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Repair and rehabilitation of bridges: case studies II

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ISSN 0377-7286 IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 J\ PERIODICA AIPC IVBH PERIODICA November 1988 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88
ISSN
0377-7286
IABSE
PERIODICA 4/1988
J\
PERIODICA AIPC
IVBH
PERIODICA
November 1988
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
CONSTRUCTIONS
AIPC
IVBH
BAUWERKE
Repair and Rehabilitation ol Bridges -
Case Studies II
Reparation et restauration de ponts -
Exemples concrets II
Instandsetzung und Sanierung
von Brücken - Fallstudien II
International Association for Bridge and Structural
Engineering
IABSE
Association
Internationale des Ponts et Charpentes
AIPC
Internationale Vereinigung für Brückenbau und Hochbau
IVBH
Editor - Publisher - Advertising Redacteur - Editeur - Annonces Redaktion - Herausgeber - Inserate
Editor - Publisher - Advertising
Redacteur - Editeur - Annonces
Redaktion - Herausgeber - Inserate
IABSE - AIPC - IVBH
ETH-Hönggerberg
CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland
Tel.:
(Int+ 41
1)377 26 47
Telex:
822
186
IABS CH
Telegr.:
IABSE, CH-8093 Zürich
Papers published
under the
sole
responsibility of the author(s).
Les articles sont publies sous la seule responsabilite de (des) l'auteur(s).
Die Artikel werden unter der alleinigen Verantwortung des oder der Autoren veröffentlicht.
IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 65 Repair and Rehabilitation of Bridges - Case Studies
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
65
Repair and Rehabilitation of Bridges - Case Studies II
Reparation et restauration de ponts - Exemples concrets II
Instandsetzung und Sanierung von Brücken - Fallstudien II
Table of Contents - Table des matieres - Inhaltsverzeichnis
Page
1. Reparation du pont Tembembe (Mexique)
66
2. Repair of Scoured
Substructure (Japan)
68
3. Rehabilitation of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Deteriorated by Salt (Japan)
70
4. Rehabilitation of Wakamiya Railway Bridge (Japan)
72
5. TIG Are Remelting as a Repair Method for Steel
Railway Bridges (Japan)
74
6. Ohara
Bridge Fatigue Crack Repair (Japan)
76
7. Fujigawa Bridge Rehabilitation
Project (Japan)
78
8. Strengthening of Bridge Slab at Kami-Imasu Bridge (Japan)
80
9. Rehabilitation of a Lenticular Steel Truss in New Jersey (USA)
82
10. Repair and Rehabilitation of Roma-Viterbo Railway Bridges (Italy)
84
11. Repair of the Todsburg bridge (Fed.
Rep. of Germany)
86
IABSE STRUCTURES - Publication Programme in 1989
Publication
Theme
Editorial Deadline
in IABSE Secretariat
February
1989
Structures in Portugal
Constructions au Portugal
Bauwerke in Portugal
November 1,
1988
May
1989
Structures in Sanitary Engineering
Structures en genie sanitaire
Tragwerke im Siedlungswasserbau
February 1.
1989
August
1989
Recent Structures
May
1.
1989
Constructions
recentes
Neuzeitliche
Bauwerke
November
1989
Architectural
Concrete for Facades
August 1,
1989
Beton architectural et fagades
Beton in der Fassaden-Architektur
IABSE
members
are
invited
to
Les membres de l'AIPC sont invites
Die
IVBH-Mitglieder
sind
eingela¬
contribute
to
this
series
IABSE
ä preparer
une
contribution
pour
den,
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Artikel
für
diese
Reihe
STRUCTURES
Guidelines
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BAUWERKE
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zu
unterbreiten.
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paring
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Des
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Vorbereitung
der
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bezogen werden
66 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 1. Reparation du pont Tembembe (Mexique) Maitre d'ouvrage:
66 IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
1.
Reparation du pont Tembembe (Mexique)
Maitre d'ouvrage:
Secretaria
de
Communica-
Ouvrage
ciones
Transportes
(SCT)
y
Construit
en
1954,
l'ouvrage
en
beton
arme
etait
prevu
Mexique
des
cas
de
Charge
HS15
pour
(camions
de
24,5
t),
Bureau d'etudes:
Euro Estudios de Mexico
aujourd'hui,
il
ne
correspond
plus
ni
au
trafic
dont
le
Entreprise generale:
Freyssinet de Mexico
volume
s'est
fortement
accru,
ni
aux
charges
de
la
nouvelle
reglementation AASHTO T3 S3 qui autorise des
Duree des travaux:
4 mois
camions
de
46
t
Execution:
1987 -
1988
Une
visite
d'inspection
de
a
permis
noter
sur
cet
axe
routier
des
defauts
sur divers ouvrages
et
en
particulier
Quantites mises en ceuvre
sur le pont Tembembe oü furent detectes
Resine d'mjection
200
kg
Perforations par percussions
Perforations outil diamant
160
- des fissures de flexion et d'effort tranchant sur les
nervures du tablier,
m
- des
fissures
verticales
dans
les
30
diaphragmes
trans-
m
Cäbles
12
T
13
5700
versaux,
kg
- des articulations de cantilever bloquees,
Cäbles
12
O
7
580
kg
- des
fractures
Cäbles
en
zone d'appui de cantilever consecu-
T15
1300
1
kg
Acier ä beton
Beton
tives au non fonctionnement des articulations,
10200 kg
- des
76
m3
defauts de betonnage sur talons de poutres,
Mortier sans retrait
2000 I
- les murs garde-greve casses par blocage des joints de
Joint de Chaussee
Mex
T50
17m
dilatation
Localisation
Situe
ä
l'ouest de
Mexico sur la
route ä
peage Mexico-
V
Acapulco, le pont Tembembe franchit un ruisseau entre
Cuernavaca et Taxco.
C'est
un
ouvrage de 75,50 m,
constitue de 3 travees.
II
recoit
journellement
4500
vehicules
legers
et
lourds
reliant
le
centre
siderurgique
de
Läzaro
Cärdenas
aux
est
Section transversale
regions sud
et
du
pays
©
2
500
2
500
2
500
mxTirr^k \}\Alax\-/^\ ^Itz^Dinj^zJi
77777
77977"
Section longitudinale, avant reparation
4
<?>
5Q0
2
500
2
500
iLÖtrtHttrtft
777777
Section longitudinale, apres reparation
IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 67 Etude 11 fut decide de transformier la structure
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
67
Etude
11 fut decide de transformier la structure discontmue en
une structure continue pour faciliter la mise en ceuvre de
la
precontrainte
exterieure
et
ä
cause
de
la
mauvaise
execution
des
cantilever
rendait
difficile
la
appuis
qui
reparation
sans interrompre le trafic
Un deficit de moment
resistant de la section de
240
tm,
3
cäbles
a conduit a projeter la reparation
sur
la
base
de
exteneurs
Continus
de
12T13
disposes
par
nervure.
entre
les
nervures et devies sur les diaphragmes
Chaque
diaphragme
du
a
etre
renforce
4
cäbles
par
exteneurs
12
0
7
haute
sous
game
en
Polyethylene
densite (PEHD)
injectes de
coulis de ciment
> «t.^
"%-
Les
efforts
tranchants
furent
des
repris
etriers ten¬
par
dus
en
toron
Tl
1
5
devies
sur
les
talons
de
poutre
par
Precontrainte exterieure de renforcement
des selles
beton
Le
hourdis
superieur fut augmente de
- Cäbles longitudinaux et etriers tendus.
