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# CHAPTER 20

Quick Quizzes
1. (b), (c), (a). At each instant, the magnitude of the induced emf is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic field (hence, proportional to the slope of the curve shown on the graph). The left wingtip on the west side of the airplane. The magnetic field of the Earth has a downward component in the northern hemisphere. As the airplane flies northward, the right-hand rule indicates that positive charge experiences a force to the left side of the airplane. Thus, the left wingtip becomes positively charged and the right wingtip negatively charged. (b). According to Equation 20.3, because B and v are constant, the emf depends only on the length of the wire moving in the magnetic field. Thus, you want the long dimension moving through the magnetic field lines so that it is perpendicular to the velocity vector. In this case, the short dimension is parallel to the velocity vector. From a more conceptual point of view, you want the rate of change of area in the magnetic field to be the largest, which you do by thrusting the long dimension into the field. (c). In order to oppose the approach of the north pole, the magnetic field generated by the induced current must be directed upward. An induced current directed counterclockwise around the loop will produce a field with this orientation along the axis of the loop. (b). When the iron rod is inserted into the solenoid, the inductance of the coil increases. As a result, more potential difference appears across the coil than before. Consequently, less potential difference appears across the bulb and its brightness decreases.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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Problem Solutions
20.1 The magnetic flux through the area enclosed by the loop is
30 T ) 25 m B = BA cos = B r2 cos0 = ( 0. ( 0.

( )

)2 =

5. 9 102 T m

20.2

B = ( BA cos ) = ( B) A cos
= ( 0. 950 T 0. 850 T ) 200 m ( 0. 0 = )2 cos30.
1. 09 102 T m
2

20.3

When the loop lies on a horizontal table, the angle between the field and the normal to 0 62. 0 = 28. 0 . The flux through the area enclosed by the plane of the loop is = 90. the loop is then
B = BA cos

= 0. 520 104 T

150 m )( 0. 25 m ) ] cos28. 0 = ) [( 0.

1. 72 106 T m

## 0 and When the loop is mounted vertically on a north wall, = 62.

B = 0. 520 104 T

150 m )( 0. 25 m ) ] cos62. 0 = ) [( 0.

9. 15 107 T m

## 0 , so When the loop is mounted vertically on an east wall, = 90.

B = BA cos = BA cos90. 0 = 0

20.4

The magnetic field lines are tangent to the surface of the cylinder, so that no magnetic o. field lines penetrate the cylindrical surface. The total flux through the cylinder is zer (a) Every field line that comes up through the area A on one side of the wire goes back down through area A on the other side of the wire. Thus, the net flux through the o. coil is zer

20.5

0 . Therefore, (b) The magnetic field is parallel to the plane of the coil , so = 90. B = BA cos = BA cos90. 0 = 0 .

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20.6

## and the flux through each turn on the solenoid is

B = BA cos
4. 00 102 m 36 10 T = 2. 4

cos0 = 2. 96 105 T m

20.7

## B = ( B cos ) A = ( com ponentofB per pendi cul ar t o A) A

Thus, the flux through the shaded side of the cube is
B = Bx A = ( 5. 0 T ) 2. 5 10 m
2

x z
2

1 10 = 3.

Tm

(b) Unlike electric field lines, magnetic field lines always form closed loops, without beginning or end. Therefore, no magnetic field lines originate or terminate within the cube and any line entering the cube at one point must emerge from the cube at some other point. The net flux through the cube, and indeed through any closed o. surface, is zer

20.8

20 T ) cos0 = 0. 20 T ( B cos )i = ( 0.

## and ( B cos ) f = ( 0) cos0 = 0

Thus,

20 T ) 20 m ( B cos ) A ( 0. B ( 0. = = = t t 0. 30 s

)2

= 8. 4 102 V = 84 m V

20.9

## 2 0 10-6 T ( 0. 500 m ) B N BA [ ( cos ) ] 25 50. ( cos0 cos180) = = = t t 0. 200 s

82 m V = 9. 82 103 V = 9.

