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SAP Buffers

Purpose
Each SAP instance (application server) has its own buffers. These buffers are also known as client caches because they are implemented on the client, that is, the application server. SAP buffers occupy memory areas that are local to the work process, and in individual shared memory se ments that can be accessed by all work processes. These memory areas are e!ecuted for the application server.

Some of the shared memory se ments in an SAP System are rouped into one shared memory se ment known as a pool. This is done to meet the operatin system limits on the number of shared memory allocations per process. "n most operatin systems, you can allocate as many shared memory se ments as re#uired. The limits depend on the kernel confi uration. The A"$ operatin system, for e!ample, allows %& shared memory se ments per process. SAP buffers store fre#uently'used data, and make this data available to the local application server instance. This helps to reduce the number of database accesses, the load on the database server (it does not need to be accessed repeatedly to obtain the same information), and network traffic. As a result, system performance is considerably improved. The data that is buffered includes A(AP pro rams and screens, A(AP )ictionary data, and company'specific data. Typically these remain unchan ed durin system operation. *ou can chan e, or tune, the si+es of buffers to optimi+e performance for a particular hardware confi uration. There are several ways to tune buffers. As there are many constraints to consider when chan e the buffer si+e, several difficulties may arise. *ou can use table bufferin to fine'tune applications, that is, some or all of the contents of infre#uently chan ed tables can be held in local buffers.
SAP Buffers

Program Buffer Generic Buffer Screen Buffer

This buffer occupies a whole shared memory se ment.

These buffers are held in a shared memory pool. All work processes can access this pool.

Roll Area

,ocal work process buffers. -nly one work process can access these buffers at a time.

Monitoring in the CCMS


Purpose
The CCMS provides a range of monitors for monitoring the SAP environments and its components. These monitors are indispensable for understanding and evaluating the behavior of the SAP processing environment. In the case of poor performance values, the monitors provide you with the information re uired to fine tune your SAP system and therefore to ensure that your SAP installation is running efficiently.

Implementation Considerations
!or central monitoring, that is, for the monitoring of a system landscape from one system, you must perform various configuration steps yourself. These are outlined in Configuring the Monitoring Architecture.

Features
The CCMS analysis monitors provide functions for
.heckin the system status and the operatin modes )etectin and correctin potential problems as #uickly as possible An early dia nosis of potential problems, such as resource problems in a host or database system, which could affect the SAP system The analysis and fine tunin of the SAP system and its environment (host and database system) to optimi+e the throu hput of the SAP system

The previous monitorin and alert system in the ../S was replaced by the monitorin architecture. The new monitorin architecture provides all of the functions that previously e!isted as well as new, more reliable alerts and more comple!, more powerful functions.

Use
"ou can either use the following monitors independently or e#ecute them as monitor$
0lobal 1ork Process -verview 1orkload /onitor 0lobal 1orkload /onitor -peratin System /onitor -peratin System .ollector SAP (uffer )atabase /onitor

analysis methods in the alert

Global Wor Process !"er"ie#


Purpose
*ou can #uickly investi ate the potential cause of a system performance problem by checkin the work process load. *ou can use the lobal work process overview to2

/onitor the work process load on all active instances across the s$stem "dentify locks in the database (lock waits).

3sin the Global Work Process Overview screen, you can see at a lance2 The status of each application server The reason why it is not runnin 1hether it has been restarted The .P3 and re#uest run time The user who has lo ed on and the client that they lo The report that is runnin

ed on to

See also% Selectin 1ork Processes )isplayin )etailed 1ork Process "nformation

Selecting Wor Processes Procedure


.all ../S .ontrol4monitorin 1ork process overview. Alternatively, call Transaction S/55. .hoose the Select process pushbutton. Select the work processes and statuses that you want to display more information on. *ou can also display information on specific pro rams and users. &$pe .hoose the work process type. Status *ou can select the work process statuses you are interested in. Runtime selection 3se this option to select lon 'runnin work processes. Application selection 3se this option to select re#uests for specific 647 transactions. Reporting

3se this option to select specific A(AP48 pro rams. User selection *ou can investi ate the potential specific causes of a problem. "f you suspect that a particular user is blockin work processes, enter the name of the pro ram or user, then choose Continue to filter the information.

'ispla$ing 'etailed Wor Process Information Procedure


.hoose CCMS Control/monitoring Work process overview. Alternatively, call Transaction S/55. Position the cursor on the instance and choose Choose. *ou can terminate the pro ram that is currently runnin and debu it.

9or back round processes, additional information is available for the back round :ob that is currently runnin . *ou can only display this information, if you are lo ed onto the instance where the :ob is runnin , or if you choose Settings and deselect Display only abbreviate in!ormation" avoi #$C. "n any case, the :ob must still be runnin .

Wor load Monitor


Purpose
The workload monitor (transaction ST&7;) is intended for use by Early1atch and 0oin ,ive teams. The workload monitor was reworked as part of the En:oySAP initiative, so that the 1orkload -verview is now simpler and more intuitive. *ou use the workload monitor to analy+e statistical data from the SAP kernel. 1hen analy+in the performance of a system, you should normally start by analy+in the workload overview. 9or e!ample, you can display the totals for all instances and the compare the performances of individual instances over specific periods of time. *ou can #uickly determine the source of possible performance problems usin the lar e number of analysis views and the determined data. *ou can use the workload monitor to display the2 ;umber of confi ured instances for each SAP 647 System ;umber of users workin on the different instances )istribution of response times )istribution of workload by transaction steps, transactions, packa es, subapplications, and applications Transactions with the hi hest response time and database time /emory usa e for each transaction or each user per dialo step

1orkload throu h 69., listed by transactions, function modules and destinations ;umber and volume of spool re#uests Statistics about response time distributeion, with or without the 03" time -ptional2 Table accesses 1orkload and transactions used listed by users, payroll number, and client 1orkload enerated by re#uests from e!ternal systems 9or all of this data2

*ou can display the data for a particular instance (not only the one to which your lo ed on) or optionally totalled for all instances. )ependin on your user mode, you can choose the time period for which you want to display the data between day, week and month (or determine the len th of time yourself usin the ,ast /inutes< ,oad function). 9or most analysis views, you can display all or only certain task types.

Integration
The workload monitor completely replaces the old ST&7 transaction.

Features
The workload monitor has an interface that is divided into two parts. 3se the tree structures on the left of the screen to make the followin settin s2 Select the user mode Select the time period for which you want to display the workload Select various functions and analysis views (which data you want to display).

The system then displays the result on the ri ht of the screen in a standardi+ed A,= 0rid .ontrol. 1ith it, you can 2 Ad:ust the ,ayout of the )ata -utput 9ind the information you want usin sort and filter functions Save user'specific views )isplay statistics raphically

!perating the Wor load Monitor


Use
The %or&load Monitor is a one'screen transaction that has as few additional menus as possible. This ma&es operation significantly easier and more intuitive.

Integration
Transaction ST()* of the %or&load Monitor has replaced the old transaction ST().

Features

Acti"ities
The individual screen elements of the wor&load monitor have the following meanings$

User Mode
After starting the %or&load Monitor, choose a user mode. This gives you access to precisely the functions and periods that are appropriate for the selected role.

Functions
In the $unctions subscreen, choose an icon by double'clic&ing it$
Function 1orkload )etailed Analysis (usiness Transaction Analysis Meaning )ependin on the user mode, you can define the instance and the period that you want to analy+e here. These functions read the workload directly from the statistics files of the individual instances.

"ou can perform a very precise analysis of individual transactions here, down to the level of individual steps.

,ast /inutes< ,oad

*ou can use this function to analy+e the workload data that has not yet been written to the performance database /-;". 1ith these functions, you cannot display the workload for a particular instance and a particular period (as in the other workload monitor functions), but rather compare the workload of different instances or periods. )isplay the most important data to ether therefore allows a direct comparison of the instances. Statistics of the (1 1orkload /onitor (only if there is a (usiness 1arehouse in the system) Amon other thin s, you can use this function to define which values the statistics collector collects, how often, and how lon they are to be retained in the performance database in what time resolution.

,oad >istory and )istribution ,oad >istory "nstance .omparison 3sers per "nstance (1 1orkload .ollector ? Performance )atabase

Analysis Views
An analysis view displays a particular aspect of the wor&load. In the Analysis +iew subscreen, choose the view that you want to analy,e by double'clic&ing it.
-nly those analysis views are displayed2

That are active in the selected user mode !or which data e#ists

Output Area
The output area uses an A-+ .rid Control, with which you can greatly tailor the selected view to your re uirements. !or most load parameters, the wor&load monitor displays more data fields than are re uired for your analysis. "ou therefore have a considerable amount of help available in the output area to find the information relevant for you$
The data of most analysis views is rouped in the results area by tab pa es for different topic areas. To obtain an overview of which data fields e!ist for an analysis view, choose the %ll Data tab pa e. 3sin the standard functions of the A,= 0rid .ontrol, you can

Show and hide columns Sort rows by the contents of a column Set and delete filters Perform summations /#port tables as a file type of your choice 0isplay tables as graphics Save sort orders, filters, and selected columns as your layout

Editing Views
Choose one of the following buttons in the & it 'iews screen area$
Button Meaning

Save 'iew Previous 'iew or (e)t 'iew $ull Screen* Show/+i e ,ree

Saves the current view as your initial screen for the workload monitor (see also Savin 3ser'Specific =iews) /oves one view forward or back in the view history Shows or hides the $unctions and %nalysis 'iews subscreens on the left of the screen

Global Wor load Monitor


Purpose
The .lobal %or&load Monitor 1transaction ST().2 display statistical records for entire landscapes and therefore allows you to analy,e statistics data for both SAP 34) and non'SAP 34) systems. "ou can use this data to analy,e the wor&load of the monitored components in great detail. The monitor is organi,ed as a one'screen transaction so that its operation is very intuitive, and so that you can uery all desired data with only a few mouse clic&s. %hile statistics records for an SAP 34) system can only trace actions that are processed by SAP 34) components, you can use 0istributed Statistics 3ecords 10S3s2 to trace actions that are processed across the non'SAP 34) components 56// /ngine, ITS, and 7C. This also wor&s across component boundaries. Components that write statistics records send data from the statistics record with their communication with other components 1their 8passport92, meaning that the originator of an action or a data flow of a business process can be traced even beyond component boundaries. The 0S3s are first stored locally on the relevant component and are transferred to a monitoring system hourly by CCMS agents, where the aggregated statistical data is stored in a performance database and regularly reorgani,ed.

Integration
The operation of the lobal workload monitor is lar ely similar to the operation of the SAP 647 workload monitor (transaction ST&7;), which displays statistical data for the local A(AP system. The 0lobal 1orkload /onitor actually uses functions of the SAP 647 1orkload /onitor when you analy+e the workload of SAP 647 Systems. The 0lobal 1orkload /onitor displays statistical data a re ated by the collector. *ou can display raw statistical data (individual records) from SAP 647 and non'SAP 647 Systems from comple! system landscapes usin the functional trace (transaction STATT6A.E). The functional trace offers a finer resolution. *ou can use the functional trace to trace actions that belon to a business process across system boundaries.

