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Pilani Campus

MATERIALS SCIENCE &

ENGG

Dr. Subrata Bandhu Ghosh

Department of Mechanical Engg.

ASTM (American Society for testing and Materials)

VISUAL CHARTS (@100x) each with a number

Quick and easy used for steel

ASTM has prepared several standard comparison charts, all having different

average grain sizes. To each is assigned a number from 1 to 10, which is

termed the grain size number; the larger this number, the smaller the grains.

Quick and easy used for steel

N = 2

n-1

No. of grains/square inch

Grain size no.

NOTE: The ASTM grain size is related a grain area

AT 100x MAGNIFICATION

or N = N

1

/15.5; where N

1

is the number of grains

per square mm.

ASTM (American Society for testing and Materials)

Generally speaking, a material is classified as

Coarse-grained when n < 3

Medium-grained when 4 < n < 6

Fine grained when 7 < n < 9

Ultrafine-grained when n > 10 Ultrafine-grained when n > 10

Grain size number in reality does not offer any

direct information about the actual size of the

grain

A more direct approach: determine actual

average grain diameter

Linear Intercept method

A random line of known length is drawn through a

photomicrograph (at a specific magnification) that show

the grain structure.

The number of grains intersected by this line segment

are counted

The ratio of the number of grains to the actual length of

Grain Size Determination

The ratio of the number of grains to the actual length of

the line is determined, n

L

The average grain diameter d is found by using the

equation:

d = C/(n

L

M)

Where C is a constant (C = 1.5 for typical

microstructures) and M is the magnification at which the

photomicrograph was taken

Determining Grain Size, using a Micrograph

taken at 300x

We count 14 grains

in a 1 in

2

area on the

image

The report ASTM

2

1

2

100

M is mag. of image

N is measured grain count at M

now solve for n:

n

M

M

M

N

=

The report ASTM

grain size we need N

at 100x not 300x

We need a

conversion method!

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( )

now solve for n:

log( ) 2 log log 100 1 log 2

log 2log 4

1

log 2

log 14 2log 300 4

1 7.98 8

0.301

M

m

N M n

N M

n

n

+ =

+

= +

+

= + =

For this same material, how many Grains

would I expect /in

2

at 100x?

1 8 1 2

2 2 128 grains/in

Now, how many grain would I expect at 50x?

n

N

= =

2 2

8 1

2 2

100 100

N 2 128*

50

N 128*2 512 grains/in

M

M

M

= =

= =

300

400

500

600

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

G

r

a

i

n

s

/

i

n

2

At 100x

0

100

200

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Grain Size number (n)

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

G

r

a

i

n

s

/

i

n

2

Electron Microscopes

beam of electrons of

shorter wave-length

(0.003nm) (when

accelerated across large

voltage drop)

Image formed with

Magnetic lenses

High resolutions and

magnification (up to

50,000x SEM); (TEM up

to 1,000,000x)

Uses a moveable Probe of very small diameter

to move over a surface

Atoms can be arranged and imaged!

Photos produced from

the work of C.P. Lutz,

Zeppenfeld, and D.M.

Eigler. Reprinted with

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)

Carbon monoxide

molecules arranged on

a platinum (111)

surface.

Eigler. Reprinted with

permission from

International Business

Machines Corporation,

copyright 1995.

Iron atoms arranged

on a copper (111)

surface. These Kanji

characters represent

the word atom.

Summary

Point, Line, and Area defects exist in solids.

The number and type of defects can be varied and

controlled

T controls vacancy conc.

amount of plastic deformation controls # of dislocations

Weight of charge materials determine concentration of Weight of charge materials determine concentration of

substitutional or interstitial point defects

Defects affect material properties (e.g., grain

boundaries control crystal slip).

Defects may be desirable or undesirable

e.g., dislocations may be good or bad, depending on

whether plastic deformation is desirable or not.

Inclusions can be intention for alloy development

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

OF METALS OF METALS

Mechanical Properties of Metals

How do metals respond to external loads?