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20.10

B B ( A ) cos = t t
2 15 T ) 12 m ) 0 ( 0. ( 0. cos0

0. 20 s

4 102 V = 34 m V = 3.

20.11

## 60 T 0) 0. 200 m B N ( B ) A cos 200(1. = = t t 20. 0 10-3 s

) cos0 = 3. 20 10

I=

## 3. 20 103 V = 160 A 20. 0

20.12

or

t B N BA [ ( cos ) ] = , so B = t t N A [ ( cos ) ]
166 V ) ( 2. 77 103 s) ( 0. 0 T B= = 5. 20 105 T = 52. 2 [ cos0 cos90 ] 500 0. 150 m 4 ( )

20.13

## The required induced emf is From

=I R = ( 0. 10 A )( 8. 0 ) = 0. 80 V .

B B = N A cos , t t

## = B 0. 80 V = t N A cos ( 75) [ ( 0. 050 m )( 0. 080 m

20.14 The initial magnetic field inside the solenoid is

) ] cos0

7Ts = 2.

(a)

## B = BA cos = 1. 88 103 T 1. 00 102 m

88 107 T m = 1.
2

)(

cos0

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(b) When the current is zero, the flux through the loop is B = 0 and the average induced emf has been

20.15

B 1. 88 107 T m 2 0 28 108 V = = 6. t 3. 00 s

## 300 B = 0nI= 4 107 T m A 0. 200 m

I= 6. 00 104 T A I

(a)

B = ( B) A cos
= 00 104 T A ( 5. 0 A 2. 0 A ) 5 102 m 6. 1.
0 106 T m = 4.
2

cos0

(b)

0 106 T m N ( B ) 4 4. = = t 0. 90 s

) = 1. 8 10

V = 18 V

20.16

= =

N ( B ) t

N BA [ ( cos ) ]

## 200(1. 1 T ) 100 104 m

t
2

0. 10 s

) ( cos0 cos180) = 44 V

R = 44 V 8A = 8. 5. 0

## Therefore, the average induced current is I=

20.17

N ( B ) N B ( A ) cos = t t

## 100 50. 0 10-6 T 124 0. 120) m 2 5 ( 0. cos22. = 1. 59 s

6 V = 1. 16 105 V = 11.

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20.18

## From = B v , the required speed is

v=

500 A )( 6. 00 ) I R ( 0. 00 m s = = 1. B 50 T )(1. 20 m ) ( 2.

20.19

v , where B is the component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the velocity v. Thus,

= B

## = 0 106 T ) si n 58. 0 0 m ) ( 300 m s) = ( 50. ( 60.

20.20

0. 763 V

= B

v = 40. 0 106 T ( 5. 00 m

00 m V 0 m s) = 2. 00 103 V = 2. ) (10.

n , on Application of the right hand rule shows that the magnetic force, Fm = qvB si
electrons in the wire is directed toward the east. Thus, negative charge will accumulate on the eastern end, leaving a net positive charge on the western end. The w est er n end i s ata hi gherpot ent i al than the eastern end.

20.21

(a) Observe that only the horizontal component, Bh , of Earths magnetic field is effective in exerting a vertical force on charged particles in the antenna. For the n , on positive charges in the antenna to be directed magnetic force, Fm = qvBh si upward and have maximum magnitude (when =90), the car should move t ow ar dt he east through the northward horizontal component of the magnetic field. (b)

= Bh

s 1 km h

## 278 m km 0. = 0 106 T ) cos65. 0 20 m ) 65. 0 ( 50. (1. h

58 10 4 V = 4.

20.22

During each revolution, one of the rotor blades sweeps out a horizontal circular area of radius , A = 2 . The number of magnetic field lines cut per revolution is
B = B A = BverticalA . The induced emf is then

B = B = vertical 1f t

0 10 ) = ( 5.

T 0m ( 3. 0. 50 s

)2

8m V 8 103 V = 2. = 2.

