Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

Facilitators Guide

ACCESS_ED_U Creating Accessibility for Students in Higher Education

COLLEEN OKUDA University of Hawaii at Manoa / ETEC 622 Dr. Bert Kimura December 6, 2012

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

Table of Contents
Locus of Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Course Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Target Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Course Goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Learner Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Precourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Synchronous Meetings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Asynchronous Assessments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Quizzes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Twitter Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Blogging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Course Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Module 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Module 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Module 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Module 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Module 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Module 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Module 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Module 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

Locus of Control
My locus of control is the assistive technology specialist at the University of Hawaii Maui College. Part of my responsibilities is to disburse information to faculty members regarding accessibility for students with disabilities in face-to-face and online instruction through technology. Currently, information is disseminated through a website for disability services and through one-on-one correspondence via email. While the importance of compliance with laws and mandates is stressed, the implementation of accessibility is a continual process. Faculty members face time constraints for attending training sessions, and the influx of new technology makes accessibility easier in some cases and more challenging in others. An alternative method for training may not only improve access for students with disabilities, but may provide access to information for faculty members as well.

Introduction
This course responds to the increased need for knowledge of meeting the needs of students with disabilities in higher education. According to a study in 2008, 11% of U.S. students with disabilities attended 2 and 4-year colleges. Without the proper support for this population, many will fail. ACCESS_ED_U: Creating Accessibility for Students in Higher Education is a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) where participants learn how to provide the needed support. Learners will know why provisions for accessibility are important, proper etiquette for communication, the different kinds of disabilities, procedures for intake and accommodations, and what can and cannot be done for this increasing population.

Course Overview
ACCESS_ED_U will be offered 4 times throughout the year to accommodate different schedules. At least 2 instructors will run the course for adequate class management. The ungraded course presents material in a series of modules over a period of 8 weeks. The first 7 modules include short (less than 5 minutes) lecture-based and other videos, quizzes, and exercises. The last module is reserved for a final exam. Completion of the modules in sequential order is recommended; however, with the exception of the last module, modules may be taken in any order. Throughout this course, participants will engage in hands-on and other activities that foster an understanding of the challenges that accompany disabilities so that students can be
3

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

appropriately accommodated for the achievement of equity. At times, situations may require creative strategies for providing access. Since knowledge and resourcefulness are keys for creating accessibility, sharing of ideas and resources among the community will add to the value of this course. Participants who satisfactorily complete the course will receive a certificate signed by the instructors. Participatory points are awarded for completed exercises, blogging, and Twitter activities. An additional, separate certificate for participation will be given to the top 10% with the most participatory points. The module titles pose questions for interest and the concepts/content that are covered are as follows: Module 1: Why is providing access to students in higher education important? o Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 o The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) o The Americans with Disabilities Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA) o Non-Discrimination and Affirmative Action Module 2: Who are the students with disabilities? (Part 1) o identification of students o visible and invisible disabilities o deaf students/etiquette o blind students/etiquette o students with orthopedic/mobility disabilities/etiquette (O/M) Module 3: Who are the students with disabilities? (Part 2) o students with psychological disabilities o students with autism o students with traumatic brain injury (TBI) o students with learning disabilities (LD) Module 4: How can I accommodate students needs? (Part 1) o reasonable accommodation o test accommodations o interpreter services o note takers o scribes/readers o service animals Module 5: How can I accommodate students needs? (Part 2) o assistive technology Kurzweil 3000
4

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

Kurzweil 1000 Dragon Naturally Speaking Zoom Text JAWS (Job Access With Speech) Live Scribe Smartpen DAISY books/recorders recorders enlarged keyboards Module 6: What is accessibility and how do I create it? (Part 1) o universal design (usability) o Word documents o PDF documents o Power Point slides Module 7: What is accessibility and how do I create it? (Part 2) o webpages o images o video o audio Module 8: Access is success. o final exam

Special Note: While the design models an online, accessible course, strategies can be applied to face-to-face environments. Alterations may be made to subsequent courses to incorporate changes/progressions as developments arise.