12
les
appuis dimensionnes
fonction
de
cm,
en
la nou¬
velle conception, ainsi que les joints de dilatation
Realisation
Les travaux
furent
realises
sans
Interruption de trafic en
reduisant
l'ouvrage a une voie
Toutes
les
Operations
preliminaires ä la mise
en
ceuvre
de
la
precontrainte
exterieure de
renforcement. c'est-ä-
dire les Operations d'injection des fissures ä la resine, les
forages, la pose de la precontrainte transversale, la pose
Ä
mf-
des selles d'etners,
le montage des
cäbles
le gainage et
longitudinaux, furent realisees sans interrompre la circu¬
lation II y eu une Interruption complete du trafic durant 2
injecter
le
mortier
sans
retrait
des
de
jours
pour
joints
cantilever et tendre les cäbles longitudinaux La duree
des
travaux
fut
de
4
mois
S***18
(Christian
Tourneur)
Vue generale apres travaux de renforcement.
Precontrainte verticale par etriers tendus.
3»'
¦^
'z
%
Precontrainte extärieure de renforcement:
-».
Cäbles exterieurs longitudinaux
?ss?
"£sfiS.
¦
<.
/
t-i*V.-» ¦¦
- Noter les deviateurs tubulaires.
Etriers verticaux tendus
- Noter les deviations sur bossages prefabriques
Vue generale apres travaux de renforcement.
Noter les etriers verticaux tendus.
68 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 2. Repair of Scoured Substructure (Japan) From the
68 IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
2.
Repair of Scoured Substructure (Japan)
From the topographic features of Japanese
rivers
that
often
to
limited
duration
of
work
possible,
that
is
mostly during
have
strong
current
from
its
gradient,
river
beds
around
winter when the water level is low, and the limited clearance
substructures are often scoured
For
this
reason,
there
is
available
below
the
a
bndge,
the
methods
for
that
repair
can
necessity for repair and reinforcement of substructures
Due
be
taken
are
limited
Following are two cases
Case 1
Reinforcement with piles; Iwaide Bridge, Wakayama
Owner:
Ministry of Construction
Contractor:
Koike Gumi, Asakawa
Gumi
Work's duration:
6 months
Date of repair:
1979 - 1980
'¦.
c
Z'-y
HS
The Iwaide bridge,
length and 7.5
completed in
1955,
has 385
m
bridge
m
road
width
(Fig.
1).
The
substructure
consists of a 13 span cantilever girder. The substructure
is
wall
reinforced
concrete
and
a
type
pier
an
elliptical
caisson
foundation
of
length
from
a
10.0
open
m
to
slab
slab
12.5 m.
The substructure has
been
scoured
to
a depth
of
4
m
le
pi
pile
to
6
m
maximum
from
the
effects
of
average
up
dredged riverbed and embankment
located upstream.
In
the worst
case,
the depth of embedment was
reduced
Fig.
2
Repair method (Iwaide Bridge)
to 5 m from the original 11 m. To prevent a further
decrease, measures were taken in 1970 by temporarily
placing protection
blocks.
Then
in
1979 the caissons
were checked again for its stability
To completely solve
the problem,
the substructure was
reinforced by under-
pinning and construeting a new slab connected with the
existing
caisson
The repair Job was performed on 7
heavily scoured substructures among a total number of
12.
For reinforcement of caisson with
reduced
depth
of
embedment, a cast in place pile method was chosen for
£
underpinning,
under consideration of geologic condition,
clearance below girder during work an
economy
With
the
cast
in
place
piles,
four
Benoto
piles
of
1
5
m
diameter and 11.5m length were placed at four sides of
the caisson.
The
caisson
and
piles
were
connected
by
SsF:
placing
m
thick
slab
a
2
on
top
to
make
a
new
footing
HJH
(Fig.
2
and
3).
To
determine
the
dimension
of
slab
and
piles,
the
structure
was
analysed
to
resist
working
forces together with the
existing
bridge.
The
caisson
and slab was connected by having the upper and lower
steel
reinforcements from
the
slab
of
29
mm
diameter
and
3.5
m
length
embedded 30 cm deep with
resin
into
the sides
of the caisson
Fig.
3
After repair (Iwaide Bridge)
iuflaimam
¦OO.
t-f|
»JM
AiaL
IQtOQ
tan
!|JM
JJ»
JflKP
l'itt
jj*2'"*
Jtaa.
»too
i
© IMI
%
IM
S
©
0
©
Fig.
1
Elevation (Iwaide Bridge)
IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 69 Case 2 Repair by reinforced concrete lining; Natori
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
69
Case 2
Repair by reinforced concrete lining;
Natori Bridge, Miyagi
J90 800
ä o ZlZOCQJäOJXB
iii
ll
Jl
ll
reinforced
concrete
lining
I
/Jcement
paste
grouting
nn-
footing
protection
¦il
X
\v
lern
gyjo
e
Fig.
4
Location of repair (Natori Bridge)
25d,
Q
soc
Z--
*0%§k
Owner:
Contractor:
Ministry of Construction
Endo Construction
Work's duration:
phase
1: 5 months,
/zu
phase 2:2 years and 1 month
Date of repair:
phase 1: 1974- 1975
phase 2:
1981- 1983
The
Natori
bridge,
completed
in
1932,
has
190
8
m
bridge
length
and
7.5
m
road
width
(Fig.
4)
The super¬
structure
is
9
steel
span
simple
girder
The
a
plate
'
.,<
y
substructure
consists
of
frame
reinforced
a
rigid
con¬
reinforced
concrete
lining
crete pier and caisson.
5
The substructure on this bridge was
following problems:
Fig.
repaired
due to
the
Repair method (Natori Bridge)
1)
Exposed
steel
reinforcements at top of the caisson.
2)
Bridge pier endangered of toppling due to scounng at
the
caisson
differential
settlement
and
loss
causing
of strength in the surrounding
foundation.
3)
The
connection
between
caisson
and
has
been
pier
deteriorated
from
shear force.
4)
Furthermore,
due to
its
old
design,
its
ability to
resist
today's load has been questioned.
The
carried
Phase
repair
job
was
out
in
two
phases.
1
was the repair job on severely damaged piers and phase
2 was for the remaining
piers.
carried out by following four
methods
The repair job was
(Fig
5,
6
and
7):
,¦«,
1)
The
bridge
with
rein¬
pier
structure
was
repaired
a
/
¦
r-
forced
concrete
lining
added as a seismic
protection
wall
Fig.
6
Before repair (Natori Bridge)
2)
The
caisson
was
reinforced
by connecting the top of
the
caisson
with
a
connecting
beam
and
adding
a
reinforced concrete
lining to its exterior.
3)
Cement
paste
grouting
of
foundations
surrounding
the caisson
4)
To
protect
the
from
pier
scounng,
located
piers
on
the
minor
footing
Protections
were
placed
and
for
located
piers
on
the
major
bed.
sheet
piles
were
placed.
This
Job
was
carried
out
under
limited
repair
clearance
below
bridge
girder
and
had
to
be
done
during
the
dry
season
In
view
of
these
conditions,
the methods
described above were considered to be effective in this
repair Job. The reinforced
concrete
lining was economi¬
'
¦
'¦'¦
¦
cal
and
the
required
duration
of
work
was
short.
The
*a-
cement
paste
grout
has
greatly
increased
the
bearing
capacity
of
the
foundation
and
was
also
found
to
be
effective in the
river
bed.
(Norio Morinaga)
Fig. 7 After repair (Natori Bridge)
70 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 3. Rehabilitation of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Deteriorated
70
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
3.
Rehabilitation of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Deteriorated by Salt (Japan)
All
structures located on the coastlme are likely to be sub|ect
and
recently,
rehabilitation
works
for
maintenance
of these
to damage by blown
salt
structures have been started
Even
the
prestressed
concrete
structures
conventionally
Two
cases
of
rehabilitation
for a prestressed
concrete road¬
said
to
be
«maintenance-free»
are
damaged
by
blown
salt
way bridge deteriorated by salt will be explained
hereafter
Case 1
Nadachi Bridge, Niigata
Owner:
Engineer & Contractor:
Work's duration:
Ministry of Construction
Kawada Construction
7 months
Date of repair:
1982 - 1983
The
Nadachi
bridge
is
T
shaped
prestressed
concrete
a
simple
girder
bridge,
completed
1962
The
in
bridge
is
70
m
long
consisting
of
three
22.7
m
and
has
span
a
zun
7
7m
road width.
i**msSMrMBx**-
According
to
inspection
test
carried
out
in
1982,
cracks
il
and Stripping were discovered
mainly along the longitud¬
inal
reinforcements
of
the
main
girder
lower flange.
