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Engineering Mechanics

Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies


Main Text
Major chunk of lectures based on:
Vector Mechanics for Engineers, Beer, Johnston et
al., 10
th
ed., McGraw-Hill.
Referred to as BJ10. Indian Edition available.
Also, some problems from Beer and Johnston 3
rd
and 8
th
editions, BJ3 and BJ8.
Dynamics will be exclusively taught from BJ10.
Many wonderful new resources available in BJ10.
Become more clear as we proceed.
Many slide contents in our lectures from BJ10
Instructor resources.
Attractive online features available for Instructors
http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/1259062910/information_center_view0/
For purchase/other details kindly contact:
sagar.divekar@mheducation.com Sagar Divekar
santosh.joshi@mheducation.com Santosh Joshi
Secondary Text
Many really interesting and challenging
problems from:
Engineering Mechanics: Statics/Dynamics,
Meriamand Kraige, Eds. 2, 5, 7. (MK3,
MK5, MK7).
Online resources
Nice demonstrations from Wolfram (look under
the mechanics section). Will show some of them.
http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/
Beautiful lectures notes by Prof. Allan Bower at
Brown University
http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Engineering/Courses/En4/Notes/notes.html
Nice general lectures on Dynamics on youtube:
http://www.youtube.com/user/mellenstei
Nice animations to textbook problems:
http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/3076/3149958/studypak/index_st.h
tml
Application
4 5 BJ10
Engineers
designing this
crane will need to
determine the
forces that act on
this body under
various conditions.
Slide from BJ10
Previously discussed
Vector mechanics
Definition of force and moment/torque
Equivalent systems
Distributed loads
Centroid, Moment of Inertia etc.
Whats a rigid body?
Mathematically a body is rigid means:
Distance between any two points of the body
does not change in the course of motion
In reality, no body is fully rigid! Rigidity
only implies that the deformations are very
small as compared to the body dimensions.
Many real life structures can be idealized
as rigid!
Examples
IIT main building Crane
http://www.yjcrane.com/img/cranes/crawler-crane.jpg
Equilibrium
System is in
equilibrium if
and only if the
sum of all the
forces and
moment (about
any point)
equals zero.
If true for one point O, true
w.r.t any other point! Convince
yourself
Supports and Equilibrium
Any structure is made of many
components.
The components are the be connected by
linkages.
Other wise the structure will lose its
integrity.
Different component of structure talk to
each other via linkages.
The structure should be globally
supported to prevent it from falling over.
Different Structural Supports
Supports are required to maintain
system in equilibrium.
Too few supports makes system unstable
general loading
Too many supports make the system
over-rigid.
Constraints and Reactions
There is an intricate relationship between
kinematics (motion) and reactions (forces).
Always note that in the case of supports
displacement (rotation) and force (torque) in
any given direction are complementary.
If a support rigidly constrains a given degree
of freedom (DOF) for a rigid body then it
gives rise to a reaction corresponding to that
DOF.
Similarly if a support freely allows motion of
particular DOF then there is no reaction
from the support in that direction.
What are 2D structures?
No real life structure is 2D!
So whats the deal with 2D?
What are 2D structures?
Symmetry in the structure and loading about a
plane. The problem can then be simplified to a
2D problem! Convince yourself.
BJ10
What are 2D structures?
The third dimension is very small as
compared to the other two and loads are
coplanar.
Non-Symmetrical but bodies
connected by pin are very close to
each other
Reactions at Supports and Connections for a Two-Dimensional
Structure
4 - 17
Reactions equivalent to
a force with known line
of action.
Slide from BJ10
Reactions at Supports and Connections for a Two-Dimensional
Structure
4 18 BJ10
Reactions equivalent to
a force of unknown
direction and
magnitude.
Reactions at Supports and Connections for a Two-Dimensional
Structure
4 18 BJ10
Reactions equivalent to
a force of unknown
direction and
magnitude.
Reactions equivalent
to a force of unknown
direction and
magnitude and a
couple of unknown
magnitude.
Summary
Pin support
Pin connection
http://oli.cmu.edu
Roller
http://oli.cmu.edu
Slot Connection
http://oli.cmu.edu
Simple Examples
Roller Support
Fixed Support
Need for different types of
supports
http://fastestlaps.com/articles/wads_on_sportscars_audi_rs6.html
www.howstuffworks.com
Free Body Diagram (FBD)
The Heart of mechanics
Single most important concept in
engineering mechanics.
Zoom in on a given component of a structure.
Means replace supports (connections) with the
corresponding reactions.
Replace kinematic constraints with
corresponding reactions.
Concepts will get more clear as we proceed
further.
Simple examples
Copyright, Dr. Romberg
FBD
FBD
More
Examples
of FBD
Practice (BJ10)
4 26 BJ10
The frame shown supports part of the
roof of a small building. Your goal is to
draw the free body diagram (FBD) for
the problem. The tension in the cable
