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Pilani Campus
MATERIALS SCIENCE &
ENGG
Dr. Subrata Bandhu Ghosh
Department of Mechanical Engg.
ASTM (American Society for testing and Materials)
VISUAL CHARTS (@100x) each with a number
Quick and easy used for steel
ASTM has prepared several standard comparison charts, all having different
average grain sizes. To each is assigned a number from 1 to 10, which is
termed the grain size number; the larger this number, the smaller the grains.
Quick and easy used for steel
N = 2
n-1
No. of grains/square inch
Grain size no.
NOTE: The ASTM grain size is related a grain area
AT 100x MAGNIFICATION
or N = N
1
/15.5; where N
1
is the number of grains
per square mm.
ASTM (American Society for testing and Materials)
Generally speaking, a material is classified as
Coarse-grained when n < 3
Medium-grained when 4 < n < 6
Fine grained when 7 < n < 9
Ultrafine-grained when n > 10 Ultrafine-grained when n > 10
Grain size number in reality does not offer any
direct information about the actual size of the
grain
A more direct approach: determine actual
average grain diameter
Linear Intercept method
A random line of known length is drawn through a
photomicrograph (at a specific magnification) that show
the grain structure.
The number of grains intersected by this line segment
are counted
The ratio of the number of grains to the actual length of
Grain Size Determination
The ratio of the number of grains to the actual length of
the line is determined, n
L
The average grain diameter d is found by using the
equation:
d = C/(n
L
M)
Where C is a constant (C = 1.5 for typical
microstructures) and M is the magnification at which the
photomicrograph was taken
Determining Grain Size, using a Micrograph
taken at 300x
We count 14 grains
in a 1 in
2
area on the
image
The report ASTM
2
1
2
100
M is mag. of image
N is measured grain count at M
now solve for n:
n
M
M
M
N

=

The report ASTM
grain size we need N
at 100x not 300x
We need a
conversion method!
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
now solve for n:
log( ) 2 log log 100 1 log 2
log 2log 4
1
log 2
log 14 2log 300 4
1 7.98 8
0.301
M
m
N M n
N M
n
n
+ =

+
= +
+
= + =
For this same material, how many Grains
would I expect /in
2
at 100x?
1 8 1 2
2 2 128 grains/in
Now, how many grain would I expect at 50x?
n
N

= =
2 2
8 1
2 2
100 100
N 2 128*
50
N 128*2 512 grains/in
M
M
M

= =

= =
300
400
500
600
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

G
r
a
i
n
s
/
i
n
2
At 100x
0
100
200
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Grain Size number (n)
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

G
r
a
i
n
s
/
i
n
2
Electron Microscopes
beam of electrons of
shorter wave-length
(0.003nm) (when
accelerated across large
voltage drop)
Image formed with
Magnetic lenses
High resolutions and
magnification (up to
50,000x SEM); (TEM up
to 1,000,000x)
Uses a moveable Probe of very small diameter
to move over a surface
Atoms can be arranged and imaged!
Photos produced from
the work of C.P. Lutz,
Zeppenfeld, and D.M.
Eigler. Reprinted with
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
Carbon monoxide
molecules arranged on
a platinum (111)
surface.
Eigler. Reprinted with
permission from
Machines Corporation,
Iron atoms arranged
on a copper (111)
surface. These Kanji
characters represent
the word atom.
Summary
Point, Line, and Area defects exist in solids.
The number and type of defects can be varied and
controlled
T controls vacancy conc.
amount of plastic deformation controls # of dislocations
Weight of charge materials determine concentration of Weight of charge materials determine concentration of
substitutional or interstitial point defects
Defects affect material properties (e.g., grain
boundaries control crystal slip).
Defects may be desirable or undesirable
e.g., dislocations may be good or bad, depending on
whether plastic deformation is desirable or not.
Inclusions can be intention for alloy development
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
OF METALS OF METALS
Mechanical Properties of Metals
How do metals respond to external loads?
Stress and Strain
Tension
Compression
Shear
Torsion
Elastic deformation Elastic deformation
Plastic Deformation
Yield Strength
Tensile Strength
Ductility
Toughness
Hardness
How materials deform as a function of applied load
Testing methods and language for mechanical
properties of materials.
13
S
t
r
e
s
s
,

(
M
P
a
)
Strain, (mm / mm)
Tensile
Compressive
Shear
Torsion
Stress
(For Tension and Compression)
To compare specimens , the load is calculated per
unit area.
Stress: = F / A
o
A
0
: cross-sectional area
A
0
is perpendicular to F before application of the
Strain
(For Tension and Compression)
Strain: = l / l
o
( 100 %)
l: change in length
l
o
: original length.
Stress / strain = /
True Stress and Strain