7»3TÄ
Corrosion seepage from these cracks and Stripping were
noticed at
places.
These
many
are
the
typicai
charac¬
¦
I*
HBtUSAttt
teristics of damages on most concrete structures in the
area affected by blown salt
Fig.
1
Detonation of flange (Nadachi Bridge)
In planning the work, the rehabilitation
procedure was
reviewed based upon the following
two concepts:
a)
the procedure should
be
capable
of
preventing
further
permeation
of
salt
and
moisture
into
the
structure and of slowing down or restricting the rate
and
of progress of damages to a minimum,
b)
the procedure should be capable of rehabilitating the
deteriorated
girder sections which
have
fallen
off
or
cracked.
Based
on
the
above.
it
was
deeided
to coat anti-corro-
sive
paints
to
the
whole of this
bndge
to
with a),
cope
\
and
also
to
rehabilitate
the
deteriorated
member
sec¬
tions to their original design dimensions by adjusting the
surface evenness of girders
and
by
the
repairing
member sections with resin mortar or resin concrete to
cope with b)
In
the
actual
rehabilitation
procedure,
the
cracked con¬
Fig.
2
After repair (Nadachi Bridge)
crete portions, portions with corrosion seepage and
stripped portions (these areas have lost their strength
and were acting only as loads on defected girders) were
In applying anti-corrosive paints to these concrete struc¬
then
salt
debris
stuck
the
normal
surfaces
not treated with
removed,
and
to
the
surface of
tures
having
paint,
steel
members
and
concrete
removed
by sand-
there were many unknown
were
points,
and it was thought
to
blasting
In
addition,
modified
epoxy
resin
paint
was
be important to conduet a research on the suitable kinds
a
applied
to
the
surface
of
steel
reinforcements
and
of anti-corrosive
paints.
Thus, four kinds of paints
shown
then the concrete
that was
Table
cäbles,
lost was
restored
in
1
were
applied
to
the
rehabilitated
bridge.
Generally,
for
structure
into
which
salt
has
a
already
Epoxy resins were used for rehabilitating the concrete.
penetrated,
the
sahnity
will
vary depending
on
the loca¬
Porous concrete surfaces and uneven
portions
were
tion
of
the
portion
to
be
painted,
so
that
the
effect
of
corrected
by
epoxy
resin
mortar
mixed
with
sand;
to
painted material varies by the location. Thus the effect at
make a good
surface
for paints.
Epoxy
resin
prepacked
different places cannot be compared on the same basis.
concrete
method
was
adopted
for
continuous
or
large
Therefore,
concrete
slabs
painted
with
four
different
sections
that
had
fallen
off.
In
this
case
formwork was
kinds
of
paints
and
unpainted
concrete slabs were
attached
and
filled
with
dry
aggregate
and
then
epoxy
exposed
below this bridge (Fig.
and
1
2).
resin grout was
applied.
Effect
of
these
painted
materials
will
be
confirmed
by
Upon
completion
of
the
rehabilitation
of
sections
per¬
examining
the
atmospheric
exposure
test
samples
formed
as
stated
above,
an
anti-corrosive
paint
was
several
later.
years
applied to prevent corrosive materials from penetrating.
(Shoji Miyazaki)
IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 71 flake glass epoxy paint glass cloth reinforced non
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
71
flake
glass
epoxy paint
glass cloth
reinforced
non
solvent epoxy paint
No
paint
System
quantity (kg/m2)
stage of
work
No
paint System
quantity
(kg/m2)
stage of work
1
epoxy
pnmer
0
15
pnmer
0
1
15
epoxy
pnmer
pnmer
2
putty
40
epoxy
0
putty
2
epoxy
putty
0
40
putty
3
flake
glass
mixed
0
90
2nd
epoxy
3
F
R
P
Ist
2
00
2nd
4
flake glass
mixed
epoxy
0
90
3rd
4
F
R
P
2nd
1
00
3rd
5
urethane
0
J5
4th
b
urethane
0
15
4th
6
urethane
0.15
finish
6
urethane
0.15
finish
flake
glass
vinylester paint
soft
non
solvent
type
polybutadien paint
No
paint system
quantity (kg/m2)
stage of work
No
paint
System
quantity
(kg/m2)
stage of work
1
0
15
0
15
epoxy pnmer
pnmer
1
epoxy
pnmer
pnmer
flake
glass
filled
0
40
2
epoxy
putty
putty
2
0
40
putty
vinylester
resin
putty
3
polybutadien
0
80
2nd
flake
glass
filled
3
1
00
2nd
4
polybutadien
0
70
3rd
vinylester
resin
2nd
5
urethane
0
15
4th
flake
glass filled
4
1
00
3rd
vinylester resin
3rd
6
urethane
0
15
finish
5
urethane
0
15
4th
6
urethane
0
15
finish
Table
1
Paint list (Nadachi Bridge)
Case 2
Oyataroh Bridge, Miyazaki
Owner:
Ministry of Construction
Contractor:
Fuji P.S.
Concrete
Sho-Bond Construction
\
Work's duration:
1
year
Date of repair:
1985 - 1987
The Oyataroh bridge is a T shaped prestressed concrete
simple girder bridge, completed in 1975. The bridge is
116.9
m
long
consisting
of
four
and
has
10.0
span
a
m
road width.
The
inspection
carried
out
in
1985
revealed
damages
typicai
of
salt
deterioration
such
as
cracked
concrete
along the transverse
reinforcement at the
lower flange
of
main
girders,
concrete
Stripping
and
rust.
Further¬
Fig.
3
Crack at lower flange (Oyataroh Bridge)
more,
inspection
by breaking
the concrete
revealed that
cases
2
cäbles
broken
in
some
were
the
12
among
cäbles
that are
used
The
same
method
for
Nadachi
repair
was
applied
as
bridge
Cracked
or
stripped
concrete
areas
were
removed,
sandblasted,
resin
paint
applied
on
steel
and
concrete
restored
to
its
original
dimension
with
epoxy
resin
mortar
by
the
prepacked
concrete
method.
To
broken
reinforcement methods by adding
repair
cäbles,
external cäbles were studied. Considering the present
traffic and other conditions of this bridge, it was
deeided
that the present strength is sufficient and that further
reinforcement will not be needed.
The
anti-corrosive
paint
applied
is
as
follows:
the first
coat is epoxy
resin
pnmer;
second,
third and fourth
coat
is
polybutadien
resin
paint;
finish
coat
-?
is
Polyurethane
resin.
(Norio Morinaga)
Fig.
4
After repair (Oyataroh Bridge)
72 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 4. Rehabilitation of Wakamiya Railway Bridge (Japan) Owner:
72 IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
4.
Rehabilitation of Wakamiya Railway Bridge (Japan)
Owner:
Central Japan
Railway Company
measured
I968
in
measured
I970
in
Engineer:
Central Japan
Railway Company
XX?%\
/J
~^X
Railway
Technical
Research
Insti¬
To Tok/s
tute
t
Work's duration:
3 months
Service date:
March of 1972 for up-bound line
:
:
-q=_-£
The
article
describes
the
rehabilitation
of
a
railway con¬
crete
slab
girder
bridge
with
double
reinforcement
by
rigid concrete
frame.
:q=f£
|Sf
Introduction
X
Tokaido Shinkansen
line
is
representative
railway
line
a
in
Japan
where the trains are operated at a maximum
1
speed of 220 km/h.
Since the beginning of the service in
1964
than
billion
to shm-Osaka
more
2
passengers have been trans¬
ported on this
line.
Fig.