BDF is 150kN.
On the following page, you will choose
the most correct FBD for this problem.
First, you should draw your own FBD.
Practice
4 27 BJ10
Choose the most
correct FBD for the
original problem.
Practice
4 27 BJ10
A
B
C D
150 kN
150 kN
150 kN
150 kN
Choose the most
correct FBD for the
original problem.
Practice
4 27 BJ10
A
B
C D
150 kN
150 kN
150 kN
150 kN
Choose the most
correct FBD for the
original problem.
B is the most correct, though C is
also correct. A & D are incorrect;
why?
Practice
4 27 BJ10
A
B
C D
150 kN
150 kN
150 kN
150 kN
Choose the most
correct FBD for the
original problem.
B is the most correct, though C is
also correct. A & D are incorrect;
why?
why each choice is
correct or incorrect?
Equations of equilibrium in 2D
Three equations per free body.
Writing more than three equations per free body is punishable
by law (at least it should be).
We can also use equations like this
or like this where A, B, C are not in a
straight line
C
Problem 1
Determine the tension in cable ABD and
reaction at support C.
Categories of Equilibrium in 2D
MK5
Adequacy of
Constraints
MK5
Problem 2 (BJ10)
A 70 kg (W) overhead garage door consists of a uniform rectangular
panel AC 2100 mm high (h), supported by the cable AE attached at the
middle of the upper edge of the door and by two sets of frictionless
rollers at A and B. Each set consists of two rollers one either side of the
door. The rollers A are free to move in horizontal channels, while rollers
B are guided by vertical channels. If the door is held in the position for
which BD=1050 mm, determine (a) the tension in the cable AE, (2) the
reaction at each of the four rollers. Assume a = 1050 mm, b = 700mm
Link: Two-Force Member
Member with negligible weight and arbitrary
shape connected to other members by pins
Two Force member
http://oli.cmu.edu
Equilibrium of a Three-Force
Body
Consider a rigid body subjected to forces
acting at only 3 points.
Slide from BJ10
Equilibrium of a Three-Force
Body
Consider a rigid body subjected to forces
acting at only 3 points.
Assuming that their lines of action intersect,
the moment of F
1
and F
2
about the point of
intersection represented by D is zero.
Slide from BJ10
Equilibrium of a Three-Force
Body
Consider a rigid body subjected to forces
acting at only 3 points.
Assuming that their lines of action intersect,
the moment of F
1
and F
2
about the point of
intersection represented by D is zero.
Since the rigid body is in equilibrium, the sum
of the moments of F
1
, F
2
, and F
3
about any axis
must be zero. It follows that the moment of F
3
about D must be zero as well and that the line
of action of F
3
must pass through D.
Slide from BJ10
Equilibrium of a Three-Force
Body
Consider a rigid body subjected to forces
acting at only 3 points.
Assuming that their lines of action intersect,
the moment of F
1
and F
2
about the point of
intersection represented by D is zero.
Since the rigid body is in equilibrium, the sum
of the moments of F
1
, F
2
, and F
3
about any axis
must be zero. It follows that the moment of F
3
about D must be zero as well and that the line
of action of F
3
must pass through D.
The lines of action of the three forces must be
concurrent or parallel.
Slide from BJ10
Sample Problem 4.6 BJ-10
4 38 BJ10
A man raises a 10-kg joist,
of length 4 m, by pulling on
a rope.
Find the tension T in the
rope and the reaction at A.
Sample Problem 4.6 BJ-10
4 38 BJ10
A man raises a 10-kg joist,
of length 4 m, by pulling on
a rope.
Find the tension T in the
rope and the reaction at A.
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram of the
joist. Note that the joist is a 3 force
body acted upon by the rope, its
weight, and the reaction at A.
Sample Problem 4.6 BJ-10
4 38 BJ10
A man raises a 10-kg joist,
of length 4 m, by pulling on
a rope.
Find the tension T in the
rope and the reaction at A.
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram of the
joist. Note that the joist is a 3 force
body acted upon by the rope, its
weight, and the reaction at A.
The three forces must be concurrent
for static equilibrium. Therefore, the
reaction R must pass through the
intersection of the lines of action of
the weight and rope forces.
Determine the direction of the
reaction R.
Sample Problem 4.6 BJ-10
4 38 BJ10
A man raises a 10-kg joist,
of length 4 m, by pulling on
a rope.
Find the tension T in the
rope and the reaction at A.
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram of the
joist. Note that the joist is a 3 force
body acted upon by the rope, its
weight, and the reaction at A.
The three forces must be concurrent
for static equilibrium. Therefore, the
reaction R must pass through the
intersection of the lines of action of
the weight and rope forces.
Determine the direction of the
reaction R.
Utilize a force triangle to determine
the magnitude of the reaction R.
Sample Problem 4.6
4 39 BJ10
Create a free-body diagram of the
joist.
Sample Problem 4.6
4 39 BJ10
Create a free-body diagram of the
joist.
Determine the direction of the
reaction R.
( )
( )
( )
636 1
414 1
313 2
tan
m 2.313 m 515 0 828 2
m 515 0 20 tan m 414 1 ) 25 45 ( cot
m 414 1
m 828 2 45 cos m 4 45 cos
o o o
2
1
o o
.
.
.
AE
CE
. . BD BF CE
. . CD BD
. AF AE CD
. AB BF
= = =
= = =
= = + =
= = =
= = =
o