T
= F/A
i

T
= ln(l
i
/l
o
)
True Stress
True stress: load divided by actual area in the necked-down region,
continues to rise to the point of fracture, in contrast to the engineering stress.
= F/A
o
= (l
i
-l
o
/l
o
)
True Strain
Shear
Shear stress: = F / A
o
F is applied parallel to upper and
lower faces each having area A
0
.
Shear strain: = tan ( 100 %) Shear strain: = tan ( 100 %)
is strain angle
Shear Torsion
Torsion
Torsion: like shear.
Strain: angle of twist, Strain: angle of twist,
Shear
Torsion
Stress-Strain Behavior
(Tension)
Elastic Plastic
S
t
r
e
s
s
Elastic deformation
Reversible:
( For small strains)
Stress removed material
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
Stress removed material
returns to original size
Plastic deformation
Irreversible:
Stress removed material
dimensions.
Elastic Deformation
E = Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity (same units as ,
N/m
2
or Pa)
Hooke's law for Tensile Stress
= E
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
Slope = modulus of
elasticity E
Higher E higher stiffness
Nonlinear elastic behavior
In some materials (many polymers, concrete...), elastic
deformation is not linear, but it is still reversible.
/ = tangent modulus at
22
Definitions of E
/ = tangent modulus at
2
/ = secant modulus between
origin and
1
Poissons ratio
Tension shrink laterally
Compression bulge.
Ratio of lateral to axial strain called
Poisson's ratio .
Poissons ratio
z
y
z
x

=
dimensionless.
Sign:
lateral strain opposite to longitudinal lateral strain opposite to longitudinal
strain
Theoretical value:
for isotropic material: 0.25
Maximum value: 0.50,
Typical value: 0.24 - 0.30
Shear Modulus
Z
o
y

Shear stress to shear strain:
= G ,
= tan = y / z
o
G is Shear Modulus (Units: N/m
2
)
Elastic Modulus
Poissons Ratio
and
Shear Modulus
For isotropic material: For isotropic material:
E = 2G(1+ ) G ~ 0.4E
Single crystals are usually elastically anisotropic
Elastic behavior varies with crystallographic
direction.
Plastic deformation
(Tension)
27
Plastic deformation:
stress not proportional to strain
deformation is not reversible
deformation occurs by breaking and re-arrangement of
atomic bonds (crystalline materials by motion of defects)
Tensile properties: Yielding
Elastic Plastic
S
t
r
e
s
s
Yield point: P
Where strain deviates from being
proportional to stress
(the proportional limit)
P

y
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
Yield strength:
y
Permanent strain= 0.002
A measure of resistance to plastic deformation
0.002
Tensile Strength
If stress maintained specimen will break
Fracture
Strength
S
t
r
e
s
s
,

29
Tensile strength = max. stress
(~ 100 - 1000 MPa)
Necking
S
t
r
e
s
s
,

Strain,
Yield stress,
y
, usually more important than tensile strength. Once
yield stress has been passed, structure has deformed beyond
acceptable limits.
Tensile properties: Ductility
Percent elongation
or
Percent reduction in area
Ductility Deformation at Fracture
100
l
l l
EL %
0
0 f

=
100
A
A A
RA %
0
f 0

=
Mechanical Properties of Metals
Yield strength and tensile strength vary with thermal and
mechanical treatment, impurity levels, etc.
Variability related to behavior of dislocations (Elastic
moduli are relatively insensitive)
Yield and tensile strengths and modulus of elasticity:
Decrease with increasing temperature.
Ductility increases with temperature.
Toughness
Toughness: ability to absorb energy up to fracture
(Area under the strain-stress curve up to fracture)
Units: the energy per unit volume, e.g. J/m
3
Failure by Yielding
Metals exhibit both elastic and plastic
behaviour.
As the level of stress is increased so the
amount of elastic strain increases in direct amount of elastic strain increases in direct
proportion to the stress applied up to a
certain limit elastic limit.
To minimise the possibility of excessive
stress factors of safety are applied.
Failure by Fracture
The terms, tough, ductile, brittle, or fatigue
are frequently used to describe the fracture
behaviour of a material.
Tough or ductile fracture failure is Tough or ductile fracture failure is
preceded by excessive plastic deformation
often detectable.
Brittle or non-ductile fracture - involves little
or no plastic deformation often
Catastrophic.
Fracture Type
The type of fracture which occurs is largely
dependant upon the type and condition of the
material.
Other factors include: Other factors include:
the type of stress applied.
the rate of stress application.
temperature and environmental conditions.
component geometry.
size and nature of internal flaws.
Fracture Mechanics
This is the study of the relationships
between crack geometry, material
strength and toughness and stress systems
as they affect the fracture characteristics of
a material. a material.
The aim of fracture mechanics is to
determine the critical size of a defect
necessary for fast fracture to occur.
That is catastrophic crack propagation and
Fracture Toughness
To improve fracture toughness there is a
need to avoid excessive elastic
deflections & plastic yielding.
Fast fracture can occur which causes Fast fracture can occur which causes
catastrophic failure.
E.g. Welding of ships, oil rigs, bridges,
pipelines, pressure vessels.
Fast Fracture
All related to cracks, flaws or defects.
Fast fracture caused by growth of these
defects which suddenly become
unstable & propagate at the speed of unstable & propagate at the speed of
sound.
Stress Intensity Factor
length crack the is a and factor geometric a is Y stress, applied the is where,
a Y K
by given is & FACTOR INTENSITY STRESS the
called K' ' parameter a by given is crack tip the around on distributi tress The
=

