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KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA Ministry Of High Education Umm Al-Qura University College of Engineering &

KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

Ministry Of High Education

Umm Al-Qura University

College of Engineering & Islamic Architecture

Department Of Electrical Engineering

Power System Analysis

The Impedance Model And Network Calculations

System Analysis The Impedance Model And Network Calculations Dr : Houssem Rafik El- Hana BOUCHEKARA 2011/2012

Dr : Houssem Rafik El- Hana BOUCHEKARA

2011/2012

1432/1433

1

THE IMPEDANCE MODEL AND NETWORK CALCULATIONS

3

1.1 THE BUS ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRICES

3

1.2 THEVENIN'S THEOREM AND

6

1.3 MODIFICATION OF AN EXISTING

12

1.4 DIRECT DETERMINATION OF

19

1.5 CALCULATION OF

ELEMENTS FROM

23

1

THE IMPEDANCE MODEL AND NETWORK CALCULATIONS

The bus admittance matrix o f a large-scale interconnected power system is typically very sparse with mainly zero elements. In previous chapter we saw how is constructed branch by branch from primitive admittances. It is conceptually simple to invert to find the bus impedance matrix but such direct inversion is rarely employed when the systems to be analyzed are large scale. In practice, is rarely explicitly required, and so the triangular factors of are used to generated elements of only as they are needed since this is often the most computationally efficient method. By setting computational considerations aside, however, and regarding as being already constructed and explicitly available, the rower system analyst can derive a great deal of in sight. This is the approach taken in this chapter.

The bus impedance matrix can be directly constructed element by element using simple algorithms to incorporate one element at a time in to the system representation. The work entailed in constructing is much greater than that required to construct but the information content of the bus impedance matrix is far greater than that of We shall see, for example, that each diagonal element of reflects important characteristics of the entire system in the form of the Thevenin impedance at the corresponding bus. Unlike the bus impedance matrix of an interconnected system is never. sparse and contains zeros only when the system is regarded as being subdivided into independent parts by open

, for instance, such open circuits arise in the zero-sequence network of

circuits. In Chap.12 the system.
circuits. In
Chap.12
the system.

The bus admittance matrix is widely used for power-flow analysis. On the other hand, the bus impedance matrix is equally well favored for power system fault analysis. Accordingly, both and have important roles in the analysis of the power system network. In this chapter we study how to construct directly and how to explore some of the conceptual insights which it offers into the characteristics of the power transmission network.

1.1 THE BUS ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRICES

In

Example 7.6

we inverted the bus admittance matrix

the bus impedance matrix

. By definition

and called the resultant

(1)

and for a network of three independent nodes the standard form is

(2)

be

symmetrical. The bus admittance matrix need not be determined in order to obtain and

in another section of this chapter we see how

Since

is

symmetrical

around

the

principal

diagonal,

must

also

may be formulated directly.

The impedance elements of on the principal diagonal are called driving-point impedances of the buses, and the off-diagonal elements are called the transfer impedances of the buses. The bus impedance matrix is important and very useful in making fault calculations, as we shall see later. In order to understand the physical significance of the various impedances in the matrix, we compare them with the bus admittances. We can easily do so by looking at the equations at a particular bus. For instance, starting with the node equations expressed as

 

(3)

we have at bus

of the three independent nodes

 

(4)

If

and voltage

bus

is

and

are reduced to zero by shorting buses

and

is applied at bus

so that current

enters at bus

to the reference node,

, the self-admittance at

(5)

(5)

Thus, the self-admittance of a particular bus could be measured by shorting all other buses to the reference node and then finding the ratio of the current injected at the bus to the voltage applied at that bus. Figure 1 illustrates the method for a three-bus reactive network. The result is obviously equivalent to adding all the admittances directly connected to the bus, which is the procedure up to now when mutually coupled branches are absent.

Figure 1 also serves to illustrate the off-diagonal admittance terms of At bus the

equation obtained by expanding equation (3) is

(6)

from which we see that

(7)

Thus, the mutual admittance term is measured by shorting all buses except bus

to the reference node and by applying a voltage at bus , as shown in Figure 1. Then,

is the ratio of the negative of the current leaving the network in the short circuit at node

to the voltage . The negative of the current leaving the network at node is used

since is defined as the current entering the network. The resultant admittance is the

negative of the admittance directly connected between buses and , as we would

expect since mutually coupled branches are absent.

