KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
Ministry Of High Education
Umm AlQura University
College of Engineering & Islamic Architecture
Department Of Electrical Engineering
Power System Analysis
The Impedance Model And Network Calculations
Dr : Houssem Rafik El Hana BOUCHEKARA
2011/2012
1432/1433
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara
1
1
THE IMPEDANCE MODEL AND NETWORK CALCULATIONS
3
1.1 THE BUS ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRICES 
3 

1.2 THEVENIN'S THEOREM AND 
6 

1.3 MODIFICATION OF AN EXISTING 
12 

1.4 DIRECT DETERMINATION OF 
19 

1.5 CALCULATION OF 
ELEMENTS FROM 
23 
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara
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1
THE IMPEDANCE MODEL AND NETWORK CALCULATIONS
The bus admittance matrix o f a largescale interconnected power system is typically very sparse with mainly zero elements. In previous chapter we saw how is constructed branch by branch from primitive admittances. It is conceptually simple to invert to find the bus impedance matrix but such direct inversion is rarely employed when the systems to be analyzed are large scale. In practice, is rarely explicitly required, and so the triangular factors of are used to generated elements of only as they are needed since this is often the most computationally efficient method. By setting computational considerations aside, however, and regarding as being already constructed and explicitly available, the rower system analyst can derive a great deal of in sight. This is the approach taken in this chapter.
The bus impedance matrix can be directly constructed element by element using simple algorithms to incorporate one element at a time in to the system representation. The work entailed in constructing is much greater than that required to construct but the information content of the bus impedance matrix is far greater than that of We shall see, for example, that each diagonal element of reflects important characteristics of the entire system in the form of the Thevenin impedance at the corresponding bus. Unlike the bus impedance matrix of an interconnected system is never. sparse and contains zeros only when the system is regarded as being subdivided into independent parts by open
, for instance, such open circuits arise in the zerosequence network of
The bus admittance matrix is widely used for powerflow analysis. On the other hand, the bus impedance matrix is equally well favored for power system fault analysis. Accordingly, both and have important roles in the analysis of the power system network. In this chapter we study how to construct directly and how to explore some of the conceptual insights which it offers into the characteristics of the power transmission network.
1.1 THE BUS ADMITTANCE AND IMPEDANCE MATRICES
In
Example 7.6
we inverted the bus admittance matrix
the bus impedance matrix
. By definition
and called the resultant
(1)
and for a network of three independent nodes the standard form is
(2)
be
symmetrical. The bus admittance matrix need not be determined in order to obtain and
in another section of this chapter we see how
Since
is
symmetrical
around
the
principal
diagonal,
must
also
may be formulated directly.
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The impedance elements of on the principal diagonal are called drivingpoint impedances of the buses, and the offdiagonal elements are called the transfer impedances of the buses. The bus impedance matrix is important and very useful in making fault calculations, as we shall see later. In order to understand the physical significance of the various impedances in the matrix, we compare them with the bus admittances. We can easily do so by looking at the equations at a particular bus. For instance, starting with the node equations expressed as
(3) 

