caiiy
out a specific computation, baseu on the numbeis given in the context, anu compaie it to the value
they founu using matiix multiplication. Foi example, if stuuents say that a paiticulai element in
theii piouuct matiix iepiesents the amount of iaisins neeueu on 0ct. S1, have them calculate this
amount:
(u.2S lbs of iaisins pei uozen glazeu iolls " Su uozen glazeu iolls maue on 0ct. S1) + (u.2S
lbs of iaisins pei uozen plain cinnamon iolls with iaisins " 2u uozen plain cinnamon iolls
with iaisins maue on 0ct. S1) = 12.S lbs of iaisins iequiieu on 0ct. S1
Then have stuuents compaie this amount to the value that occuis in theii matiix.
To help scaffolu stuuents who aie stiuggling with this woik, suggest that they ueteimine what the
iow anu column labels woulu be on the matiix that contains the answei to the question poseu in
question S. Then have them ueteimine what the iows anu columns woulu be labeleu in the
matiices that aie the factois in theii matiix equation.
0n the last thiee pioblems, encouiage stuuents to only finu the taiget elements in the sum, piouuct
oi uiffeience matiices without computing the othei outcomes. This will iequiie stuuents to think
about wheie the numbeis in the answei matiix come fiom, iathei than just caiiying out a
pioceuuie by iote memoiization.
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If the issue of making the quantities anu units of the iows anu columns compatible has not been
claiifieu in small gioups, then make this issue the focus of a whole class uiscussion by having two
gioups who have uiffeient matiix multiplication equations foi question S piesent theii woik. 0se
the uiscussion outlineu in the exploie phase of these teachei notes to claiify this issue.
A shoit uiscussion about what stuuents neeueu to attenu to when finuing a specific element in the
sum, uiffeience oi piouuct matiix may be helpful, paiticulaily contiasting how the element in iow
2 column 2 was founu foi the sum matiix in question S anu the piouuct matiix in question 6. It may
be helpful to intiouuce notation such as a2,2 to iepiesent this element.
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61
Getting Ready 61
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62
Getting Ready 62