Figure 1: Circuit for measuring . and . We have made this detailed examination of

Figure 1: Circuit for measuring

.

and

.

We have made this detailed examination of the bus admittances in order to differentiate them clearly from the impedances of the bus impedance matrix. Conceptually, we solve equation (3)by premultiplying both sides of the equation by to yield

(8)

(8)

and we must remember when dealing with

that

and

are column vectors of

the bus voltages and the currents entering the buses from current sources, respectively. Expanding equation (8) for a network of three independent nodes yields

(9)

(10)

(11)

From equation (10) we see that the driving-point impedance

is determined by

open-circuiting the current sources at buses

at bus

. Then,

and

and by injecting the source current

(12)

(12)

at bus . Then, and and by injecting the source current (12) Figure 2: Circuit for

Figure 2: Circuit for measuring

and

.

Figure 2 shows the circuit described. Since is defined by opening the current sources connected to the other buses whereas is found with the other buses shorted, we must not expect any reciprocal relation between these two quantities. The circuit of Figure 2 also enables us to measure some transfer impedances, for we see from equation (9) that with current sources and open-circuited

(13)

and from equation(11)

(14)

by injecting current at

with the sources open at all buses except

bus . We note that a mutual admittance is measured with all but one bus short-circuited

bus

Thus, we can measure the transfer impedances

and by finding the ratios of

and

to

and

and that a transfer impedance is measured with all sources open-circuited except one.

Equation (9) tells us that if we inject current into bus with current sources at

. Under the same

buses and open, the only impedance through which

conditions, equations (10) and (11) show that

expressed by

flows is

is causing voltages at buses

and

(15)

(15)

It is important to realize the implications of the preceding discussion, for sometimes used in power-flow studies and is extremely valuable in fault calculations.

1.2 THEVENIN'S THEOREM AND

is

The bus impedance matrix provides important information regarding the power system network, which we can use to advantage in network calculations. In this section we examine the relationship between the elements of and the Thevenin impedance presented by the network at each of its buses. To establish notation, let us denote the bus voltages corresponding to the initial values of the bus currents I by . The voltages to are the effective open-circuit voltages, which can be measured by voltmeter between the buses of the network and the reference node. When the bus currents are changed from their initial values to new values , the new bus voltages are given by the superposition equation

(16)

(16)

represents the changes in the bus voltages from their original values. (a)

shows a large-scale system in schematic form with a representative bus extracted along

with the reference node of the system. Initially, we consider the circuit not to be energized

where

so that the bus currents and voltages are zero. Then, into bus a current of amp

(or

in per unit) is injected in to the system from a current source

connected to the reference node. The resulting voltage changes at the buses of

per unit for

The resulting voltage changes at the buses of per unit for Figure 3: Original network with
The resulting voltage changes at the buses of per unit for Figure 3: Original network with

Figure 3:

Original network with bus and reference node extracted. Voltage

at bus is caused by

current

entering the network.

Thevenin equivalent circuit at node ·

the network, indicated by the incremental quantities

to

, are given by

(17)

(17)

with the only nonzero entry in the current vector equal to column multiplication in equation (17) yields the incremental bus voltages

in row

. Row-by-

(18)

which are numerically equal to the entries in column of multiplied by the current . Adding these voltage changes to the original voltages at the buses according to

equation(16) yields at bus

(19)

(19)

The circuit corresponding to this equation is shown in Figure 3 (b) from which it is

evident that the Thevenin impedance

at a representative bus of the system is given by

(20)

(20)

With set equal to 2,

this is essentially the same result obtained in equation(12) for the driving-point impedance

at bus of Figure 2.

where

is the diagonal entry in row

and column

of

In a similar manner, we can determine the Thevenin impedance between any two

buses and of the network. As shown in Fig. 8.4(a), the otherwise dead network is

energized by the current injections .at bus and at bus . Denoting the changes in

the bus voltages resulting from the combination of these two current injections by we obtain

to

(21)

in which the right-hand vector is numerically equal to the product of and column added to the product of and column of the system . Adding these voltage

changes to the original bus voltages according to equation (16), we obtain at buses and

(22)

(23)

Adding and subtracting (23), give

,

in equation (22), and likewise,

,

in equation

(24)

(25)