The differences between the functional trace and the .lobal %or&load Monitor are e#plained in the section 0ifference 7etween the !unctional Trace and the .lobal %or&load Monitor.

Features
"ou can perform the following analyses, among others, in the .lobal %or&load Monitor$
>ow is the workload distributed amon the individual service types@ (9or more information about service types, see )isplayin the 1orkload -verview.) 1hat is the workload of individual actions@ >ow is the workload distributed over the individual hours of the day@ 1hich action steps have the lon est response and wait time@ 1hat workload data is created when callin e!ternal components@ 1hat is the workload of individual users and which actions has a user performed@ 1hat workload is created in a component on the basis of actions of e!ternal components@

1hat is the response time distribution for individual service types (re#uired, for e!ample, for Service ,evel A reements)@ 1hat is the availability of the statistical data for the individual components@ *ou can choose the period for which you want to display data between day, week, and month, or specify the ,ast /inutes< ,oad as you re#uire. *ou can display data for any component or optionally totaled for all components of a type.

The following applies to all of these analyses$

See also:
:perating the .lobal %or&load Monitor Configuring4Self'Monitoring of the .lobal %or&load %or&load Collector Monitor Monitor

!perating S$stem Monitor


Purpose
An SAP instance runs within an operatin system. The operatin system provides the instance with the followin resources2 =irtual memory Physical memory .P3 9ile system mana ement Physical disk ;etwork

(ottlenecks in these areas can si nificantly affect the performance of the SAP system. *ou can monitor these resources usin the ../S operatin system monitor. The operatin system monitor helps you locate the cause of a performance problem. "f the source of the problem is in the operatin system, you can analy+e it further and resolve it usin e!ternal tools or other e!ternal means. Performance indicators are2 Avera e load of and utili+ation of the .P3 /emory utili+ation Pa in in and out of data to and from the memory (replaced by pool data in the -S48&& operatin system monitor) )isk utili+ation information ,A; activity -peratin system confi uration parameters

See Also% .allin the -peratin System /onitor

-peratin System /onitor )ata2 .P3 -peratin System /onitor )ata2 /emory /ana ement -peratin System /onitor )ata2 9ile System and ,A;

Calling the !perating S$stem Monitor


Use
*ou can use the operatin system monitor to monitor the system resources that the operatin system provides. The collector SAP-S.-, collects these resources. *ou can call the monitor for the server on which you are currently lo ed on, or for another service.

*ou can also monitor operatin system data usin the ../S monitor Operating System (transaction 6AB&). >owever, the data displayed there is, in principle, only complete if the monitored servers belon to SAP systems. This restriction does not apply to the operatin system monitor.

Prere(uisites
SAP-S.-, must be runnin so that the data is available.

Procedure
To call the individual functions shown in the table, choose CCMS Control/Monitoring Per!ormance Menu Operating System.

Function

Menu Path

&ransaction

.all operatin system monitor for the local server

-ocal %ctivity

-S&5

.all operatin system monitor for another server

#emote %ctivity" then select the desired server on the S%POSCODestination screen

-S&C" then select the desired server on the S%POSCODestination screen

"n both cases, the system displays performance indicators for the operatin system of the desired server.

9or information specific to the -S48&& operatin system monitor, see Pool )ata in the -S48&& -peratin System. To display additional information about the individual areas, choose the correspondin row. )ata for the last B8 hours is displayed for the .P3, the memory, and the swap space. 9or the hard disk and the ,A;, the system displays a list of the current data for each hard disk and ,A; interface. "f problems occur, the system displays appropriate messa es.

To update the data displayed on the screen, choose #e!resh. As SAP-S.-, collects data by default in %& second intervals, you do not always obtain new data by choosin #e!resh. Possible )rror Messages SAP-S.-, has not created a shared memory se ment. Share memory not available This is usually due to the fact that the SAP-S.-, pro ram has not been started.

Collector not running

SAP-S.-, was started and created a shared memory se ment, but was later terminated.

9or more information about this topic, see Error Analysis2 -peratin System .ollector.

!perating S$stem Monitor 'ata% CPU


'efinition
The followin data about .P3 usa e is displayed for every .P3, broken down as percenta es by2 3sers System Times in which the .P3 had no task to perform or was waitin for an input4output ( i le)

/any factors could lead to an e!cessively hi h .P3 utili+ation, and you should therefore perform a detailed analysis. "f the problem was caused by too many active processes in the host system, you could, for e!ample, transfer .P3' intensive pro rams to times when there is a lower system workload, or to other host systems. *ou could also increase the number of .P3s or up rade the .P3(s).

1hen calculatin the hourly value for the last B8 hours, these values are avera ed over all .P3s of a host. !ther *alues Collected

;umber of .P3s "nterrupts per second4hour System calls per second4hour .onte!t switches per second4hour Avera e number of waitin processes for the last minute, last five minutes and the last %D minutes This is the number of processes for each .P3 that are in a wait #ueue before they are assi ned to a free .P3. As lon as the avera e remains at one process for each available .P3, the .P3 resources are sufficient. As of an avera e of around three processes for each available .P3, there is a bottleneck at the .P3 resources. o o "n connection with a hi h .P3 usa e, a hi h value here can indicate that too many processes are active on the server. "n connection with a low .P3 usa e, a hi h value here can indicate that the main memory is too small. The processes are then waitin due to e!cessive pa in .

%. )etail data for the processes that cause the lar est .P3 load2 %. B. 7. 8. D. 5. Process ") -wner of the process .ommand that started the process Absolute and percenta e .P3 usa e by the process 6esident process si+e in kilobytes Priority of the process

Use
The system displays the specified data when you call the operatin system monitor. The system displays the current detail data for the lar est .P3 users, if they choose Detail analysis menu Goto Current Data Snapshot ,op CP. processes in the operatin system monitor (see also )etail )ata of the -peratin System /onitor). .heck the followin performance factors in particular2

'ispla$

Procedure

"s a .P3 user constantly active@

.heck whether the process is in an endless loop.

"s the avera e load E 7 (more than three processes are waitin for the .P3)@

.heck whether all processes with hi h .P3 usa e (memlog, r3trans, nwengine, brbackup...) are necessary.

"s the usa e of the .P3 +ero percent@

.heck the analysis for the previous hours.

SAP03" should not be runnin on the application server. *ou can also display SAP work processes with hi h .P3 usa e with the SAP process overview. The SAP process overview displays the A(AP pro ram that is usin the .P3.

!perating S$stem Monitor 'ata% Memor$ Management


'efinition
The data that you can check in the operatin system monitor for memory mana ement includes data for the swap space and pa in as well as the physically available memory. The followin values are measured2 Physically available and free main memor$ in FilobyteG the minimum and ma!imum free main memory are also measured hourly.

As a rule of thumb, if .P3 bottlenecks occur if there is less than %& /( of free physical memory for a small hardware confi uration. This value can vary dependin on operatin system and system si+e. Paging is the e!chan e of data pa es between the main memory of a host system and the overflow store in a pa in file on the hard diskG pa in occurs if the main memory is not lar e enou h for the conte!ts of all runnin processes SAP-S.-, measures the number of pa es pa ed in and pa ed out per second with the #uantities of memory pa ed in and pa ed out in kilobytes. >i h pa in rates indicate that the main memory is too small for the runnin processes. /easures that you can take are to e!tend the main memory, to move processes to other host systems, and to delay memory'intensive pro ram runs to times of lower system workload.

-n 1indows platforms (unlike 3;"$ platforms), the system performs pa in out as a precautionary measure even when space is not re#uired in the workin memory, meanin that this value is irrelevant and you should only consider the pa in in rate. 3nder 3;"$, on the other hand, Page/Out is the critical value for evaluatin the pa in . S#ap Space is stora e space on the hard disk to which data that is not re#uired is written from the main memory, so that there is space in the main memory for the pro ram currently bein e!ecuted. SAP-S.-, measures the confi ured and free swap space in kilobytes and the actual and ma!imum si+e of the swap space in kilobytes. "n addition, the ma!imum and minimum si+es of the free swap space is measured hourly. The most important values are the free and the actual swap space.

;ot all types of swap space are available on all operatin systems. 9or this reason, in some cases, the actual swap space si+e corresponds to the confi ured and ma!imum swap space.

Use
The system displays the specified data when you call the operatin system monitor. "n the detail data, the system also displays the performance history for the last B8 hours and 7& days (see also )etail )ata of the -peratin System /onitor). To call the individual functions in the table, choose the Detail %nalysis menu in the operatin system monitor.

Function

Menu Path

.heck memory usa e for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours Memory

.heck the swap space usa e for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours Swap

.heck pa in and swap space for the previous days for one server

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare recent ays

.heck pa in and swap space for the previous days for various servers

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare all servers

!perating S$stem Monitor 'ata% File S$stem and +A,


'efinition
The operatin system monitor displays the followin data for hard disks, ,A;, and file systems2 9or all ph$sical hard dis s on a host2 o o o o o o o )evice name of the hard disk >ard disk usa e H percenta e of the time in which the hard disk is bein used Avera e wait #ueue len th of an input4output re#uest 1ait time in milliseconds durin which a re#uest waits in the wait #ueue Service time in milliseconds for an input4output Transferred kilobytes per second ;umber of disk operations per second

9or all file s$stems on a host2 o o o ;ame of the file system .apacity of the file system in me abytes 9ree stora e space in the file system in me abytes

9or all +A, interfaces on a host2 o o o o o o ;ame of the ,A; interface )ata packets received per second )ata packets sent per second Errors for received packets per second Errors for sent packets per second .ollisions per second, in which two stations transport a packet at the same time on the same channelG this leads to the destruction of both packets and means that they must be sent a ain

Some values are not specified in some network interfacesG for e!ample, there may not be a value for collisions per second in a token rin architecture. The values specified here do not describe the actual network traffic. They describe the transfers performed with this interface. This means that the errors displayed here refer to the interface and not to the actual network se ment.

Use
The system displays the specified data when you call the operatin system monitor. "n the detail data, the system also displays data for all hard disks and for all file systems of a server, and the performance history of the last B8 hours and 7& days (see also )etail )ata of the -peratin System /onitor). To call the individual functions in the table, choose the Detail %nalysis menu in the operatin system monitor.