s
c
c
a a and
K K
fracture, At
=
=
Toughness & fracture toughness
values for some metals
Material Fracture toughness
K
c
(MPa m

or MNm
-3/2
)
Steels 80 170
Cast Irons 6 - 20
Aluminium
alloys
5 - 70
Cont.
No material is free from defects, so it is
essential that any crack-like defects are
relatively harmless.
Using values of fracture toughness it is Using values of fracture toughness it is
possible to calculate the size of defect or
magnitude of stress required to cause
failure.
Cont.

y
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

s
t
r
e
s
s
Failure
by
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

s
t
r
e
s
s
Defect size
Failure
by
yielding
by
Fast fracture
Critical
size
Correction Factors
a dimensions other & t practice In
dimensions plate other a t i.e.
materials finite - semi for thin only true is result he Strictly t
>>
<< <<
applied are factors correction other a, t dimensions other For
a t , where
a 1.12 K Therefore,

>>
=
Example
strength. yield at the
fail crack to of size the determine Also 0.2mm. of a' ' size
crack a contains it if T651 - 7074 alloy aluminium an for (MPa)
stress fracture the determine a, k equation the Using
c
=
495MPa strength Yield
24.2MNm K
strength. yield at the
3/2 -
c
=
=
Solution
) / K ( a
/ K a Now,
MPa 4 . 965 ) 0.2x10 x ( 24.2/ a / K
a K
2
f c
3 -
c f
f c
=
=
= = =
=

fracture fast under fail always will material the 0.76mm a if I.E.
0.76mm m 7.61x10 a
/ ) 495 / 2 . 24 ( a
/ ) / K ( a
) / K ( a
4 -
2
2
f c
2
f c
>
= =
=
=
=

Example
Determine the fracture strength for a
high strength steel assuming a crack of
0.2mm & k
c
=55MNm
-3/2
. Also if the yield
strength is 1550 MPa determine the size strength is 1550 MPa determine the size
of crack that will cause failure at this
stress.
Solution
/ K a Now,
MPa 2 . 2194
) 0.2x10 x ( / 55
a / K
f
3 -
f
c f
=
=
=
=

mm 4 . 0 m 4x10 a
/ ) 1550 / 55 ( a
/ ) / K ( a
) / K ( a
/ K a Now,
4 -
2
2
f c
2
f c
f c
= =
=
=
=
=

Example
The maximum sized internal flaw in a
hot-pressed silicon carbide ceramic is
30micron. If this material has a fracture
toughness of 3.9MNm
-3/2
, what is the toughness of 3.9MNm
-3/2
, what is the
maximum stress that this material can
support?
Solution
m 15x10 /2 30x10 a
2 by divided be must crack the of size the
internal, is crack the fact that the to Due
6 - 6 -
= =
MPa 1 . 568
) 15x10 x ( / 9 . 3
a / K
m 15x10 /2 30x10 a
f
6 -
f
c f
6 - 6 -
=
=
=
= =

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
OF METALS OF METALS
Mechanical Properties of Metals
How do metals respond to external loads?
Stress and Strain
Tension
Compression
Shear
Torsion
Elastic deformation Elastic deformation
Plastic Deformation
Yield Strength
Tensile Strength
Ductility
Toughness
Hardness
How materials deform as a function of applied load
Testing methods and language for mechanical
properties of materials.
52
S
t
r
e
s
s
,