Since is symmetrical, equals and the circuit corresponding to these two equations is shown in Fig. 8.4(b), which represents the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the

system between buses and . Inspection of Fig. 8.4(b) shows that the open-circuit

voltage from bus to bus is

, and the

the open-circuit voltage from bus to bus ⓙ is , and the Figure 4: Original network
the open-circuit voltage from bus to bus ⓙ is , and the Figure 4: Original network

Figure 4: Original network with

current source

circuit:

short-circuit connection;

at bus and impedance

at bus

;

Thevenin equivalent

between buses and

.

impedance encountered by the short-circuit current

Figure 4

is evidently the Thevenin impedance.

from bus

to

bus

in

(26)

(26)

in equations (24)

and (25) and by setting the difference

zero. As far as external connections to buses and are concerned, Figure 4

represents the effect of the original system. From bus to the reference node we can trace

between the resultant equations equal to

This result is readily confirmed by substituting

the Thevenin impedance

and the open-circuit voltage

; from bus

to the reference node we have the Thevenin impedance

and

the open-circuit voltage

equation(26) and the open-circuit voltage

; and between buses

and the Thevenin impedance of

is evident. Finally, when the branch

impedance

is connected between buses and

of Figure 4

, the resulting current

is given by

(27)
(27)
(27)
(27)
(27)
(27)

(27)

(27)

We use this equation in Sec. 8.3 to show how to modify impedance is added between two buses o f the network.

Example 1

when a branch

A capacitor having a reactance of 5.0 per unit is connected between the reference

The original emfs and the

corresponding external current injections at buses and are the same as in those

node

Examples 7.5

7.6.
7.6.

and bus

of the circuit of

and

examples. Find the current drawn by the capacitor.

Solution

The Thevenin equivalent circuit at bus has an emf with respect to reference given

by

per unit, which is the voltage at bus found in

Example
Example
7.6 Example 7.6
7.6
Example 7.6

before the capacitor is connected. The Thevenin impedance

to be

is calculated in

per unit, and so Figure 5 follows. Therefore, the

at bus

current leap drawn by the capacitor is

Example 2

If an additional current equal to

per unit is injected into the

network at bus of

Example 7.6

, find the resulting voltages at buses

and .

Solution

The voltage changes at the buses due to the additional injected current can be

The required

. The voltage changes due to the added current injection

calculated by making use of the bus impedance matrix found in

impedances are in column 4 of

at bus in per unit are

Example 7.6.

Figure 5: Circuit for Examples 8.1 and 8.2 showing: Thevenin equivalent circuit; ④ . phasor

Figure 5: Circuit for Examples 8.1 and 8.2 showing:

Thevenin equivalent circuit; .

phasor diagram at bus

By superposition the resulting voltages are determined from equation (16) by adding

The new bus volt ages in

these changes to the original bus voltages found in per unit are

Example 7.6.

Since the changes in voltages due to the injected current are all at the same angle shown in Figure 5 and this angle differs little from the angles of the original voltages, an approximation will often give satisfactory answers. The change in voltage magnitude at a .bus may be approximated by the product of the magnitude of the per-unit current and the magnitude of the appropriate driving-point or transfer impedance. These values added to the original voltage magnitudes approximate the magnitudes of the new voltages very closely. This approximation is valid here because the network is purely reactive, but it also provides a good estimate where reactance is considerably larger than resistance, as is usual

in transmission systems. The last two examples illustrate the importance of the bus impedance matrix and incidentally show how adding a capacitor at a bus causes a rise in bus voltages. The assumption that the angles of voltage and current sources remain constant after connecting capacitors at a bus is not entirely valid if we are considering operation of a power system. We shall consider such system operation in Chap. 9 using a computer power- flow program.

1.3 MODIFICATION OF AN EXISTING

In Sec. 1.2 we see how to use the Thevenin equivalent circuit and the existing to solve for new bus voltages in the network following a branch addition without having to develop the new Since is such an important tool in power system analysis we now examine how an existing may be modified to add new buses or to connect new lines to established buses. Of course, we could create a new and invert it, but direct methods of modifying are available and very much simpler than a matrix inversion even for a small number of buses. Also, when we know how to modify we can see how to build it directly. We recognize several types of modifications in which a branch having impedance is added to a network with known The original bus impedance matrix is identified as , an N N matrix.