2
Crack distribution on the concrete surface of a
All along
the track,
many types of concrete bridges
have
girder of up-boundline
been constructed to overpass or underpass
roads
ete
Concrete slab girder bridges with double reinforcement,
2)
The
maximum
width
of
cracks
on
the
surface
of
the
which is profitable to decrease the depth of the girder,
concrete
to
0.2
mm
but
most
of
them
roads
etc.
grew
were
were
planned
to
cross
with
a
span
ranging
0.1
mm
wide
Cracks
opened
on
by
from
average
7
to
15
meters.
About
370
slab
girder
bridges
of
0.04
mm
under train
load
and
returned
by
0
01
mm
this type, were constructed. The stress and deflection of
3)
The
crack
distributions
on
the
concrete
surface
in
the
bridges
under the
action of train
load
are
larger than
June
1968
and
in
October
1970
are
shown
in
Fig
2
those
of
reinforced
concrete
of
other
types,
because
The
number
of
cracks
under
repeated
loading
both the depth and
the
rigidity of slab girders are smaller
increased in about two years.
than those of concrete
bridges of other types
4)
The
ratios
of
the
measured
stress
and
deflection
After
from
the
about 4 years
beginning of the service, a
under
test
train
loading
are
shown
in
Fig.
3
where
considerable
increase
in
deflection
of
the
bridges
was
the
deflection
ratio
the
value
of
the
deflection
is
at
measured
and
cracks
many
appeared
on
the
bottom
the
center
of
the
at
each
speed
of
test
train
span
to
surface
of
the
bridges.
After
checking
these
bridges
the value
of
the
deflection at the speed of
158 km/h
several
considerably
damaged
bridges
were
reinforced
The
maximum
increasing
ratio
amounts
to
.7,
while
1
by increasing
the rigidity.
the specified value is 1.43.
Situation prior to rehabilitation
Cause of damage and measures adopted
The Wakamiya bridge
(Fig.
1).
located
at
439
km
from
The
cause
of
damage
seems
that
the
frequency of the
Tokyo, was damaged as follows:
bridge Vibration under repeated train loading approached
1) The bridge deflected vertically from 3.5 mm to
the
natural
frequency
of
the
bridge
and
that the
4.7
mm
at
the
center
of
the
under a
of
induced
The
span
test
train
resonance
the
bridge
was
resonance
load.
The
ratios
of
deflection
to
seemed
have
increased
to
have
span
length
are
to
the
deflection
and
1:2,860
and
1:2,130
respectively.
These
ratios
are
caused
many cracks.
nearly equal to the specified
value
The
countermeasure
to
this
damage
is
to
avoid
the
resonance
of
the
bridge.
This
attained
is
by
setting
the
parameter
v/2fl
equal
to
less
than
Center of
track
1/3,
where
v:
train
up-bound hne
speed,
f:
natural
frequency
of
the
bridge
and
I:
span
unit
mm)
length.
As
the
natural
frequency increases according to
c
I
2
the
increase
of
the
cross
section
of
the
bridge,
it
is
li*
1
\n
*
1
n
possible
to
avoid
the
resonance.
In
the
case
of
inn
tw
LJ
*.i.
"11
Wakamiya bridge,
the slab girder was strengthened by a
concrete
rigid
frame.
The
general
view
of
reinforced
Wakamiya
bridge is shown
in
Fig.
4.
the
result
of
this
reinforcement,
the
deflection
was
?5P0
1800 As
5200
reduced
to
half
of
the
original
bridge.
On Tokaido
Shinkansen line, 8 girders of 4 bridges were improved by
Center of girder
the
same
rehabilitation method.
Fig.
1
Section of the girder of Wakamiya
Bridge
(Y.
Masuda,
Y. Miyamoto)
STRUCTURES IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 IABSE C-47/88 73 60 O 12 O O O IZ 0
STRUCTURES
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
IABSE
C-47/88
73
60
O 12
O
O
O
IZ
0
2
A A
tr
iL
(2
a.
&
3
0
O
(4
,50
X
x
6
no
Stress
t
Stress of
of
deflection
reinforcing
bor
:oncrete
e
i30
20
fi
li
3
I00
90
I60
I7D
I80
I90
200
I60
ITO
180
190
200
160
170
180
190
200
Train speed (km/h)
Fig.
3
Relationship between ratio of average measured value and train speed
(unit
mm)
J360
300
10700
300
1360
¦*
»tir*
i
W^/////////^/////////M
^&
\ inject ion
of
on
adhesive
agent
/
Y 450
/450
9300
"
/ /
IBFB
w?
IOCX
1920
2500
2500
.1920
POO
Fig.
4
Genera/ view of reinforced Wakamiya Bridge
74 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 5. TIG Are Remelting as a Repair Method
74 IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
5.
TIG Are Remelting as a Repair Method for Steel Railway Bridges (Japan)
Owner:
Central Japan Railway Co.
Even
if the fatigue
crack
is not formed
at these parts,
it
is
desirable to decrease the
possibility of initiation of crack
Engineer:
Central Japan Railway Co.
Railway Technical Research
by
increasing
the
fatigue
strength
of
filled
welded joint
The TIG are remelting
method shown in Fig
Institute
3 is adopted
for the above-mentioned
reasons.
Date of Construction:
1964
The TIG
are
remelting is a
method of melting
the
toe
of
Date of Repair:
1987
filled
welded
Joint
with
nonconsumable
tungsten
elec-
trodes.
In
order
to
repair
the
fatigue
crack
by
TIG
are
Introduction
remelting,
it
is
necessary to obtain
the
deep
fusion
and
to
smooth
the
toe
shape.
The
conditions
for
TIG
are
The fatigue cracks are occasionally found at the stress-
concentrated parts of main member of steel railway
remelting,
as
shown
in
Table
1,
were
set
based
up
on
the results
of preliminary tests.
bridges. The fatigue crack in web plate that developed at
the
toe
of
filled
welded
Joint
of
stiffener
end
is
one
of
these
kinds
of
cracks
and
Tungsten
Inert
Gas(TIG)
are
Fatigue strength improved by TIG Are remelting
remelting
was
adopted
as
one
of
the
effective
repair
methods.
Fatigue tests were performed to confirm the effect of
this treatment on improvement of fatigue strength. The
fatigue
strength
of
a
Joint
subjeet
to
TIG
are
remelting
Description of bridges and cracking
was
much
higher
than
that
of
an
as-welded
Joint
as
The
Tokaido
Shinkansen
Line,
515
km
long,
which
shown
in
Fig
4.
started
Operation
in
1964, has approximately
1500
steel
bridges.
Fatigue
cracks
have
been
detected
at
the
toe
of
fillet
welded
joints
of
stiffener
ends
in
the
web
plates
of
stringer
beams
of
truss
bridges
and
box
section
plate
girders
(see
Fig.
1).
The
first
fatigue
crack
was
found
in
1975.
The
rates
of
the
number of bridges
having
cracks
detected
to that
of
the
same
type
of
bridges
are seven
Crack
in
Box
Girder
percent
for
truss
bridges
and
five
percent
for
box
girders.
==£l^
All
were
the schematic of crack propagation was shown in Fig. 2.
these
cracks
initiated
at
the
stiffener end and
Crack
in
Stringer
Repair method
In the conventional repair work, the fatigue crack formed
at
the
stiffener
end
used
to
be
removed
by
are
air
gouging and re-welded, then additional steel plates were
attached in that part using high-strength bolts. However,
as this method was expensive, a more economical and
effective method was requested
Fig.
2
Schematic of Crack Propagation
Stringer
of
Box
section
Plate
Girder
Through
Truss
Bridge
Bridge
Fatigue
Crack
Fatigue
Crack
Fig.
1
Fatigue Crack at Stiffener End
IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 75 Electrode diaieter 3. 2.i Current 2 4 0
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
75
Electrode
diaieter
3.
