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1. Kirchhoffs Law: In electrical circuits in which no two resistors are in series or in parallel, it is necessary to employ methods other than the series parallel method, one alternative method is Kirchoffs rules. The law of conservation of electric charge Junction Rule Electric current Junction Rule: The total current directed into a junction must equal to the total current directed out of the junction.
i1 = i2 + i3 VA VO VO VB VO VC = + R1 R2 R3

B Junction i2 A i1 R1 O i3 R3 R2

Loop Rule: Around any closed circuit loop, the sum of the potential drops equal the sum of the potential rises. The principle of conservation of energy Loop Rule Electric potential
i=2A + 12V i +10V i 5 + 2V 1


In problems involving Kirchhoffs rules it always helpful to mark resistors with + and signs to keep the track of potential rises and drops in the circuit. Sign convention:
1 + 2 + 1 + 2 +

= 1 + 2
3. Potential rise and fall in a circuit
+ + 12 2 2A + 4

= 1 2

12 8V

4V 8V

4. Loop Rule:
A i1 2 B i2 20V C 2 i1+i2 E i2 2 D

10V F

For loop ABEFA 2i1 2(i1 + i2 ) + 10 = 0 ...(1) For loop BEDCB 2(i1 + i2 ) 2i2 + 20 = 0 ...(2) By solving equation (1) and (2) we get i1 = 0, i2 = 5A


Junction Rule:
i1 2 +VP i3 20V 2 i2 Q 2


Let V be potential difference between two junctions P and Q. i1 + i2 + i3 = 0 V 10 V V 20 2 + 2 + 2 = 0 V = 10 Volts i1 = 0, i2 = 5A, i3 = 5A


Charging of a capacitor: When a capacitor is connected to a battery, positive charge appears on one plate and negative charge on the other. The potential difference between the plates ultimately becomes equal to e.m.f of the battery. The whole process takes some time and during this time there is an electric current through connecting wires and the battery.

R i=0 i + E

b S a

7. 8.

At any time t, q = C 1 e RC The constant RC has dimensions of time and is called capacitive time constant ( ).
t RC

9. Discharging of capacitor: q = Qe 10. LR Circuit:


i) When switch S is closed at t=0; L ii) At time t, current i =

R t L 1 e R

di = Ri dt
R i E L b S a

iii)The constant L/R has dimensions of time and is called the inductive time 0.63 constant ( ) of the LR circuit. R growth of current iv) t = ; i = 0.63i0 , in one time constant, the current reaches 63% of the i maximum value. The time constant tells us how fast will the current grow. v) At t = 0, i = 0, inductor offers infinite resistance or open circuit. time vi) At t = , i = i0, where i0 = , a pure inductor offer zero resistance or t R closed circuit. Theoretically current grows to maximum value after infinite time. But practically it grows to maximum after 5.
Decay of current:

11. When switch S is open at t=0; L at t=0, i=i0


di = Ri dt

at time t, i = i0e The current reduces to 37% of the initial value in one time constant i.e., 63% of the decay is complete. 12. Energy stored in inductor E = Li2 .
2 13. LCR series circuit: rms = R + (L ~ C )2


decay of current

1 2


R i


tan =

L 1 / C R

; 0 =

1 LC 1 , C


1 Z = R2 + ( XL ~ XC )2 = R2 + L C


XL = XC or L =



becomes minimum and hence current will be maximum. The circuit is then said to be resonance and the corresponding frequency is known as
resonant frequency. The resonant frequency =
1 1 . 2 LC

. The peak current in this case is

0 R

Previous Questions: 1. To verify Ohms law, a student is provided with a test resistor RT, a high resistance R1, a small resistance R2, two identical galvanometers G1 and G2, and a variable voltage source V. The correct circuit to carry out the experiment is (IIT-2010) G1 G1 a) b) *c) d) R2 R1
G1 G1 R2 RT G2 R1 R1 RT G2 R2 RT G2 R2 V V V V RT G2 R1

Sol. (c) G1 is used as a voltmeter by connecting it in series with high resistance R1 and connected it across RT in parallel and G2 is used as an ammeter by connecting it in parallel with small resistance R2 (called shunt) and connecting in series with RT as shown in the figure. Hence, above circuit is used to verify ohms law.