(
M
P
a
)
Strain, (mm / mm)
Tensile
Compressive
Shear
Torsion
Stress
(For Tension and Compression)
To compare specimens , the load is calculated per
unit area.
Stress: = F / A
o
A
0
: cross-sectional area
A
0
is perpendicular to F before application of the
Strain
(For Tension and Compression)
Strain: = l / l
o
( 100 %)
l: change in length
l
o
: original length.
Stress / strain = /
True Stress and Strain

T
= F/A
i

T
= ln(l
i
/l
o
)
True Stress
True stress: load divided by actual area in the necked-down region,
continues to rise to the point of fracture, in contrast to the engineering stress.
= F/A
o
= (l
i
-l
o
/l
o
)
True Strain
Shear
Shear stress: = F / A
o
F is applied parallel to upper and
lower faces each having area A
0
.
Shear strain: = tan ( 100 %) Shear strain: = tan ( 100 %)
is strain angle
Shear Torsion
Torsion
Torsion: like shear.
Strain: angle of twist, Strain: angle of twist,
Shear
Torsion
Stress-Strain Behavior
(Tension)
Elastic Plastic
S
t
r
e
s
s
Elastic deformation
Reversible:
( For small strains)
Stress removed material
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
Stress removed material
returns to original size
Plastic deformation
Irreversible:
Stress removed material
dimensions.
Elastic Deformation
E = Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity (same units as ,
N/m
2
or Pa)
Hooke's law for Tensile Stress
= E
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
Slope = modulus of
elasticity E
Higher E higher stiffness
Nonlinear elastic behavior
In some materials (many polymers, concrete...), elastic
deformation is not linear, but it is still reversible.
/ = tangent modulus at
61
Definitions of E
/ = tangent modulus at
2
/ = secant modulus between
origin and
1
Poissons ratio
Tension shrink laterally
Compression bulge.
Ratio of lateral to axial strain called
Poisson's ratio .
Poissons ratio
z
y
z
x

=
dimensionless.
Sign:
lateral strain opposite to longitudinal lateral strain opposite to longitudinal
strain
Theoretical value:
for isotropic material: 0.25
Maximum value: 0.50,
Typical value: 0.24 - 0.30
Shear Modulus
Z
o
y

Shear stress to shear strain:
= G ,
= tan = y / z
o
G is Shear Modulus (Units: N/m
2
)
Elastic Modulus
Poissons Ratio
and
Shear Modulus
For isotropic material: For isotropic material:
E = 2G(1+ ) G ~ 0.4E
Single crystals are usually elastically anisotropic
Elastic behavior varies with crystallographic
direction.
Plastic deformation
(Tension)
66
Plastic deformation:
stress is not proportional to strain
deformation is not reversible
deformation occurs by breaking and re-arrangement of
atomic bonds (crystalline materials by motion of defects)
Tensile properties: Yielding
Elastic Plastic
S
t
r
e
s
s
Yield point: P
Where strain deviates from being
proportional to stress
(the proportional limit)
P

y
S
t
r
e
s
s
Strain
Yield strength:
y
Permanent strain= 0.002
A measure of resistance to plastic deformation
0.002
Tensile Strength
If stress is maintained specimen will break
Fracture
Strength
S
t
r
e
s
s
,

68
Tensile strength = max. stress
(~ 100 - 1000 MPa)
Necking
S
t
r
e
s
s
,

Strain,
Yield stress,
y
, usually more important than tensile strength. Once
yield stress has been passed, structure has deformed beyond
acceptable limits.
Tensile properties: Ductility
Percent elongation
or
Percent reduction in area
Ductility Deformation at Fracture
% elongation Measure of ductility and quality index
100
l
l l
EL %
0
0 f

=
100
A
A A
RA %
0
f 0

=
Mechanical Properties of Metals
Yield strength and tensile strength vary with thermal and
mechanical treatment, impurity levels, etc.
Variability is related to behavior of dislocations (Elastic
moduli are relatively insensitive)
Yield, tensile strengths and modulus of elasticity: decrease
with increasing temperature.
Ductility increases with temperature.
Tensile properties: Modulus of Resilience
The work done on a unit volume of material, as a
simple tensile force is gradually increased from zero to
such a value that the proportionality limit is reached
Calculated as the area under the stress-strain curve
from the origin upto the proportional limit. from the origin upto the proportional limit.
Failure by Fracture
The terms, tough, ductile, brittle, or fatigue
are frequently used to describe the fracture
behaviour of a material.
Tough or ductile fracture failure is Tough or ductile fracture failure is
preceded by excessive plastic deformation
often detectable.
Brittle or non-ductile fracture - involves little
or no plastic deformation often
catastrophic.
Fracture Toughness
Toughness: ability to absorb energy up to fracture
(Area under the strain-stress curve up to fracture)
Units: the energy per unit volume, e.g. J/m
3
Fracture Toughness
The area under the true stress-strain curve is significant
when expressing the increment of work related to
volume:
d
L
dL
A
F
AL
FdL
dW =

= =

## which is the specific work to fracture and a measure of

the toughness of the material.
Toughness - the ability of a material to absorb impacts
and to dissipate the corresponding kinetic energy in
plastic deformation without failure.