2.i
Current
2
4
0
A
Fillet
Weld
TIG
Are
Regelung
\
Voltage
3~
1
4
V(
1
are
length
0-1")
Speed
5-6
4
0 s/100"
Aiung
Position
0
to
1"
fn»
the
toe
of
weld
Torch
angle
9
0"
Fig.3
TIG Are Remelting
Table
1
Condition of TIG Are Remelting
400
D
GA
-
As-welded
¦
GB
300
GC
TIC (Vertical
Position)
O
% GD
TIG (Fiat
Position)
foJ»
200
Repair work
Repair works for fatigue cracks at the stiffener end were
performed
to
approximately
300
box
girders
along
the
Tokaido Shinkansen
Line.
In
the
repair
work,
toes
of
fillet
welded
joints
were
100
inspected
first
with
the
magnetic
particle
testing.
If
no
crack
was
indicated
or
the
crack
size
was
indicated
as
less
than
10
mm,
TIG
are
remelting
was
simply
per¬
formed. When the crack
size was more than
10
mm, the
H
cracks
were
firstly
removed
by
are
air
and
gouging
re-
welded,
then
the
toes
of
the
re-welded
joints
were
sa
l
i
l
remelted
by
TIG
are.
If
the
crack
size
was
very
large,
10J
10
107 additional steel
plates were attached after
re-welding
Fig.
4
Results of Fatigue
Test
(Y. Masuda, K. Sakamoto)
76 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 6. Ohara Bridge Fatigue Crack Repair (Japan) Owner:
76
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
6.
Ohara Bridge
Fatigue Crack Repair (Japan)
Owner:
Toyama Prefecture
Stiffening
Engineer & Contractor:
Kawada Industries
girder
Work's duration:
6 months
Date of repair:
1984 -
1985
w
The
Ohara
Bridge
is
arch
with
the
a
two-hinged
bridge
bridge span of
106
5
m
and the
roadway width of
6.0
m,
0 Location
completed in
1963
(Fig.
1).
This
bridge
was
designed
of
crack
with the longitudinel support condition as being movable
Intermediate
at
both
ends and had a Single box construction with
arch
post
ribs
having
small
a very
depth.
After the elapse of
more
than
20
since
its
years
erection,
fatigue
cracks
occured
in
parts
of
the
members
of
this
bridge,
mainly
due
to
i
increased
traffic
volume
in
recent
and
years
frequent
passage
of
heavy
motor
vehicles
associated
with
dam
construction
work.
Therefore,
this
bridge
was
repaired
Arch
rib
M
rt
to reinforce the members against
loads.
The fatigue
cracks
occurred
at
the
connecting
gusset
plates
to
each
panel
of
intermediate
post,
which
connects the stiffening
girder to arch
rib
(Fig.
2,
3),
and
also
2
Location of crack
at
the
web
of
stiffening
girder
above
end
Fig.
post,
which
is
the
Joint
between
center
and
side
span
span
(Fig.
4,
5)
These cracks
were found
by Visual
inspection
during
patrol
in
1982.
According
to
the
results
of
liquid
penetrant
tests
conducted
immediately
after
finding
them,
the
maximum
length of the cracks
was 65
mm at the gusset
plate of intermediate post,
web of stiffening girder.
respectively
185
mm
at
the
Among
these
cracks,
a temporary
made
for
repair
was
the
cracks
in
the
web
of
stiffening
girder
immediately
after finding
them
in
order to
prevent a rapid
breakdown
as
explained
below.
That
is,
stop
holes
were
drilled
at
the
end
of
all
cracks
in
the
web.
Moreover, steel
brackets were
installed
on
all
end
posts
and were
used
as temporary supports for stiffening girders in side span
and center span.
Fig.
3
Crack at gusset
250
.10 500
B5
000
10
500
250
®
®
B5
300
n
<o
X
2
500
6©5000
Fig.
Bridge elevation and plan
-
30 000
B25C
52;
0
1
PERIODICA IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE 4/1988 77 2.500kg/on- Stiffening -T,qU,i '<Yt Main girder
PERIODICA
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
4/1988
77
2.500kg/on-
Stiffening
-T,qU,i
'<Yt
Main
girder
girder
' i.i
tfzm
Crack
Crack
Y:
SS
V JL
V&3&S&
J**rr.
ti!>:iu;i
;?;
Ss333»w*rl
End
post
Fig.
6
F.
E.
M.
analysis stress diagram
Fig.
4
Location of crack
2
SO
400
*
-*¦
abutment
'
<#
Hydraulic
I
damping
systejr
30
<*
Line
bearing
<*
Rubber
bearing
-
.%
Bracket
Fig.
7
Damper bearing
¦T*
*
übler
plate
Fig.
5
Crack at stiffening girder web
The
fatigue
cracks
the
gusset
plates
of intermediate
in
posts
were
mainly
caused
by excessive
stress concen¬
racket
tration
at
the
corner
section
This
stress
concentration
was caused by a relatively large longitudinal displace¬
ment between stiffening girder and arch rib, which was
End
post
created by the movabihty of both end supports
This was
Fig.
8
Doubler plate added to web
confirmed
from
displacement
obtained
in
a
loading
test
on the actual
bridge,
results
from stress
measurements,
be
the
main
cause
of
the
fatigue
cracks
This
was
also
and
the
results of 3-dimensional
finite
element
method
confirmed by the loading
test on the actual bndge
In
the
analysis
(Fig
6).
Therefore,
as
repairing
method,
new
repairing method adopted, it was first necessary to
damper
bearings
were
installed
on
the
top
of
both
abutments for reducing the relative longitudinal displace¬
reduce the out-of-plane displacement of web and thus
lateral bracings were added near the location of web As
ment
(Fig.
7).
This
damper
bearing
comprised a rubber
three
repairing measures against the cracks in web,
bearing,
return
and
spring
special
hydraulic
damping
schemes
were
reviewed
making
rigid
connections
or
System
The supporting
condition provides movability at
hinged
connections
at
the
|Oints,
or
cracked
repairing
both
support
bearings
for
static
movement
such
as
double
plates
In
consequence,
the
scheme
portion
by
temperature
effect
and
resists
only
to
vertical move¬
portion
by
double
of repairing the cracked
plates
was
ment
caused
by
live
load,
giving
elastic
restraint
toward
adopted
from
the
viewpoint
of
easier
work
and appear¬
longitudinal movements Moreover, improvement
ance
(Fig
8)
It was deeided
to
leave
the
steel
brackets,
schemes by making rigid joints or by providing
hinges
at
installed during
temporary repair,
as they were
the gusset plates of intermediate posts were reviewed,
Effect of
repair
was
checked
by
test
the
a
loading
on
but the former indicated an adverse influence upon arch
actual
bndge
As
the
relative
dis¬
a
result,
longitudinal
nb
and
the
latter
was
found
to
be
uneasy to
work
with
placement and
out-of-plane
displacement of the stiffen¬
In
addition,
the
compression
stress
was
found
to
be
girder
and
arch
rib
were
reduced
by
60
to
70%
ing
and the
relief of
residual
by the
outbreak
primary,
stress
compared
to
the values
measured
before
the
repair,
by
of
cracks was
found to be expectable,
so both improve¬
which
sufficient
effect of
it
was
possbile
to
confirm
a
ment schemes were not adopted
this
time.
this
repair
With
respect to the
fatigue cracks in the web of stiffen¬
Moreover,
a
liquid
penetrant
test
was
conducted
two
ing
girder
above
the
end
post,
the
stress concentration
later,
and
years
it
was
confirmed
from
the
results
that
by secondary bending
stress at
the
notches,
which
also
cracks were not progressisng
resulted from
out-of-plane
displacement,
was
found
to
(Sho/i Miyazaki)
78 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 7. Fujigawa Bridge Rehabilitation Project (Japan) Owner:
78 IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
7.