Function

Menu Path

.heck the current usa e of the file systems

Goto Current Data Snapshot $ilesystem etail

.heck the current usa e of the hard disks

Goto Current Data Snapshot Disk etail

.heck the current usa e of the ,A;

Goto Current Data Snapshot -%( etail

.heck the usa e of the file systems for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours $ilesystem etail

.heck the usa e of the hard disks for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours Disk etail

.heck the usa e of the ,A; for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours -%( etail

.heck the file system, hard disks, and ,A; for the previous days for a server

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare recent ays

.heck the file system, hard disks, and ,A; for the previous days for various servers See also% -peratin System /onitor )ata2 .P3

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare all servers

-peratin System /onitor )ata2 /emory /ana ement

!perating S$stem Monitor


Purpose
An SAP instance runs within an operatin system. The operatin system provides the instance with the followin resources2 =irtual memory Physical memory .P3 9ile system mana ement Physical disk ;etwork

(ottlenecks in these areas can si nificantly affect the performance of the SAP system. *ou can monitor these resources usin the ../S operatin system monitor. The operatin system monitor helps you locate the cause of a performance problem. "f the source of the problem is in the operatin system, you can analy+e it further and resolve it usin e!ternal tools or other e!ternal means. Performance indicators are2 Avera e load of and utili+ation of the .P3 /emory utili+ation Pa in in and out of data to and from the memory (replaced by pool data in the -S48&& operatin system monitor)

)isk utili+ation information ,A; activity -peratin system confi uration parameters

!perating S$stem Collector SAP!SC!+


'efinition
The operating system collector SAP:SC:- is a stand'alone program that runs in the operating system bac&ground. It runs independently of SAP instances e#actly once per monitored host. SAP:SC:- collects data about operating system resources, including$
3sa e of virtual and physical memory .P3 utili+ation 3tili+ation of physical disks and file systems 6esource usa e of runnin processes

SAP:SC:- ma&es the data available using a segment of the shared memory for various applications and all SAP instances on a host. A CCMS agent or a dialog wor& process reads the data from the shared memory. "ou can display the data in various monitoring architecture monitors or in the operating system monitor 1transactions :S(; and ST(<2. If the operating system data is read and sent by CCMS agents, you can display operating system data for any hosts in a central system.
Bac ground to !rigin

%hen the development of SAP 34) was begun, hardware resources on =*I> servers were so scarce that it was necessary to customi,e the applications to these resources. In many areas, SAP 34) is based on a logical, operating system'li&e level 1such as memory management or managing the wor& processes2. SAP 34) could only manage these tas&s if it had access to reliable performance values for the operating system, independent of the specific operating system. SAP:SC:performs this tas& with a small usage of resources such as CP= or memory.

Features
The program SAP:SC:- is delivered with every SAP system, but is not restricted to SAP systems. The special features of the program are$
*ou re#uire a special authori+ation to use SAP-S.-, (see "nstallin SAP-S.-, on a /icrosoft 1indows >ost or "nstallin SAP-S.-, on a 3;"$ >ost). SAP-S.-, runs e!actly once on each host. SAP-S.-, runs independently of the SAP system.

7y default, SAP:SC:- collects the current data every ten seconds and records it, and records the hourly averages for the last 6? hours. Another bac&ground @ob, SAP_COLLECTOR_FOR_PERFORMANCE, ta&es performance data for the last 6? hours from the shared memory and writes it to the M:*I performance database. "ou can compare this data for one or more hosts. Supported Operating Systems SAP:SC:- is delivered for the following operating system platforms$
/icrosoft 1indows A"$ S3;4S-,A6"S

>P'3$ ,";3$ -S47I& -S48&& S;" A,P>A-S9

Installation and Configuration of SAP!SC!+


Purpose
The program SAP:SC:- is part of the standard delivery for all SAP systems is always installed with the system. It is possible, however, that you will have to install SAP:SC:- yourself. Possible reasons for this are$
*ou want to monitor operatin system data for hosts on which no SAP instance is runnin or that are not part of an SAP system, but which are important for the environment of your SAP system. "n this case, ensure that a ../S a ent is runnin on the host. *ou want to correct an incorrect installation. *ou want to install a newer version of SAP-S.-,.

Always use the current version of SAP-S.-,. *ou can find the pro ram as described under )ownloadin SAP-S.-,.

Process Flo#
SAP:SC:- is dependent on the operating system ' the installation therefore varies depending on the operating system of the host to be monitored. !ollow the appropriate procedure$
"nstallin SAP-S.-, on a /icrosoft 1indows >ost& "nstallin SAP-S.-, on a 3;"$ >ost

9or more information about the installation of SAP-S.-,, see SAP ;ote %IBBC. (y default, SAP-S.-, automatically has a valid workin directory after the installation. 9or information about chan in this directory, see SAP-S.-,2 1orkin )irectory and Profile Parameters. "f you want to monitor particular processes with SAP-S.-,, see /onitorin Selected Processes with SAP-S.-,.

Control the !perating S$stem Collector SAP!SC!+


Purpose
After you have installed and started the operatin system collector SAP-S.-,, it automatically be ins to collect operatin system data for its local host and to store this data in the shared memory. SAP-S.-, provides various settin s that you can use to improve its performance, to customi+e the #uantity of collected data to your re#uirements, and to help you find the causes of errors.

Process Flo#
The followin sections contain the most important information about controllin SAP-S.-,

Control SAP!SC!+ from the SAP S$stem


Use
*ou can control and monitor SAP-S.-, within the SAP system usin the operatin system monitor (transactions ST&5 and -S&C). *ou can use the followin commands to do this2 Start and stop SAP-S.-, (to start and stop SAP-S.-, on a remote host, see .ontrol SAP-S.-, on 6emote >osts). )isplay e!_coll, the lo file of SAP-S.-, )isplay the current status of SAP-S.-, Set and delete the detailed selection (see SAP-S.-, ,o 9iles).

Control SAP!SC!+ from the !perating S$stem


Use
*ou can also control SAP-S.-, directly from the operatin system input prompt.

SAP-S.-, must be runnin for you to be able to use the followin commands. Start the operatin system collector with the command saposcol"#l.

Features
.ontrol SAP-S.-, from the operatin system input prompt usin the command saposcol"$Option%. The followin options are possible2

!ption

'escription

&

Starts the dialo mode of the operatin system collector SAP-S.-,

&k

Stops the current collector

&r

Stops the current collector and displays the results

&'

)isplays the possible SAP-S.-, options

&(

9orces the collector to start, even if the collector is already collectin data

&s

)isplays the status of the collector

&i"$Number%

Sets a new interval for the collection of data in the normal mode (every $Number% secondsG the default value is %& seconds)

&!

)isplays the version of the collector

&u"$Number%

Sets the interval in seconds for the switch to idle status (the default value is 7&& seconds)G if the data in shared memory is not read for the specified len th of time, SAP-S.-, switches from normal mode to idle mode.

&e"$Number%

Sets the interval in seconds for the collection of data in idle status (the default value is 5& seconds)

&c

)eletes the data in shared memory

&p

1rites the shared memory to the file coll)put

&g

1rites the contents of the file coll)put to the shared memory

&t

Sets the trace level for debu

in

&*tl

Activates cyclical trace (see SAP-S.-, ,o 9iles)

&n

Sets the normal trace level

&o

)isplays all collected data from the shared memory

&m

)isplays all current data from the shared memory

'ialog Mode of the !perating S$stem Collector SAP!SC!+


Use
SAP-S.-, has a dialo interface, Collector>, that you can start from the operatin system input prompt with the command saposcol"# . *ou can enter various dialo commands here. 3se the command 'elp to obtain a list of the possible commands.

Features
'ispla$ing the 'ata in Shared Memor$ Collected b$ SAP!SC!+ *ou can use the dialo mode to call up the data that SAP-S.-, wrote to the shared memory. The most important command is ump, which is used to display various data collected by SAP-S.-, and stored in the shared memory, dependin on parameters and options. ump"$Parameters%"$option% The followin parameters are possible2 Parameter cpu memory top disk filesystem lan proc 'escription .P3 /emory ,ar est .P3 user >ard disk 9ile system ,A; /onitorin of selected processes

The followin options are possible2 !ption sin le all sum 'escription .urrent value of a sin le selected parameter .urrent value of all parameters available in shared memory >ourly avera es for the last B8 hours of all parameters available in

shared memory

;ote that not all of the parameters can be combined with all of the options. There are also the followin uses of the ump command2 Command dump confi defined dump confi used dump hour 'escription .onfi ured operatin system parameters

.urrently used operatin system parameters )isplays a list of the last B8 hoursG each of the B8 entries has the format 'our+"$,&-3%"o(" a."$Number%, where $Number%" specifies whether SAP-S.-, has consistent data for that hour2 ,+ ;o data available /+ current hour -+ inconsistent data $ ate"01111MMTT2%2 )ata available

To display the memory'related operatin system data in the shared memory, enter the followin command at the Collector> command line2 ump"memor."all The followin information is displayed2 Collector> ump"memor."all Pages paged in / sec 1 Pages paged out / sec 0 KB paged in / sec 4 KB paged out / sec 0 freemem [KB] 13312 ph smem [KB] !""3! s#ap configured [KB] $!34% s#ap total si&e [KB] $!34% s#ap free inside [KB] $2""! Controlling SAP!SC!+ in 'ialog Mode *ou can control SAP-S.-, in dialo mode usin the followin commands at the Collector> input prompt2

Command detailson detailsoff interval JnE leave kill launch force status stat

'escription Sets the details fla .ancels the details fla .han es the collection interval to $n% seconds ()efault K %&) )eletes the shared memory Stops the back round process Starts a new collector 9orces a new collector to start (only in emer encies) )isplays the status of the SAP-S.-, process that is collectin data in the back round

The chan ed values are written to shared memory. SAP-S.-, reads these values directly before collectin data. The chan es then take effect.

"f you chan e the collection interval, the collector switches to the new interval only after the e!piration of the old interval. )nding 'ialog Mode To leave the dialo mode of SAP-S.-,, use the command 3uit or the command e4it

Starting SAP!SC!+
Use
*ou only need to start SAP-S.-, yourself the first time that it is started on a host (see "nstallation and .onfi uration of SAP-S.-,). Thereafter, SAP-S.-, is automatically stopped and started when the host is shut down and startedG this applies irrespective of whether SAP components are runnin on the correspondin host. A manual stop and restart is only necessary in the followin conditions2 *ou want to install a newer version of SAP-S.-,. *ou want to stop SAP-S.-, that is collectin incorrect data or to correct an incorrect installation.

Procedure
The command to start SAP-S.-, varies dependin on the operatin system2 3nder 3;"$, you start SAP-S.-, with the command saposcol"(or saposcol"&l).

3nder 1indows ;T, you start SAP-S.-, by startin the correspondin service by choosin Start Settings Control Panel Services (see SAP ;ote &875%L5). *ou can also start SAP-S.-, in the operatin system monitor.

;ormally, SAP-S.-, is called without additional parameters or profiles. saposcol"#l corresponds to this call, where &l stands for start (see .ontrollin SAP-S.-, from the -peratin System). The followin occurs when the start command is e!ecuted2 "f the call finds a SAP-S.-, se ment in the shared memory, it takes over its process ") (P")) and the stored data of a SAP-S.-, that may already be runnin . "f no other SAP-S.-, is collectin data, the P") is &, and SAP-S.-, uses the e!istin shared memory se ment when startin . SAP-S.-, also starts if no shared memory is available. The new SAP-S.-, does not start if it detects that another SAP-S.-, is already collectin data. After it has been started, SAP-S.-, performs an initiali+ation durin which it reserves its re#uired space in shared memory. The pro ram calculates the si+e of this space from the number of available hard disks, .P3s, file systems, and so on. SAP-S.-, writes the contents of the file coll)put (if it e!ists) to its shared memory se ment. The process continues runnin in the back round, and the ori inal pro ram ends.