Target Audience
This United States centric course is intended for instructors, tutors, professionals, or anyone who is interested in knowing what is needed to create accessible environments for students with disabilities in higher education. Understanding that countries outside of the United States may not have laws or policies in place, participants will be able to use the information to create a system for their campus. Those who are at campuses with a system already in place will be better able to provide access. The course builds the foundation for creating accessibility. No prior skills are required other than the ability to use a computer. All course materials are included in the lessons; therefore, no text book is needed. Some provisions for accessibility require technical skills such as captioning videos and creating textbooks in alternative text; these skills require additional, separate training. The course may be used as a prerequisite for
5

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

faculty members or as a guide for creating accessibility in higher education if no system is in place or is in developmental stages.

Course Goal
Through completion of this course, participants will hopefully be comfortable and confident about creating accessible environments for students with disabilities. If they themselves are not able to create accessible environments, they will know about appropriate resources and strategies that are needed.

Learner Outcomes
Participants who complete the course will: understand laws that are related to students with disabilities in higher education become aware of the process for identifying students with disabilities understand the characteristics and needs of students with disabilities identify the social and emotional impact students face with disability challenges identify the potential impact of disabilities on learning model appropriate interactions with this population of students

Implementation
With the exception of face-to-face instruction, ACCESS_ED_U is designed using the distributed learning model. It incorporates a multi-media method of instructional delivery that includes a mix of Web-based instruction, video conferencing, distance learning through video, and other combinations of electronic and traditional educational models. Since one of the objectives for ACCESS_ED_U is to appeal to the masses, it is free of charge, and anyone can enroll by signing up online at http://accessedu.weebly.com. All that is needed is a first and last name and a valid email address.

Precourse
After enrollment, a welcome letter from the instructors along with general course guidelines will be sent to the email address. Attendees are encouraged to peruse the website asynchronously for familiarization of the course syllabus, website, and course logistics. They are also encouraged to complete a survey regarding intentions for taking the course, background knowledge, and online learning and computer experience. The survey can be found under the Resources page. Instructions and descriptions of Blackboard Collaborate (BBC), video
6

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

lectures, quizzes, blogging, Twitter, exercises, reading, certificate of accomplishment, and certificate of excellent participation are located on the website under the Logistics page.

Synchronous Meetings
At the start of each module, participants will meet synchronously via Blackboard Collaborate for 60 minutes to view live, lecture-based and other videos, to take quizzes, to engage in live discussions, for group work, for polling, and for other activities. Lecture videos are under 5 minutes and others are longer; however, it is paused periodically for taking quizzes. All videos are closed captioned and include audio files and scripts. Furthermore, students are encouraged to meet with each other through Skype, Google + Hangouts, or facsimile to share or discuss ideas.

Asynchronous Assessments
Weekly assessments include short quizzes, exercises in the form of collections, tweeting via Twitter, and blogging. The purpose of the exercises is to further participants understanding of the content, to build resources, to engage in interactions, for reflection, and for sharing information with peers. Quizzes The multiple-choice, matching, fill in the blank, and true/false quizzes are based on the videos and test for knowledge. All quizzes are automatically corrected via a web source. Quizzes can be retaken any number of times until passing scores are earned. Learners may either take the quizzes after each video or they may take several at a time as long as all are completed by the last day of class. Since all meetings will be recorded and archived, those who are unable to attend the synchronous meetings will be able to view the videos and take the quizzes on the website. Collections Each learner will have a portfolio on the Wiki page and will contain colle ction exercises. Collections are to be compiled and used as a resource toward the creation of participants accessible environments. Any of the course materials can be used, and sharing of information and other resources is encouraged. Each collection counts as 5 participatory points. Twitter Activities Learner-to-learner and instructor-to-learner interactions are encouraged through Q&As via the Twitter stream #accedu. Students may be asked to tweet a question after introduction to content. They will then tweet an answer to a peers question. Students are encouraged to
7

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

answer a question that has not been answered already so that everyone will feel included. Twitter will also be used is for general Q&As and for all other functions of Twitter. Each tweet counts as 1 participatory point, and access to Twitter can be found on the website. Blogging Blogging on module topics is also used to promote interactions and for personal reflections. Each entry must have a minimum of 50 words. Students may respond to peers posts. Each entry counts as 3 participatory points and are to be posted to the blog page. *Since the course is a model for an accessible online course, all content and materials will be usable by everyone.