we have at bus 
of the three independent nodes 

(4) 
If
and voltage
bus
is
and
are reduced to zero by shorting buses
and
is applied at bus
so that current
enters at bus
to the reference node,
, the selfadmittance at
(5)
Thus, the selfadmittance of a particular bus could be measured by shorting all other buses to the reference node and then finding the ratio of the current injected at the bus to the voltage applied at that bus. Figure 1 illustrates the method for a threebus reactive network. The result is obviously equivalent to adding all the admittances directly connected to the bus, which is the procedure up to now when mutually coupled branches are absent.
Figure 1 also serves to illustrate the offdiagonal admittance terms of At bus the
equation obtained by expanding equation (3) is
(6)
from which we see that
(7)
Thus, the mutual admittance term is measured by shorting all buses except bus
to the reference node and by applying a voltage at bus , as shown in Figure 1. Then,
is the ratio of the negative of the current leaving the network in the short circuit at node
to the voltage . The negative of the current leaving the network at node is used
since is defined as the current entering the network. The resultant admittance is the
negative of the admittance directly connected between buses and , as we would
expect since mutually coupled branches are absent.
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Figure 1: Circuit for measuring
.
and
.
We have made this detailed examination of the bus admittances in order to differentiate them clearly from the impedances of the bus impedance matrix. Conceptually, we solve equation (3)by premultiplying both sides of the equation by to yield
(8)
and we must remember when dealing with
that
and
are column vectors of
the bus voltages and the currents entering the buses from current sources, respectively. Expanding equation (8) for a network of three independent nodes yields
(9) 
(10) 
(11) 
From equation (10) we see that the drivingpoint impedance
is determined by
opencircuiting the current sources at buses
at bus
. Then,
and
and by injecting the source current
(12)
Figure 2: Circuit for measuring
and
.
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Figure 2 shows the circuit described. Since is defined by opening the current sources connected to the other buses whereas is found with the other buses shorted, we must not expect any reciprocal relation between these two quantities. The circuit of Figure 2 also enables us to measure some transfer impedances, for we see from equation (9) that with current sources and opencircuited
(13)
and from equation(11)
(14)
by injecting current at
with the sources open at all buses except
bus . We note that a mutual admittance is measured with all but one bus shortcircuited
bus
Thus, we can measure the transfer impedances
and by finding the ratios of
and
to
and
and that a transfer impedance is measured with all sources opencircuited except one.
Equation (9) tells us that if we inject current into bus with current sources at
. Under the same
buses and open, the only impedance through which
conditions, equations (10) and (11) show that
expressed by
flows is
is causing voltages at buses
and
(15)
It is important to realize the implications of the preceding discussion, for sometimes used in powerflow studies and is extremely valuable in fault calculations.
1.2 THEVENIN'S THEOREM AND
is
The bus impedance matrix provides important information regarding the power system network, which we can use to advantage in network calculations. In this section we examine the relationship between the elements of and the Thevenin impedance presented by the network at each of its buses. To establish notation, let us denote the bus voltages corresponding to the initial values of the bus currents I by . The voltages to are the effective opencircuit voltages, which can be measured by voltmeter between the buses of the network and the reference node. When the bus currents are changed from their initial values to new values , the new bus voltages are given by the superposition equation
(16)
represents the changes in the bus voltages from their original values. (a)
shows a largescale system in schematic form with a representative bus Ⓚ extracted along
with the reference node of the system. Initially, we consider the circuit not to be energized
where
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so that the bus currents and voltages are zero. Then, into bus Ⓚ a current of amp
(or
in per unit) is injected in to the system from a current source
connected to the reference node. The resulting voltage changes at the buses of
per unit for
Figure 3:
Original network with bus ⓚ and reference node extracted. Voltage
at bus ⓝ is caused by
current
entering the network.
Thevenin equivalent circuit at node ⓚ·
the network, indicated by the incremental quantities
to
, are given by
(17)
with the only nonzero entry in the current vector equal to column multiplication in equation (17) yields the incremental bus voltages
in row
. Rowby
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Ⓚ
Ⓚ
(18)
which are numerically equal to the entries in column of multiplied by the current . Adding these voltage changes to the original voltages at the buses according to
equation(16) yields at bus Ⓚ
(19)
The circuit corresponding to this equation is shown in Figure 3 (b) from which it is
evident that the Thevenin impedance
at a representative bus of the system is given by
(20)
With set equal to 2,
this is essentially the same result obtained in equation(12) for the drivingpoint impedance
at bus of Figure 2.
where
is the diagonal entry in row
and column
of
In a similar manner, we can determine the Thevenin impedance between any two
buses ⓙ and Ⓚ of the network. As shown in Fig. 8.4(a), the otherwise dead network is
energized by the current injections .at bus ⓙ and at bus Ⓚ. Denoting the changes in
the bus voltages resulting from the combination of these two current injections by we obtain
to
ⓙ
(21)
in which the righthand vector is numerically equal to the product of and column added to the product of and column of the system . Adding these voltage
changes to the original bus voltages according to equation (16), we obtain at buses ⓙ and
(22)
(23)
Adding and subtracting (23), give
,
in equation (22), and likewise,
,
in equation
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(24)