6 . 58 = o
Sample Problem 4.6
4 40 BJ10
Determine the magnitude of the
reaction R.

38.6 sin
N 1 . 98
110 sin 4 . 31 sin
= =
R T
N 8 . 147
N 9 . 81
=
=
R
T
Sample Problem 4.1 BJ10
A fixed crane has a mass of
1000 kg and is used to lift a
2400-kg crate. It is held in
place by a pin at A and a rocker
at B. The center of gravity of
the crane is located at G.
Determine the components of
the reactions at A and B.
Sample Problem 4.1 BJ10
A fixed crane has a mass of
1000 kg and is used to lift a
2400-kg crate. It is held in
place by a pin at A and a rocker
at B. The center of gravity of
the crane is located at G.
Determine the components of
the reactions at A and B.
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram for the
crane.
Sample Problem 4.1 BJ10
A fixed crane has a mass of
1000 kg and is used to lift a
2400-kg crate. It is held in
place by a pin at A and a rocker
at B. The center of gravity of
the crane is located at G.
Determine the components of
the reactions at A and B.
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram for the
crane.
Determine the reactions at B by
solving the equation for the sum of
the moments of all forces about A.
Note there will be no contribution
from the unknown reactions at A.
Sample Problem 4.1 BJ10
A fixed crane has a mass of
1000 kg and is used to lift a
2400-kg crate. It is held in
place by a pin at A and a rocker
at B. The center of gravity of
the crane is located at G.
Determine the components of
the reactions at A and B.
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram for the
crane.
Determine the reactions at B by
solving the equation for the sum of
the moments of all forces about A.
Note there will be no contribution
from the unknown reactions at A.
Determine the reactions at A by
solving the equations for the
sum of all horizontal force
components and all vertical
force components.
Sample Problem 4.1 BJ10
A fixed crane has a mass of
1000 kg and is used to lift a
2400-kg crate. It is held in
place by a pin at A and a rocker
at B. The center of gravity of
the crane is located at G.
Determine the components of
the reactions at A and B.
SOLUTION:
Create a free-body diagram for the
crane.
Determine the reactions at B by
solving the equation for the sum of
the moments of all forces about A.
Note there will be no contribution
from the unknown reactions at A.
Determine the reactions at A by
solving the equations for the
sum of all horizontal force
components and all vertical
force components.
Check the values obtained for
the reactions by verifying that
the sum of the moments about B
of all forces is zero.
Sample Problem 4.1 BJ10
4 - 42
Create the free-body
diagram.
Sample Problem 4.1 BJ10
4 - 42
Create the free-body
diagram.
Determine B by solving the equation
for the sum of the moments of all
forces about A.
( ) ( )
( ) 0 m 6 kN 5 23
m 2 kN 81 9 m 5 1 0
=
+ =