Course Schedule
The course schedule is comprised of synchronous, Web conference modules and asynchronous exercises. The overall training and independent completion of the assignments is equivalent to 24-32 hours or 3-4 hours per week. All activities can be completed in the time frame comfortably which will accommodate participants with full-time work schedules and diverse learning styles.

Content
The following example modules display an integrated, learning model content/activities and desired outcomes: Module 1 The module provides reasons for creating accessibility increased population, student challenges, and applicable laws. Lecture videos include the significance of each law, how each is different to one another, and asks why it might have been created. Since learners will have access to the laws, they will be able to reference it during the lectures. It will also be displayed on the white board. Quiz questions are given after each video. Participants will be asked polling questions to find out what they know about laws and if they are in place on their campus. If in place, is compliance an issue? For those who are not able to answer these questions, they will be asked if there is a possibility for laws to be developed. All will write on the white board an example of how students with disabilities are currently addressed (or not). The class will break into groups for a discussion on a court case from the reading handout (to be viewed on whiteboard) and directed to each tweet a question and answer a peers question.

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

For the exercises, learners will choose to complete the exercise that is applicable to them: 1) copy, paste, and post the existing laws at their campus or in their country, or 2) write a paragraph on how students can be protected by laws if they were in place. Also for homework, learners will write a reflection on anything that was covered on the blog. Note: CPP = copy, paste, and post
Asset Class
Web-Based

Module 1
Delivery Method video /HTML video /HTML video /HTML video /HTML PDF collection 1 blog 1 blog 2

Why is providing accessibility to students in higher education important?


Content / Activities Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA) Non-Discrimination and Affirmative Action 9 Cases that Have Shaped Disability Services in Higher Education Research the laws in your area and CPP. If none exist, write on how students can be helped by laws if they were in place. Choose a court case from the handout. Write a response. Post a reflection on any topic covered in this module. Desired Outcomes -learners will be aware of mandated laws In the United States

-content for discussion -resource for portfolio

Asynchronous

-internalization of content

quizzes Twitter Synchronous BBC Polling White board Discussion

recalling facts on laws Q&A lectures on history of and differences in laws Does your campus have laws for SWD? In compliance? In development? How are students with disabilities currently addressed? Do you agree? Disagree? Why?(refer to PDF file - groups are assigned a court case)

-knowledge -peer learning / interaction -knowledge -informal assessments -evaluation of key points

Module 2
Since laws protect student identities, it is important to know how students are identified. It is also important to learn about different kinds of disabilities to understand the needs of individuals. Some are noticeable and others are hidden. This module covers deafness, blindness, and mobile disabilities and the proper etiquette to use during communication. Lecture videos and other videos relay information on the topics. Quiz questions will follow each video. Learners will identify the challenges of these individuals in different scenarios and suggest solutions to challenges on the white board. The facilitator will ask guiding questions to fill in the blanks, if necessary. Participants will be asked to perform tasks which simulate the challenges of the blind, Deaf, and physically impaired by doing writing tasks on the white board.