(25)
Since is symmetrical, equals and the circuit corresponding to these two equations is shown in Fig. 8.4(b), which represents the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the
system between buses ⓙ and . Inspection of Fig. 8.4(b) shows that the opencircuit
voltage from bus to bus ⓙ is
, and the
Figure 4: Original network with
current source
circuit:
shortcircuit connection;
at bus ⓙ and impedance
at bus
;
Thevenin equivalent
between buses ⓙ and
.
impedance encountered by the shortcircuit current
Figure 4
is evidently the Thevenin impedance.
from bus
to
bus ⓙ
in
(26)
in equations (24)
and (25) and by setting the difference
zero. As far as external connections to buses ⓙ and are concerned, Figure 4
represents the effect of the original system. From bus ⓙ to the reference node we can trace
between the resultant equations equal to
This result is readily confirmed by substituting
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the Thevenin impedance 
and the opencircuit voltage 
; from bus 
to the reference node we have the Thevenin impedance 
and 
the opencircuit voltage
equation(26) and the opencircuit voltage
; and between buses
and ⓙ the Thevenin impedance of
is evident. Finally, when the branch
impedance 
is connected between buses ⓙ and 
of Figure 4 
, the resulting current 
is given by 
(27)
We use this equation in Sec. 8.3 to show how to modify impedance is added between two buses o f the network.
Example 1
when a branch
A capacitor having a reactance of 5.0 per unit is connected between the reference
The original emfs and the
corresponding external current injections at buses and ④ are the same as in those
node
Examples 7.5
and bus
④
of the circuit of
and
examples. Find the current drawn by the capacitor.
Solution
The Thevenin equivalent circuit at bus ④ has an emf with respect to reference given
by
per unit, which is the voltage at bus ④ found in
before the capacitor is connected. The Thevenin impedance
to be
is calculated in
per unit, and so Figure 5 follows. Therefore, the
at bus
current leap drawn by the capacitor is
Example 2
If an additional current equal to
per unit is injected into the
network at bus ④ of
Example 7.6
, find the resulting voltages at buses
and ④.
Solution
The voltage changes at the buses due to the additional injected current can be
The required
. The voltage changes due to the added current injection
calculated by making use of the bus impedance matrix found in
impedances are in column 4 of
at bus ④ in per unit are
Example 7.6.
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Figure 5: Circuit for Examples 8.1 and 8.2 showing:
Thevenin equivalent circuit; ④.
phasor diagram at bus
By superposition the resulting voltages are determined from equation (16) by adding
The new bus volt ages in
these changes to the original bus voltages found in per unit are
Example 7.6.
Since the changes in voltages due to the injected current are all at the same angle shown in Figure 5 and this angle differs little from the angles of the original voltages, an approximation will often give satisfactory answers. The change in voltage magnitude at a .bus may be approximated by the product of the magnitude of the perunit current and the magnitude of the appropriate drivingpoint or transfer impedance. These values added to the original voltage magnitudes approximate the magnitudes of the new voltages very closely. This approximation is valid here because the network is purely reactive, but it also provides a good estimate where reactance is considerably larger than resistance, as is usual
Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara
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in transmission systems. The last two examples illustrate the importance of the bus impedance matrix and incidentally show how adding a capacitor at a bus causes a rise in bus voltages. The assumption that the angles of voltage and current sources remain constant after connecting capacitors at a bus is not entirely valid if we are considering operation of a power system. We shall consider such system operation in Chap. 9 using a computer power flow program.
1.3 MODIFICATION OF AN EXISTING
In Sec. 1.2 we see how to use the Thevenin equivalent circuit and the existing to solve for new bus voltages in the network following a branch addition without having to develop the new Since is such an important tool in power system analysis we now examine how an existing may be modified to add new buses or to connect new lines to established buses. Of course, we could create a new and invert it, but direct methods of modifying are available and very much simpler than a matrix inversion even for a small number of buses. Also, when we know how to modify we can see how to build it directly. We recognize several types of modifications in which a branch having impedance is added to a network with known The original bus impedance matrix is identified as , an N N matrix.
In the notation to be used in our analysis existing buses will be identified by numbers
or the letters
network to convert
will
the original voltage will be
denoted by the new voltage after modifying
denote the voltage change at that bus. Four cases are considered in this section.
and . The letter or will designate a new bus· to be added to the
to an (N + 1) X (N + 1) matrix. At bus
will be
, and
CASE 1. Adding
from a new bus ⓟ to the reference node.
The addition of the new bus ⓟ connected to the reference node through without
a connection to any of the buses of the original network cannot alter the original bus voltages when a current is injected at the new bus. The
Figure 6: Addition of new bus ⓟ connected through impedance
Voltage
at the new bus is equal to
then,
to existing bus ⓚ.
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We note that the column vector of currents multiplied by the new
will not alter
the voltages of the original network and will result in the correct voltage at the new bus ⓟ.
CASE 2. Adding
from a new bus ⓟ to an existing bus
The addition of a new bus ⓟ connected through
to an existing bus
injected at bus ⓟ will cause the current entering the original network at bus
with
to become
the sum of 
. injected at bus 
plus the current 
coming through 
, as shown in Figure 
6. 
The current
by the voltage
flowing into the network; at bus
just like in equation(19); that is,
will increase the original voltage
(29) 

