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Green Binders Technology


ACI Fall 2010 Convention October 24 - 28, Pittsburgh, PA

P.A. Muhammed Basheer is Professor (Chair) of Structural Materials at Queen's University Belfast in Northern Ireland. His teaching interests include structural engineering: analysis, design, inspection, monitoring, and maintenance of the built environment. His research interests include structural materials: science and technology of concrete, durability and transport mechanisms of structural materials, non-destructive testing, structural monitoring, corrosion of steel in concrete, nanotechnology of concrete, and sustainable development. He is an active member of ACI and numerous other committees and research councils. Dr. Basheer holds both a B.S. and M.S. in Engineering and a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering.

FreshPropertiesand PhysicalandDurabilityPropertiesof LowEnergy,LightweightConcretesfor StructuralApplications


ProfessorP.A.MuhammedBasheer
Centre for Built Environment Research School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering Queens University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK

FreshPropertiesand PhysicalandDurabilityPropertiesof LowEnergy,LightweightConcretesfor StructuralApplications


P.A.M.Basheer1,K.J.Owens1,J.Kwasny1,D.Moore2, Y.Bai1,M.Sonebi1,S.Taylor1,A.Gupta3,D.Cleland1 QueensUniversityBelfast,NorthernIreland,UK 2 Arup,UK 3 Macrete PrecastConcreteEngineers,NorthernIreland,UK
1

OutlineoftheTalk
Background to Research Objectives of the Work Reported Experimental Details Results Conclusions

OutlineoftheTalk
Background to Research Objectives of the Work Reported Experimental Details Results Conclusions

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Project:
DevelopmentofLowEnergy,Lightweight NormalandSelfCompactingConcretes forNovelStructuralApplications
Fundedby:

FlexibleArchBridge
Flat pack system brought on truck

Project Partners:

NovelFlexibleArchBridge
Arch Unit During Lifting

NovelFlexibleArchBridge
Arch Units in Place

PrecastServiceCorePanels

IssuestobeAddressed
Reduce the utilisation of Portland cement Reduce the weight of precast units reduced cost of transportation and improved lifting, handling and haulage. Make concrete flowable utilise self compacting concrete

Normally, cast in situ Heavily reinforced

Sufficient early age strength to allow faster formwork removal Use of special cementitious materials

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Supplementary Cementitious Materials


Pulverised fuel ash (PFA) Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)
Widely used Many improved properties Slow strength gain unwelcome by concrete pre-casters due to delay in formwork stripping

ObjectivesoftheProject
To develop lightweight, low energy concretes for use in structural applications. To maximise the utilisation of non-Portland cementitious materials To reduce energy usage and CO2 emissions.

OutlineoftheTalk
Background to Research Objectives of the Work Reported Experimental Details Results Conclusions

Objectives
To investigate the effects of lightweight concretes made with cementitious materials containing alkali activated pulverised fuel ash (fly ash) and ground granulated blastfurnace slag on fresh and hardened properties. To establish their durability characteristics. To compare their carbon footprint with that of conventional concretes of similar compressive strength.

OutlineoftheTalk
Background to Research Objectives of the Work Reported Experimental Details Results Conclusions

ResearchMethodology
Improving the Early Age Strength
Mechanical activation Thermal activation Curing at elevated temperatures Chemical activation

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ResearchMethodology
Reducing the Energy Input and Weight of Precast Units
Replace Portland cement with supplementary cementitious materials Utilise lightweight aggregates (coarse and fine) Combine with chemical activation of supplementary cementitious materials
PC.N GGBS.N PFA.N PFA.NA PC.L GGBS.L PFA.L GGBS.LA PFA.LA

ExperimentalVariables
Mix designation Mix details 100% PC with NWA 50% PC + 50% GGBS with NWA 50% PC + 50% PFA with NWA 50% PC + 50% PFA with NWA (Activated) 100% PC with LWA 50% PC + 50% GGBS with LWA 50% PC + 50% PFA with LWA 50% PC + 50% GGBS (activated) + LWA 50% PC + 50% PFA (activated) + LWA

Materials
Lightweight aggregates
30
Compressive Strength (MPa)

Why 4% Sodium Sulphate?


25 20 15 10 5 0 1 day Control 1% Na2SO4 7 days 4% Na2SO4

Sintered PFA fine and coarse aggregates 100% coarse aggregate replaced 60% fine aggregate replaced Portland Cement (CEM II) Pulverised Fuel Ash or Fly Ash (Class F) Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag Activation of GGBS & PFA mixes Sodium sulphate 4% by weight of binder

Why Sodium Sulphate as the activator?