In the notation to be used in our analysis existing buses will be identified by numbers

or the letters

network to convert

will

the original voltage will be

denoted by the new voltage after modifying

denote the voltage change at that bus. Four cases are considered in this section.

and . The letter or will designate a new bus· to be added to the

to an (N + 1) X (N + 1) matrix. At bus

will be

, and

CASE 1. Adding

from a new bus to the reference node.

The addition of the new bus connected to the reference node through without

a connection to any of the buses of the original network cannot alter the original bus voltages when a current is injected at the new bus. The

bus voltages when a current is injected at the new bus. The Figure 6: Addition of

Figure 6: Addition of new bus connected through impedance

Voltage

at the new bus is equal to

then,

to existing bus .

(28)
(28)

We note that the column vector of currents multiplied by the new

will not alter

the voltages of the original network and will result in the correct voltage at the new bus .

CASE 2. Adding

from a new bus to an existing bus

The addition of a new bus connected through

to an existing bus

injected at bus will cause the current entering the original network at bus

with

to become

the sum of

. injected at bus

plus the current

coming through

, as shown in Figure

6.

The current

by the voltage

flowing into the network; at bus

just like in equation(19); that is,

will increase the original voltage

   

(29)

and

will be larger than then new

by the voltage

. So,

   

(30)

and substituting for

, we obtain

(31)

(31)

We now see that the new row which must be added to

In order to find

is

Since must be a square matrix around the principal diagonal, we must add a new column which is the transpose of the new row. The new column accounts for the increase of all bus voltages due to , as shown in equation(17). The matrix equation is

(32)
(32)

Note that the first

elements of the new row are the elements of row

of

and the first

elements of the new column are the elements of column

of

CASE 3. Adding

from existing bus

to the reference node

To see how to alter by connecting an impedance from an existing bus to

the reference node, we add a new bus connected through to bus . Then, we short-

circuit bus to the reference node by letting equal zero to yield the same matrix equation as equation (32) except that is zero. So, for the modification we proceed to

create a new row and new column exactly the same as in Case 2, but we then eliminate the

column by Kron reduction, which is possible because of the zero in

the column matrix of voltages. We use the method developed in equation(7.50) to find each

element in the new matrix, where

row and

(33)
(33)
(33)
(33)
(33)
(33)

(33)

(33)

CASE 4. Adding

between two existing buses and

(8.33) To add a branch impedance between buses and already established

in , we examine Figure 7, which shows these buses extracted, from the original

network. The current flowing from bus to bus is similar to that of Figure 4. Hence,

from equation (21) the change in voltage at each

4. Hence, from equation (21) the change in voltage at each Figure 7: Addition of impedance

Figure 7: Addition of impedance

between existing buses and .

bus caused by the injection

at bus and

at bus

is given by

(34)

(34)

which means that the vector of bus voltage changes is found by subtracting column from column of and by multiplying the result by . Based on the definition of voltage change, we now write some equations for the bus voltages as follows:

(35)

(35)

And using equation (34) gives

bus voltages as follows: (35) And using equation (34) gives (36) Similarly, at buses ⓙ and

(36)

Similarly, at buses and

using equation (34) gives (36) Similarly, at buses ⓙ and (37) (38) we need one more

(37)

equation (34) gives (36) Similarly, at buses ⓙ and (37) (38) we need one more equation

(38)

we need one more equation since which can be rearranged in to the form

is unknown. This is supplied by equation (27),

(39)

(39)

From equation (37) we note that

equals the product of row

of

and the

column of bus currents ; likewise, of equation (38) equals row, of

multiplied by

1. Upon substituting the expressions for and in equation (39), we obtain

(40)

(40)

By examining the coefficients of equations (36) through (38) and eq.(40), we can write the matrix equation

(41)
(41)

in which the coefficient of

in the last row is denoted by

(42)

(42)

row.

The new row is the transpose of the new column. Eliminating the row and column of the square matrix of equation(41) in the same manner as previously, we see that each element in the new matrix is

The new column is column

minus column

of

with

in the

(43)
(43)
(43)
(43)
(43)
(43)

(43)

(43)

We need not consider the case of introducing two new buses connected by because we could always connect one of these new buses through an impedance to an existing bus or to the reference bus before adding the second new bus.

single branch of impedance between two nodes can be

removed from the network by adding the negative of between the same terminating nodes. The reason is of course, that the parallel combination of the existing branch ( ) and the added branch amounts to an effective, open circuit.

Removing a branch.

Table 1 summarizes the procedures of Cases 1 to 4.