Notes: SWD = Students With Disabilities, DC = Disability Coordinator, AC = Academic Counselor

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

Asset Class
Web-Based

Module 2
Delivery Method video /HTML video /HTML video /HTML video /HTML video /HTML

Who are the students with disabilities? Part 1


Content / Activities 3 ways to identify SWDs self-disclosure, letter from DC, refer to AC visible and invisible disabilities blind students/etiquette Deaf students/etiquette students with orthopedic/mobility disabilities/etiquette Desired Outcomes -knowledge

Asynchronous

collection #2 blog

research the name of the disability coordinator, the assistive technology specialist, all assistive technology on your campus Post a reflection on any topic covered in this module or respond to a blog. http://www.washington.edu/doit/ - visit and blog a response

-resource portfolio -internalization of content/reflection

Quizzes Twitter Synchronous BBC white board white board white board

recalling facts on content Q&A, research 1 websites on disability services and tweet URLs Lectures and other videos and images Type your name with your eyes closed. Turn off the audio and watch the video. Write a sentence with your opposing hand.

peer interaction -knowledge -peer learning / interaction -visual aids for understanding -empathy

Module 3 This module is a continuation from Module 2. The disabilities that are included are psychological disabilities, autism and Aspergers syndrome, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and learning disabilities (LD).
Asset Class
Web-Based

Module 3
Delivery Method video / HTML video / HTML video / HTML video / HTML

Who are the students with disabilities? Part 2


Content / Activities psychological disabilities autism traumatic brain injury (TBI) learning disabilities (LD) Desired Outcomes -knowledge

Asynchronous

collection 3 blog blog quizzes Twitter BBC polling discussion

reflection post recalling facts Q&A class meeting

-resource building -evaluation -internalization of content -knowledge -peer learning / interaction -knowledge -informal assessment -evaluation of key points

Synchronous

Module 4
Before we learn about accommodations, we must define "reasonable accommodation." Sometimes, that can be tricky. Scenarios will be presented that will challenge your decision making. Over compensation to situations are sometimes used to fix problems easily, but it may not always be the best solution. 10

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

Test accommodations, interpreter services, note takers, scribes and readers, and service animals are described. Participants will be able to match accommodations with the disabilities.
Asset Class
Web-Based

Module 4
Delivery Method video / HTML video / HTML video / HTML video / HTML

How do I meet their needs? Part 1


Content / Activities reasonable accommodation test accommodations interpreter services note takers scribes/readers service animals Desired Outcomes -interpretations of reasonable -knowledge

Asynchronous

Collection 4 blog quizzes Twitter reflection post recalling facts Q&A class meeting

-resource building -evaluation -internalization of content -knowledge -peer learning / interaction

Synchronous

BBC polling discussion

-informal assessment -evaluation of key points

Module 5
Technology can provide equity to students with disabilities. This module covers assistive technology and demonstrates some of the popular technological devices.
Asset Class
Web-Based video / HTML video / HTML video / HTML video / HTML video / HTML Collection 5 blog quizzes Twitter Synchronous BBC polling discussion

Module 5
Delivery Method

How do I meet their needs? (Part 2)


Content / Activities Assistive technology - demonstrations Kurzweil 3000, Kurzweil 1000, DAISY books/recorders Dragon Naturally Speaking Live Scribe Smartpen, recorders Zoom Text, enlarged keyboards JAWS (Jobs Access With Speech), Apple and Droid apps Desired Outcomes -knowledge

Asynchronous

-reference building reflection post recalling facts Q&A -internalization of content -knowledge -peer learning / interaction -knowledge -informal assessment -evaluation of key points

Module 6
Module 6 emphasizes the 7 principles of universal design, or usability. Examples of inaccessible Word documents, PDF documents, and PowerPoint slides are shown in ways to make them accessible is demonstrated.

11

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

Asset Class
Web-Based

Module 6
Delivery Method video / HTML video / HTML video / HTML video / HTML PDF collection 6 blog quizzes Twitter

What is accessibility and how do I create it? (Part 1)


Content / Activities 7 principles of universal design Word documents PDF documents PowerPoint slides Desired Outcomes -knowledge

-content for discussion -resource building -evaluation -internalization of content -knowledge -peer learning / interaction -knowledge -informal assessment -evaluation of key points

Asynchronous

reflection post recalling facts Q or A - on content with peers and instructors class meeting

Synchronous

BBC polling discussion

Module 7
This module is a continuation of Module 6. Demonstrations of inaccessible webpages, images, videos, and audio files will be used to show the changes that are needed to make them accessible.