and 
will be larger than then new 
by the voltage 
. So, 

(30) 
and substituting for
, we obtain
(31)
We now see that the new row which must be added to
In order to find
is
Since must be a square matrix around the principal diagonal, we must add a new column which is the transpose of the new row. The new column accounts for the increase of all bus voltages due to , as shown in equation(17). The matrix equation is
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Note that the first
elements of the new row are the elements of row
of
and the first 
elements of the new column are the elements of column 
of 

CASE 3. Adding 
from existing bus 
to the reference node 
To see how to alter by connecting an impedance from an existing bus to
the reference node, we add a new bus ⓟ connected through to bus . Then, we short
circuit bus ⓟ to the reference node by letting equal zero to yield the same matrix equation as equation (32) except that is zero. So, for the modification we proceed to
create a new row and new column exactly the same as in Case 2, but we then eliminate the
column by Kron reduction, which is possible because of the zero in
the column matrix of voltages. We use the method developed in equation(7.50) to find each
element in the new matrix, where
row and
(33)
CASE 4. Adding
between two existing buses ⓙ and
(8.33) To add a branch impedance between buses ⓙ and already established
in , we examine Figure 7, which shows these buses extracted, from the original
network. The current flowing from bus to bus ⓙ is similar to that of Figure 4. Hence,
from equation (21) the change in voltage at each
Figure 7: Addition of impedance
between existing buses ⓙ and ⓚ.
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bus ⓗ caused by the injection
at bus ⓙ and –
at bus
is given by
(34)
which means that the vector of bus voltage changes is found by subtracting column from column of and by multiplying the result by . Based on the definition of voltage change, we now write some equations for the bus voltages as follows:
(35)
And using equation (34) gives
(36)
Similarly, at buses ⓙ and
(37)
(38)
we need one more equation since which can be rearranged in to the form
is unknown. This is supplied by equation (27),
(39)
From equation (37) we note that 
equals the product of row 
of 
and the 
column of bus currents ; likewise, of equation (38) equals row, of 
multiplied by 
1. Upon substituting the expressions for and in equation (39), we obtain
(40)
By examining the coefficients of equations (36) through (38) and eq.(40), we can write the matrix equation
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in which the coefficient of
in the last row is denoted by
(42)
row.
The new row is the transpose of the new column. Eliminating the row and column of the square matrix of equation(41) in the same manner as previously, we see that each element in the new matrix is
The new column is column
minus column
of
with
in the
(43)
We need not consider the case of introducing two new buses connected by because we could always connect one of these new buses through an impedance to an existing bus or to the reference bus before adding the second new bus.
single branch of impedance between two nodes can be
removed from the network by adding the negative of between the same terminating nodes. The reason is of course, that the parallel combination of the existing branch ( ) and the added branch amounts to an effective, open circuit.
Removing a branch.
Table 1 summarizes the procedures of Cases 1 to 4.
TABLE.1 Modification of existing
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Example 3
to account for the connection of a
capacitor having a reactance of 5.0 per unit between bus ④ and the reference node of the
Modify the bus impedance matrix of
Example 7.6
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Solution.
We use equation (32) and recognize that
is the
that subscript
, and that
per unit to find
matrix of Example 7.6,
The terms in the fifth row and column were obtained by repeating the fourth row
and column of
and noting that
Then, eliminating the fifth row and column, we obtain for
(33)
and other elements in a similar manner to give
from equation
is multiplied to obtain the new
bus voltages is the same as in Example 7.6. Since both and are zero while and are
nonzero, we obtain
The column matrix of currents by which the new
as found in Example 2.
It is of interest to note that
may be calculated directly from equation (27) by
setting node ⓙ equal to the reference node. We then obtain for
and
since
is already calculated in Example 1.
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1.4
DIRECT DETERMINATION OF
We could determine by first finding and then inverting it, but this is not convenient for largescale systems as we have seen. Fortunately, formulation of using a direct building algorithm is a straightforward process on the computer.
At the outset we have a list of the branch impedances showing the buses to which they are connected. We start by writing the equation for one bus connected through a branch impedance to the reference as
(44)
and this can be considered as an equation involving three matrices, each of which has one row and one column. Now we might add a new bus connected to the first bus or to the reference node. For instance, if the second bus is connected to the reference node through we have the matrix equation
(45)