TABLE.1 Modification of existing

Example 3 to account for the connection of a capacitor having a reactance of 5.0

Example 3

to account for the connection of a

capacitor having a reactance of 5.0 per unit between bus and the reference node of the

Modify the bus impedance matrix of

Example 7.6

circuit of Fig.7.9. Then, find using the impedances of the new matrix and the current
circuit of
Fig.7.9.
Then, find
using the impedances of the new matrix and the current
sources of
Example 7.6
. Compare this value of
with that found in Example 2.

Solution.

We use equation (32) and recognize that

is the

that subscript

, and that

per unit to find

matrix of Example 7.6,

subscript , and that per unit to find matrix of Example 7.6, The terms in the

The terms in the fifth row and column were obtained by repeating the fourth row

and column of

and noting that

Then, eliminating the fifth row and column, we obtain for

(33)

and other elements in a similar manner to give

from equation

is multiplied to obtain the new

bus voltages is the same as in Example 7.6. Since both and are zero while and are

nonzero, we obtain

The column matrix of currents by which the new

as found in Example 2.

It is of interest to note that

may be calculated directly from equation (27) by

setting node equal to the reference node. We then obtain for

and

since

is already calculated in Example 1.

1.4

DIRECT DETERMINATION OF

We could determine by first finding and then inverting it, but this is not convenient for large-scale systems as we have seen. Fortunately, formulation of using a direct building algorithm is a straightforward process on the computer.

At the outset we have a list of the branch impedances showing the buses to which they are connected. We start by writing the equation for one bus connected through a branch impedance to the reference as

(44)

(44)

and this can be considered as an equation involving three matrices, each of which has one row and one column. Now we might add a new bus connected to the first bus or to the reference node. For instance, if the second bus is connected to the reference node through we have the matrix equation

(45)

(45)

and we proceed to modify the evolving matrix by adding other buses and branches following the procedures described in Sec.8.3. The combination of these procedures constitutes the building algorithm. Usually, the buses of a network must be renumbered internally by the computer algorithm to agree with the order in which they are to be added to as it is built up.

Example 4

Determine

for the network shown in Figure 8, where the impedances labeled 1

through 6 are shown in per unit. Preserve all buses.

Solution .

The branches are added in the order of their labels and numbered subscripts on

will indicate intermediate steps of the solution. We start by establishing bus with its

impedance to the reference nod e and write

bus with its impedance to the reference nod e and write We then have the To

We then have the

To establish bus

bus impedance matrix

write We then have the To establish bus bus impedance matrix with its impedance to bus

with its impedance to bus

we follow equation(32) to write

in the new row and column are the repetition of the elements of row 1

in the new

row and column are the repetition of the elements of row 1 and column 1 of the matrix

being modified.

The term

above is the sum of

and

. The elements

modified. The term above is the sum of and . The elements Figure 8: Network. Branch

Figure 8: Network. Branch impedances are in per unit and branch numbers are in parentheses.

Bus

with the impedance connecting it to bus

is established by writing

the impedance connecting it to bus is established by writing Since the new bus is being

Since the new bus is being connected to bus , the term above is the sum

of of the matrix being modified and the impedance of the branch being connected to

bus from bus , The other elements of the new row and column are the repetition of

row 2 and column 2 of the matrix being modified since the new bus is being connected to

bus

.

If we now decide to add the impedance

from bus to the reference

and obtain the

node, we follow equation (32) to connect a new bus through

impedance matrix

where above is the sum of . The other elements in the new row and

where

above is the sum of

. The other elements in the new row and

is

column are the repetition of row 3 and column 3 of the matrix being modified since bus being connected to the reference node through

We now eliminate row and column by Kron reduction. Some of the elements of the new matrix from equation (33) are

When all the elements are determined, we have

(33) are When all the elements are determined, we have We now decide to add the

We now decide to add the impedance using equation (32), and we obtain

from bus

to establish bus

equation (32), and we obtain from bus to establish bus ④ The off-diagonal elements of the

The off-diagonal elements of the new row and column are the repetition of row 3 and column 3 of the matrix being modified because the new bus is being connected to

bus . The new diagonal element is the sum of of the previous matrix and .

in

Finally, we add the impedance

equation (41) equal 2 and 4, respectively, we obtain the elements for row 5 and column 5.

between buses

and . If we let

and

and from equation(42)

So, employing

previously found, we write the 5 x 5 matrix

So, employing previously found, we write the 5 x 5 matrix and from equation(43) we find

and from equation(43) we find by Kron reduction

5 x 5 matrix and from equation(43) we find by Kron reduction which is the bus

which is the bus impedance matrix to be determined. All calculations have been rounded off to five decimal places.

