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MC0086 Digital Image Processing Roll No.

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Fall 2013
Master of Computer Application (MCA) Semester 6
MC0086 Digital Image Processing


1. Explain any two fields that use digital image processing.

Ans: Gamma-ray Imaging
Major uses of imaging based on gamma rays include nuclear medicine and astronomical
observations. In nuclear medicine, the approach is to inject a patient with a radioactive isotope
that emits gamma rays as it decays. Images are produced from the emissions collected by gamma
ray detectors. Figure 1.1(a) shows an image of a complete bone scan obtained by using gamma-
ray imaging. Images of this sort are used to locate sites of bone pathology, such as infections or
tumors.


Figure 1.1: Gamma-ray imaging. (a) Bone scan. (b) PET
Fig. 1.1(b) shows another major modality of nuclear imaging called positron emission
tomography. The principle is the same as with X-ray tomography. However, instead of using an
external source of X-ray energy, the patient is given a radioactive isotope that emits positrons as

MC0086 Digital Image Processing Roll No. XXXXXXXXX

it decays. When a positron meets an electron, both are annihilated and two gamma rays are given
off. These are detected and a tomographic image is created using the basic principles of
tomography.
X-ray Imaging
X-rays are among the oldest sources of EM radiation used for imaging. The best known use of
X-rays is medical diagnostics, but they are also used extensively in industry and other areas like
astronomy. X-rays for medical and industrial imaging are generated using an X-ray tube, which
is a vacuum tube with a cathode and anode. The cathode is heated, causing free electrons to be
released. These electrons flow at high speed to the positively charged anode. When the electrons
strike a nucleus, energy is released in the form of X-ray radiation. The energy of the X-rays is
controlled by a voltage applied across the anode, and the number of X-rays is controlled by a
current applied to the filament in the cathode.

Figure 1.2: X-ray imaging. (a) Chest X-ray. (b) Aortic angiogram.
Figure 1.2(a) shows a familiar chest X-ray generated simply by placing the patient between an
X-ray source and a film sensitive to X-ray energy. The intensity of the X-rays is modified by
absorption as they pass through the patient, and the resulting energy falling on the film develops
it, much in the same way that light develops photographic film. In digital radiography, digital
images are obtained by one of two methods: (1) by digitizing X-ray films; or (2) by having the
X-rays that pass through the patient fall directly onto devices that convert X-rays to light.






MC0086 Digital Image Processing Roll No. XXXXXXXXX

2. Explain the properties and uses of electromagnetic spectrum.

Ans: The properties and uses of electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum can
be expressed in terms of wavelength, frequency, or energy. Wavelength () and frequency () are
related by the expression
= c /
Where c is the speed of light (2.998*108 m/s).The energy of the various components of the
electromagnetic spectrum is given by the expression
E =h
Where h is Plancks constant. The units of wavelength are meters, with the terms microns
(denoted m and equal to 106 m) and nanometers (109 m) being used frequently. Frequency is
measured in Hertz (Hz), with one Hertz being equal to one cycle of a sinusoidal wave per
second.
Electromagnetic waves can be visualized as propagating sinusoidal waves with wavelength l as
shown Fig. 2.1, or they can be thought of as a stream of massless particles, each traveling in a
wavelike pattern and moving at the speed of light. Each massless particle contains a certain
amount (or bundle) of energy. Each bundle of energy is called a photon. We see from Eq. (2.3-2)
that energy is proportional to frequency, so the higher-frequency (shorter wavelength)
electromagnetic phenomena carry more energy per photon. Thus, radio waves have photons with
low energies; microwaves have more energy than radio waves, infrared still more, then visible,
ultraviolet, X-rays, and finally gamma rays, the most energetic of all. This is the reason that
gamma rays are so dangerous to living organisms.

Figure 2.1: Graphical representation of one wavelength.
Light is a particular type of electromagnetic radiation that can be seen and sensed by the human
eye. The visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum spans the range from approximately 0.43
m (violet) to about 0.79 m (red).For convenience, the color spectrum is divided into six broad
regions: violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red. No color (or other component of the
electromagnetic spectrum) ends abruptly, but rather each range blends smoothly into the next.

MC0086 Digital Image Processing Roll No. XXXXXXXXX

The colors that humans perceive in an object are determined by the nature of the light reflected
from the object. A body that reflects light and is relatively balanced in all visible wavelengths
appears white to the observer. However, a body that favors reflectance in a limited range of the
visible spectrum exhibits some shades of color.





3. Explain different Photographic process models.

Ans: Photographic Process Models
There are different types of materials and chemical processes that have been utilized for
photographic image recording. No attempt is made here either to survey the field of photography
or to deeply investigate the physics of photography. Rather, the attempt here is to develop
mathematical models of the photographic process in order to characterize quantitatively the
photographic components of an imaging system.
Monochromatic Photography
The most common material for photographic image recording is silver halide emulsion, depicted.
In this material, silver halide grains are suspended in a transparent layer of gelatin that is
deposited on a glass, acetate or paper backing. If the backing is transparent, a transparency can
be produced, and if the backing is a white paper, a reflection print can be obtained. When light
strikes a grain, an electrochemical conversion process occurs, and part of the grain is converted
to metallic silver. A development center is then said to exist in the grain. In the development
process, a chemical developing agent causes grains with partial silver content to be converted
entirely to metallic silver. Next, the film is fixed by chemically removing unexposed grains. The
photographic process described above is called a nonreversal process. It produces a negative
image in the sense that the silver density is inversely proportional to the exposing light.

Figure: Cross section of silver halide emulsion.

MC0086 Digital Image Processing Roll No. XXXXXXXXX

Color Photography
Modern color photography systems utilize an integral tripack film, as illustrated to produce
positive or negative transparencies. In a cross section of this film, the first layer is a silver halide
emulsion sensitive to blue light. A yellow filter following the blue emulsion prevents blue light
from passing through to the green and red silver emulsions that follow in consecutive layers and
are naturally sensitive to blue light. A transparent base supports the emulsion layers. Upon
development, the blue emulsion layer is converted into a yellow dye transparency whose dye
concentration is proportional to the blue exposure for a negative transparency and inversely
proportional for a positive transparency. Similarly, the green and red emulsion layers become
magenta and cyan dye layers, respectively. Color prints can be obtained by a variety of
processes. The most common technique is to produce a positive print from a color negative
transparency onto nonreversal color paper.

Figure: Color film integral tripack

Figure: Spectral sensitivities of typical film layer emulsions.

MC0086 Digital Image Processing Roll No. XXXXXXXXX

4. Define and explain Dilation and Erosion concept.

Ans:

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