Stopping SAP!SC!+
Use
The command to stop SAP-S.-, varies dependin on the operatin system2 3nder 3;"$, you stop SAP-S.-, with the command saposcol"&k. 3nder 1indows ;T, you stop SAP-S.-, by stoppin the correspondin service (by choosin Start Settings Control Panel Services). *ou can also stop SAP-S.-, in the operatin system monitor.

)o not stop SAP-S.-, usin other operatin system commands, as the data in the shared memory could become corrupted. Also, in this case you cannot start a new SAP-S.-,, but receive an error messa e that a SAP-S.-, is already runnin .

Procedure
The command to stop SAP-S.-, first starts a new SAP-S.-, that stops the active SAP-S.-, after a second. The followin occurs2 The new SAP-S.-, connects to the shared memory. 3sin the shared memory, it determines the process ") (P")) of the SAP-S.-, that is collectin data.

"f the new SAP-S.-, finds a valid P"), it sets a fla in shared memory. 1hen the old SAP-S.-, finds this fla , it resets the fla and deletes the P") from shared memory. "f this is not complete within B& seconds, the new SAP-S.-, stops the old SAP-S.-,.

>ow lon a shared memory se ment e!ists depends on the operatin system. -n a 3;"$ operatin system, it is stored until SAP-S.-, deletes it. -n 1indows ;T, the shared memory is deleted by the operatin system if no process is connected with it. The old SAP-S.-, writes the data in shared memory to the file coll)put in the SAP-S.-, workin directory. The pro ram then ends. 1hen the host is restarted, the file coll)put is imported so that the combined data is available in the shared memory. "f, for e!ample, SAP-S.-, is stopped at %B2&7 and is restarted at %828I, the data until %B2&& is still available for the SAP system. To avoid confusion, invalid data for the time from %B2&& until %82&& is not displayed in the overview of the last hours in the operatin system monitor.

)elete the file coll)put, if you stop SAP-S.-, in the conte!t of error analysis, as the pro ram imports the (possibly erroneous) measured values from the file to the shared memory se ment if it is restarted.

Reducing the CPU +oad Caused b$ SAP!SC!+


Use
SAP-S.-, can use a hi h proportion of operatin system resources, as it periodically collects data from the operatin system. 1hich data re#uires the most resources durin collection depends on the operatin system. *ou have the followin options to minimi+e the .P3 usa e of SAP-S.-,2

Procedure
'elete the 'etail Selection *ou can control the collection of data by SAP-S.-, by havin certain data, the collection of which has a particularly hi h influence on the performance, collected less fre#uently. 1hich data belon s to this roup depends on the operatin system of the monitored host2 (y default, detail selection is set (Details re0uire pushbutton in the operatin system monitorG command etailson in dialo mode). To remove detail selection, choose Details O!! in the operatin system monitor, or enter the command etailso(( in the dialo mode. This settin applies universally. Use the Idle Mode of SAP!SC!+ "f the data is not read from the shared memory durin a period of five minutes, SAP-S.-, switches from normal mode to idle mode. "n this mode, the collector collects data every minute instead of

every ten seconds. This is sufficient for a well'founded hourly avera e value. "f a process reads data from the shared memory durin idle mode, SAP-S.-, switches back to normal mode.

!perating S$stem Monitor 'ata% CPU


'efinition
The followin data about .P3 usa e is displayed for every .P3, broken down as percenta es by2 3sers System Times in which the .P3 had no task to perform or was waitin for an input4output ( i le)

/any factors could lead to an e!cessively hi h .P3 utili+ation, and you should therefore perform a detailed analysis. "f the problem was caused by too many active processes in the host system, you could, for e!ample, transfer .P3' intensive pro rams to times when there is a lower system workload, or to other host systems. *ou could also increase the number of .P3s or up rade the .P3(s).

1hen calculatin the hourly value for the last B8 hours, these values are avera ed over all .P3s of a host. !ther *alues Collected ;umber of .P3s "nterrupts per second4hour System calls per second4hour .onte!t switches per second4hour Avera e number of waitin processes for the last minute, last five minutes and the last %D minutes This is the number of processes for each .P3 that are in a wait #ueue before they are assi ned to a free .P3. As lon as the avera e remains at one process for each available .P3, the .P3 resources are sufficient. As of an avera e of around three processes for each available .P3, there is a bottleneck at the .P3 resources. o o "n connection with a hi h .P3 usa e, a hi h value here can indicate that too many processes are active on the server. "n connection with a low .P3 usa e, a hi h value here can indicate that the main memory is too small. The processes are then waitin due to e!cessive pa in .

)etail data for the processes that cause the lar est .P3 load2 o o o o o o Process ") -wner of the process .ommand that started the process Absolute and percenta e .P3 usa e by the process 6esident process si+e in kilobytes Priority of the process

Use
The system displays the specified data when you call the operatin system monitor. The system displays the current detail data for the lar est .P3 users, if they choose Detail analysis menu Goto Current Data Snapshot ,op CP. processes in the operatin system monitor (see also )etail )ata of the -peratin System /onitor). .heck the followin performance factors in particular2

'ispla$

Procedure

"s a .P3 user constantly active@

.heck whether the process is in an endless loop.

"s the avera e load E 7 (more than three processes are waitin for the .P3)@

.heck whether all processes with hi h .P3 usa e (memlog, r3trans, nwengine, brbackup...) are necessary.

"s the usa e of the .P3 +ero percent@

.heck the analysis for the previous hours.

SAP03" should not be runnin on the application server. *ou can also display SAP work processes with hi h .P3 usa e with the SAP process overview. The SAP process overview displays the A(AP pro ram that is usin the .P3.

!perating S$stem Monitor 'ata% Memor$ Management


'efinition
The data that you can check in the operatin system monitor for memory mana ement includes data for the swap space and pa in as well as the physically available memory. The followin values are measured2 Physically available and free main memor$ in FilobyteG the minimum and ma!imum free main memory are also measured hourly.

As a rule of thumb, if .P3 bottlenecks occur if there is less than %& /( of free physical memory for a small hardware confi uration. This value can vary dependin on operatin system and system si+e.

Paging is the e!chan e of data pa es between the main memory of a host system and the overflow store in a pa in file on the hard diskG pa in occurs if the main memory is not lar e enou h for the conte!ts of all runnin processes SAP-S.-, measures the number of pa es pa ed in and pa ed out per second with the #uantities of memory pa ed in and pa ed out in kilobytes. >i h pa in rates indicate that the main memory is too small for the runnin processes. /easures that you can take are to e!tend the main memory, to move processes to other host systems, and to delay memory'intensive pro ram runs to times of lower system workload.

-n 1indows platforms (unlike 3;"$ platforms), the system performs pa in out as a precautionary measure even when space is not re#uired in the workin memory, meanin that this value is irrelevant and you should only consider the pa in in rate. 3nder 3;"$, on the other hand, Page/Out is the critical value for evaluatin the pa in . S#ap Space is stora e space on the hard disk to which data that is not re#uired is written from the main memory, so that there is space in the main memory for the pro ram currently bein e!ecuted. SAP-S.-, measures the confi ured and free swap space in kilobytes and the actual and ma!imum si+e of the swap space in kilobytes. "n addition, the ma!imum and minimum si+es of the free swap space is measured hourly. The most important values are the free and the actual swap space.

;ot all types of swap space are available on all operatin systems. 9or this reason, in some cases, the actual swap space si+e corresponds to the confi ured and ma!imum swap space.

Use
The system displays the specified data when you call the operatin system monitor. "n the detail data, the system also displays the performance history for the last B8 hours and 7& days (see also )etail )ata of the -peratin System /onitor). To call the individual functions in the table, choose the Detail %nalysis menu in the operatin system monitor.

Function

Menu Path

.heck memory usa e for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours Memory

.heck the swap space usa e for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours Swap

.heck pa in and swap space for the previous days for one server

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare recent ays

.heck pa in and swap space for the previous days for various servers

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare all servers

!perating S$stem Monitor 'ata% File S$stem and +A,


'efinition
The operatin system monitor displays the followin data for hard disks, ,A;, and file systems2 9or all ph$sical hard dis s on a host2 o o o o o o o )evice name of the hard disk >ard disk usa e H percenta e of the time in which the hard disk is bein used Avera e wait #ueue len th of an input4output re#uest 1ait time in milliseconds durin which a re#uest waits in the wait #ueue Service time in milliseconds for an input4output Transferred kilobytes per second ;umber of disk operations per second

9or all file s$stems on a host2 o o o ;ame of the file system .apacity of the file system in me abytes 9ree stora e space in the file system in me abytes

9or all +A, interfaces on a host2 o o o o o o ;ame of the ,A; interface )ata packets received per second )ata packets sent per second Errors for received packets per second Errors for sent packets per second .ollisions per second, in which two stations transport a packet at the same time on the same channelG this leads to the destruction of both packets and means that they must be sent a ain

Some values are not specified in some network interfacesG for e!ample, there may not be a value for collisions per second in a token rin architecture. The values specified here do not describe the actual network traffic. They describe the transfers performed with this interface. This means that the errors displayed here refer to the interface and not to the actual network se ment.

Use
The system displays the specified data when you call the operatin system monitor.

"n the detail data, the system also displays data for all hard disks and for all file systems of a server, and the performance history of the last B8 hours and 7& days (see also )etail )ata of the -peratin System /onitor). To call the individual functions in the table, choose the Detail %nalysis menu in the operatin system monitor.

Function

Menu Path

.heck the current usa e of the file systems

Goto Current Data Snapshot $ilesystem etail

.heck the current usa e of the hard disks

Goto Current Data Snapshot Disk etail

.heck the current usa e of the ,A;

Goto Current Data Snapshot -%( etail

.heck the usa e of the file systems for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours $ilesystem etail

.heck the usa e of the hard disks for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours Disk etail

.heck the usa e of the ,A; for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours -%( etail

.heck the file system, hard disks, and ,A; for the previous days for a server

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare recent ays

.heck the file system, hard disks, and ,A; for the previous days for various servers

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare all servers

SAP!SC!+% )rror Anal$sis


Purpose
"f incorrect, incomplete, or no values at all about the operatin system are displayed in the operatin system monitor or in the Alert /onitor of an SAP systems, we recommend the followin procedure2

Process Flo#
.heck whether SAP-S.-, is runnin on the relevant host. *ou can perform this check at the operatin system command line by enterin the command saposcol &s in the SAP-S.-, directory (see .ontrol SAP-S.-, from the SAP System). "n the operatin system monitor, choose the OS Collector and Status pushbuttons. "f SAP-S.-, is not runnin , start itG for e!ample, usin the operatin system monitor, by choosin OS Collector and Start. .heck whether you are usin the current version of SAP-S.-,. To do this compare the version of SAP-S.-, runnin on your host with the current version in the So!tware Catalog at http244service.sap.com4swcenter'main. "f the version numbers are not identical, download the newest version (see )ownloadin SAP-S.-,), stop the runnin version and start the new SAP-S.-, (see Start SAP-S.-, and Stop SAP-S.-,). .ompare the values displayed in the operatin system monitor and in the )ialo /ode of the SAP-S.-, -peratin System .ollector.