Since we shall again refer to these results, we note here that the reactance diagram

of Figure 8 is derived from

branches. Also, the buses of

Fig.7.10 Fig.7.10
Fig.7.10
Fig.7.10

by omitting the sources and one of the mutually coupled

have been renumbered in Figure 8 because the

building algorithm must begin with a bus connected to the reference node, as previously remarked.

The building procedures are simple for a computer which first must determine the types of modification involved as each branch impedance is added. However, the operations must follow a sequence such that we avoid connecting an impedance between two new buses.

by the network

As a matter of interest, we can check the impedance values of calculations of Sec.8.1.

Example 5

Find of the circuit or Example 4 by determining the impedance measured

between bus and the reference node when currents injected at buses , , and are

zero.

Solution:

The equation corresponding to equation(12) is

Were cognize two parallel paths between buses

with the resulting impedance of

and

of the circuit of Figure 8

This impedance in series with

combines in parallel with

to yield

which is identical with the value found in Example 4. Although the network reduction method of Example 5 may appear to be simpler by comparison with other methods of forming such is not the case because a different network reduction is required to evaluate each element of the matrix. In Example 5 the network reduction to find , for instance, is more difficult than that for finding , The computer could make a network reduction by node elimination but would have to repeat the process for each node.

1.5 CALCULATION OF

ELEMENTS FROM

When the full numerical form of is not explicitly required for an application, we

as needed if the upper-and lower-triangular factors of

are available. To see how this can be done, consider postmultiplying by a vector with only one nonzero element in row and all other elements equal to zero.

When

can readily calculate elements of

is an

matrix, we have

(46)
(46)

Thus, postmultiplying

have called the vector

that is

by the vector shown extracts the

th column, which we

called the vector that is by the vector shown extracts the th column, which we Dr

Since the product of

and

equals the unit matrix, we have

(47)
(47)

If the lower-triangular matrix

and the upper-triangular matrix

of

available, we can write equation(47) in the form

are

(48)

(48)

can be found from

equation(48) by forward elimination and back substitution, as explained in Sec.7.8. If only

some of the elements of

for a four-bus system. Using

convenient notation for the elements of

example, suppose that we wish to generate

are required, the calculations can be reduced accordingly. For

It is now apparent that the elements in the column vector

and

and

of

, we have

 

(49)

We can solve this equation for

in two steps as follows:

 

(50)

Where:

 

(51)

By forward substitution equation(50) immediately yields

and by back substitution of these intermediate results in equation (51) we find the

required elements of column 3 of

,

If all elements of

are required, we can continue the calculations,

The computational effort in generating the required elements can be reduced by judiciously choosing the bus numbers.

)

involving differences between columns and of If the elements of are not

available explicitly, we can calculate the required differences by solving a system of equations such as

In later chapters we shall find it necessary to evaluate terms like (

(52)

(52)

Where

ting column of the vector shown.

from, column

is the vector formed by subtract

of

, and

in row

and

in row

In large-scale system calculations considerable computational efficiency can be realized by solving equations in the triangularized form of equation (52) while the full need not be developed. Such computational considerations underlie many of the formal developments based on in this text.

Example 6

The five-bus system shown in Fig.8.9 has per-unit impedances as marked. The symmetrical bus admittance matrix for the system is given by

symmetrical bus admittance matrix for the system is given by and it is found that the

and it is found that the triangular factors of

are

Use

the triangular factors

to

calculate

,

the

Thevenin impedance looking into the system between buses and of Fig.8.9.

Solution

Since is symmetrical, the reader should check that the row elements of equal the column elements of divided by their corresponding diagonal elements. With is representing the numerical values of , forward solution of the

system of equations

values of , forward solution of the system of equations Figure 9: Reactance diagram for Example

Figure 9: Reactance diagram for Example 8.6, all values are per-unit impedances.

yields the intermediate values

Backsubstituting in the system of equations

where

represent the numerical values of

, we find from the last two rows that

The desired Thevenin impedance is therefore calculated as follows :

Inspection of Figure 9 verifies this result.