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20.23

(a) To oppose the motion of the magnet, the magnetic field generated by the induced current should be directed to the right along the axis of the coil. The current must ef tt or i ght through the resistor. then be l (b) The magnetic field produced by the current should be directed to the left along the i ghtt ol ef t through the resistor. axis of the coil, so the current must be r

20.24

(a) To oppose the approach of the south end of the magnet, the magnetic field along the axis of the loop should be directed downward. Thus, the current must be cl ockw i se w hen vi ew ed f r om above the loop. (b) To oppose the departure of the north end of the magnet, the magnetic field should be directed upward along the axis of the loop, so the current must be count er cl ockw i se w hen vi ew ed f r om above the loop.

20.25

To oppose the decreasing flux, directed into the page, through the area enclosed by the ef tt or i ght through the loop, the induced current in the loop must be clockwise or l resistor.

20.26

When the switch is closed, the magnetic field due to the current from the battery will be directed to the left along the axis of the cylinder. To oppose this increasing leftward flux, the induced current in the other loop must produce a field directed to the right through ef tt or i ght through the resistor. the area it encloses. Thus, the induced current is l

20.27

n , on a positive charge is directed toward the top Since the magnetic force, Fm = qvB si
of the bar when the velocity is to the right, the right hand rule says that the magnetic nt ot he page . field is directed i

20.28

When the switch is closed, the current from the battery produces a magnetic field directed toward the right along the axis of both coils. (a) As the battery current is growing in magnitude, the induced current in the rightmost coil opposes the increasing rightward directed field by generating a field ef tt or i ght toward to the left along the axis. Thus, the induced current must be l through the resistor. (b) Once the battery current, and the field it produces, have stabilized, the flux through nduced cur r ent . the rightmost coil is constant and there is no i

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(c) As the switch is opened, the battery current and the field it produces rapidly decrease in magnitude. To oppose this decrease in the rightward directed field, the induced current must produce a field toward the right along the axis, so the i ghtt ol ef t through the resistor. induced current is r 20.29 When the switch is closed, the current from the battery produces a magnetic field directed toward the left along the axis of both coils. (a) As the current from the battery, and the leftward field it produces, increases in magnitude, the induced current in the leftmost coil opposes the increased leftward i ghtt ol ef t through R and producing a field directed toward the field by flowing r right along the axis. (b) As the variable resistance is decreased, the battery current and the leftward field generated by it increases in magnitude. To oppose this, the induced current is r i ghtt ol ef t through R, producing a field directed toward the right along the axis. (c) Moving the circuit containing R to the left decreases the leftward field (due to the battery current) along its axis. To oppose this decrease, the induced current is l ef tt or i ght through R, producing an additional field directed toward the left along the axis. (d) As the switch is opened, the battery current and the leftward field it produces decrease rapidly in magnitude. To oppose this decrease, the induced current is l ef tt or i ght through R, generating additional magnetic field directed toward the left along the axis.
2 m ax = N BhorizontalA = 100( 2. 0 105 T ) ( 0. 20 m ) 1500

20.30

r ev 2 r ad 1 m i n mi n 1r ev 60 s

= 1. 3 102 V = 13 m V

20.31

ax = N BA , m ax = N BA , so m m ax N BA
or

1200 r pm m = 12. 0 V ) ( ax = m ax =

pm 500 r

28. 8V

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20.32

(a) Immediately after the switch is closed, the motor coils are still stationary and the = 240 V = 8. 0A back emf is zero. Thus, I m ax = 30 R (b) At maximum speed,
I=

back = 145 V
30

and

## back = 240 V 145 V

R

2A = 3. 60 V

(c)

back = IR = 240 V ( 6. 0 A )( 30 ) =
R=

20.33

(a)

I m ax

120 V = 11 11 A

## (b) At operating speed,

back = IR = I
20.34 (a) Using

I 4. 0A = 1 = (120 V ) 1 = 76 V I 11 A I m ax m ax

m ax = N BA ,
s 1r ev

r ev 2 r ad 20 T ) ( 0. 10 m 2 ) 60 5 103 = m ax = 1000( 0. = 7.
(b)

7. 5 kV

m ax occurs when the flux through the loop is changing the most rapidly. This is
al l elt ot he m agnet i cf i el d. when the plane of the loop is par
r ev 1 m i n 2 r ad r ad = 4 , mi n 60 s 1 r ev s
2 = 0. 50 s.