"f the values are identical and the incorrect values are therefore already present in the shared memory se ment of SAP-S.-,, the SAP system is not the cause of the problem. "n this case, restart SAP-S.-, and delete the shared memory se ment after stoppin SAP-S.-,. "f the problems persist after a restart, you can find notes for correctin the errors, some of which are platform' dependent under ;otes for "ncorrect )ata )isplay

!perating S$stem Monitor 'ata% CPU


'efinition
The followin data about .P3 usa e is displayed for every .P3, broken down as percenta es by2 3sers System Times in which the .P3 had no task to perform or was waitin for an input4output ( i le)

/any factors could lead to an e!cessively hi h .P3 utili+ation, and you should therefore perform a detailed analysis. "f the problem was caused by too many active processes in the host system, you could, for e!ample, transfer .P3' intensive pro rams to times when there is a lower system workload, or to other host systems. *ou could also increase the number of .P3s or up rade the .P3(s).

1hen calculatin the hourly value for the last B8 hours, these values are avera ed over all .P3s of a host. !ther *alues Collected ;umber of .P3s "nterrupts per second4hour System calls per second4hour .onte!t switches per second4hour Avera e number of waitin processes for the last minute, last five minutes and the last %D minutes This is the number of processes for each .P3 that are in a wait #ueue before they are assi ned to a free .P3. As lon as the avera e remains at one process for each available .P3, the .P3 resources are sufficient. As of an avera e of around three processes for each available .P3, there is a bottleneck at the .P3 resources. o o "n connection with a hi h .P3 usa e, a hi h value here can indicate that too many processes are active on the server. "n connection with a low .P3 usa e, a hi h value here can indicate that the main memory is too small. The processes are then waitin due to e!cessive pa in .

)etail data for the processes that cause the lar est .P3 load2 %. Process ") B. -wner of the process 7. .ommand that started the process

8. Absolute and percenta e .P3 usa e by the process D. 6esident process si+e in kilobytes 5. Priority of the process

Use
The system displays the specified data when you call the operatin system monitor. The system displays the current detail data for the lar est .P3 users, if they choose Detail analysis menu Goto Current Data Snapshot ,op CP. processes in the operatin system monitor (see also )etail )ata of the -peratin System /onitor). .heck the followin performance factors in particular2

'ispla$

Procedure

"s a .P3 user constantly active@

.heck whether the process is in an endless loop.

"s the avera e load E 7 (more than three processes are waitin for the .P3)@

.heck whether all processes with hi h .P3 usa e (memlog, r3trans, nwengine, brbackup...) are necessary.

"s the usa e of the .P3 +ero percent@

.heck the analysis for the previous hours.

%. SAP03" should not be runnin on the application server. B. *ou can also display SAP work processes with hi h .P3 usa e with the SAP process overview. The SAP process overview displays the A(AP pro ram that is usin the .P3.

!perating S$stem Monitor 'ata% Memor$ Management


'efinition
The data that you can check in the operatin system monitor for memory mana ement includes data for the swap space and pa in as well as the physically available memory. The followin values are measured2 Physically available and free main memor$ in FilobyteG the minimum and ma!imum free main memory are also measured hourly.

As a rule of thumb, if .P3 bottlenecks occur if there is less than %& /( of free physical memory for a small hardware confi uration. This value can vary dependin on operatin system and system si+e. Paging is the e!chan e of data pa es between the main memory of a host system and the overflow store in a pa in file on the hard diskG pa in occurs if the main memory is not lar e enou h for the conte!ts of all runnin processes SAP-S.-, measures the number of pa es pa ed in and pa ed out per second with the #uantities of memory pa ed in and pa ed out in kilobytes. >i h pa in rates indicate that the main memory is too small for the runnin processes. /easures that you can take are to e!tend the main memory, to move processes to other host systems, and to delay memory'intensive pro ram runs to times of lower system workload.

-n 1indows platforms (unlike 3;"$ platforms), the system performs pa in out as a precautionary measure even when space is not re#uired in the workin memory, meanin that this value is irrelevant and you should only consider the pa in in rate. 3nder 3;"$, on the other hand, Page/Out is the critical value for evaluatin the pa in . S#ap Space is stora e space on the hard disk to which data that is not re#uired is written from the main memory, so that there is space in the main memory for the pro ram currently bein e!ecuted. SAP-S.-, measures the confi ured and free swap space in kilobytes and the actual and ma!imum si+e of the swap space in kilobytes. "n addition, the ma!imum and minimum si+es of the free swap space is measured hourly. The most important values are the free and the actual swap space.

;ot all types of swap space are available on all operatin systems. 9or this reason, in some cases, the actual swap space si+e corresponds to the confi ured and ma!imum swap space.

Use
The system displays the specified data when you call the operatin system monitor. "n the detail data, the system also displays the performance history for the last B8 hours and 7& days (see also )etail )ata of the -peratin System /onitor). To call the individual functions in the table, choose the Detail %nalysis menu in the operatin system monitor.

Function

Menu Path

.heck memory usa e for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours Memory

.heck the swap space usa e for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours Swap

.heck pa in and swap space for the previous days for one server

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare recent ays

.heck pa in and swap space for the previous days for various servers

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare all servers

!perating S$stem Monitor 'ata% File S$stem and +A,


'efinition
The operatin system monitor displays the followin data for hard disks, ,A;, and file systems2 %. 9or all ph$sical hard dis s on a host2 )evice name of the hard disk >ard disk usa e H percenta e of the time in which the hard disk is bein used Avera e wait #ueue len th of an input4output re#uest 1ait time in milliseconds durin which a re#uest waits in the wait #ueue Service time in milliseconds for an input4output Transferred kilobytes per second ;umber of disk operations per second 9or all file s$stems on a host2 ;ame of the file system .apacity of the file system in me abytes 9ree stora e space in the file system in me abytes 9or all +A, interfaces on a host2 ;ame of the ,A; interface )ata packets received per second

)ata packets sent per second Errors for received packets per second Errors for sent packets per second .ollisions per second, in which two stations transport a packet at the same time on the same channelG this leads to the destruction of both packets and means that they must be sent a ain Some values are not specified in some network interfacesG for e!ample, there may not be a value for collisions per second in a token rin architecture. The values specified here do not describe the actual network traffic. They describe the transfers performed with this interface. This means that the errors displayed here refer to the interface and not to the actual network se ment.

Use
The system displays the specified data when you call the operatin system monitor. "n the detail data, the system also displays data for all hard disks and for all file systems of a server, and the performance history of the last B8 hours and 7& days (see also )etail )ata of the -peratin System /onitor). To call the individual functions in the table, choose the Detail %nalysis menu in the operatin system monitor.

Function

Menu Path

.heck the current usa e of the file systems

Goto Current Data Snapshot $ilesystem etail

.heck the current usa e of the hard disks

Goto Current Data Snapshot Disk etail

.heck the current usa e of the ,A;

Goto Current Data Snapshot -%( etail

.heck the usa e of the file systems for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours $ilesystem etail

.heck the usa e of the hard disks for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours Disk etail

.heck the usa e of the ,A; for the last B8 hours

Goto Current Data Previous hours -%( etail

.heck the file system, hard disks, and ,A; for the previous days for a server

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare recent ays

.heck the file system, hard disks, and ,A; for the previous days for various servers

Goto Per!ormance Database Compare all servers

Buffer Components
'efinition
An SAP buffer consists of the followin parts2 The mode table resides in shared memory and tells you which pool contains which shared memory areas. The mode table is part of the common information on the shared memory areas that are accessed by the work processes. 9or e!ample, SAP Fey % with /ode K &, instructs the -S kernel to e!tract this buffer from the default pool and to allocate a uni#ue shared memory se ment. SAP Fey %& with /ode K pool si+e instructs the -S kernel to store the buffer specifically in pool %&. SAP Fey %% with /ode K '%& means that the buffer is located in pool %&. A shared memory area that is allocated by the dispatcher durin system startup. SAP 0lobal /ana ement Table 1hen semaphore protection is on, the SAP 0lobal /ana ement Table is addressed e!clusively by SAP Shared Memor$ Management. This is a central a ent that is found in each work process and that sets up a shared memory area for the local application server or instance. The SAP Shared /emory /ana ement issues a call to the operatin system (-S) when it creates a shared memory area. As a result, the SAP e$ is assi ned to an !S e$. The -S returns a uni#ue identifier (handle) for the shared memory area, with which the SAP Shared /emory /ana ement addresses the shared memory area that was created by the -S. All work processes in the SAP System can access the SAP 0lobal /ana ement Table. The handle can be accessed by all work processes. Every work process contains this table. Address Table Assi ns virtual addresses to the physical addresses of the shared memory areas. Shared /emory -b:ects These include the buffers, for e!ample.

/ode table

.ontains information on the shared memory area (also called memory se ment). >eader "f a write error occurs outside the se ment area, then the uniformity of the header is destroyed. The control function of the SAP /ana ement of Shared /emory checks the consistency of the headers. "dentifies the memory area. ") The ") is assi ned when a SAP Shared /emory /ana ement user re#uests the memory area. The memory class. Stora e .lass E!amples of memory classes2 permanent (local), shared, roll, pa in and short. Subdivision A mark for the re#uested area that can be referred to later when you release the memory area. (uffer si+e includin the header. Ali nment of memory areas in accordance with hardware constraints.

Si+e include header Ali nment

See also% (uffer Synchroni+ation (uffer Types

Buffer S$nchroni-ation
The fact that each application server has its own buffers could result in data inconsistency across the various application servers (instances). To prevent data inconsistency, the SAP System uses periodical buffer s$nchroni-ation, which is sometimes called buffer refresh. Every modifyin action on buffered data, which could also be buffered by other application servers, produces synchroni+ation tele rams that are written to a central )( table ()),-0). Every application server periodically reads the tele rams written since the last synchroni+ation, and checks its buffers for data to be refreshed. (uffer synchroni+ation can be controlled by chan in the followin parameters in the r isp5bu(re(mo e"6"sen on"7"sen o((8"e4eauto"7"e4eo((" r isp5bu(re(time"6"(in seconds, time between two synchroni+ation) instance profile2

)urin the period between two refreshes, an application server may read data from its buffers while they are bein modified by another application server. 9or this reason, no important volatile customer data should be buffered in the SAP buffers.