Problem 1

Construct the bus impedance matrix for the network given by the following figure.

matrix for the network given by the following figure. Figure 10: Impedance diagram. Solution: Dr Houssem

Figure 10: Impedance diagram.

Solution:

network given by the following figure. Figure 10: Impedance diagram. Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana
network given by the following figure. Figure 10: Impedance diagram. Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana
network given by the following figure. Figure 10: Impedance diagram. Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana
network given by the following figure. Figure 10: Impedance diagram. Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana
network given by the following figure. Figure 10: Impedance diagram. Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana
network given by the following figure. Figure 10: Impedance diagram. Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana
network given by the following figure. Figure 10: Impedance diagram. Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana

Problem 2:

Problem 2: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 29
Problem 2: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 29

Problem 3

Problem 3 Problem 4 Problem 5 A transmission line exists between buses 1 and 2 with

Problem 4

Problem 3 Problem 4 Problem 5 A transmission line exists between buses 1 and 2 with

Problem 5

A transmission line exists between buses 1 and 2 with per unit impedance 0.4. Another line of impedance 0.2 p.u. is connected in parallel with it making it a doubl-circuit line with mutual impedance of 0.1 p.u. Obtain by building algorithm method the impedance of the two-circuit system.

Solution

Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 31
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 31
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 31
Problem 6 The double circuit line in the problem E 4.1 is further extended by
Problem 6 The double circuit line in the problem E 4.1 is further extended by
Problem 6 The double circuit line in the problem E 4.1 is further extended by

Problem 6

The double circuit line in the problem E 4.1 is further extended by the addition of a transmission line from bus (1). The new line by virtue of its proximity to the existing lines has a mutual impedance of 0.05 p.u. and a self impedance of 0.3 p.u. obtain the bus impedance matrix by using the building algorithm.

Solution

Solution Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 33
Solution Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 33
Problem 7 The system E4.2 is further extended by adding another transmission line to bus

Problem 7

The system E4.2 is further extended by adding another transmission line to bus 3 w itil 001£ in pedance of 0 .3 p.u .0 bta.in tile ZBUS

Solution:

line to bus 3 w itil 001£ in pedance of 0 .3 p.u .0 bta.in tile
Problem 8 The system in E 4.3 is further extended and the radial system is

Problem 8

The system in E 4.3 is further extended and the radial system is converted into a ring system joining bus (2) to bus (4) for reliability of supply. Obtain the ZBUS. The self impedance of element 5 is 0.1 p.u

Solution:

of supply. Obtain the ZBUS. The self impedance of element 5 is 0.1 p.u Solution: Dr
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 36
Problem 9: Compute the bus impedance matrix for the system shown in figure by adding

Problem 9:

Compute the bus impedance matrix for the system shown in figure by adding element by element. Take bus (2) as reference bus

in figure by adding element by element. Take bus (2) as reference bus Solution: Dr Houssem

Solution:

in figure by adding element by element. Take bus (2) as reference bus Solution: Dr Houssem
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 38
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 38
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 39
Problem 10: Using the building algorithm construct zBUS for the system shown below. Choose 4

Problem 10:

Using the building algorithm construct zBUS for the system shown below. Choose 4 as reference BUS.

Solution:

construct zBUS for the system shown below. Choose 4 as reference BUS. Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik
construct zBUS for the system shown below. Choose 4 as reference BUS. Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 41
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 41
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 41
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 42
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 42
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 43
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 43
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 44
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 45
Problem 11: Given the network shown in Fig. E.4.1S. Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara

Problem 11:

Given the network shown in Fig. E.4.1S.

Problem 11: Given the network shown in Fig. E.4.1S. Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 46
Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 47

Solution:

Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 47
Problem 12: E 4.8 Consider the system in Fig. E.4.17. Obtain ZBUS by using building

Problem 12:

E 4.8 Consider the system in Fig. E.4.17. Obtain ZBUS by using building algorithm.

4.8 Consider the system in Fig. E.4.17. Obtain ZBUS by using building algorithm. Dr Houssem Rafik

Solution:

Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 49
Solution: Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 49
Problem 13 Form the impedance matrix of the electric network shown in the following figure

Problem 13

Form the impedance matrix of the electric network shown in the following figure by using the branch addition method.

in the following figure by using the branch addition method. Solution According to the node ordering,

Solution

According to the node ordering, we can make the sequence table of branch adding as follows.

Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 51
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 52
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 53
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 54
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara 55