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Group Arrangements Factor : Teacher must consider that learners have individual preferences and interactional style.

Reason : Teacher chooses certain learning arrangement to suit the kind of lesson he or she sets up. Example: 1) Whole-Class Teaching 2) Individual Work 3) Pair Work 4) Group Work 1) Whole-Class Teaching Teacher leads the whole class to the learning task. It is usually used for the beginning of the lesson.

Ways of Using Whole-Class Teaching (Good and Brophy 1987:353) First, teacher reviews the prerequisite materials to begin the lesson. Next, teacher introduces and develops new concepts/skills. Then, teacher leads the group to do supervised practices and activities. Finally, teacher assigns homework.

7 categories for describing verbal exchanges. (Brown 1975: 67) 1. Teacher Lectures (TL): describes explains, narrates, directs 2. Teacher Questions (TQ): about content or procedure which pupils are intended to answer. 3. Teacher Responds (TR): accepts feelings of the class ; describes past and future feelings in a non-threatening way. 4. Pupils Respond (PR) directly and predictably to teacher questions and directions. 5. Pupils Volunteer (PV) information, comments or questions. 6. Silence (S): pauses; short period of silence. 7. Unclassifiable (X) : unusual activities such as reprimanding or criticising pupils.

Advantages: 1) It enables the teacher to teach large numbers of students at the same time. 2) Language learners can feel that they are a part of the main stream group. 3) It can serve as a preparation for subsequent activities which can be completed individually or in groups. Disadvantages: 1) Such instruction is teacher-dominated, with little opportunity for active student participation.

2) Teacher tends to participate with small number of students in class as it is in teachers active zone.
3) WCT assumes that all students can work at the same pace.

Individual work Known as seatwork Second most frequent pattern used by the teachers E.g of activities conducted: Completing worksheet Reading comprehension passage Answering questions Doing text books exercises Composition and essay writing

Advantages 1) It allows learners to progress within their own speed and way. 2) Learners can apply skills they have learned. 3) Teacher can access students progress. 4) Teacher can assign different activities to different learners according to their abilities and needs.

5) It prepares learners for up-coming activities. Disadvantages 1) It provides little chance for interaction among students and with teachers. 2) It is difficult to monitor what the students are doing. 3) Classroom management problems may occur if some learners may finish the exercises earlier and have nothing to do.

Group Work Advantages 1) Teacher is less dominant in the activities. 2) Students participation increases. 3) Students can practise and use new features with a wider oppurtinities. 4) It promotes collaboration among learners. 5) Teacher works as facilitator and consultant. 6) Learners can have a more active roles in the activities. An extended version of pair work.

Decisions to be made to achieve successful group work. Group Size: An optimum size must be identified based on the kind of activities. Purpose: Group activities need goals, procedures and time frame. Roles: The group activities must have divisions of works and sometimes, organisation.