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Tense

Affirmative/ Negative/ Question

Use action in the present taking place once, never or several times facts actions taking place one after another

Signal Words

Simple Present

A: He speaks. N: He does not speak. Q: Does he speak?

Present Progressive

A: He is speaking. N: He is not speaking. Q: s he speaking?

Simple Past

A: He spoke. N: He did not speak. Q: Did he speak?

action set by a timetable or schedule action taking place in the moment of speaking action taking place only at the moment, ust, for a limited period of ust now, !isten", time !oo#", now, right now action arranged for the future action in the past taking yesterday, a wee# place once, never or ago, in $%%&, the several times actions taking place one other day, last 'riday after another if senten(e type )) action taking place in the *)f ) tal#ed, + middle of another action action going on at a certain time in the past actions taking place at the same time when, while, as long as action in the past that is interrupted by another action putting emphasis on the result action that is still going on action that stopped already, ever, ust, recently never, not yet, so finished action that has an far, till now, up to influence on the present now action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking putting emphasis on the course or duration !not the result# action that recently stopped or is still going on finished action that influenced the present

always, every , never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually if sentences type ! f talk, "#

Past Progressive

A: He $as speaking. N: He $as not speaking. Q: %as he speaking?

Present Perfe(t Simple

A: He has spoken. N: He has not spoken. Q: Has he spoken?

Present Perfe(t Progressive

A: He has been speaking. N: He has not been speaking. Q: Has he been speaking?

all day, for , years, sin(e $%%-, how long., the whole wee#

Past Perfe(t Simple

A: He had spoken. N: He had not spoken. Q: Had he spoken?

Past Perfe(t Progressive

A: He had been speaking. N: He had not been speaking. Q: Had he been speaking?

action taking place before a certain time in the past already, ust, never, sometimes not yet, on(e, until interchangeable $ith past that day perfect progressive if senten(e type ))) *)f ) had tal#ed, + putting emphasis only on the fact !not the duration# action taking place before a certain time in the past sometimes interchangeable $ith past for, sin(e, the whole perfect simple day, all day putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action in a year, ne/t , tomorrow )f01l Typ ) *)f you as# her, she will help you2+ assumption $ith regard to assumption3 ) thin#, pro4a4ly, we the future might , perhaps action in the future that cannot be influenced spontaneous decision decision made for the future conclusion $ith regard to the future in one year, ne/t wee#, tomorrow

'uture ) Simple

A: He $ill speak. N: He $ill not speak. Q: %ill he speak? A: He is going to speak. N: He is not going to speak. Q: s he going to speak? A: He $ill be speaking. N: He $ill not be speaking. Q: %ill he be speaking? A: He $ill have spoken. N: He $ill not have spoken. Q: %ill he have spoken? A: He $ill have been speaking. N: He $ill not have been speaking. Q: %ill he have been speaking? A: He $ould speak. N: He $ould not speak. Q: %ould he speak?

'uture ) Simple !going to#

'uture ) Progressive

action that is going on at a certain time in the future in one year, ne&t $eek, tomorro$ action that is sure to happen in the near future action that $ill be by 'onday, in a finished at a certain time $eek in the future action taking place before a certain time in the future for ", the last couple of hours, all day long putting emphasis on the course of an action if sentences type ! f $ere you, $ould go home.#

'uture )) Simple

'uture )) Progressive

1onditional ) Simple

action that might take place

1onditional ) Progressive

A: He $ould be speaking. N: He $ould not be speaking. Q: %ould he be speaking? A: He $ould have spoken. N: He $ould not have spoken. Q: %ould he have spoken? A: He $ould have been speaking. N: He $ould not have been speaking. Q: %ould he have been speaking?

action that might take place putting emphasis on the course ( duration of the action

1onditional )) Simple

action that might have taken place in the past

if sentences type ! f had seen that, $ould have helped.#

action that might have taken place in the past puts emphasis on the course ( duration of the action

1onditional )) Progressive