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Acknowledgement I would like to express my gratitude to my physics mentor Mr.

HM SHARMA, for this vital support, guidance and encouragement without which this project would not have, came forth. I would also like to express my gratitude to the other staffs of the department of physics for their support during the making of project....

Statue
If the statue is a life-sized statue of high quality, it is likely made of carved marble, granite, limestone, other stone, or of cast metal (typically bronze or brass) for outdoor statues. Other statues are made of cement or concrete. Non-figural sculptures are made of the same things, except smaller statues and sculptures may also be made of clay. Clay is not used as much for the big pieces because it isn't as strong or durable and it has to be fired in a kiln (oven), so it can't be too big to fit in the kiln. Wood can be carved for statues and sculptures. Many other materials can also be used for smaller statues although some would perhaps be cost prohibitive or not strong enough material for large pieces. Examples of some of these are sculpting clay; modelling clay; cast metals such as brass, pot metal, copper, pewter, silver, gold; china and porcelain (a more fragile and refined clay); blown or moulded glass; ivory (if antique, it is illegal to use ivory now since elephant sand other sources of new ivory are all endangered species); carved bone; wood; plaster; plastic; paper Mache; slip (which is a much thinner pourable form of potters' clay for casting); carved bars of soap; carved Styrofoam; carved or moulded ice; moulded snow; moulded resins; formed Play dough: formed bread dough; even carved apples; shells; mother of pearl; jade; coral (again antiques, corals are endangered); gemstones and semi precious stones. Soft sculpture is an art form using textiles stuffed with fibrefill or other fill, and stitched into shape. Some are made of other materials like paper to form figures and other statues. Even, in a stretch, one might say that balloons are a material for sculptures (like figures of dogs, etc.) The materials are almost endless when put in the hands of creative artists.

Index

PH Definition
An introduction to pH

pH can be viewed as an abbreviation for power of Hydrogen - or more completely, power of the concentration of the Hydrogen ion. The mathematical definition of pH is a bit less intuitive but in general more useful. It says that the pH is equal to to the negative logarithmic value of the Hydrogen ion (H+) concentration, or pH = -log [H+] pH can alternatively be defined mathematically as the negative logarithmic value of the Hydroxonium ion (H3O+) concentration. Using the Bronsted-Lowry approach pH = -log [H3O+] pH values are calculated in powers of 10. The hydrogen ion concentration of a solution with pH 1.0 is 10 times larger than the hydrogen concentration in a solution with pH 2.0. The larger the hydrogen ion concentration, the smaller the pH.

when the pH is above 7 the solution is basic (alkaline) when the pH is below 7 the solution is acidic

In pure neutral water the concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide ions are both 10-7 equivalents per litre.

What Is the PH of Limestone? Answer


The pH of limestone is estimated to be anywhere between seven and 14. Limestone is scientifically alkaline and it is often used in agriculture to neutralize acidic soils. It is also used in construction, sculpture and in some cases, glass making.

What is Limestone?
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate(CaCO3). Many lime stones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads tokarst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, and as a chemical feedstock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778.

"Limestone" means any rock formed mostly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), but to geologists, limestone is only one of several types of "carbonate rocks." These rocks are composed of more than 50% carbonate minerals, generally the minerals calcite (pure CaCO3) ordolomite (calciummagnesium carbonate, CaMg [CO3]2) or both.

How Does Limestone Form?

Most carbonate rocks were deposited from seawater. These sedimentary carbonate rocks are common on every continent and have formed through most of geologic history; they are still forming today in the tropics as coral reefs and at the bottoms of shallow seas. Marine limestone forms because seawater has high concentrations of two key dissolved chemicals-calcium (Ca++) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions. In the near-surface layer of most oceans, corals, clams, and other sea-dwelling creatures use these two chemicals to make protective shells by combining them to form calcite or "aragonite," which is the same chemical composition as calcite but has a different crystal form.

Formation of Dolomite from Limestone


Some limestones have been changed by the introduction of magnesium in ground water. Magnesium in ground water may convert some or all of the calcite in the limestone to dolomite. Also, some rocks formed near the shores of ancient seas in arid climates were mostly dolomite at the time they were deposited.

Other Types of Carbonate Rock


Limestone comes in many different varieties. Chalk is a very fine grained, porous marine limestone composed almost entirely of microscopic fossils. Travertine is a freshwater sedimentary limestone that has very thin, crenulated layers and is commonly formed at springs. Marble is a carbonate rock, usually a marine limestone, that has been squeezed and deformed like plastic by great heat and pressure deep beneath the Earth's surface. This process is called "metamorphism." There are also rare "igneous" carbonate rocks that have crystallized from molten magma in the same way that lavas or granites have. These are called "carbonatites," and this rock type is mined at a few places in the world as industrial limestone.