20.35

= 120

## and the period is T = (a) (b)

m ax = N BA = 500( 0. 60 T ) [ ( 0. 080 m )( 0. 20 m ) ] ( 4
= m ax si n ( t n ( 4 ) = ( 60 V ) si r ad s) 32

r ad s) = 60 V

s = 57 V

## (c) The emf is first maximum at t=

T 0. 50 s 13 s = = 0. 4 4

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20.36

L=

0N A
2

( 4 10

## 2 2 T m A ( 70. 0) 1. 30 102 4 0. 600 m

36 H = 1. 36 106 H = 1.
500 A 0 I 0. = L = ( 2. 00 H ) = 100 V t 10. 0 10-3 s
Tm N B are A I

20.37

20.38

The units of

From the force on a moving charged particle, F = qvB , the magnetic field is B = we find that
1T = 1 N N s =1 C ( m s) C m

F and qv

( N m ) s J N s m 2 = = s = V s, Thus, T m 2 = C m C C
and
Tm A
2

## . V s which is the same as the units of I t A

20.39

(a)

L=

0N 2 A

( 4 10

2 T m A ( 400) 2. 5 102 m 0. 20 m

0m H = 2. 0 103 H = 2.
(b) From

= L ( I t ),

I 75 103 V = = = 38 A s 0 103 H t L 2.

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20.40

From

= L ( I t ) , the self-inductance is
24. 0 103 V = 2. 40 103 H I t 10. 0A s =

L=

## Then, from L = N B I, the magnetic flux through each turn is

B = 40 103 H ( 4. 00 A ) L I 2. 92 105 T m = = 1. N 500

20.41

## The inductive time constant is = L R . From

L=

= L ( I t ) , the self-inductance is

I t s = s.

with units of

## V V = s = s. Thus, the units of the time constant are A s A

20.42

(a) The time constant of the RL circuit is = L R , and that of the RC circuit is = RC . If the two time constants have the same value, then
RC = L , or R = R

3. 00 H 00 k = 1. 00 103 = 1. 3. 00 10-6 F

## (b) The common value of the two time constants is

3. 00 H L 00 m s = = 3. 00 10-3 s = 3. R 1. 00 103

20.43

## The maximum current in a RL circuit I m ax = R , so the resistance is

R=

I m ax

6. 0V = 20 0. 300 A

## L = R = 600 106 s ( 20 ) = 1. 2 102 L = 12 m H

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20.44

The current in the RL circuit at time t is I = the resistor is V R = RI= 1 et difference across the inductor is

1 e t . The potential difference across R , and from Kirchhoffs loop rule, the potential

t t V L = V R = 1 1 e = e

(a) At t= 0 , V R = 1 e0 = (1 1) = 0

( (

## 8V 0 V )(1 0. 368) = 3. (b) At t= , V R = 1 e1 = ( 6. 0V (c) At t= 0 , V L = e0 = = 6. 2V (d) At t= , V L = e1 = ( 6. 0 V )( 0. 368) = 2.

20.45

t t From I= I , e = 1 m ax 1 e

I . I m ax

If

I 900 at t= 3. = 0. 00 s, then I m ax
00 s e 3. = 0. 100 or =

3. 00 s 30 s = 1. l n ( 0. 100)

## Since the time constant of an RL circuit is = L R , the resistance is

R= L = 2. 50 H 92 = 1. 1. 30 s

20.46

(a)

L 8. 00 m H 00 m s = = 2. R 4. 00
t
3 250 106 s 2. 00 10s

(b) I=

00 V 6. 1 e ) = ( ( 1 e 4. R 00

) = 0.176 A

(c)

I m ax =

= 6. 00 V
R

4. 00

50 A = 1.

t (d) I= I yields e t = 1 I I m ax 1 e m ax ,

and

22 m s t= l n (1 I I 00 m s) l n (1 0. 800) = 3. m ax ) = ( 2.
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20.47