Fujigawa Bridge Rehabilitation
Project (Japan)
Owner:
Shizuoka Prefecture
bridge while the traffic was stopped
for
Short
a
period
A
Contractor:
walkway bridge alongside the bridge will be also
laterally
Substructure:
transferred in the process
Sumitomo Construction
Deck remplacement:
Superstructure:
Japan Bridge
Yokogawa Bridge Works
The superstructure
replacement procedure is as follows
(Fig
2)
Work's duration:
6 months
step
1.
Make foundation for erection work.
Assemble
bent
for
assembly
and
lateral
Date of repair:
1987 -
1988
transfer
Assemble
new
superstructure
along
side
of
The
Fujigawa
Bridge,
completed
in
1924,
over
the
Fuji
existing
bridge
River
on
Route
1
is
bridge
with
six-span
curved
chord
a
Concrete deck is finished
pratt
truss
having
a
bridge
length
of
300
1
m,
roadway
transferred
step 2.
Two
of
span
walkway
bridge
is
width
of
7.3
m
and
of
65
4
m
(Fig
1)
Route 1
span
is
the
upstream
to
make
room
and
replaced
by tem¬
most
important
road
in
Japan,
and
60
after com¬
years
porary walkway bridge
pletion
of
the
bridge,
the
daily
traffic
flow
was
21
000
step
3
Lateral transfer equipment are set in place
vehicles,
though
bypass
roads
had
been
completed
Two
of
and
old
span
new
superstructures
are
upstream and downstream of the bridge
lateral transferred separately upstream (Fig. 3).
After
of
many
years
use,
such problems as cracked
step
4
Disassemble existing
superstructure
concrete decks, corroded outer stringers, overstressed
Disassemble assembly bent
and deflected stringers,
and
scounng at the
piers due
to
step 5.
Lateral
transfer walkway
bridge to original Posi¬
the lowered
river
bed
of
the
Fuji
River
have
occurred
tion.
Also,
as
result
of
the
increased
traffic
a
flow,
traffic
Disassemble
lateral
transfer bent
congestion
caused
by
right
turnmg
cars
holding
the
The special conditions of work are as follows:
traffic had
become a big problem
1)
Since
there
was
no
bypass
road,
the
method
which
To solve these problems,
the substructure of the bridge
gave the least disturbance to traffic was adopted and
was reinforced, and the stringers and deck on four spans
the extent of traffic
stop was
kept to a minimum
to
the
left
bank
were
replaced.
Moreover,
two
2)
Since the
construction
site
to
was
located
in
the
Fuji
spans
the
right
bank
were
replaced
in
Order
to
install
River, which
is
one
of the three
major rapids in Japan,
a
right
füll safety measures were taken against floods
Work
turnmg lane by the method that was chosen to complete
the |ob with the least disturbance to traffic
for substructure and
superstructure were performed
during
the
dry
season
(November
to
May)
and
this
For widening on
the
two
the
spans
to
right
bank
side,
short allowable working time was a difficult condition
the
roadway could
not be widened
by just
adding strin¬
for the superstructure work
because
the
gers
original
bridge
was
a
through
truss
Because
deeided
Fortunately there were no ma|or
floods,
but füll counter
of
this,
it
was
to
replace
the
bridge
measures
against floods were
taken,
and
the work was
with
the
same
type
of
truss
(curved
chord
pratt
truss)
completed
safely
having wider floor beams. According to the replacement
procedure, a new bridge was erected along the existing
The
replacement
work
was
performed
by
stopping
the
bridge,
and
the deck
work,
pavement work and painting
heavy
traffic
through
Route
1
The
work
was
safely
work
were
carried
out
for
the
new
bridge.
Then,
the
completed
without
traffic
causing
congestions
by
bridge
was
laterally
transferred
in
place
of
the
original
means of PR activities
performed in advance.
66.1*0
55C
ssaisea
ATflKKR^^
®7fö>
®A©
tr+
©
©
©
©
©
©
Fig.
1 Elevation
IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 79 303 _JJLj3i '-Mal ¦»# flow -Q Hl^v £
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
79
303
_JJLj3i
'-Mal
¦»#
flow
-Q
Hl^v
£
MS
flow
F/p.
3
Lateral transfer
870
flow
flow
rv X
The replacement of the bridge after assembly,
deck and
pavement completed
required
the
handling
of
a
large
k*
weight
(830 tons/senes)
But
the
lateral
transfer
method
was
still
capable
of
the
moving
superstructure
with
the
least
period
of
traffic
stop
The
lateral
transfer
procedure
took
60
hours
but
considerable
3
a
time
was
taken
for
setting
and
anchorage
of
bearings
This
was
flow
due
to
the
time
required
for
opening
anchor
holes
and
7
bearing
mortar
to
harden
With
some
modification and
improvements,
it
be
possible
to
reduce
the
may
time
The lateral transfer itself
took
only a short
time
with
the
up-to-date equipment that was employed
f/ff.
2
Erection sequence
(Yoshio Matsuo)
80 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 8. Strengthening of Bridge Slab at Kami-Imasu Bridge
80 IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
8.
Strengthening of Bridge Slab at Kami-Imasu
Bridge (Japan)
Owner:
Japan
Highway
Public
Cor¬
poration
Engineer:
Japan
Highway
Public
Cor¬
poration
(Case-1)
Daete of Construction:
1964
Loaded
between
-Jox
Girder
tid
Added
Stringer
Date of Repair:
1976
Before
Repair
1 After
Repair
Introduction
The maintenance of floor slabs of steel bridges has been
a serious problem in Japan Highway Public Corporation
since the mid'60s. In 1974, the specifications for High¬
P*
7
tot
Bridges of Japan
Road Association were revised, so
way
that the thickness of slab should be increased by 4 to
5 cm The floor slabs which were constructed according
to the new specifications
have scarcely been
damaged
However,
the
damage
of
the
floor
slabs
of
the
bridges
constructed
before
1974 is still discovered and
requires
repair or strengthening
As
method of repair and streng¬
thening, addition of stringers and
steel
plating
have
often been adopted The Kami-Imasu Bridge is an exam¬
07l
ple where
stringers were added
(Case-2)
Loaded
on
Added
Stringer
(mm)
Repair Work
The Kami-Imasu Bridge is a two-span continuous steel
girder, which was designed based on the 1966 specifica¬
tions.
The
bridge
length
and
width
are
99
0
m
and
10
7
respectively.
The
slab
is
16
m.
cm
thick
and
covered
by
7
5
cm
thick asphalt concrete
pavement
After ten years of service, cracks in the slab increased
to
such
an
extent
that
it
had
to
be
repaired
and streng¬
thened.
Finally
it
was
deeided
to
install
stringers
in
between
the
original
main
box
girders
and
the
original
central
stringers
as shown
in
Fig
1.
The
reasons for the
adoption
of this
method are as follows
1)
The traffic volume was
so
large
that
it was
difficult to
(Case-})
HiL
Stringer
Stringer
Central
and
Added
conduet the
on
the
te
slab.
Loaded
Jietween
repair work
upper side of
(mm)
2)
It
was
expected
to
be
sufficiently
effective
on
decrease of the bending
moment of the slab
Fig.
2
Effect
of Repair
10,7 0
0
6
20
fi20
Aspha11
Pavement
t=75
Concrete
Slab
t
l60
Strengthening
Girder
L<
n
Cross
Beam
800
1,3
4
9
1.2
5
1.1
40
1
1.25
1
1.3
4
9
2.6
0
0
2.6
0
0
200 8U0
5,2
0
0
300
Fig.
1 Structure
IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 81 Original » Stringer J Added Str mger Added
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
81
Original
»
Stringer
J
Added
Str mger
Added
Stringer
'"Ä>
7
Main
Girder
Ak
i>
Ma in
Girde
Photo
1
General View of Strengthening
Effect of Repair
A loading test was conducted.
using a truck
with
a
7-ton
rear
wheel
load
in
order
to
measure the difference of
deflections before and after the strengthening The
result is shown
in
Fig.
2.