R1 G2 R2 V Ammeter


2. Incandescent bulbs are designed by keeping in mind that the resistance of their filament increases with the increase in temperature. If at room temperature 100 W, 60 W and 40 W bulbs have filament resistances R100, R60 and R40 respectively, the relation between these resistances is (IIT-2010) a) Sol. (d) Power, P =
1 V2 , P R R
1 R100 = 1 1 + R 40 R60

b) R100 = R40 + R60

c) R100 > R60 > R40


1 R100


1 1 > R60 R 40

Passage: Electrical resistance of certain materials, known as superconductors, changes abruptly from a nonzero value to zero as their temperature is lowered below a critical temperature TC (0). An interesting property of superconductors is that their critical temperature becomes smaller than TC (0) if they are placed in a magnetic field, i.e., the critical temperature TC(B) is a function of the magnetic field strength B. The dependence of TC(B) on B is shown in the figure. (IIT-2010)


In a graphs below, the resistance R of a superconductor is shown as a function of its temperature T for two different magnetic fields B1 (solid line) and B2 (dashed line). If B2 is larger than B1, which of the following graphs shows the correct variation of R with T in these fields? B2 a) R b) R c) R d) R B

B2 O


B1 O

B1 T O

B2 T O

B2 T

Sol. (a) As magnetic field increases, critical temperature decreases. Hence, option (a) is correct. 4. A superconductor has TC(0) = 100 K. When a magnetic field of 7.5 Tesla is applied, its TC decreases to 75 K. For this material one can definitely say that when (IIT-2010) a) B = 5 Tesla, TC(B) = 80 K b) B = 5 Tesla, 75 K < TC(B) < 100 K d) B = 10 Tesla, TC(B) = 70 K c) B = 10 Tesla, 75 K < TC(B) < 100 K Sol. (b) Magnetic field (Tesla) TC (K) 0 100 7.5 75 As magnetic field varies from zero to 7.5 T, TC varies from 100 K to 75 K which clearly shows for a magnetic field of 5T, TC must be in between 75 K and 100 K. i.e. for B = 5 T, 75 K TC < 100 K Hence (b) is correct. 5. When two identical batteries of internal resistance 1 each are connected in series across a resistor R, the rate of heat produced in R is J1. When the same batteries are connected in parallel across R, the rate is J2. If J1 = 2.25 J2 then the value of R in is (IIT-2010) Key : (4) 6. At time t = 0, a battery of 10 V is connected across points A and B in the given circuit. If the capacitors have no charge initially, at what time (in seconds) does the voltage across them becomes 4 volt? [take n 5 = 1.6, n 3 = 1.1] (IIT-2010) Sol. (2) ; Hint : V(t) = V0 (1 et / )

7. You are given many resistances, capacitors and inductors. These are connected to a variable DC voltage source (the first two circuits) or an AC voltage source of 50 Hz frequency (the next three circuits) in different ways as shown in Column II. When a current I (steady state for DC or rms for AC) flows through the circuit, the corresponding voltage V1 and V2. (indicated in circuits) are related as shown in Column I. Match the two. (IIT-2010) Column I Column II A) I 0, V1 is proportional to I p)

B) I 0, V2 > V1


C) V1 = 0, V2 = V


D) I 0, V2 is proportional to I



Sol. (A) (r, s, t), (B) (q, r, s, t), (C) (p, q), (D) (q, r, s, t) 8. An AC voltage source of variable angular frequency and fixed amplitude V0 is connected in series with a capacitance C and an electric bulb of resistance R (inductance zero). When is increased (IIT2010) a) the bulb glows dimmer b) the bulb glows brighter c) total impedance of the circuit is unchanged d) total impedance of the circuit increases Sol. (b)
Impedance of the circuit, Z = (XC )2 + (R)2 = 1 2 +R C