E!amples of buffered data2 Table TST. (SAP transaction codes) Table T%&& (error messa es) A(AP e!ecutables Screens

(uffer synchroni+ation is re#uired only for distributed SAP Systems when more than one application server (instance) is used. "f your SAP System utili+es only one application server (instance), buffer synchroni+ation is not needed. 1hen the application server is restarted, all buffers are erased and dynamically reconstructed. (efore you use tp (SAP transport pro ram) to import ob:ects into a central instance (that is, only one instance in the whole SAP System), you should set the followin parameter2 r isp5bu(re(mo e"6"sen o((8"e4eauto

"f you set the paramter to M e4eo(( <, the central instance does not read the )),-0 table. This means that any chan es to repository ob:ects in the database (that is written to usin tp ) are not updated in the SAP repository buffers. This may mean that the system displays synta! error messa es for the A(AP pro rams that are affected. The A(AP processor can detect whether a version of the A(AP pro ram imported via tp is new, and reloads the pro ram buffer. The SAP repository buffers still contain the old repository ob:ects.

Repositor$ Buffers .,ametab Buffers/


'efinition
The name table (nametab) contains the table and field definitions that are activated in the SAP System. An entry is made in the 6epository buffer when a mass activator or a user (usin the A(AP )ictionary, Transaction SE%%) re#uests to activate a table. The correspondin name table is then enerated from the information that is mana ed in the 6epository.

The 6epository buffer is mainly known as the nametab buffer (;TA(), but it is also known as the A(AP )ictionary buffer. The description of a table in the 6epository is distributed amon several tables (for field definition, data element definition and domain definition). This information is summari+ed in the name table. The name table is saved in the followin database tables2 ));TT (table definitions)

));T9 (field descriptions)

The 6epository buffer consists of four buffers in shared memory, one for each of the followin 2

&able definitions

TTA( buffer

Table ));TT

Field descriptions

9TA( buffer

Table ));T9

Initial record la$outs

"6E. buffer

.ontains the record layout initiali+ed dependin on the field type

Short ,ametab

S;TA( buffer

A short summary of TTA( and 9TA( buffers

The Short nametab and 1nitial recor layouts are not saved in the database. "nstead, they are derived from the contents of tables ));TT and ));T9. 1hen access to a table is re#uested, the database access a ent embedded in each work process first reads the Short nametab buffer for information about the table. "f the information is insufficient (for e!ample, the SELECT statement uses a non'primary key) it accesses the ,able e!initions buffer and then the $iel escriptions buffer. (y readin the 6epository buffers, the database access a ent knows whether the table is buffered or not. 3sin this information, it accesses the table buffers (partial buffer or eneric buffer) or the database. The "6E. buffer is read2 1hen a REFRES9 command is e!ecuted in an A(AP pro ram At an :NSERT command, when a record is created in the buffers before the data is inserted and the fields are initiali+ed with the values found in "6E. buffer instance profile.

*ou can set the buffers mentioned above by editin the parameters in the See also%

&$pical Parameter Settings for SAP Buffers


Repositor$ Buffer .,ametab Buffer/
The following table provides an overview of the capacity of the repository buffer. This capacity is allocated using the corresponding profile parameters. It also specifies the number of the associated &ey$
Buffer ,umber of )ntries in the Management Area User 'ata 0in 1ilob$tes2 1e$

Table definition (TTAB

rs b5ntab5entr.count

*on'=nicode$ =nicode$

rs b5ntab5entr.count rs b5ntab5entr.count

ABB 4 A(6? 6C6 4 A(6?

?6

Field description (FTAB S!ort nametab (S"TAB #nitial record (#$B%

rs b5ntab5entr.count

rs b5ntab5(tabsi*e

?) ?D ??

rs b5ntab5entr.count

4? 4?

rs b5ntab5sntabsi*e

rs b5ntab5entr.count

rs b5ntab5irb si*e

The si+e of an entry in the mana ement area is H dependin on the hardware platform used H around D& bytes.

All of the listed buffers are in memory pool ?(. The si,e of the shared memory pool is therefore controlled by the parameter ipc5s'm_psi*e_;,. !or more information, see 3epository 7uffer

&able Buffers &eneric 'ey (resident buffer (TAB(


The number of directory entries 1one for every resident table or each generic area2 is defined with *csa5 b_ma4_bu(tab. The si,e of the data area in bytes is defined by *csa5table_bu((er_area) "ou can use ipc5s'm_psi*e_/< to control the positioning of the buffer. The parameter is usually set to */, 1Pool A(2. The parameter *csa5e4c'ange_mo e should not be changed. Eeep the default value Off.

Single 'ey (partial buffer (TAB(+


The number of directory entries 1one for each table2 is defined with rtbb5ma4_tables. The si,e of the data area in ,B is defined by rtbb5bu((er_lengt'. "ou can use the parameter ipc5s'm_psi*e_33 to control the positioning of the buffer. It is normally set to -, that is, the buffer is not in a pool. The parameter rtbb5(rame_lengt' defines the length of a frame in ,B and should always be set to the default value of .. !or more information, see Table 7uffers.

Program Buffer
"ou can only define the si,e of the program buffer with one parameter$ abap5bu((ersi*e. The si,e is defined in ,B. The number of directory entries is calculated from this parameter. "ou can control the placing of the buffer with ipc5s'm_psi*e_,=. This parameter is normally set to -, that is, the buffer is not in a pool. !or more information, see Program 7uffers.

SAP GUI Buffers Screen buffer (+$ES


"ou can define the si,e of the directory, that is, the ma#imum number of screens 1dynpros2 using *csa5bu( ir_entries. The total si,e of the buffer in ,B is defined by *csa5presentation_bu((er_area. The storage area for the directory is included here. Control the placement of the .=I buffers using parameter ipc5s'm_psi*e_/;. This parameter is usually set to&/,, which means that it is in pool A(.

/UA buffer
The parameter rs b5cua5bu((ersi*e defines the total si,e of the buffer in ,B. The number of directory entries is calculated as total"si*e"5"->?. "ou can control the placing of the buffer with ipc5s'm_psi*e_;@. This parameter is normally set to 0.-, that is, the buffer is in pool ?(. !or more information, see SAPgui 7uffers.

Roll and Paging Buffers


The parameters r isp5ROLL_S9M and r isp5PA_S9M are used to allocate the roll and paging buffer in 1,B bloc&s. This buffer is normally placed outside a pool. To place the buffer inside a pool, set the parameters ipc5s'm_psi*e_,B and ipc5s'm_psi*e_,<. !or more information, see 3oll and Paging 7uffers

SAP Calendar Buffer


"ou can define the si,e of the calendar buffer in bytes in profile parameter *csa5calen ar_area. !or more information, see SAP Calendar 7uffer See also2 SAP *ote A();?; on the SAP Service Mar&etplace

Special Aspects of &uning


'efinition
-nly transparent tables and pooled tables can be buffered. *ou should buffer tables that -nly have read'only accesses >ave not been modified.

-ther tables should only be buffered if the write accesses occur very infre#uently and the tables do not contain customer data. "n the case of tables that are modified fre#uently, the additional processin re#uired could cancel out any performance ains achieved by bufferin .

Buffering t$pes
Full .residential/ buffering

Either the whole table or none of the table is stored in the buffer. This type of bufferin is recommended (as a rule of thumb) for the followin tables2 Tables up to 7&F( in si+e, and accessed fre#uently, but all accesses are read accesses. ,ar er tables where lar e numbers of records are fre#uently accessed. >owever, if the application pro ram is able to formulate an e!tremely selective C9ERE condition for these multiple accesses usin a database inde!, it may be advisable to dispense with bufferin . "n this case, pooled tables should be converted to transparent tables. Tables where fre#uent attempts are made to access data not contained in the table, resultin in a N;o record foundN messa e. 1ith full bufferin all records of a table are contained in the buffer, which means a faster response to indicate whether or not the table contains a record for a specific key can be displayed. Tables which are small and are sub:ected to lar e number of read accesses, but are rarely written to.

Generic buffering
1hen you access a record from the table, other records whose eneric key fields correspond to this record are also loaded into the buffer. This type of bufferin is recommended (as a rule of thumb) for the followin tables2 .lient'dependent, fully buffered tables are automatically buffered enerically (even if full bufferin was selected in the table<s settin s). The client field is the eneric key. ,an ua e'dependent tables.

Single3record buffering .partial buffering/


-nly records in a table, which is bein accessed, are loaded into the buffer. This type of bufferin is recommended (as a rule of thumb) for the followin tables2 ,ar e tables where few records are accessed. The amount of records accessed should be between %&&F( and B&&F(.

The partial buffer also contains ne ative information. That is, if a record is accessed which does not e!ist in the database table, an empty record is stored in the buffer and a fla byte is set to indicate the record does not e!ist.

Wor ing #ith Call Statistics


Use
*ou can use the buffer monitor to help you decide which buffers to tune.

Procedure

6. To display the call statistics, from the initial screen, choose % ministration System a ministration
Monitor Per!ormance Setup/2u!!ers 2u!!ers Detail analysis menu Call statistics. -n the ne!t screen, make a selection and choose Enter. 7. Sort the display accordin to the data records called. Position the cursor on an entry in the column Calls (under D2 activity) and choose Sort.

Result
The Changes column indicates which tables are bein chan ed most fre#uently. *ou can enerally consider bufferin tables with many read accesses but with fewer than 455 chan es per day. The system displays the number of chan es made since the system was started. (y checkin the dates at the top of the screen, you can determine the number of days that have elapsed since system startup. Therefore2 Changes per da$ 6 &otal changes &otal number of da$s in the selected time period *ou should also consider the table type. -nly buffer tables of type ,#%(SP or Pool are important here. " nore those that are of type System as these tables should not be chan ed.

Wor ing #ith Call Statistics


Use
*ou can use the buffer monitor to help you decide which buffers to tune.

Procedure
6. To display the call statistics, from the initial screen, choose % ministration System a ministration
Monitor Per!ormance Setup/2u!!ers 2u!!ers Detail analysis menu Call statistics. -n the ne!t screen, make a selection and choose Enter. 7. Sort the display accordin to the data records called. Position the cursor on an entry in the column Calls (under D2 activity) and choose Sort.

Result
The Changes column indicates which tables are bein chan ed most fre#uently. *ou can enerally consider bufferin tables with many read accesses but with fewer than 455 chan es per day. The system displays the number of chan es made since the system was started. (y checkin the dates at the top of the screen, you can determine the number of days that have elapsed since system startup. Therefore2 Changes per da$ 6 &otal changes &otal number of da$s in the selected time period *ou should also consider the table type. -nly buffer tables of type ,#%(SP or Pool are important here. " nore those that are of type System as these tables should not be chan ed.

Reasons for Poor Buffer 7ualit$


'efinition
Poor buffer #uality may be caused by any of the followin 2

&ransports
Every time you transport new developed source into the system that is runnin the tp , you invalidate all entries in the pro ram buffer and clear all other buffers (command DSENC ). 3nlike the other buffers, the pro ram buffer does not start empty, but is filled with invalid pro rams. "t is very important to e!ecute as fe# transports as possible and to collect data for collective transports.