Why Sodium Sulphate as the activator?


120
Compressive strength (MPa)

Standard Consistence
0.35 0.30
0.289 0.315

Compressive Strength of Paste


20oC curing for 7 days

Sodium Sulphate
0.27 0.257

Calcium Sulphate
0.28

Sodium Hydroxide
0.27

100 80 60 40 20 0

0.25
w/b ratio

0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00


PC 100 PFA 50 PFA 50 + Sika PFA 50 + PFA 50 + PFA 50 + Sika+ Sodium Sika+ Calcium Sika+Sodium sulfate sulfate hydroxide

OPC

1 day PFA

3 days Na2SO4

CaSO4

7 days NaOH

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MixDetails
Cementitious materials content 450 kg/m3 Design Strength 50 MPa Water/binder ratio 0.42 Workability S3 Slump class (100-150mm) Superplasticiser 0.5% by weight of binder

TestMethods
Slump Flow Compressive strength Hardened density Air permeability Sorptivity (water absorption) Salt scaling (RILEM method) Carbonation Chloride ingress Embodied carbon Embodied energy

TestMethods
Drying shrinkage Creep Not reported here.

OutlineoftheTalk
Background to Research Objectives of the Work Reported Experimental Details Results Conclusions

Workability (Slump and Flow)


300 250
Slump (mm)

Compressive Strength
60

Compressive Strength (MPa)

240 185 210 180 130 120 130 600 500


Flow (mm)

200 150 100 50 0 0 10

50

100 480 70 500 50 475 60

40

570 80 440 400 405 375 355 385

30

20 NWA

30 Time (minutes)

400 40 300 LWA 200 100 0 0

20

10

0 10 20 30 40 Time (minutes) LWA 50 60

NWA

1 day PC

7 days PFA

28days GGBS

56 days

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Compressive Strength
60
Compressive Strength (MPa)

Hardened density (SSD)


2500 2400

50

Hardened density (kg/m3)

2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 PC.N GGBS.N PFA.N.A PC.L Mix description 28 days GGBS.L.A PFA.L.A

40 30 20 10 0 1 day PC PFA 7 days GGBS 28days PFA ACT 56 days GGBS ACT

1 day

7 days

56 days

Air Permeability
1.00 0.90
API Ln(Pressure)/Min

Sorptivity (Water Absorption)


6.00 5.50 5.00 4.50 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 PC.N

Very Poor
ABS m3 x 10-7/min

0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 PC.N GGBS.N PFA.N.A PC.L GGBS.L.A PFA.L.A

Poor

Very Poor Poor Good Very Good

Good Very Good

GGBS.N

PFA.N.A

PC.L

GGBS.L.A PFA.L.A

Salt Scaling
Depth of Carbonation front (mm)

Depth of Carbonation
20.0 18.0 16.0 14.0 12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 PC.N GGBS.N 7 days PFA.N.A PC.L 28 days GGBS.L.A PFA.L.A 56 days

12000
Total amount of scaled material (g/m2)

10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 PC.N GGBS.N PFA.N.A PC.L GGBS.L.A PFA.L.A

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Chloride Penetration Resistance


16.0
Migration coefficient (x10 -12 m2/s)

Carbon Footprint
Mix description
PC.N GGBS.N PFA.N.A PC.L GGBS.L.A PFA.L.A

14.0 12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 PC.N GGBS.N PFA.N.A PC.L GGBS.L.A PFA.L.A

Carbon footprint (kgCO2 /m3)


407.54 224.14 234.13 494.20 335.23 320.94

Embodied Energy
Mix description PC.N GGBS.N PFA.N.A PC.L GGBS.L.A PFA.L.A Embodied energy (GJ/m3) 2.77 1.77 1.66 3.42 2.58 2.30

Conclusions
Achieved lightweight concretes with hardened SSD density in the range of 1800-1900 kg/m3. Replacement of PC with 50% PFA and 50% GGBS significantly reduced early age strength. Sodium sulphate as chemical activator improved strengths especially at early ages, making these binders attractive to precast manufacturers. PC and activated systems achieved strength of 16-24 MPa after 24 hours and 45-50 MPa after 56days of curing.

Conclusions
Chloride ingress Lightweight, low energy concretes performed better than the normal weight concretes. Better carbon footprint and embodied energy than the PC normal weight concrete. Further research is needed for improving their salt scaling and carbonation resistances.

Thank You. Any Questions?