In
cases
where
the
wheel
was
located
between
the
main
box
girder and
the
added
stringer
(Case-1),
on
the
r
added
stringer
(Case-2)
and
between
the
original
stringer and the added
stringer
(Case-3).
the deflections
at
the
loading
points
after
repair
were
decreased
to
60%.
66%
and
78%.
respectively.
The
repair
work
is.
thus.
estimated as successful.
(Yasuo Inokuma)
Photo 2
Detail of Added Stringer
82 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 9. Rehabilitation of a Lenticular Steel Truss in
82 IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
9.
Rehabilitation of a Lenticular Steel Truss in New Jersey (USA)
Engineer:
A. G. Lichtenstein and Assoc.
J5'-7l/2
[4.762m.]
TO
NEXT
PI
Fair Lawn,
NJ
3 (76.2mmJ
PIN
AT
PANEL
POINT
Contractor:
E. Daskall Corp.,
Suttern,
NY
TO
REMAIN
(TYPICAL)
-l3'-7lV{476Zm J
Date of repair:
September 1983-April 1984
1/tTO (222mm)
BOLTS
TO
BE
TIGHTENED
TO
NEXT
PIN
AFTER
FÜLL
BEARING
IS
ACHIEVED
t
UPPER
PIN
Neshanic
Station
is
small
a
town
in
Somerset
County,
FÜLL
BEARING
New
Jersey.
In
this
Community
there
exists
Bridge
No.
CO
601
which
of
is
composed
two
44.20
spans
m
(145
feet)
each,
over
the
South
Branch
of
the
Raritan
River. The bridge accommodates one traffic
lane
in
two
directions and one sidewalk.
W8x2B
The bridge was constructed
NEW
in
1986
by the
Berlin
Bridge
IA586
STEEL)
RAINTED
Company
of
Berlin,
Connecticut
as
a
patented
System
THREE
COATS
and
still
retains
its
original
configuration
as
lenticular
a
2-6V3/4"
(132
4*
19.05 mm.)
parabolic
truss
supported
on
the
original
stone
abut¬
WEB
PLATES
ments
and
piers.
The
structure
has
been
judged a His¬
TOP
CHORD
torie
Bridge by American
Standards and the Community
of
preserve
rehabilitate the bridge in lieu of replacement.
Neshanic
Station
indicated
desire
and
a
to
Fig.
1
Section along top chord
The bottom chord is made up wrought iron
eye bars;
the
upper chord
is composed of steel
Channels
and
a
plate;
-l/4"(6.35mm
PLATE
TO
BE
the
verticals
and
diagonals
are
constructed
with
rolled
REMOVED
DURING
CONSTRUCTION;
steel sections.
The
original
steel
floor
THEN
REPLACED
beams,
king
posted, have remained in good condition.
Steel stringers
and
metal
deck
form
an
asphalt
steel
corrugated
the
V4"
(19
05 mm)
EXISTING
CHANNELS
floor system
for
the
bridge
and
have
been
replaced
WEB
PLATES
(CORRODED)
TO
REMAIN
many times during its ninety year life.
An indepth inspection of the bridge was conducted by
the Consulting Engineer including non destructive test¬
ing
of
the
eye
bars,
pins and other main connections of
EXISTING
PLATE
TO
BE
REMOVED
the bridge. All the elements of the trusses
have
been
-NEW
W8x28
-BETWEEN
PANEL
POINT-
found
to
be
in good
condition
except the top chord.
The
FULL
LENGTH
existing
Channels
in
the
upper
chord
have
completely
Fig.
2
Section through top chord
corroded
(holed
through
in
places)
so
that
the
many
bridge
could
barely
support
its
own
weight
The bridge
was closed to traffic.
tTRUSS
t
TRUSS
The assignment then was how to reconstruet the upper
chord economically without changing the historic
¦9-2
(5
842 m.)
appearance of the bridge. This challenge was met by the
interesting
idea
of
installing
new
high
strength
steel
UPPER
beams
between
the
existing
corroded
Channels in the
PN
top
chord
and
transferring
the
stresses
from these
Channels
to
the
new beams via
specially designed
web
plates
and
bolts.
A
new
steel
beam
hoisted
in
this
between the
Channels
and
space
was
kept in place
by bolting
to
the
top
cover
plate
of
the
upper chord. The contractor
6-0
then
installed
the
web
plates
which
were
detailed
to
(I
828m]
have
perfect
half
round
contact
surface
a
on
one
side,
SIDEWALK
After
these
abutting the existing
pin.
web
plates
were
bolted
to
the
new
beam
on
both
sides,
the
contractor
jacked
these web plates in a horizontal direction
so
that
LOWER
contact between web plates and the pins was as tight as
SZJ
PIN
55
possible.
In
this
chord
created,
way,
a
new
upper
was
hidden within
the confines of the old deteriorated
upper
chord
without
changing
the
distinctive
appearance
of
STEEL
FLOOR
BEAM
the parabolic
Lenticular Truss.
KING
POST-ORIGINAL
TIE
RODS
ORIGINAL -
TO
REMAIN
ADJUSTED
The other areas of the bridge needing rehabilitation were
the
corrugated
metal
deck
which
was
completely
Fig.
3
Typicai bridge cross section
IABSE PERIODICA IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 83 4 1988 l S iiiJi itiSIftllii ~*mmmmr ^*J*8,£I« *«*¦
IABSE
PERIODICA
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
83
4
1988
l
S
iiiJi
itiSIftllii
~*mmmmr
^*J*8,£I«
*«*¦
Fig.
4
General elevation
replaced;
the
sidewalk
timber
plankmg
was
replaced
>
where necessary and hand railmg repaired,
tensioningof
the
tie
rods
in
the
King
Posts
of
the
floor
beams;
and
reinforcing
the
tower
legs
at
the
piers
and
abutments.
The entire bridge was
sandblasted and painted with
two
coats of paint
Fig
1
and 2 describe the
Repair details of
the
and
the
Posted Floor
upper
chord,
Fig
3
King
Beams
The construction cost was $ 325000, and the bndge has
been carrying Hl 5 AASHTO type traffic satisfactonly,
including Fire Apparatus and Ambulances The Federal
Highway Administration (USA) has recognized the Con¬
sulting Engineer with an Honorable Mention Award for
designing
the
restauration
of
this
specialized
historic
structure,
so highly valued
by the
Community
Fig.
5
View
of upper
chord
with
new
member
in
(A. G. Lichtenstein)
place
84 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE PERIODICA 4 1988 10. Repair and Rehabilitation of Roma-Viterbo Railway
84 IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
PERIODICA
4
1988
10.
Repair and Rehabilitation of Roma-Viterbo Railway Bridges (Italy)
Owner:
A. CO.
TRA. L
Azienda
Consortile
Trasporti Laziali
Measures for improvement of the static behaviour and
of the contrast decay phenomena have been adopted for
Design:
Prof.
Ing.
Giorgio Croci
the restore of safety conditions and for the complete
functional recovery of the viaducts
Contractor:
NICIS S.P.A.
-Roma
The
structural
consolidation
mterventions
consist in the
realization
of
reinforced
concrete
structure
adherent
a
after
the
on
the
internal
existing
masonry.
removing
Roma - Viterbo
(Italy)
has
been
realized
The railway line
filling
(see
fig
2)
between
1906
and
1913.
The
has a thickness
slab on
the
extrados of the arcades
The
execution
had
of
1
00
original
a
narrow
gauge
variable
between
15
and
the
internal
walls
25 cm;
are
meter.
15
cm
thick
and
follow
the
internal
configuration
of
Later works for a complete structural remaking were
existing
structures
executed,
they
involved
modifications
of
the
lay
out.