PEL =

1 2 1 LI = 70. 0 103 H 2 2

00 A ) ) ( 2.

140 J = 0.

20.48

PEL =

N 2A 1 2 LI and L = 0 2

Thus,

PEL =

0N 2 A I2
2

( 4 10

## 2 T m A ( 68) 1. 20 102 m 2 8. 00 102 m

2 4 ( 0. 770 A )

44 J = 2. 44 106 J= 2.

20.49

1 2 LI . 2

## (1 e ) , and the energy stored in the R

t

(a) As t , I I m ax =

24 V = 3. 0 A , and 8. 0

PEL

1 2 1 2 LI 0 H )( 3. 0 A ) = 18 J ( 4. m ax = 2 2

(b) and

1 = ( 3. 0 A )(1 0. 368) = 1. 9A , At t= , I= I m ax 1 e

PEL =

1 2 2J 0 H )(1. 9 A ) = 7. ( 4. 2

20.50

(a) When the two resistors are in series, the total resistance is

## Req = R + R = 2R , and the time constant of the circuit is =

L L . = 2R R eq

(b) With the resistors now connected in parallel, the total resistance is
R eq =

( R )( R ) R
R+R = 2

## , and the time constant is =

2L L = . R R eq

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20.51

According to Lenzs law, a current will be induced in the coil to oppose the change in magnetic flux due to the magnet. Therefore, current must be directed from b to a i ve . through the resistor, and V a V b will be negat While the coil is between the poles of the magnet, the component of the field 10 T . After the coil is pulled out of the perpendicular to the plane of the coil is Bi = 0. field, B f 0 . The magnitude of the average induced emf as the coil is moved is

20.52

=N

( BA ) B ( B) A =N =N , t t t

## and the average induced current in the galvanometer is

10 T 0) 020 m N ( B) A 10( 0. ( 0. I= = = R R ( t 0 ) ( 0. 20 s) ) ( 2.

)2

= 3. 1 103 A = 3100 A

i ni t el y show t he i nduced cur r ent and even be This means the galvanometer will def

L=

0N 2 A

( 4 10 =

2

7. 00 10 m
2

) = 0. 280 H

Thus,

t=

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## 0V V 60. I= 0. = 0. 632I 632 632 71 A , = 2. m ax 0 = 0. R 14. 0

so the average back emf is

I 280 H ) = ( 0. back = L t
(c)

2. 71 A 9V = 37. 00 10-2 s 2.

B ( B) A = = t t

1 2

[ 0n( I)] A = 0N ( I) A
t

2 ( t)

( 4 10 =
(d) I=

## T m A (12 500) ( 2. 71 A ) 1. 00 104 m 2 7. 00 10 m

2

)(

2. 00 10 s
2

)=

1. 52 103 V

coil
Rcoil

N coil( B t ) R coil

## 52 103 V ) ( 820) ( 1. 24. 0

8m A 0518 A = 51. = 0.

20.54
(t) 10 mV (b) (a) Original Curve
5 mV

(c)

t (ms) 0.25
0.5 0.75 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0

5 mV

10 mV

(a) Doubling the number of turns doubles the amplitude but does not alter the period. (b) Doubling the angular velocity doubles the amplitude and also cuts the period in half.

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(c) Doubling the angular velocity while reducing the number of turns to one half the original value leaves the amplitude unchanged but does cut the period in half.

20.55

Q = I( t )=

( t) = 1 B ( t) = B ( A ) ,
R
R t
6

or

## 0 10 T ) 200 m ) (15. ( 0. Q= 0. 500

20 C = 1. 20 106 C = 1.

20.56

(a)

PEL =

## 1 2 1 LI = ( 50. 0 H ) 50. 0 103 A 2 2

7

25 1010 J = 6.