Stress and Strain

Tension

Compression

Shear

Torsion

Elastic deformation Elastic deformation

Plastic Deformation

Yield Strength

Tensile Strength

Ductility

Toughness

Hardness

How materials deform as a function of applied load

Testing methods and language for mechanical

properties of materials.

13

S

t

r

e

s

s

,

(

M

P

a

)

Strain, (mm / mm)

Types of Loading

Tensile

Compressive

Shear

Torsion

Stress

(For Tension and Compression)

To compare specimens , the load is calculated per

unit area.

Stress: = F / A

o

F: is load

A

0

: cross-sectional area

A

0

is perpendicular to F before application of the

load.

Strain

(For Tension and Compression)

Strain: = l / l

o

( 100 %)

l: change in length

l

o

: original length.

Stress / strain = /

True Stress and Strain

T

= F/A

i

T

= ln(l

i

/l

o

)

True Stress

True stress: load divided by actual area in the necked-down region,

continues to rise to the point of fracture, in contrast to the engineering stress.

= F/A

o

= (l

i

-l

o

/l

o

)

True Strain

Shear

Shear stress: = F / A

o

F is applied parallel to upper and

lower faces each having area A

0

.

Shear strain: = tan ( 100 %) Shear strain: = tan ( 100 %)

is strain angle

Shear Torsion

Torsion

Torsion: like shear.

Load: applied torque, T

Strain: angle of twist, Strain: angle of twist,

Shear

Torsion

Stress-Strain Behavior

(Tension)

Elastic Plastic

S

t

r

e

s

s

Elastic deformation

Reversible:

( For small strains)

Stress removed material

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

Stress removed material

returns to original size

Plastic deformation

Irreversible:

Stress removed material

does not return to original

dimensions.

Elastic Deformation

E = Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity (same units as ,

N/m

2

or Pa)

Hooke's law for Tensile Stress

Unload

= E

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

Load

Slope = modulus of

elasticity E

Unload

Higher E higher stiffness

Nonlinear elastic behavior

In some materials (many polymers, concrete...), elastic

deformation is not linear, but it is still reversible.

/ = tangent modulus at

22

Definitions of E

/ = tangent modulus at

2

/ = secant modulus between

origin and

1

Poissons ratio

Unloaded

Loaded

Tension shrink laterally

Compression bulge.

Ratio of lateral to axial strain called

Poisson's ratio .

Poissons ratio

z

y

z

x

=

dimensionless.

Sign:

lateral strain opposite to longitudinal lateral strain opposite to longitudinal

strain

Theoretical value:

for isotropic material: 0.25

Maximum value: 0.50,

Typical value: 0.24 - 0.30

Shear Modulus

Z

o

y

Unloaded

Loaded

Unloaded

Loaded

Shear stress to shear strain:

= G ,

= tan = y / z

o

G is Shear Modulus (Units: N/m

2

)

Elastic Modulus

Poissons Ratio

and

Shear Modulus

For isotropic material: For isotropic material:

E = 2G(1+ ) G ~ 0.4E

Single crystals are usually elastically anisotropic

Elastic behavior varies with crystallographic

direction.

Plastic deformation

(Tension)

27

Plastic deformation:

stress not proportional to strain

deformation is not reversible

deformation occurs by breaking and re-arrangement of

atomic bonds (crystalline materials by motion of defects)

Tensile properties: Yielding

Elastic Plastic

S

t

r

e

s

s

Yield point: P

Where strain deviates from being

proportional to stress

(the proportional limit)

P

y

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

Yield strength:

y

Permanent strain= 0.002

A measure of resistance to plastic deformation

0.002

Tensile Strength

If stress maintained specimen will break

Fracture

Strength

S

t

r

e

s

s

,

29

Tensile strength = max. stress

(~ 100 - 1000 MPa)

Necking

S

t

r

e

s

s

,

Strain,

Yield stress,

y

, usually more important than tensile strength. Once

yield stress has been passed, structure has deformed beyond

acceptable limits.