Buffer resets
Settin up a buffer re#uires a lar e number of database and network accesses, and places a considerable load on the system. Therefore, only reset the buffers if inconsistencies occurred between the buffer and the database. This mi ht happen, for e!ample, if you update a buffered table with native SO,, that is, the database table is updated directly by bypassin the buffer. To reset the table buffers, enter DTA? in the command field. 3se the command DSENC to reset all the SAP buffers on the application server. These commands only affect the buffers of the application server on which the commands are entered. The buffers of the other application servers in the network are not affected. 3sin the commands DTA? and DSENC places an e!tremely lar e load on the system. "n lar e systems, it could take up to one hour (dependin on the access profile) for the buffer load to return to its ori inal state. System performance is reatly impeded durin this time.

!ffline bac ups8 SAP S$stem reboots


(oth of these actions re#uire the SAP System to be shut down, and then started up a ain. All buffers of all servers are reset. A ain, this takes a considerable amount of time.

Program de"elopment
Software development should not be done in a productive system, as development systems re#uire a very lar e pro ram buffer.

9igh Buffer 7ualit$


'efinition
The followin describes how the buffer #uality of the SAP buffers should be in a SAP System with ood performance.

Repositor$ buffers .nametab buffers/


The #ualities of the 6epository buffers can reach II.IP in a system that has been runnin for a few days. "f the buffer #uality is less than IDP, you should investi ate the situation further.

.heck the2 Available freespace Available directories -b:ect swaps (uffer history.

Program buffer
The pro ram buffer contains the enerated A(AP pro rams (load).

Critical effects on the program buffer &ransports Every time a new source is transported into the system usin the R3trans pro ram, all entries in the pro ram buffer are invalidated, and all other buffers are cleared (e#uivalent to the DSENC command). 3nlike the other buffers, the pro ram buffer is not empty after transport, but is filled with invalid pro rams. Therefore, it is better to e!ecute as few transports as possible and to collect data to do several transports at once. 9or more information, see Pro ram (uffer.

Presentation and calendar buffers


The #uality should also be above IDP. Also check available freespace and the freespace history. 9or more information, see SAP ui (uffers and SAP .alendar (uffer.

&able buffers
As mentioned above, the #uality of the sin le key buffer increases very slowly from system startup. Therefore, bad #uality (J I&P) should only be of concern if there is no freespace left in the buffer. The #uality of the eneric key buffer should be reater than IDP and can be up to IIP. 9or more information, see Table (uffers See also%

Roll and Paging Buffers8 ):tended Memor$


'efinition
The roll and pa in buffers are the preferred workin area of the roll and pa in areas for an instance (application server). The remainin area is located on disk as roll and pa in files. The user conte!t is stored in the e!tended

memory and the roll area (when the :ob is Nrolled outN of a work process). The pa in area stores special data for the A(AP processor, while the e!tended memory stores a lar e portion of the internal tables of a pro ram. *ou set the roll and pa in buffers, as well as the e!tended memory usin the parameters in the instance profile.

Buffer &$pes
'efinition
There are seven main roups of buffers found in the shared memory. 9or more information on each buffer type, see %

6epository (uffers Table (uffers Pro ram (uffer SAP ui (uffers 6oll and Pa in (uffers SAP .alendar (uffer SAP .ursor .ache

Repositor$ Buffers .,ametab Buffers/


'efinition
The name table (nametab) contains the table and field definitions that are activated in the SAP System. An entry is made in the 6epository buffer when a mass activator or a user (usin the A(AP )ictionary, Transaction SE%%) re#uests to activate a table. The correspondin name table is then enerated from the information that is mana ed in the 6epository.

The 6epository buffer is mainly known as the nametab buffer (;TA(), but it is also known as the A(AP )ictionary buffer. The description of a table in the 6epository is distributed amon several tables (for field definition, data element definition and domain definition). This information is summari+ed in the name table. The name table is saved in the followin database tables2 ));TT (table definitions) ));T9 (field descriptions)

The 6epository buffer consists of four buffers in shared memory, one for each of the followin 2

&able definitions

TTA( buffer

Table ));TT

Field descriptions

9TA( buffer

Table ));T9

Initial record la$outs

"6E. buffer

.ontains the record layout initiali+ed dependin on the field type

Short ,ametab

S;TA( buffer

A short summary of TTA( and 9TA( buffers

The Short nametab and 1nitial recor layouts are not saved in the database. "nstead, they are derived from the contents of tables ));TT and ));T9. 1hen access to a table is re#uested, the database access a ent embedded in each work process first reads the Short nametab buffer for information about the table. "f the information is insufficient (for e!ample, the SELECT statement uses a non'primary key) it accesses the ,able e!initions buffer and then the $iel escriptions buffer. (y readin the 6epository buffers, the database access a ent knows whether the table is buffered or not. 3sin this information, it accesses the table buffers (partial buffer or eneric buffer) or the database. The "6E. buffer is read2 1hen a REFRES9 command is e!ecuted in an A(AP pro ram At an :NSERT command, when a record is created in the buffers before the data is inserted and the fields are initiali+ed with the values found in "6E. buffer instance profile.

*ou can set the buffers mentioned above by editin the parameters in the See also%

&able Buffers
'efinition
There are two kinds of table buffers2 Partial table buffers Generic table buffers

Use

The table below displays these table buffers and their functions.

Buffer

Also known as

9unction

Partial table buffer

,%2-P partial bu!!er single recor table bu!!er single key bu!!er

Stores sin le table entries, that is, one record with its field values.

0eneric table buffer

,%2generic bu!!er resi ent3table bu!!er 4556 bu!!er generic key bu!!er

Stores a ran e of table entries, that is, a ran e of records with their field values. The eneric table buffer can also store all the entries (records) in a table. This is known as resident (or full) bufferin .

1hether a table is partially buffered, enerically buffered, or fully buffered depends on its attribute settin s. *ou can chan e the buffer attributes of a table usin Transaction SE%7. 9or more information, see Typical Parameter Settin s for SAP (uffers. See also%

Program Buffers
'efinition
The followin table displays the pro ram buffer and its functions.

Buffer

Also no#n as

Function

Pro ram buffer

S%P e)ecutable bu!!er %2%P bu!!er P7% 8Program &)ecution %rea9

Stores the compiled e!ecutable versions of A(AP pro rams (loads). The contents of this buffer are stored in tables )&%&, (A(AP loads), )&%&T (te!ts) and )&%&* (symbol table).

The pro ram buffer has a hash structure and supports ,63 (+east Recentl$ Used) displacement. *ou can reconfi ure the pro ram buffer by ad:ustin its instance profile parameters

SAPgui Buffers

'efinition
There are two kinds of SAP ui buffers2 Presentation buffers /enu buffers

The followin table shows the SAP ui buffers and their functions2

Buffer

Also no#n as

Function

Presentation buffer

Screen bu!!er Dynpro bu!!er

Stores the enerated screens ()*;P6- loads). The presentation buffer is ad:usted by chan in its instance profile parameters.

/enu buffer

C.% bu!!er

Stores ob:ects from the SAP ui. 9or e!ample, menus, pushbutton definitions. These ob:ects are from tables )78DT (.3A te!ts) and )78B, (.3A loads). The buffer has directory structure and supports ,63 displacement. The menu buffer is ad:usted by amendin its instance profile parameters.

SAP Calendar Buffer


'efinition
The SAP calendar buffer stores all defined factory and public holiday calendars. .alendars are stored in the database tables T9A.S and T>-.S. The buffer has a directory structure. This means that if the shared memory is confi ured too small, only the re#uired data is loadedG there is no ,63 displacement of the contents of the buffer. *ou can chan e the calendar buffer by editin the parameter in the instance profile.

SAP Cursor Cache

'efinition
The SAP cursor cache helps to improve system performance by reducin the number of parsin of SO, statementsG it is database'dependent. The SAP cursor cache is only sli htly different for -racle, "nformi! and SAP )(. "t is totally different for AS48&& and /S SO, Server. There are two types of cursor caches2 Statement ") cache Statement cache

.han in the SAP cursor cache parameter value in the default profile will affect other areas as well. *ou are therefore advised not to tune it without the recommendation of a #ualified SAP e!pert.

Statement I's and the Statement Anal$-er


The source of each SO, statement in the SAP System (A(AP, )*;P, the . modules of the database interface) assi ns an ") to its -pen SO, 4 ;ative SO, etc. statement. The statement ") includes2 /odule name (report name) Statement number (line number) Timestamp (time of A(AP eneration)

The statement ") provides an easy way to reco ni+e statements. There may be different statement ")s for one statement (for e!ample, different A(AP pro rams doin the same SELECT ). The Statement Analy+er eliminates such duplicities. 1hen it receives an SO, statement (in control block form), this database interface module checks if the statement is simple (for e!ample, SELECT"F"FROM"T/,,"C9ERE)))"6)))"ANG)))"6))) ), or comple! (for e!ample, SELECT"F"FROM"T/,,"C9ERE)))"$)))"ANG)))"%))) ). "f the statement ") is simple, the Statement Analy+er assi ns a Mnormali+ed< statement "). The analy+er is called by the 6SO, or -pen SO, interface. "f it is able to assi n a normali+ed "), the ori inal ") (if e!istin ) is replaced.

&he Buffer Monitor


Purpose
1ith the ../S buffer monitor you can analy+e the state of the SAP buffers and evaluate their #uality. *ou can use this information to determine the areas in which you should chan e buffer si+es to improve performance. The buffer monitor ives you the followin information for a selected server2 Ouality of the most important buffers

Si+es of the most important buffers .all statistics (database activity) /emory usa e Semaphore usa e Table calls 3sa e and confi uration of the roll file 3sa e and confi uration of the pa in file 3sa e of e!tended and heap memory (uffer resets ;umber of ob:ects in the buffers

See also%

(uffer /onitor and Tune Summary .heckin /emory 3sa e )isplayin Table (uffers (uffer Ouality2 -verview

Buffer Monitor and &une Summar$


&o call the buffer monitor% 9rom the initial 647 screen, choose ,ools % ministration Monitor Per!ormance Setup/2u!!ers 2u!!ers (or call Transaction ST,- ) The buffer monitor displays information about buffer and memory usa e and load for the instance where the user is lo ed on. Statistics are compiled from the time the server is started. The ,une Summary screen is divided into four parts2 (uffer SAP memory .ursor cache .all statistics

Buffers
The first column of the tune summary shows the names of the buffers2 The four 647 6epository buffers The pro ram, .3A, screen, and calendar buffers The table buffers

See also%

6epository (uffers (;ametab (uffers) 9it Ratios The hit ratios are displayed in percent. The followin dia ram illustrates what is meant by hit ratios. A hit is when a ob:ect (such as a table, screen or pro ram) in the buffer(%) is accessed. "f the ob:ect has to be read from the database(B), the buffer access fails.

(uffer hit ratio K (uffer ob:ect reads 4 lo ical re#uests

Buffer 7ualit$ (uffer Ouality K saved database calls 4 (database calls Q saved database calls) The database interface can translate one lo ical re#uest into several database calls. (uffer Ouality2 -verview

Allocated Si-e The allocated si+e is measured in F(. "t is different from the a"ailable buffer si-e because part of the space is used for buffer mana ement.