.
. . B : M
A
kN 1 107. B + =
Sample Problem 4.1 BJ10
4 - 42
Create the free-body
diagram.
Determine B by solving the equation
for the sum of the moments of all
forces about A.
( ) ( )
( ) 0 m 6 kN 5 23
m 2 kN 81 9 m 5 1 0
=
+ =

.
. . B : M
A
kN 1 107. B + =
Determine the reactions at A by
solving the equations for the sum of all
horizontal forces and all vertical forces.
0 0 = + =

B A : F
x x
kN 1 . 107 =
x
A
Sample Problem 4.1 BJ10
4 - 42
Create the free-body
diagram.
Determine B by solving the equation
for the sum of the moments of all
forces about A.
( ) ( )
( ) 0 m 6 kN 5 23
m 2 kN 81 9 m 5 1 0
=
+ =

.
. . B : M
A
kN 1 107. B + =
Determine the reactions at A by
solving the equations for the sum of all
horizontal forces and all vertical forces.
0 0 = + =

B A : F
x x
kN 1 . 107 =
x
A
0 kN 5 23 kN 81 9 0 = =

. . A : F
y y
kN 3 33. A
y
+ =
Sample Problem 4.1 BJ10
4 - 42
Create the free-body
diagram.
Check the values obtained.
Determine B by solving the equation
for the sum of the moments of all
forces about A.
( ) ( )
( ) 0 m 6 kN 5 23
m 2 kN 81 9 m 5 1 0
=
+ =

.
. . B : M
A
kN 1 107. B + =
Determine the reactions at A by
solving the equations for the sum of all
horizontal forces and all vertical forces.
0 0 = + =

B A : F
x x
kN 1 . 107 =
x
A
0 kN 5 23 kN 81 9 0 = =

. . A : F
y y
kN 3 33. A
y
+ =
Hydraulic Cylinder
show Mathematica demo on this
System constrained to
various degrees
Questions?
Tutorial after tea-break
Tutorial on 2D equilibrium
Problem 1 (BJ10)
4 47 BJ10
The frame supports part of the
roof of a small building. The
tension in the cable is 150 kN.
Determine the reactions at the
fixed end E.
Problem 1 (BJ10)
4 47 BJ10
The frame supports part of the
roof of a small building. The
tension in the cable is 150 kN.
Determine the reactions at the
fixed end E.
SOLUTION:
- Discuss with a neighbor the
steps for solving this problem.
Problem 1 (BJ10)
4 47 BJ10
The frame supports part of the
roof of a small building. The
tension in the cable is 150 kN.
Determine the reactions at the
fixed end E.
SOLUTION:
- Discuss with a neighbor the
steps for solving this problem.
Create a free-body diagram
for the frame and cable.
Problem 1 (BJ10)
4 47 BJ10
The frame supports part of the
roof of a small building. The
tension in the cable is 150 kN.
Determine the reactions at the
fixed end E.
SOLUTION:
- Discuss with a neighbor the
steps for solving this problem.
Apply the equilibrium
equations for the reaction
force components and couple
at E.
Create a free-body diagram
for the frame and cable.
Problem-1 BJ10
The free-body diagram was
created in an earlier
exercise.
Apply one of the three
equilibrium equations.
Try using the condition
that the sum of forces in
the x-direction must sum
to zero.
Problem-1 BJ10
The free-body diagram was
created in an earlier
exercise.
Apply one of the three
equilibrium equations.
Try using the condition
that the sum of forces in
the x-direction must sum
to zero.
( ) 0 kN 150
5 . 7
5 . 4
: 0 = + =