and we proceed to modify the evolving matrix by adding other buses and branches following the procedures described in Sec.8.3. The combination of these procedures constitutes the building algorithm. Usually, the buses of a network must be renumbered internally by the computer algorithm to agree with the order in which they are to be added to as it is built up.
Example 4
Determine
for the network shown in Figure 8, where the impedances labeled 1
through 6 are shown in per unit. Preserve all buses.
Solution .
The branches are added in the order of their labels and numbered subscripts on
will indicate intermediate steps of the solution. We start by establishing bus with its
impedance to the reference nod e and write
We then have the
To establish bus
bus impedance matrix
with its impedance to bus
we follow equation(32) to write
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in the new
row and column are the repetition of the elements of row 1 and column 1 of the matrix
being modified.
The term
above is the sum of
and
. The elements
Figure 8: Network. Branch impedances are in per unit and branch numbers are in parentheses.
Bus
with the impedance connecting it to bus
is established by writing
Since the new bus is being connected to bus , the term above is the sum
of of the matrix being modified and the impedance of the branch being connected to
bus from bus , The other elements of the new row and column are the repetition of
row 2 and column 2 of the matrix being modified since the new bus is being connected to
bus
.
If we now decide to add the impedance
from bus to the reference
and obtain the
node, we follow equation (32) to connect a new bus ⓟ through
impedance matrix
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where
above is the sum of
. The other elements in the new row and
is
column are the repetition of row 3 and column 3 of the matrix being modified since bus being connected to the reference node through
We now eliminate row ⓟ and column ⓟ by Kron reduction. Some of the elements of the new matrix from equation (33) are
When all the elements are determined, we have
We now decide to add the impedance using equation (32), and we obtain
from bus
to establish bus ④
The offdiagonal elements of the new row and column are the repetition of row 3 and column 3 of the matrix being modified because the new bus ④ is being connected to
bus . The new diagonal element is the sum of of the previous matrix and .
in
Finally, we add the impedance
equation (41) equal 2 and 4, respectively, we obtain the elements for row 5 and column 5.
between buses
and ④. If we let
and
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and from equation(42)
So, employing
previously found, we write the 5 x 5 matrix
and from equation(43) we find by Kron reduction
which is the bus impedance matrix to be determined. All calculations have been rounded off to five decimal places.
Since we shall again refer to these results, we note here that the reactance diagram
of Figure 8 is derived from
branches. Also, the buses of
by omitting the sources and one of the mutually coupled
have been renumbered in Figure 8 because the
building algorithm must begin with a bus connected to the reference node, as previously remarked.
The building procedures are simple for a computer which first must determine the types of modification involved as each branch impedance is added. However, the operations must follow a sequence such that we avoid connecting an impedance between two new buses.
by the network
As a matter of interest, we can check the impedance values of calculations of Sec.8.1.
Example 5
Find of the circuit or Example 4 by determining the impedance measured
between bus and the reference node when currents injected at buses , , and ④ are
zero.
Solution:
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The equation corresponding to equation(12) is
Were cognize two parallel paths between buses
with the resulting impedance of
and
of the circuit of Figure 8
This impedance in series with
combines in parallel with
to yield
which is identical with the value found in Example 4. Although the network reduction method of Example 5 may appear to be simpler by comparison with other methods of forming such is not the case because a different network reduction is required to evaluate each element of the matrix. In Example 5 the network reduction to find , for instance, is more difficult than that for finding , The computer could make a network reduction by node elimination but would have to repeat the process for each node.
1.5 CALCULATION OF
ELEMENTS FROM
When the full numerical form of is not explicitly required for an application, we
as needed if the upperand lowertriangular factors of
are available. To see how this can be done, consider postmultiplying by a vector with only one nonzero element in row and all other elements equal to zero.
When
can readily calculate elements of
is an
matrix, we have
Thus, postmultiplying
have called the vector
that is
by the vector shown extracts the
th column, which we
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Since the product of
and
equals the unit matrix, we have
If the lowertriangular matrix
and the uppertriangular matrix
of
available, we can write equation(47) in the form
are
(48)
can be found from
equation(48) by forward elimination and back substitution, as explained in Sec.7.8. If only
some of the elements of
for a fourbus system. Using
convenient notation for the elements of
example, suppose that we wish to generate
are required, the calculations can be reduced accordingly. For
It is now apparent that the elements in the column vector
and
and
of
, we have
(49) 