Tensile properties: Ductility

Percent elongation

or

Percent reduction in area

Ductility Deformation at Fracture

100

l

l l

EL %

0

0 f

=

100

A

A A

RA %

0

f 0

=

Mechanical Properties of Metals

Yield strength and tensile strength vary with thermal and

mechanical treatment, impurity levels, etc.

Variability related to behavior of dislocations (Elastic

moduli are relatively insensitive)

Yield and tensile strengths and modulus of elasticity:

Decrease with increasing temperature.

Ductility increases with temperature.

Toughness

Toughness: ability to absorb energy up to fracture

(Area under the strain-stress curve up to fracture)

Units: the energy per unit volume, e.g. J/m

3

Failure by Yielding

Metals exhibit both elastic and plastic

behaviour.

As the level of stress is increased so the

amount of elastic strain increases in direct amount of elastic strain increases in direct

proportion to the stress applied up to a

certain limit elastic limit.

To minimise the possibility of excessive

stress factors of safety are applied.

Failure by Fracture

The terms, tough, ductile, brittle, or fatigue

are frequently used to describe the fracture

behaviour of a material.

Tough or ductile fracture failure is Tough or ductile fracture failure is

preceded by excessive plastic deformation

often detectable.

Brittle or non-ductile fracture - involves little

or no plastic deformation often

Catastrophic.

Fracture Type

The type of fracture which occurs is largely

dependant upon the type and condition of the

material.

Other factors include: Other factors include:

the type of stress applied.

the rate of stress application.

temperature and environmental conditions.

component geometry.

size and nature of internal flaws.

Fracture Mechanics

This is the study of the relationships

between crack geometry, material

strength and toughness and stress systems

as they affect the fracture characteristics of

a material. a material.

The aim of fracture mechanics is to

determine the critical size of a defect

necessary for fast fracture to occur.

That is catastrophic crack propagation and

failure under service loading.

Fracture Toughness

To improve fracture toughness there is a

need to avoid excessive elastic

deflections & plastic yielding.

Fast fracture can occur which causes Fast fracture can occur which causes

catastrophic failure.

E.g. Welding of ships, oil rigs, bridges,

pipelines, pressure vessels.

Fast Fracture

All related to cracks, flaws or defects.

Fast fracture caused by growth of these

defects which suddenly become

unstable & propagate at the speed of unstable & propagate at the speed of

sound.

Stress Intensity Factor

length crack the is a and factor geometric a is Y stress, applied the is where,

a Y K

by given is & FACTOR INTENSITY STRESS the

called K' ' parameter a by given is crack tip the around on distributi tress The

=

s

c

c

a a and

K K

fracture, At

=

=

Toughness & fracture toughness

values for some metals

Material Fracture toughness

K

c

(MPa m

or MNm

-3/2

)

Steels 80 170

Cast Irons 6 - 20

Aluminium

alloys

5 - 70

Cont.

No material is free from defects, so it is

essential that any crack-like defects are

relatively harmless.

Using values of fracture toughness it is Using values of fracture toughness it is

possible to calculate the size of defect or

magnitude of stress required to cause

failure.

Cont.

y

A

p

p

l

i

e

d

s

t

r

e

s

s

Failure

by

A

p

p

l

i

e

d

s

t

r

e

s

s

Defect size

Failure

by

yielding

by

Fast fracture

Critical

size

Correction Factors

a dimensions other & t practice In

dimensions plate other a t i.e.

materials finite - semi for thin only true is result he Strictly t

>>

<< <<

applied are factors correction other a, t dimensions other For

a t , where

a 1.12 K Therefore,

>>

=

Example

strength. yield at the

fail crack to of size the determine Also 0.2mm. of a' ' size

crack a contains it if T651 - 7074 alloy aluminium an for (MPa)

stress fracture the determine a, k equation the Using

c

=

495MPa strength Yield

24.2MNm K

strength. yield at the

3/2 -

c

=

=

Solution

) / K ( a

/ K a Now,

MPa 4 . 965 ) 0.2x10 x ( 24.2/ a / K

a K

2

f c

3 -

c f

f c

=

=

= = =

=

fracture fast under fail always will material the 0.76mm a if I.E.