(b)

II ( 4 10 = 012= 2 d
= 2. 00 103

## T m A 50. 0 103 A 2 ( 0. 250 m

)(

kN N 00 = 2. m m

20.57

(a) To move the bar at uniform speed, the magnitude of the applied force must equal that of the magnetic force retarding the motion of the bar. Therefore, Fapp = B I . The magnitude of the induced current is

I=

= ( B
R

t )

B ( A t ) R B=

B v , R

## I R , giving Fapp = I2R v . v

I=

Fapp v R

00 N ) ( 2. 00 m s) (1. 8. 00

500 A = 0.

## 00 W (c) input = Fapp v = (1. 00 N ) ( 2. 00 m s) = 2.

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20.58

When A and B are 3.00 m apart, the area enclosed by the loop consists of four triangular sections, each having hypotenuse of 3.00 m, altitude of 1.50 m, and base of
2 2 00 m ) (1. 50 m ) = 2. 60 m . ( 3.

3.00 m

3.00 m

## The decrease in the enclosed area has been

3.00 m
B

3.00 m

A = A i A f = ( 3. 00 m

50 m )( 2. 60 m ) = 1. 21 m 2 ) 2 4 (1. 1 2

I=

= ( B
R

t )

B ( A t ) R

## 100 T ) ( 1. 21 m 2 0. 100 s) ( 0. 10. 0

121 A = 0.

As the enclosed area decreases, the flux (directed into the page) through this area also ockw i se around the loop to decreases. Thus, the induced current will be directed cl create additional flux directed into the page through the enclosed area.
20.59 If d is the distance from the lightning bolt to the center of the coil, then

N ( B ) t

0 ( I) 2 d A N 0 ( I) A N ( B) A N = = 2 d( t t t )

## 100 4 107 T m A 6. 02 106 A 0 800 m ( 0. = 2 ( 200 m ) 10. 5 106 s

)(

) )

)2

= 1. 15 105 V = 115 kV

20.60

The flux through the surface area of the tent is the same as that through the tent base. Thus, as the tent is flattened, the change is flux is
B = B ( A base ) = B [ L ( 2L) L ( 2 L cos ) ] = 2L2B (1 cos ) .

## 5m B 2L2B (1 cos ) 2(1. = = = t t

30 T )(1 cos60) ) 2 ( 0. 0. 10 s

8V = 6.

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20.61

(a)

d2 4 0 B B ( A ) B = = = t t t
= 0 m T ) ( 2. 00 10-2 m ) ( 25. 4 50. 0 103 s
2

157 m V = 0.

As the inward directed flux through the loop decreases, the induced current goes clockwise around the loop in an attempt to create additional inward flux through the enclosed area. With positive charges accumulating at B, poi ntB i s ata hi gherpot ent i alt han A .

(b)

## 0) m T ] 2. 00 10-2 m B ( B ) A [ (100 25. = = = t t 4 4. 00 103 s

89 m V = 5.

As the inward directed flux through the enclosed area increases, the induced current goes counterclockwise around the loop in an attempt to create flux directed outward through the enclosed area. With positive charges now accumulating at A,

20.62

## The induced emf in the ring is

B ( B ) A solenoid ( Bsolenoid 2) A solenoid 1 I = = = 0n solenoid A solenoid t t t t 2 2 1 = 4. 3. 00 102 m 80 104 V = 4 107 T m A (1000) ( 270 A s) 2

## Thus, the induced current in the ring is

I r i ng =

4. 80 104 V 60 A = 1. 3. 00 10-4

20.63

(a) As the rolling axle (of length = 1. 50 m ) moves perpendicularly to the uniform magnetic field, an induced emf of magnitude = B v will exist between its ends. The current produced in the closed-loop circuit by this induced emf has magnitude

I=

= ( B
R

t )

B ( A t ) R

## 800 T )(1. 50 m ) ( 3. 00 m s) B v ( 0. 00 A = = 9. 0. 400 R

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(b) The induced current through the axle will cause the magnetic field to exert a retarding force of magnitude Fr = BI on the axle. The direction of this force will be opposite to that of the velocity v so as to oppose the motion of the axle. If the axle is to continue moving at constant speed, an applied force in the direction of v and having magnitude Fapp = Fr must be exerted on the axle.