x x
E F
( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 cos : 0
o
= + =

. E F
x x
Which equation is correct?
( ) 0 N k 150
5 7
6
: 0 = + =

.
E F
x x
A.
B.
C.
D.
( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 sin : 0
o
= + =

. E F
x x
E.
( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 sin : 0
o
= =

. E F
x x
Problem-1 BJ10
The free-body diagram was
created in an earlier
exercise.
Apply one of the three
equilibrium equations.
Try using the condition
that the sum of forces in
the x-direction must sum
to zero.
( ) 0 kN 150
5 . 7
5 . 4
: 0 = + =

x x
E F
kN 0 . 90 =
x
E
( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 cos : 0
o
= + =

. E F
x x
Which equation is correct?
( ) 0 N k 150
5 7
6
: 0 = + =

.
E F
x x
A.
B.
C.
D.
( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 sin : 0
o
= + =

. E F
x x
E.
( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 sin : 0
o
= =

. E F
x x
kN 0 . 90 =
x
E
Problem-1 BJ10
The free-body diagram was
created in an earlier
exercise.
Apply one of the three
equilibrium equations.
Try using the condition
that the sum of forces in
the x-direction must sum
to zero.
( ) 0 kN 150
5 . 7
5 . 4
: 0 = + =

x x
E F
kN 0 . 90 =
x
E
( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 cos : 0
o
= + =

. E F
x x
Which equation is correct?
( ) 0 N k 150
5 7
6
: 0 = + =

.
E F
x x
A.
B.
C.
D.
( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 sin : 0
o
= + =

. E F
x x
E.
( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 sin : 0
o
= =

. E F
x x
kN 0 . 90 =
x
E
What does the negative sign
signify?
why the others are incorrect?
Problem 1 BJ10
4 - 49
Now apply the
condition that the sum
of forces in the y-
direction must sum to
zero.
Problem 1 BJ10
4 - 49
Now apply the
condition that the sum
of forces in the y-
direction must sum to
zero.
Which equation is correct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 sin kN 20 4 : 0
o
= =

. E F
y y
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150
5 7
6
kN 20 4 : 0 = + =

.
E F
y y
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150
5 7
6
kN 20 4 : 0 = =

.
E F
y y
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150
5 7
6
kN 20 4 : 0 = + =

.
E F
y y
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 cos kN 20 4 : 0
o
= =

. E F
y y
Problem 1 BJ10
4 - 49
Now apply the
condition that the sum
of forces in the y-
direction must sum to
zero.
kN 200 + =
y
E
Which equation is correct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 sin kN 20 4 : 0
o
= =

. E F
y y
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150
5 7
6
kN 20 4 : 0 = + =

.
E F
y y
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150
5 7
6
kN 20 4 : 0 = =

.
E F
y y
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150
5 7
6
kN 20 4 : 0 = + =

.
E F
y y

E
y
=+200 kN
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 cos kN 20 4 : 0
o
= =

. E F
y y
Problem 1 BJ10
4 - 49
Now apply the
condition that the sum
of forces in the y-
direction must sum to
zero.
kN 200 + =
y
E
Which equation is correct?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
What does the positive sign
signify?
Discuss why the others are
incorrect.
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 sin kN 20 4 : 0
o
= =

. E F
y y
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150
5 7
6
kN 20 4 : 0 = + =

.
E F
y y
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150
5 7
6
kN 20 4 : 0 = =

