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I. Introduction A. Definition A computer is an electronic device, which executes software programs. It consists of 2 parts-hardware and software .

The computer processes input through input devices like mouse and keyboard. The computer displays output through output devices like color monitor and printer. The size of a computer varies considerably from very small to very big. The speed of computers also has a very large range. Computers have become indispensable in todays world. Millions of people use computers all over the world. B. Inventor

Konrad-Zuse(1910-1995) was a German engineer and computer pioneer. He built Z1, world's first program-controlled computer. 1941: Zuse completes Z3, world's first fully functional programmable computer. 1945: Zuse describes Plankalkuel, world's first higher-level programming language, containing many standard features of today's programming languages. FORTRAN came almost a decade later. Zuse also used Plankalkuel to design world's first chess program. 1946: Zuse founds world's first computer startup company: the Zuse-Ingenieurbro Hopferau. Venture capital raised through ETH Zrich and an IBM option on Zuse's patents. 1949: Wilkes und Renwick complete EDSAC (Cambridge, UK). Program and data both modifiable in storage, as suggested in Zuse's 1936 patent application, but not implemented in Z1-Z3. The idea of computer witnesses several developmental strategies that will take books to be revealed

C. History Development and common use of electricity led to numerous computer precursors in the 1940s. These include Konrad Zuses programmable calculator, and invention of the transistor by Bell Telephone. Some early computer models like the Colossus, built in 1943 are vast machines that were used to break codes. Several other developments in the second half of the 20th century include the invention of the semi-conductor, and the integrated circuit. The machines developed in the early 20th century either had limited programmability or couldnt be programmed. However the creation of what is called stored program architecture a concept elucidated by John von Neumann changed the way computers could store memory. Von Neumanns ideas still influence operations of the modern computer. It could be said that the first computer that could store programs was the 1949 Electronic Storage Delay Automatic Calculator or EDSAC, assembled by Maurice Wilkes, though this is a debatable issue. From this point forward, numerous developers contributed to creating various computer types. Important milestones include the founding of companies like Xerox, Intel and Fairfield in the late 60s and early 70s. In the early 1970s, several recognizable names come into play, including Bill Gates, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. These skilled inventors did much to develop personal computers in the form of PCs and Apples. By the 1990s, ownership of personal computers became common as manufacturing and parts grew less expensive. Also, development of technology like microchips and microprocessors helped to shrink the size of computers so that they could easily be used in homes. II. Computer Components a computer system has two basic parts: hardware and software. The equipment associated with a computer system is the hardware. Computer hardware is responsible for performing four basic functions: input, processing, output, and storage. Lets go back to the basic definition of a computer. A computer is an electronic device that is programmed to accept data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it for future use (storage). The processing function is under the control of a set of instructions (software); we will explore this later. The four primary components of a computer system are: -Input devices send data and instructions to the central processing unit. -Central processing unit executes computer instructions. Memory

Input Central Processing

Output Secondary Storage

holds data and programs temporarily. -Output devices make processed data available to the user. -Secondary storage devices store data and programs permanently.

In order to function properly, a computer system must have all four types of hardware: input, processing, output, and storage. In this example, the mouse and keyboard are the input devices and the monitor and speakers are output devices. The processor is contained inside the tower unit and the storage devices are the hard drive, CD-ROM drive and the diskette drive. Lets explore each of the devices in detail. Input devices accept data in a form that the computer can utilize. Also, the input devices send the data or instructions to the processing unit to be processed into useful information. There are many examples of input devices, but the most commonly used input devices are shown below:

The input device feeds data, raw unprocessed facts, to the processing unit. The role of the processing unit or central processing unit is to use a stored program to manipulate the input data into the information required. In looking at the computer system below, the Central Processing Unit, CPU, is not exactly visible. The CPU is found inside the tall, vertical unit, called a tower, located just to the right of the monitor.