## 8N Fapp = BI = ( 0. 800 T )( 9. 00 A )(1. 50 m ) = 10.

(c) Using the right-hand rule, observe that positive charges within the moving axle experience a magnetic force toward the rail containing point b and negative charges experience a force directed toward the rail containing point a. Thus, the rail containing b will be positive relative to the other rail. Point bi st hen ata hi gherpot ent i alt han a and the current goes from b to a through the resistor R. (d)

N o . Both the velocity v of the rolling axle and the magnetic field B are unchanged. Thus, the polarity of the induced emf in the moving axle is unchanged, and the current continues to be directed from b to a through the resistor R.

20.64

(a) The flowing water is a conductor moving through the Earths magnetic field. A motional emf given by = B ( w ) v will exist in the water between the plates and the induced current in the load resistor is

I=
where

Rtotal = B ( w ) v Rtotal ,
R total = R w ater + R = +R= w +R ab

Thus, (b) If R = 0 ,
I=

I=

## 00 m ) ( 3. 00 m s) ( 50. 0 106 T ) (100 m )( 5. 100 m + 0

750 m A = 7. 50 104 A = 0.

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2. Consider the copper tube to be a large set of rings stacked one on top of the other. As the magnet falls toward or falls away from each ring, a current is induced in the ring. Thus, there is a current in the copper tube around its circumference. The flux is calculated as B = BA cos = B A . The flux is therefore maximum when the entire magnetic field vector is perpendicular to the plane of the loop. We may also deduce that the flux is zero when there is no component of the magnetic field that is perpendicular to the loop. No. Once the bar is in motion and the charges are separated, no external force is necessary to maintain the motion. An applied force in the x direction will cause the bar to accelerate in that direction. As water falls, it gains velocity and kinetic energy. It then pushes against the blades of a turbine transferring this energy to the rotor or coil of a large alternating current generator. The rotor moves in a strong external magnetic field and a voltage is induced in the coil. This induced emf is the voltage source for the current in our electric power lines. The magnetic field lines around the transmission cable will be circular. If you place your loop around the cable, there will be no field lines passing through the loop, so no emf will be induced. The loop needs to be placed next to the cable, with the plane of the loop containing the cable, to maximize the flux through its area. Let us assume the north pole of the magnet faces the ring. As the bar magnet falls toward the conducting ring, a magnetic field is induced in the ring pointing upward. This upward directed field will oppose the motion of the magnet preventing it from moving as a freelyfalling body. Try it for yourself to show that an upward force also acts on the falling magnet if the south end faces the ring. A constant induced emf requires a magnetic field that is changing at a constant rate in one direction for example, always increasing or always decreasing. It is impossible for a magnetic field to increase forever, both in terms of energy considerations and technological concerns. In the case of a decreasing field, once it reaches zero and then reverses direction, we again face the problem with the field increasing without bounds in the opposite direction. As the magnet moves at high speed past the fixed coil, the magnetic flux through the coil changes very rapidly, increasing as the magnet approaches the coil and decreasing as the magnet moves away. The rapid change in flux through the coil induces a large emf, large enough to cause a spark across the gap in the spark plug.

4.

6.

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16.

174

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## Answers to Even Numbered Problems

2. 4. 6. 8. 10. 12. 14. 16. 18. 20. 22. 24. 26. 28. 30. 32. 34. 36. 40. 42. 44. 46.
1. 09 102 T m
2

zero
2. 96 105 T m
2

84 mV 34 mV
52. 0 T

(a) 8.8 A

1. 88 107 T m

(b)

6. 28 108 V

1. 00 m s
2.00 mV, western end at higher potential 2.8 mV (a) clockwise (viewed from above) (b) counterclockwise (viewed from above) left to right (a) left to right (b) no induced current (c) right to left

1. 36 H
1. 92 105 T m
2

## (a) (a) (a)

1. 00 k
0 2.00 ms (b) (b)

(b) 3.8 V

0.176 A

175

C H A P T E R

2 0

2. 44 J
(a)

= L 2R

(b)

= 2L R

## 3100 A ,t he gal vanom et erw i l ldef i ni t el y show t he i nduced cur r ent

(a) Amplitude doubles, period unchanged. (b) Amplitude doubles, period cut in half. (c) Amplitude unchanged, period cut in half. (a)

6. 25 1010 J

(b)

2. 00 kN m

176