We can solve this equation for 
in two steps as follows: 

(50) 

Where: 

(51) 
By forward substitution equation(50) immediately yields
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and by back substitution of these intermediate results in equation (51) we find the
required elements of column 3 of
,
If all elements of
are required, we can continue the calculations,
The computational effort in generating the required elements can be reduced by judiciously choosing the bus numbers.
)
involving differences between columns ⓜ and ⓝ of If the elements of are not
available explicitly, we can calculate the required differences by solving a system of equations such as
In later chapters we shall find it necessary to evaluate terms like (
(52)
Where
ting column of the vector shown.
from, column
is the vector formed by subtract
of
, and
in row
and
in row
In largescale system calculations considerable computational efficiency can be realized by solving equations in the triangularized form of equation (52) while the full need not be developed. Such computational considerations underlie many of the formal developments based on in this text.
Example 6
The fivebus system shown in Fig.8.9 has perunit impedances as marked. The symmetrical bus admittance matrix for the system is given by
and it is found that the triangular factors of
are
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Use
the triangular factors
to
calculate
,
the
Thevenin impedance looking into the system between buses ④ and ⑤ of Fig.8.9.
Solution
Since is symmetrical, the reader should check that the row elements of equal the column elements of divided by their corresponding diagonal elements. With is representing the numerical values of , forward solution of the
system of equations
Figure 9: Reactance diagram for Example 8.6, all values are perunit impedances.
yields the intermediate values
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Backsubstituting in the system of equations
where
represent the numerical values of
, we find from the last two rows that
The desired Thevenin impedance is therefore calculated as follows :
Inspection of Figure 9 verifies this result.
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Problem 1
Construct the bus impedance matrix for the network given by the following figure.
Figure 10: Impedance diagram.
Solution:
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Problem 2:
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Problem 3
Problem 4
Problem 5
A transmission line exists between buses 1 and 2 with per unit impedance 0.4. Another line of impedance 0.2 p.u. is connected in parallel with it making it a doublcircuit line with mutual impedance of 0.1 p.u. Obtain by building algorithm method the impedance of the twocircuit system.
Solution
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Problem 6
The double circuit line in the problem E 4.1 is further extended by the addition of a transmission line from bus (1). The new line by virtue of its proximity to the existing lines has a mutual impedance of 0.05 p.u. and a self – impedance of 0.3 p.u. obtain the bus impedance matrix by using the building algorithm.
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Solution
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Problem 7
The system E4.2 is further extended by adding another transmission line to bus 3 w itil 001£ in pedance of 0 .3 p.u .0 bta.in tile ZBUS
Solution:
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Problem 8
The system in E 4.3 is further extended and the radial system is converted into a ring system joining bus (2) to bus (4) for reliability of supply. Obtain the ZBUS. The self impedance of element 5 is 0.1 p.u
Solution:
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Problem 9:
Compute the bus impedance matrix for the system shown in figure by adding element by element. Take bus (2) as reference bus
Solution:
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Problem 10:
Using the building algorithm construct zBUS for the system shown below. Choose 4 as reference BUS.
Solution:
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Problem 11:
Given the network shown in Fig. E.4.1S.
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Solution:
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Problem 12:
E 4.8 Consider the system in Fig. E.4.17. Obtain ZBUS by using building algorithm.
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Solution:
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Problem 13
Form the impedance matrix of the electric network shown in the following figure by using the branch addition method.
Solution
According to the node ordering, we can make the sequence table of branch adding as follows.
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Dr Houssem Rafik El Hana Bouchekara
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