In
correspondence
with
the
bridge.
been
piers
have
adoption
of
the
normal
and
the
of
gauge
suppression
realized
with
2
transversal
stiffening
walls
to
resist
to
with a radius of curvation
lower than
those parts in curve
120 meters These variations have modified the loads
centrifugal actions
The above-mentioned structures have been jointed with
and their manners of application, provoking several dam¬
the
masonry
by
means
of
of
existing
injections
rein¬
pointed out during the ordinary
ages
in
the
structures,
forced concrete both on
the
walls and on
the
vaults
maintenance;
the
cracking
observed
on
both,
on
the
hanging
and
on
the
arcades.
suggested.
in
the
sixties.
of
chains
with
still
visible
relative
Relating with the requirement of non-interruptions of
railway traffic. a different Intervention of consolidation,
the
Insertion
cross
which
Insertion
of
anchor shapes
foresees
the
a
prestress
cäbles
arranged
according
with
the
schemes
in
Phenomena
of
ruins
and
decay
of
materials
have
System,
fig.
4,
5,
has
been
studied
necessitad the consolidation of the viaducts
The
manifestations are located in corres¬
main
cracking
The cäbles included in the vertical walls with an appropn¬
ate inclination supply a bending moment which compen-
pondence of the connection zone between the external
sates the moment due to centrifugal actions
and
the
arcades
involving
the
hanging
almost longitudi¬
tend to
nal development of viaducts
These
Crackings
are
located
almost
The horizontal cäbles arranged along the arcades
equilibrate the radial translation
exclusively
on
the
external
side
of
the
curves
because
of
centrifugal
actions
(see
fig
1)
The anchor zones. realized with reinforced concrete
curbs supply moreover an effective longitudinal connec¬
tion
The
decay
of
masonry
structures
shows
an
erosion
of
tuff
ashlars
and
deterioration
of
mechanical
charac¬
improvement of
a
Relating to the phenomena of decay for
surfaces
teristics
of
the
mortar
that
near
external
is
completely lackmg
the physical-mechanical characteristics of masonry it is
forecast to iniect cement mixture along the cracking
development
and
of
in
correspondence
visible
lackmg
The
above-mentioned
decay
conditions
are
due
to
between
stones after a complete
removal of
mortar
effects
of
atmosphenc
agents
and.
in
some
cases,
to
(G.
Croci)
the defective drainage system
Fig.
1
Global view of the viaduct
STRUCTURES PERIODICA IABSE C-47/88 85 IABSE 4/1988 """*» <l ¦ Fig. 2 A view of
STRUCTURES
PERIODICA
IABSE
C-47/88
85
IABSE
4/1988
"""*»
<l
¦
Fig.
2
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Fig.3
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86 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 11. Repair of the Todsburg bridge (Fed. Rep.
86 IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
11.
Repair of the Todsburg bridge (Fed. Rep. of Germany)
Owner:
Federal
Republic
of Ger¬
Description of the work
many
The
concrete
on
the
old
arched
bridges
had
suffered
Year of construction:
1936137
extensive
damage
over
the
years.
particularly from
Repairs carried out in:
1983
deicing
salt
This
damage
resulted
-
as
is
usually
the
failure
the
Under the supervision of:
Heidenheim
from
of
conventional
Motorway
case
-
bridge
water¬
with
Authority
proofing System, which was unable
to
cope
the
severe stress caused by traffic.
temperature fluctuations
Contractors:
Weidle
and
Ludwig
and
structural
movements
over the
years.
Fischer
fore deeided
that,
in addition to the normal
It was there¬
repair work, a
new type of spray-on liquid Polyurethane would be
applied to form a waterproof membrane
Introduction
The principal
advantages
of
this
new
System
are
as
The
Todsburg
bridge
(Fig
1)
is
located
on
the
A8
follows:
Autobahn
between
Stuttgart
and
Munich - one
of
the
-
Seamless.
homogeneous
waterproofing
produced
in
busiest
sections
of
motorway
in
Germany.
It
Stands
one
pass
between
Stuttgart
and
Ulm
at
a
point
where
the
road
-
High
elasticity
and
elongation
at
break
even
at
low
climbs up into the Swabian Alb For structural reasons.
the two roadway sections are completely separate from
temperatures
- The waterproof
membrane
is
bonded
over
the
entire
each
other.
Some
30
000
vehicles
pass
over
the
bridge
surface
of
the
Substrate,
thus
preventing
any
mois¬
in each direction every day.
By
the
beginning
of
the
ture Infiltration
1980's the concrete structure was in urgent need of
- Excellent crack-bndging
effect
repair -
this
Stretch
of
motorway
now
being
over
50
- High
water vapour
permeability prevents any build-up
years
old.
of moisture beneath the
membrane
«»1
4 I
I Wm
L ¦.-,,,.
-<
v
Fig.
1
The
Todsburg bridge
IABSE PERIODICA 4/1988 IABSE STRUCTURES C-47/88 87 The repair work involved the following steps £
IABSE
PERIODICA
4/1988
IABSE
STRUCTURES
C-47/88
87
The repair work involved the following
steps
£
*
Removal
of
the
frost-resistant
1
masonry
and defec¬
tive concrete from the bridge
parapets
2
Tearing up the old bituminous
layers of the
roadway
and the defective waterproof seal
3.
Drilling away the defective concrete on the roadway
platform
4
Where
necessary
damaged
reinforce¬
uncovermg
ment.
and
removing
rust
applying
corrosion
protection
Fig.
4
The
bridge
complete
with
its
new
parapet
before surfacing with bituminous mastic con¬
crete
Cleaning the area with high-pressure water jets
Applying epoxy mortar to the roadway platform to
level those areas where concrete had been chipped
away
Applying a bondmg agents (1-component PU) and
covering with silica sand 0.7-1
2
mm
Spraying on the liquid plastic waterproof membrane
Fig.
2
The finished waterproofing membrane
to a thickness of approx
3
mm
(Fig
2)
Applying
a
bondmg
agent
to
the
plastic
membrane
and
covering
it
with
granules
to improve
the
shear
bond
between the membrane and the asphalt layers
(the
bridge
has
gradient
of
6%
a
approx
along
its
length,
and 3-5%
from
side
to
side)
10
Reconstruction
of
the
new
parapet
on
top
of
the
m
waterproof membrane (Fig. 3)
11
Applying the bituminous mastic concrete
protective
layer.
the
bituminous
mastic
concrete
load-bearing
layer and the wearing
layer (Fig. 4).
The
bridge
has
now
been
fully open
to
traffic
for
over 5
carried out
As
years
since this
repair work was
in
many
X
other structures, the new waterproofing
membrane has
proved
to
be
an
outstanding
success
So
much
so
that.
&
*-
in
1987,
this
liquid
plastic
waterproofing
System
received
the
approval
of
the
Federal
Minister for Trans¬
port as a new Standard method of construction in the
Federal
Republic of Germany (ZTV-BEL-B 3/87)
Fig.
3
Working on
reinforcements for the construc¬
tion of the new parapet
(R. Hoscheid)
REPAIR AND REHAB LITATION OF BRIDGES ¦i F- (ijurp (: w Crayssinet FREYSSINET INTERNATIONAL (STUP)
REPAIR AND REHAB LITATION
OF
BRIDGES
¦i
F-
(ijurp
(:
w
Crayssinet
FREYSSINET INTERNATIONAL (STUP)
52/54
RUE
DE
LA
BELLE
FEUILLE
92100
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(FRANCE)
-
TEL
(33-1)
46
84
39
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-
FAX
(33-1)
46
84
39
90
:
:
TELEX
FRESI
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633683 F
:
SKA-Anlage-Service .,|p plus mm M 0 b b I i k e r c Mit
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0
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SCHWEIZERISCHE
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SKA
X XX*'Y m i RESTON Load Measunns Beannss « KfiÄlilf .y. I m « fc*
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RESTON Load Measunns Beannss
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measured with
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bearings
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Riesbachstrasse
57
CH-8034 Zürich
PROCEQ SA
817118
ch
Switzerland
Telefax 01/47 9914
Phone 01/47 78 00
Telex
pre
M;-!r\
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send
more information
D
RESTON
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Lompany
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LASTO-STRIP
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TENSA
City
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