Freespace 9reespace is important for analy+in the buffer si+e. The space remainin in the buffer is displayed in F( and as a percenta e of the available buffer si+e.

,umber of 'irectories Even if there is freespace in the buffer, ob:ects may not always be loaded into the buffer because there are no more free directories. The buffer monitor displays the number of directories available for the buffer, and the number and percenta e free. The buffer directories point to the location of the ob:ects stored in the buffer.

S#apping 1hen a buffer has insufficient freespace or free directories, it has to s#ap ob:ects out of the buffer in order to load a new ob:ect. The column Swap shows how many ob:ects have been swapped out since system startup.

'atabase Accesses 1hen an ob:ect cannot be read from the buffer, the database has to be accessed. The number of database accesses is displayed in the last column on this screen.

"f a critical situation occurs in a buffer, the data for that buffer (freespace4ob:ect swaps) is displayed in red.

SAP memor$
The followin information is displayed2 The amount of space currently used in percent and in F( The ma!imum value (ma!. use) since system startup The amount of space used in shared memory and on the disk.

See also% 6oll and Pa in (uffers

For more information% 9or details about an individual memory area, select a line. The Detaile %nalysis windows (&)ten e Memory and +eap Memory) include functions for information about2

7uotas /emory allocation (se#uence, si+e)

):t; mem; bloc s E!tended memory user

Current parameters The instance profile settin s for memory mana ement

9istor$ /emory usa e over the course of several days.

SAP cursor cache


The 647 System has a cursor cache that stores cursors for SELECT statements to avoid time consumin PREPARE processin .

This cache has a fi!ed si+e and cannot be chan ed. SAP .ursor .ache

Call statistics
The ,une Summary screen displays the access statistics for all data either residin in the SAP pool buffers or the database. The followin table describes the information of the tune summary. &able% &une Summar$

Screen 9irst column

Information .ontains the different kinds of statements that can be used to access a table. ( SELECT"S:NALE , SELECT , :NSERT , HPGATE , GELETE ). Shows the total ' or in the case of the hit ratios, the avera e ' data of the call statistics. Shows the hit rates for the SELECT statements for buffered tables.

,ast line ;e!t column

A hit rate for the other statements ( HPGATE , :NSERT and GELETE ) is not displayed because these statements always have to be passed to the database. %2%P Processor )isplays the number of lo ical re#uests to the buffered tables, and how many of them failed.

The subse#uent columns display2 The avera e database call time The number of affected rows.

Table access failures are not the same as buffer access failures. The SO, statements SE,E.T S";0,E, ";SE6T, )E,ETE, and 3P)ATE can fail if the specified data record does not e!ist. A buffer access can NfailN, if the table has not yet been loaded into the buffer. Some lo ical re#uests cannot be satisfied by buffer access and re#uire that the database be accessed.

Buffer histor$ Analy+e the buffer history to find the correct buffer si+es.

&o displa$ the buffer histor$% 9rom the initial 647 screen, choose ,ools % ministration Monitor Per!ormance Setup/2u!!ers 2u!!ers Goto Per!ormance atabase ,his server history The data displayed is similar to the columns in the ,une Summary. The si+es of the buffers may be appropriate for the current system situation, but may have been too small for recent days. "f so, you should resi+e the buffers even if the si+es are appropriate for the current situation.

Chec ing Memor$ Usage


Use
(efore you chan e the si+e of a buffer, you should determine how much memory the buffer is currently allocated. This is important because the memory that is allocated to buffers should not si nificantly e!ceed the si+e of the physical memory, otherwise operatin system swappin will occur.

/ost server memory resources are used by the2 -peratin system (usually around 7& /() )atabase system (See the database documentation) SAP System

Procedure
To check the memory usa e, from the initial screen, choose % ministration System a ministration Monitor Per!ormance Setup/2u!!ers 2u!!ers Goto Current local ata % itional !unctions Storage. *ou should allocate as much memory as possible to ensure that ood buffer #uality.

"t is usually more effective to allocate memory to the SAP buffers than to the database buffers. >owever, once the buffers are optimi+ed (that is, no more ob:ect swaps occur), it does not make sense to increase buffer si+e further, since this will not improve performance.

9o# Much !perating S$stem Paging is Acceptable<


'efinition
>ow much operatin system pa in is acceptable depends lar ely on the database server and the application servers. -n the database server, the "4- activity to the disks is normally #uite hi h due to accesses to the database. Additional operatin system pa in should therefore be avoided to prevent an additional bottleneck. -n the application server, disk accesses are usually less fre#uent. Therefore, operatin system pa in usin a lar e buffer can be more efficient than a buffer which is too small which would lead to multiple database accesses and increased network traffic.

'irector$ Space and 'ata Space


'efinition
9or most buffers you can ad:ust the number of directory entries and the si+e of the user data area separately. SAP recommends that you increase both components, since an increase in one component may lead to a bottleneck in the other.

'ispla$ing &able Buffers


Procedure
6. 9rom the SAP initial screen, choose % ministration System a ministration Monitor Per!ormance
Setup/2u!!ers 2u!!ers Goto Current local ata ,able bu!!ers Single recor or 0eneric key.

*ou should only buffer tables that you chan e infre#uently. *ou specify whether or not a table should be buffered in Transaction SE%7. .han es to buffered information must be updated in the buffers of other application servers that are sharin that information. These updates can adversely affect performance. The more servers that need updatin , the more e!pensive the update process. "f all operations are performed on a central server, you can deactivate the buffer update messa in service. There are two profile parameters that control the behavior of synchroni+ation for the application server2

Parameter name

Recommended "alue

rdisp/'ufrefmode

sendoff, e!eoff (central system)

rdisp/'ufrefmode

sendon, e!eauto (client4server)

rdisp/'ufreftime
'ispla$ing Parameter Settings for the Current Instance

5&

*ou define current parameters in the SAP the parameter settin s2

instance profile. 6estart the instance to activate any chan es. To display

6. 9rom the SAP initial screen, choose % ministration System a ministration Monitor Per!ormance
Setup/2u!!ers 2u!!ers Goto Profile parameters Current.

&uning SAP Buffers


'efiniton
"t is beneficial to keep as much data buffered as possible. This helps avoid repetitive database accesses, for e!ample from the network and "nterprocess .ommunication ("P.), and ma!imi+e system performance. 6educed performance is caused by (uffers set too small.

The re#uired data cannot be stored in the buffers. "nstead, ob:ects have to be swapped out of the buffers. This causes e!pensive database accesses. (uffers set too lar e /emory is wasted. Pa in may occur if too much memory is taken from the operatin system and allocated to the SAP buffers and database. *ou should check re ularly whether the buffer si+e is suited to your system re#uirements. Since buffers are crucial for the performance of the SAP System, all buffers (e!cept the SAP cursor cache) should be ad:usted to their optimal value. The optimum si+e for each buffer depends lar ely on the specific confi uration of the server, that is, the applications, the number of users workin in each module, and so on. Therefore, it is difficult to specify values suitable for all confi urations. The most important criterion for the correct buffer si+e is the buffer #uality.

*ou should not ad:ust buffers in cases where poor buffer #uality is due to special circumstances, for e!ample, ob:ect swaps in the pro ram buffer in a system with a hi h level of development activity.
Buffer &uning Chec list

"f there is insufficient memory to set the appropriate buffer si+es, you should consider addin physical memory. >owever, since this could take some time, you may have to decide which buffers are most important and should be ad:usted first usin the e!istin memory. As a uideline, the most important buffers are those that2 Are responsible for ood dialo performance Are used most fre#uently 6e#uire relatively few memory resources

These criteria ive you the followin priority list2

6. ). ?. D. <.

6epository buffers (nametab buffers) Table buffers Pro ram buffers 6oll and pa e file buffers SAP ui buffers

See also%

Ad=usting Pool Si-es


Use

/any of the SAP buffers are contained in shared memory pools. 1hen the si+es of these buffers are chan ed, it is necessary to ad:ust the si+e of the correspondin pool as well. The ../S profile maintenance tool makes these ad:ustments automatically.

Procedure
To display information about the shared memory se ments and the pools, from the initial screen, choose ,ools % ministration Monitor Per!ormance Setup/2u!!ers 2u!!ers Goto Current local ata % itional !unctions Storage Share memory etail. *ou can chan e the pools and the shared memory se ments with parameter ipc5s'm_psi*e_$two& igit" s'are &memor."i % . *ou can chan e both the si+e and the location of the shared memory se ment. The shared memory re ions with the keys %&, B&, and 8& are used as shared memory pools by the SAP System. The si+e of these pools is determined by the values of the system profile parameters ipc5s'm_psi*e_/, , _-, , and _;, .

ipc5s'm_psi*e_/,"6/-,,,,,," This parameter sets the si+e of shared memory pool %& to %B,&&&,&&& bytes. The shared memory pools must be lar e enou h to hold the shared memory re ions that belon to them. "f you chan e the si+e of a re ion that belon s a pool, you must also chan e the si+e of the pool. *ou must also chan e the si+e of a pool if you add a new shared memory re ion to it. 9or all other keys, this parameter can be used to define the position of the shared memory re ion. "n this case the shared memory parameters have the followin format2 ipc5s'm_psi*e_nn"6"!alue" where nn is the SAP shared memory key and value is the attribute of the shared memory re ion.

Shared memor$ parameters


The SAP System uses the default disposition (in pool or directly allocated) of the shared memory re ion. &able% Assignment of pools to e$s

!b=ect e$

Pool

%% H %I

%&

B% H BI

B& (not used currently/

8% ' 8I

8&

All other ob:ects are not located in a pool, as specified by the default settin s.

A shared memory parameter ipc5s'm_psi*e_nn can have the followin values2 The shared memory re ion is removed from its standard pool (if any) and is allocated directly by the operatin system.

&he "alue 5

ipc5s'm_psi*e_/<"6, removes the %&&P'resident table buffer from its default pool %&. "f your host operatin system does not limit the number of shared memory allocations, you can remove shared memory re ions from pools. 6emovin a re ion from a pool simplifies the maintenance of the system profile because you no lon er need to ad:ust the si+e of a pool when you ad:ust the si+e of a re ion. "f a re ion does belon to a pool, you must chan e the pool si+e in accordance with chan es that you make to the shared memory re ions in the pool. The shared memory re ion is assi ned to the shared memory pool whose shared memory key is the same as the value.

A negati"e "alue

ipc5s'm_psi*e_33"6&/, adds the partial table buffer to shared memory pool %&.

Shared memory parameters other than those for keys %&, B&, and 8& should not have values reater than &. -therwise, the SAP System treats the shared memory re ion as a pool.

The default settin s for the shared memory parameters will not be automatically found in the profile. They will only appear if they have been inserted manually, either to confirm or to chan e the default settin .

CCMS/System Monitoring OSS s

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%escription

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