0.76mm m 7.61x10 a

/ ) 495 / 2 . 24 ( a

/ ) / K ( a

) / K ( a

4 -

2

2

f c

2

f c

>

= =

=

=

=

Example

Determine the fracture strength for a

high strength steel assuming a crack of

0.2mm & k

c

=55MNm

-3/2

. Also if the yield

strength is 1550 MPa determine the size strength is 1550 MPa determine the size

of crack that will cause failure at this

stress.

Solution

/ K a Now,

MPa 2 . 2194

) 0.2x10 x ( / 55

a / K

f

3 -

f

c f

=

=

=

=

mm 4 . 0 m 4x10 a

/ ) 1550 / 55 ( a

/ ) / K ( a

) / K ( a

/ K a Now,

4 -

2

2

f c

2

f c

f c

= =

=

=

=

=

Example

The maximum sized internal flaw in a

hot-pressed silicon carbide ceramic is

30micron. If this material has a fracture

toughness of 3.9MNm

-3/2

, what is the toughness of 3.9MNm

-3/2

, what is the

maximum stress that this material can

support?

Solution

m 15x10 /2 30x10 a

2 by divided be must crack the of size the

internal, is crack the fact that the to Due

6 - 6 -

= =

MPa 1 . 568

) 15x10 x ( / 9 . 3

a / K

m 15x10 /2 30x10 a

f

6 -

f

c f

6 - 6 -

=

=

=

= =

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

OF METALS OF METALS

Mechanical Properties of Metals

How do metals respond to external loads?

Stress and Strain

Tension

Compression

Shear

Torsion

Elastic deformation Elastic deformation

Plastic Deformation

Yield Strength

Tensile Strength

Ductility

Toughness

Hardness

How materials deform as a function of applied load

Testing methods and language for mechanical

properties of materials.

52

S

t

r

e

s

s

,

(

M

P

a

)

Strain, (mm / mm)

Types of Loading

Tensile

Compressive

Shear

Torsion

Stress

(For Tension and Compression)

To compare specimens , the load is calculated per

unit area.

Stress: = F / A

o

F: is load

A

0

: cross-sectional area

A

0

is perpendicular to F before application of the

load.

Strain

(For Tension and Compression)

Strain: = l / l

o

( 100 %)

l: change in length

l

o

: original length.

Stress / strain = /

True Stress and Strain

T

= F/A

i

T

= ln(l

i

/l

o

)

True Stress

True stress: load divided by actual area in the necked-down region,

continues to rise to the point of fracture, in contrast to the engineering stress.

= F/A

o

= (l

i

-l

o

/l

o

)

True Strain

Shear

Shear stress: = F / A

o

F is applied parallel to upper and

lower faces each having area A

0

.

Shear strain: = tan ( 100 %) Shear strain: = tan ( 100 %)

is strain angle

Shear Torsion

Torsion

Torsion: like shear.

Load: applied torque, T

Strain: angle of twist, Strain: angle of twist,

Shear

Torsion

Stress-Strain Behavior

(Tension)

Elastic Plastic

S

t

r

e

s

s

Elastic deformation

Reversible:

( For small strains)

Stress removed material

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

Stress removed material

returns to original size

Plastic deformation

Irreversible:

Stress removed material

does not return to original

dimensions.

Elastic Deformation

E = Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity (same units as ,

N/m

2

or Pa)

Hooke's law for Tensile Stress

Unload

= E

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

Load

Slope = modulus of

elasticity E

Unload

Higher E higher stiffness

Nonlinear elastic behavior

In some materials (many polymers, concrete...), elastic

deformation is not linear, but it is still reversible.