=

0
dW W
s
Fracture Toughness
To improve fracture toughness there is a
need to avoid excessive elastic
deflections & plastic yielding.
Fast fracture can occur which causes Fast fracture can occur which causes
catastrophic failure.
Welding of ships, oil rigs, bridges,
pipelines, pressure vessels.
Fracture Type
The type of fracture which occurs largely
depends upon the type and condition of the
material.
Other factors include: Other factors include:
the type of stress applied.
the rate of stress application.
temperature and environmental conditions.
component geometry.
size and nature of internal flaws.
Fracture Mechanics
This is the study of the relationships
between crack geometry, material
strength and toughness and stress systems
as they affect the fracture characteristics of
a material. a material.
The aim of fracture mechanics is to
determine the critical size of a defect
necessary for fast fracture to occur.
-that is catastrophic crack propagation and
Fast Fracture
All are related to cracks, flaws or
defects.
Fast fracture is caused by growth of
these defects which suddenly become these defects which suddenly become
unstable & propagate at the speed of
sound.
Stress Intensity Factor
length crack the is a and factor geometric a is Y stress, applied the is where,
a Y K
by given is & FACTOR INTENSITY STRESS the
called K' ' parameter a by given is crack tip the around on distributi tress The
=

s
c
c
a a and
K K
fracture, At
=
=
Toughness & fracture toughness
values for some metals
Material Fracture toughness
K
c
(MPa m

or MNm
-3/2
)
Steels 80 170
Cast Irons 6 - 20
Aluminium
alloys
5 - 70
Cont.
No material is free from defects, so it is
essential that any crack-like defects are
relatively harmless.
Using values of fracture toughness it is Using values of fracture toughness it is
possible to calculate the size of defect or
magnitude of stress required to cause
failure.
Cont.

y
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

s
t
r
e
s
s
Failure
by
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

s
t
r
e
s
s
Defect size
Failure
by
yielding
by
Fast fracture
Critical
size
Correction Factors
a dimensions other & t practice In
dimensions plate other a t i.e.
materials finite - semi for thin only true is result he Strictly t
>>
<< <<
applied are factors correction other a, t dimensions other For
a t , where
a 1.12 K Therefore,

>>
=
Example
strength. yield at the
fail crack to of size the determine Also 0.2mm. of a' ' size
crack a contains it if T651 - 7074 alloy aluminium an for (MPa)
stress fracture the determine a, k equation the Using
c
=
495MPa strength Yield
24.2MNm K
strength. yield at the
3/2 -
c
=
=
Solution
) / K ( a
/ K a Now,
MPa 4 . 965 ) 0.2x10 x ( 24.2/ a / K
a K
2
f c
3 -
c f
f c
=
=
= = =
=

fracture fast under fail always will material the 0.76mm a if I.E.
0.76mm m 7.61x10 a
/ ) 495 / 2 . 24 ( a
/ ) / K ( a
) / K ( a
4 -
2
2
f c
2
f c
>
= =
=
=
=

Example
Determine the fracture strength for a
high strength steel assuming a crack of
0.2mm & k
c
=55MNm
-3/2
. Also if the yield
strength is 1550 MPa determine the size strength is 1550 MPa determine the size
of crack that will cause failure at this
stress.
Solution
/ K a Now,
MPa 2 . 2194
) 0.2x10 x ( / 55
a / K
f
3 -
f
c f
=
=
=
=

mm 4 . 0 m 4x10 a
/ ) 1550 / 55 ( a
/ ) / K ( a
) / K ( a
/ K a Now,
4 -
2
2
f c
2
f c
f c
= =
=
=
=
=

Example
The maximum sized internal flaw in a
hot-pressed silicon carbide ceramic is
30micron. If this material has a fracture
toughness of 3.9MNm
-3/2
, what is the toughness of 3.9MNm
-3/2
, what is the
maximum stress that this material can
support?
Solution
m 15x10 /2 30x10 a
2 by divided be must crack the of size the
internal, is crack the fact that the to Due
6 - 6 -
= =
MPa 1 . 568
) 15x10 x ( / 9 . 3
a / K
m 15x10 /2 30x10 a
f
6 -
f
c f
6 - 6 -
=
=
=
= =