Mining Carbonate Rocks


Sedimentary limestone deposits can be extensive, covering hundreds of square miles, and can be relatively uniform in thickness and quality. Therefore, limestone quarries can be large and long lived, mining limestone layers that can be hundreds of feet thick over areas of several square miles. Many quarries produce multiple products, and crushed rocks that are not pure enough for certain uses may still be suitable as road

aggregate. Marble quarries can also be very large. However, these rocks that were once regularly bedded have been metamorphosed into irregularly shaped bodies that are more difficult and costly to mine. In large parts of the United States there are extensive deposits of marine limestone of various ages from a few thousand to more than 350 million years old. Some deposits have chemical grades as high as 95% CaCO3. However, some areas are completely without any suitable limestone deposits. Most of the cost of limestone to the customer is determined by how far away it comes from and how it is shipped. Shipping by barge on water is cheaper than by train which, in turn, is cheaper than shipping by truck.

Uses of Limestone

Limestone has many industrial uses and can be used as mined or processed into a wide variety of products. It is the raw material for a large variety of construction, agricultural, environmental, and industrial materials. Limestone is used in construction almost everywhere. In 2007, crushed limestone was 68% of all crushed rock produced in the United States. Also, limestone is the key ingredient in making Portland cement. Despite our Nation's abundance of limestone, there have been cement shortages in recent years.

Some of the purest of natural limestones are marbles. For centuries, marble has been the decorative stone of choice in government buildings and public statues. Travertine is also used as a dimension stone in tiles and tabletops. Some white limestone is simply crushed and sieved for use in landscaping and roofing. Powdered limestone is used to remove impurities from molten metals like steel. It can also remove toxic compounds from the exhaust of coal-burning power plants. Limestone is used as a filler in a variety of products, including paper, plastic, and paint. The purest limestone is even used in foods and medicines such as breakfast cereals and calcium pills. Limestone is also the raw material for making lime (CaO) that is used to treat soils, purify water, and smelt copper. Lime has many additional uses in the chemical industries. Dolomites are commonly less suitable than other industrial limestones for most applications. Most dolomite that is mined is simply crushed and sieved for use as aggregate in concrete or asphalt.

Some Important uses

Limestone is commonly used for building. It is easy to obtain, can be cut into blocks and is long lasting. Many buildings from the late 19th and early 20th century are made of limestone. The Great Pyramid is built entirely from limestone. It is also used for sculptures, statues and monuments because it is easy to carve. Unfortunately, limestone reacts to acid and many statues and buildings are being destroyed by acid rain. It is a common ingredient of cement, concrete and mortar. The chippings of limestone are often mixed with tarmac for roads and paths. Ground limestone is often used to neutralize acidic soil and water. Limestone is used in certain types of glassmaking to purify the glass during its molten stage. It is used as white pigment in many products such as toothpaste, paint, plastic etc. A purified form of limestone can be added to fortify breakfast cereal with calcium. It is also added to livestock feed as a source of calcium.

Marble
Marble sculpture is the art of creating three-dimensional forms from marble. Sculpture is among the oldest of the arts. Even before painting cave walls, early humans fashioned shapes from stone. From these beginnings, artefacts have evolved to their current complexity. The point at which they became art is for the beholder to decide.

Material origin and qualities

Marble is a metamorphic rock derived from limestone, composed mostly of calcite (a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, CaCO3). The original source of the parent limestone is the seabed deposition of calcium carbonate in the form of microscopic animal skeletons or similar materials. Marble is formed when the limestone is transformed by heat and pressure after being overlain by other materials. The finest marbles for sculpture have no or few stains.

Advantages
Among the commonly available stones, only marble has a slight surface translucency that is comparable to that of human skin. It is this translucency that gives a marble sculpture a visual depth beyond its surface and this evokes certain realism when used for figurative works. Marble also has the advantage that, when first quarried, it is relatively soft and easy to work, refine, and polish. As the finished marble ages, it becomes harder and more durable. Preference to the cheaper and less translucent limestone is based largely on the fineness of marble's grain, which enables the sculptor to render minute detail in a manner not always possible with limestone; it is also more weather-resistant.

Disadvantages
Marble does not bear handling well as it will absorb skin oils when touched, which leads to yellow brownish staining. While more resistant than limestone it is subject to attack by weak acids, and so performs poorly in outdoor environments subject to acid rain. For severe environments, granite is a more lasting material but one which is far more difficult to work and much less suitable for refined works. Compared to metals such as bronze, marble lacks ductility and strength, requiring special structural considerations when planning a sculpture. In the sculpture shown to the right, the figure can be placed upon slender lower legs and the balls of the feet only because the bending stress in the sculpture is taken through the flowing drapery of the skirt, which is founded upon an up thrust portion of the ground and with the feet forms a tripod-like foundation for the mass. For comparison see some of the examples in the article concerning bronze sculpture for the ease with which action and extension may be expressed.

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content Lime stone bronze marble rock

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