/ = tangent modulus at

61

Definitions of E

/ = tangent modulus at

2

/ = secant modulus between

origin and

1

Poissons ratio

Unloaded

Loaded

Tension shrink laterally

Compression bulge.

Ratio of lateral to axial strain called

Poisson's ratio .

Poissons ratio

z

y

z

x

=

dimensionless.

Sign:

lateral strain opposite to longitudinal lateral strain opposite to longitudinal

strain

Theoretical value:

for isotropic material: 0.25

Maximum value: 0.50,

Typical value: 0.24 - 0.30

Shear Modulus

Z

o

y

Unloaded

Loaded

Unloaded

Loaded

Shear stress to shear strain:

= G ,

= tan = y / z

o

G is Shear Modulus (Units: N/m

2

)

Elastic Modulus

Poissons Ratio

and

Shear Modulus

For isotropic material: For isotropic material:

E = 2G(1+ ) G ~ 0.4E

Single crystals are usually elastically anisotropic

Elastic behavior varies with crystallographic

direction.

Plastic deformation

(Tension)

66

Plastic deformation:

stress is not proportional to strain

deformation is not reversible

deformation occurs by breaking and re-arrangement of

atomic bonds (crystalline materials by motion of defects)

Tensile properties: Yielding

Elastic Plastic

S

t

r

e

s

s

Yield point: P

Where strain deviates from being

proportional to stress

(the proportional limit)

P

y

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

Yield strength:

y

Permanent strain= 0.002

A measure of resistance to plastic deformation

0.002

Tensile Strength

If stress is maintained specimen will break

Fracture

Strength

S

t

r

e

s

s

,

68

Tensile strength = max. stress

(~ 100 - 1000 MPa)

Necking

S

t

r

e

s

s

,

Strain,

Yield stress,

y

, usually more important than tensile strength. Once

yield stress has been passed, structure has deformed beyond

acceptable limits.

Tensile properties: Ductility

Percent elongation

or

Percent reduction in area

Ductility Deformation at Fracture

% elongation Measure of ductility and quality index

100

l

l l

EL %

0

0 f

=

100

A

A A

RA %

0

f 0

=

Mechanical Properties of Metals

Yield strength and tensile strength vary with thermal and

mechanical treatment, impurity levels, etc.

Variability is related to behavior of dislocations (Elastic

moduli are relatively insensitive)

Yield, tensile strengths and modulus of elasticity: decrease

with increasing temperature.

Ductility increases with temperature.

Tensile properties: Modulus of Resilience

The work done on a unit volume of material, as a

simple tensile force is gradually increased from zero to

such a value that the proportionality limit is reached

Calculated as the area under the stress-strain curve

from the origin upto the proportional limit. from the origin upto the proportional limit.

Failure by Fracture

The terms, tough, ductile, brittle, or fatigue

are frequently used to describe the fracture

behaviour of a material.

Tough or ductile fracture failure is Tough or ductile fracture failure is

preceded by excessive plastic deformation

often detectable.

Brittle or non-ductile fracture - involves little

or no plastic deformation often

catastrophic.

Fracture Toughness

Toughness: ability to absorb energy up to fracture

(Area under the strain-stress curve up to fracture)

Units: the energy per unit volume, e.g. J/m

3

Fracture Toughness

The area under the true stress-strain curve is significant

when expressing the increment of work related to

volume:

d

L

dL

A

F

AL

FdL

dW =

= =

the toughness of the material.

Toughness - the ability of a material to absorb impacts

and to dissipate the corresponding kinetic energy in

plastic deformation without failure.

=

0

dW W

s

Fracture Toughness

To improve fracture toughness there is a

need to avoid excessive elastic

deflections & plastic yielding.

Fast fracture can occur which causes Fast fracture can occur which causes

catastrophic failure.

Welding of ships, oil rigs, bridges,

pipelines, pressure vessels.

Fracture Type

The type of fracture which occurs largely

depends upon the type and condition of the

material.