.
E F
y y
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150
5 7
6
kN 20 4 : 0 = + =

.
E F
y y

E
y
=+200 kN
( ) ( ) 0 kN 150 9 36 cos kN 20 4 : 0
o
= =

. E F
y y
Problem 1 BJ10
Finally, apply the
condition that the sum of
moments about any point
must equal zero.
Discuss with a neighbor
which point is the best for
applying this equilibrium
condition, and why.
Problem 1 BJ10
Finally, apply the
condition that the sum of
moments about any point
must equal zero.
Discuss with a neighbor
which point is the best for
applying this equilibrium
condition, and why.
Three good points are D, E, and F.
Discuss what advantage each
point has over the others, or
perhaps why each is equally good.
Problem 1 BJ10
Finally, apply the
condition that the sum of
moments about any point
must equal zero.
Discuss with a neighbor
which point is the best for
applying this equilibrium
condition, and why.
Three good points are D, E, and F.
Discuss what advantage each
point has over the others, or
perhaps why each is equally good.
Assume that you choose point E to
apply the sum-of-moments
condition.
Problem 1 BJ10
Finally, apply the
condition that the sum of
moments about any point
must equal zero.
Discuss with a neighbor
which point is the best for
applying this equilibrium
condition, and why.
Three good points are D, E, and F.
Discuss what advantage each
point has over the others, or
perhaps why each is equally good.

= : 0
E
M ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) 0 m 5 . 4 kN 150
5 . 7
6
m 8 . 1 kN 20 m 6 . 3 kN 20
m 4 . 5 kN 20 m 7.2 kN 20
= +
+ +
+ +
E
M
m kN 0 . 180 =
E
M
Assume that you choose point E to
apply the sum-of-moments
condition.
Problem 2
MK2
The uniform beam has
an overall length of 6m
and a mass of 300kg. The
force P applied to the
hoisting cable is slowly
increased to raise the
ring C, the two 4-m ropes
AC and BC, and the
beam. Compute the
tensions in the ropes at A
and B when the beam is
clear of its supports and
the force P is equal to the
weight of the beam
A light rod AD supports a
150N vertical load and is
attached to collars B and C,
which may slide freely on the
rods shown. Knowing that the
wire attached at A forms an
angle = 30
0
with the
horizontal, determine
a) The tension in the wire
b) The reaction at B and C
Problem 3 (BJ3)
The device shown in
section can support the
load L at various
heights by resetting the
pawl C in another tooth
at the desired height on
the fixed vertical
column D. Determine
the distance b at which
the load should be
positioned in order for
the two rollers A and
B to support equal
forces. The weight of
the device is negligible
compared with L.
Problem 4
MK5, 3.111
Problem 5
A semi-circular rod
ABCD is supported
by a roller at D and
rests on two
frictionless cylinders
B and C. Find the
maximum angle,
force P can make
with the vertical if
applied at point A
and the rod remains
in equilibrium.
A uniform 400-kg drum is
mounted on a line of rollers at A
and a line of rollers at B. An 80-
kg man moves slowly a distance
of 700 mm from the vertical
centerline before the drum
begins to rotate. All rollers are
perfectly free to rotate except
one of them at B which must
overcome appreciable friction in
its bearing. Calculate the friction
force F exerted by that one
roller tangent to the drum and
find the magnitude R of the force
exerted by all rollers at A on the
drum for this condition
Problem 6
MK5, 3.57
Problem 7 MK5
A special jig is designed to position
large concrete pipe sections and
consists of a 80 Mg sector mounted on
a line of rollers at B. One of the
rollers at B is a gear which meshes
with the a ring of gear teeth on the
sector as to turn the sector about its
geometric center O. When = 0
0
, a
counterclock wise torque of 2460 Nm
must be applied to the gear at B to
keep the assembly form rotating.
When = 30
0
, a clock wise torque of
4680 Nm is needed to prevent
rotation. Locate the mass center G of
the jig by calculating r and . Note
that the mass center of the pipe
section is at O.
Dia = 480
mm
Point Connections