Asset Class
Web-Based

Module 7
Delivery Method video / HTML video / HTML video / HTML video / HTML PDF collection 7 blog quizzes Twitter

What is accessibility and how do I create it?


Content / Activities webpages images videos audio files Desired Outcomes -knowledge

-content for discussion -resource building -evaluation -internalization of content -knowledge -peer learning / interaction -knowledge -informal assessment -evaluation of key points

Asynchronous

reflection post recalling facts Q or A

Synchronous

BBC polling discussion

Module 8
This week will be spent taking the final exam and completing all exercises.

12

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

Research
The topic of this course is relative to my locus of control as an assistive technology specialist at University of Hawaii Maui College. Over the years, there has been an increase in enrollment of students with disabilities. As of 2011, they represent nearly 11% of all postsecondary students (Case and Davidson, 2011). This poses challenges to faculty members who are not aware of laws, standards, and guidelines that exist to help make courses accessible to students with disabilities (Case and Davidson, 2011). ACCESS_ED_U, Creating Accessibility for Students with Disabilities in Higher Education, addresses the education that is needed for this clientele through distributed learning (with the exception of face-to-face classroom time, a multi-media method of instructional delivery that includes a mix of Web-based instruction, streaming video conferencing, face-to-face classroom time, distance learning through television or video, or other combinations of electronic and traditional educational models (Rouse, 2010). Distributed learning is dynamic , yet it is consistent in that it always accommodates a separation of geographical locations for part (or all) of the instruction, and focuses on learner-to-learner as well as instructor-to-learner interaction (Rouse, 2010). Because distributed learning breaks geographic boundaries, it lends itself well to the concept of the open part of this Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). Anyone in the world who has a computer with internet access can join the course. Textbooks are not available in some countries, therefore, all reading materials will be available the website. There are no
13

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

prerequisites, no fees, and no skills that are required. Massive amount of learners can be expected. The world will become the classroom. Studies show that synchronous software, with the ability t o include two-way audio, application sharing, instant feedback, and other features can enhance distance education (Schullo, 2005, p. 29). As a result, the Course Management System (CMS), Blackboard Collaborate (BBC) is used; it has all the fine features for synchronous learning, and it has features for accessibility. In addition, it is able to accommodate a multitude of possible participants and is accessible on mobile devices. Adding to the openness in this MOOC is the breakdown of social isolation that many students experience when working or studying at a distance and how the communication in a synchronous environment can further promote personal and cognitive participation (Hudson, Knight, and Collins, 2012, p. 28). However, online courses present challenges that may not exist in face-to-face (F2F) classrooms such as feelings of alienation from instructors and peers and a lack of immediacy (Schullo, 2005, p. 3). Critical to the effectiveness of an online synchronous learning system is the promotion of the virtual social interaction (Chen, 2006, p. 114). The promotion of learner to learner and instructor-learner interactions are needed for improving attitudes, encouraging earlier completion of coursework increasing performance on tests, and facilitating greater retention (Schullo, 2005, p. 3). To address the issues of alienation and lack of immediacy, collaborative group work, discussions, chats, and polling activities are incorporated into class meetings on BBC. Blogging and tweeting are other ways that facilitate interaction. Furthermore, learners are encouraged to meet with each other via Skype or Google + Hangouts.
14