Other factors include: Other factors include:

the type of stress applied.

the rate of stress application.

temperature and environmental conditions.

component geometry.

size and nature of internal flaws.

Fracture Mechanics

This is the study of the relationships

between crack geometry, material

strength and toughness and stress systems

as they affect the fracture characteristics of

a material. a material.

The aim of fracture mechanics is to

determine the critical size of a defect

necessary for fast fracture to occur.

-that is catastrophic crack propagation and

failure under service loading.

Fast Fracture

All are related to cracks, flaws or

defects.

Fast fracture is caused by growth of

these defects which suddenly become these defects which suddenly become

unstable & propagate at the speed of

sound.

Stress Intensity Factor

length crack the is a and factor geometric a is Y stress, applied the is where,

a Y K

by given is & FACTOR INTENSITY STRESS the

called K' ' parameter a by given is crack tip the around on distributi tress The

=

s

c

c

a a and

K K

fracture, At

=

=

Toughness & fracture toughness

values for some metals

Material Fracture toughness

K

c

(MPa m

or MNm

-3/2

)

Steels 80 170

Cast Irons 6 - 20

Aluminium

alloys

5 - 70

Cont.

No material is free from defects, so it is

essential that any crack-like defects are

relatively harmless.

Using values of fracture toughness it is Using values of fracture toughness it is

possible to calculate the size of defect or

magnitude of stress required to cause

failure.

Cont.

y

A

p

p

l

i

e

d

s

t

r

e

s

s

Failure

by

A

p

p

l

i

e

d

s

t

r

e

s

s

Defect size

Failure

by

yielding

by

Fast fracture

Critical

size

Correction Factors

a dimensions other & t practice In

dimensions plate other a t i.e.

materials finite - semi for thin only true is result he Strictly t

>>

<< <<

applied are factors correction other a, t dimensions other For

a t , where

a 1.12 K Therefore,

>>

=

Example

strength. yield at the

fail crack to of size the determine Also 0.2mm. of a' ' size

crack a contains it if T651 - 7074 alloy aluminium an for (MPa)

stress fracture the determine a, k equation the Using

c

=

495MPa strength Yield

24.2MNm K

strength. yield at the

3/2 -

c

=

=

Solution

) / K ( a

/ K a Now,

MPa 4 . 965 ) 0.2x10 x ( 24.2/ a / K

a K

2

f c

3 -

c f

f c

=

=

= = =

=

fracture fast under fail always will material the 0.76mm a if I.E.

0.76mm m 7.61x10 a

/ ) 495 / 2 . 24 ( a

/ ) / K ( a

) / K ( a

4 -

2

2

f c

2

f c

>

= =

=

=

=

Example

Determine the fracture strength for a

high strength steel assuming a crack of

0.2mm & k

c

=55MNm

-3/2

. Also if the yield

strength is 1550 MPa determine the size strength is 1550 MPa determine the size

of crack that will cause failure at this

stress.

Solution

/ K a Now,

MPa 2 . 2194

) 0.2x10 x ( / 55

a / K

f

3 -

f

c f

=

=

=

=

mm 4 . 0 m 4x10 a

/ ) 1550 / 55 ( a

/ ) / K ( a

) / K ( a

/ K a Now,

4 -

2

2

f c

2

f c

f c

= =

=

=

=

=

Example

The maximum sized internal flaw in a

hot-pressed silicon carbide ceramic is

30micron. If this material has a fracture

toughness of 3.9MNm

-3/2

, what is the toughness of 3.9MNm

-3/2

, what is the

maximum stress that this material can

support?

Solution

m 15x10 /2 30x10 a

2 by divided be must crack the of size the

internal, is crack the fact that the to Due

6 - 6 -

= =

MPa 1 . 568

) 15x10 x ( / 9 . 3

a / K

m 15x10 /2 30x10 a

f

6 -

f

c f

6 - 6 -

=

=

=

= =

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