The CPU is the brain of the computer. The CPU consists of electronic circuits that interpret and execute instructions; it communicates with the input, output, and storage devices. The CPU, with the help of memory, executes instructions in the repetition of machine cycles. A machine cycle consists of four steps: 1. The control unit fetches an instruction and data associated with it from memory. 2. The control unit decodes the instruction. 3. The arithmetic/logic unit executes the instruction. 4. The arithmetic/logic unit stores the result in memory. The first two instructions are called instruction time, I-time. Steps 3 and 4 are called execution time, E-time. The speed of computer is measured in megahertz, MHz. Memory, or primary storage, works with the CPU to hold instructions and data in order to be processed. Memory keeps the instructions and data for whatever programs you happen to be using at the moment. Memory is the first place data and instructions are placed after being input; processed information is placed in memory to be returned to an output device. It is very important to know that memory can hold data only temporarily because it requires a continuous flow of electrical current. If current is interrupted, data is lost. Memory is in the form of a semiconductor or silicon chip and is contained inside the computer.

There are two types of memory: ROM and RAM. ROM is read only memory. It contains programs and data that are permanently recorded when the computer is manufactured. It is read and used by the processor, but cannot be altered by the user. RAM is random access memory. The user can access data in RAM memory randomly. RAM can be erased or written over at will by the computer program or the computer user. The amount of RAM has increased dramatically in recent years. Memory is measured in bytes. A byte is usually made up of 8 bits and represents one charactera letter, digit, or symbol. The number of bytes that can be held is a measure of the memory and storage capacity. Bytes are usually measured in groups of kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, and terabytes. The following chart defines each term. Kilobyte Megabyte Gigabyte Terabyte KB MB GB TB Roughly 1,000 bytes Roughly 1,000,000 bytes Roughly 1,000,000,000 bytes Roughly 1,000,000,000 bytes

Memory is usually measured in Megabytes; a typical personal computer will have 64MB or more. Storage is usually measured in Gigabytes.

A hard disk, an internal disk, is a metal platter coated with magnetic oxide that can be magnetized to represent data. Hard disks come in a variety of sizes and can be assembled into a disk pack. Hard disks for personal computers are 3 " disks in sealed modules. A hard disk is capable of holding a great deal more than floppy disks. Hard disks for personal computers are measured in gigabytes. (Remember, a gigabyte is roughly a thousand megabytes or a thousand floppy disks.

III. Uses There are several uses of computers: A. Word Processing - Word Processing software automatically corrects spelling and grammar mistakes. If the content of a document repeats you dont have to type it each time. You can use the copy and paste features. You can printout documents and make several copies. It is easier to read a word-processed document than a handwritten one. You can add images to your document. B. Internet - It is a network of almost all the computers in the world. You can browse through much more information than you could do in a library. That is because computers can store enormous amounts of information. You also have very fast and convenient access to information. Through E-Mail you can communicate with a person sitting thousands of miles away in seconds. There is chat software that enables one to chat with another person on a realtime basis. Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the common man.

C. Digital video or audio composition Audio or video composition and editing have been made much easier by computers. It no longer costs thousands of dollars of equipment to compose music or make a film. Graphics engineers can use computers to generate short or full-length films or even to create three-dimensional models. Anybody owning a computer can now enter the field of media production. Special effects in science fiction and action movies are created using computers. D. Desktop publishing - With desktop publishing, you can create page layouts for entire books on your personal computer. E. Computers in Medicine - You can diagnose diseases. You can learn the cures. Software is used in magnetic resonance imaging to examine the internal organs of the human body. Software is used for performing surgery. Computers are used to store patient data.

F. Mathematical Calculations - Thanks to computers, which have computing speeds of over a million calculations per second we can perform the biggest of mathematical calculations. G. Banks - All financial transactions are done by computer software. They provide security, speed and convenience.

H. Travel - One can book air tickets or railway tickets and make hotel reservations online. I. Robotics - Robots are controlled by software. J. News-There are many websites through which you can read the latest or old news. K. Telecommunications - Software is widely used here. Also all mobile phones have software embedded in them.

L. Education Instead of a book it is easier to learn from an E-learning software.

M. Computers in Business - Shops and supermarkets use software, which calculate the bills. Taxes can be calculated and paid online. Accounting is done using computers. Exchange markets are managed by computers.