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

Video lectures provide part of the content for coursework; however, the use of video conferencing or instructional television to provide a seemingly traditional classroom for distant learners lack flexibility and may not suit everyones learning style (Skylar, 2009, p. 69). The openness of the MOOC does not discriminate learning styles, and learning is not confined to virtual classrooms. While all video lectures and class meetings are archived for viewing, moving students from access through assimilation to appropriation requires educational experiences that empower knowledge construction by unsophisticated learners, helping them make sense of massive, incomplete, and inconsistent information sources (Dede, 1996, p. 3). Asynchronous environments provide learners with a flexible environment that is self -paced with learners accessing course content using a variety of tools (Skylar, 2 009, p. 70). Communication and collaboration are enhanced via asynchronous discussions. Learners are not restricted a set day/time for communicating, and it allows students more time to prepare a response to a set of directions or questions (Skylar, 2009, p. 70). In this course, students will have opportunities to work independently, together in real-time, or through a volley of correspondences, again, adding to the open concept of a MOOC. In addition to the benefits that asynchronous environments provide to diverse learners is the R2D2 model (Reading, Reflecting, Displaying, and Doing) (Bonk, 2006, p. 249). This course addresses all four quadrants of the R2D2 model. Video lectures and reading material which tend to verbal and auditory learners are used address the first quadrant, ways to attain knowledge. Blogging and other tasks address the second quadrant, reflective activities. Zaretskii also values this by saying that reflection is a special process that accompanies the learners cognitive activity at its every stage (Zaretskii, 2009, p. 92). The use of Twitter
15

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

scaffolds content which also results in higher-level reflection (Darabi, 2011, pp. 218-219). Exercises that involve individual research to personalize concepts (e.g. providing a list of assistive technology on their campus) address the third quadrant, visual representations of the content. Hands-on activities such as navigating the computer while closing the eyes address the fourth quadrant which focuses on what can be done with the content (Bonk, 2006, p. 249). Hopefully, the course will interest and impact learners. Becoming familiar with the unique needs of each student is critical to designing meaningful student support (Shaw, p. 6). That goes for all students, with or without disabilities. In essence, the intents of ACCESS_ED_U parallel the intents of a MOOCbuild for one and you build for all.

16

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

Resources
Bonk, C. J., Zhang, K. (2006). Introducing the R2D2 model: Online learning for the diverse learners of this world. Distance Education, 27(2), 249-264. Carr, D. (2010) Constructing disability in online worlds: Conceptualizing disability in online worlds. London Review of Education. 8(1), 51-61. Case, E. D., Davidson, R. C., (2011). Accessible online learning. New Directions for Student Services, 134, 47-58. DOI: 10.1002/ss.394 Darabi, A., Arrastia, M. C., Nelson, D. W., Cornille, T., Liang, X. (2011). Cognitive presence in asynchronous online learning: a comparison of four discussion strategies. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27, 216-227. Dede, C. (1996). Emerging technologies and distributed learning. The American Journal of Distance Education, Jan., 1-24. Fichten, C. S., Ferraro, V., Asuncion, J. V., Chwojka, C., Barile, M. N. N., Klomp, R., Wolforth, J. (2009) Disabilities and e-learning problems and solutions: An exploratory study. Educational Technology and Society, 12(4), 241-256. Hudson, T., Knight, V., & Collins, B. (2012). Perceived effectiveness of web conferencing software in the digital environment to deliver a graduate course in applied behavior analysis. Aural Special Education Quarterly , 31(2), 27-39. Rose, B. Nine cases that have shaped disabilities services in higher education . Retrieved from http://www.hunter.cuny.edu/studentservices/access/court-case-studies Rouse, M. (2010). Definition distributed learning. Retrieved from http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/distributed-learning Schullo, S. Barron, A.E., Kromrey, J. D., Venable, M., Hilbelink, A., Hohlfeld, T., Hogarty, K. Y. (2005). Enhancing online courses with synchronous software: an analysis of strategies and interactions. Retrieved from http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/856 Shaw, S. (2002). Postsecondary supports for students with disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.ncset.hawaii.edu/

17

ACCESS_ED_U [Facilitator Guide]

Skylar, A. A., (2009). A comparison of asynchronous online text-based lectures and synchronous interactive web conferencing lectures. Teacher Education, 18(2), 6984. Zaretskii, V. K., (2009). The zone of proximal development, what Vygotsky did not have time to write. Journal of Russian & East European Psychology, 47 (6), 70-93. DOI: 10.2753/RPO1061-0405470604

18