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Gas Engines Application and Installation Guide

G3600
G Cooling Systems G Heat Recovery G Lubrication System

LEKQ7255 (Supersedes LEKQ2460)

8-97

G3600 Cooling Systems


Basic System Configurations Standard Cooling System Combined Heat and Power Cooling System (CHP) Low Energy Fuel Engine Cooling System High Temperature Cooling System Special Cooling Systems Basic Operating Parameters Recommended Temperature Rise Recommended Inlet Pressures Temperature Limits Pressure Limits Flow Limits Heat Rejection Flow Calculations G3600 Cooling System Design Procedure Types of Cooling System System Design Requirements Temperature Regulators Inlet Controlled Cooling Systems Outlet Controlled Cooling Systems

Additional External System Resistances System Volume Minimum Pump Inlet Pressure Expanse Tanks Full Flow and Remote Flow Expansion Tanks Expansion Tanks for Inlet and Outlet Controlled Systems Sizing Expansion Tanks System Pressures Attachment Expansion Tank Filling and Venting De-aeration Radiators Remote Mounted Radiators Radiator Design Criteria Heat Exchangers Heat Exchanger Design Criteria Submerged Pipe Cooling Submerged Pipe Design Criteria Cooling Towers Types of Cooling Towers Cooling Tower Design Criteria Aftercooler Heat Exchanger Sizing Interconnection of Engines Flexible Connections Piping Supports Jacket Water Heaters Cleanliness and Strainers Serviceability and Isolation Valves System Monitoring Customer Connections

Cooling Systems
As with all internal combustion engines Caterpillar G3600 engines produce heat as a by-product of combustion. As a general rule, 2040% of the energy input into an engine must be removed by the cooling system. The three basic systems that reject this heat are the aftercooler, oil cooler and jacket water circuit. Each of these systems have specific requirements that must be met in order to provide a well designed cooling system. All the pressure and temperature values in this publication are gauge values unless otherwise specified. All units are in the Metric convention with English equivalents in parentheses, i.e. meter (feet). Additional cooling systems topics related to heat recovery applications are covered in the next chapter on Heat Recovery.

also given in the Customer Connections section. For more information on cooling system options please refer to the G3600 Price List.

Standard Cooling System


The standard cooling system cools the engine jacket on one circuit and aftercooler and oil cooler on the other. The aftercooler and oil cooler are connected in parallel. This system is available with the option of either an inlet controlled or an outlet controlled system. The inlet controlled system, see Figure 1, regulates the jacket water inlet temperature to a minimum of 83C (181F) or 93C (199F) and aftercooler-oil cooler circuit inlet temperature to a minimum of 32C (90F) or 54C (130F) by factory supplied regulators. The outlet controlled system, see Figure 2, regulates the jacket water outlet temperature to a minimum of 88C (190F) or 99C (210F) and the aftercooler-oil cooler circuit outlet temperature to a minimum of 64C (147F) by factory supplied regulators. Generally, inlet control is preferred for heat exchanger cooled systems and outlet control is used for radiator cooled systems. Refer to the section on Selection of Inlet or Outlet Controlled Systems for more information on inlet and outlet controlled systems. The connections for the A, B and C ports of the temperature regulator housing are explained in the section on Inlet Control and Outlet Control. The jacket water circuit and the aftercooler-oil cooler circuit need a minimum expansion volume provided by separate expansion tanks or integral with radiators header tanks. Refer to section on Expansion Tanks for different types of expansion tanks, sizing guidelines and information about factory provided expansion tanks. Vent lines are required on both circuits to return to the expansion tank and eliminate air traps in the circuit. Refer to the section on Venting and Filling for recommended vent line sizes and venting locations. The Figures 3 & 4 show a pictorial view of the Standard Cooling Systems on G3600 engines. Additional schematics of the standard cooling system with remote flow expansion tank are
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Basic System Configurations


Caterpillar G3600 Engines offer different cooling system configurations and options to fulfill the customers needs. These cooling system configurations will be discussed separately in the following sections. The cooling system design for the different configurations to calculate flows, temperatures and pressure drops across the different circuits is explained in the subsequent sections. The design of any cooling system configuration should adhere to the limits specified in the Temperature Limits, Pressure Limits and Flow Limits sections and to the guidelines for the quality of the coolant specified in the Water Quality section in the Heat Recovery chapter. Heat Recovery systems should follow design guidelines specified in the Heat Recovery chapter. The schematics in the following sections provide a functional layout of the different types of cooling systems and do not indicate the scope of supply or specifications of the components in the system. The various factory supplied or available components of the cooling system and those that must be supplied by the customer are shown in the Customer Connections section. The cooling system weld flanges and sizes for customer connections points for all configurations are

Turbo

Vent Line

Jacket Water Heat Exchanger Raw Water Out C Raw Water In Raw Water Out

Engine Jacket A Jacket Water Pump 83C (181F) 93C (199F)

Full Flow Expansion Tank

Temperature Regulator

Oil Cooler Mixer Box Aftercooler Vent Line G3606 & G3608 Only Vent Line G3612 & G3616 Only A AC-OC Pump 32C (90F) 54C (130F)

B C

Raw Water In AC-OC Circuit Heat Exchanger

Full Flow Expansion Tank

Temperature Regulator

Figure 1. G3600 Standard Cooling System-Inlet Controlled (with full flow expansion tank).

Turbo

Vent Line

88C (190F) 99C (210F)

Temperature Regulator A B C

Engine Jacket

Jacket Water Pump

Full Flow Expansion Tank 64C (147F)

Temperature Regulator A C B

Jacket Water Radiator

Oil Cooler Mixer Box Aftercooler Vent Line G3606 & G3608 Only Vent Line G3612 & G3616 Only

AC-OC Pump

Full Flow Expansion Tank

AC-OC Circuit Radiator

Figure 2. G3600 Standard Cooling System-Outlet Controlled (with full flow expansion tank).

Figure 3. Standard Cooling System G3606 & G3608 engines.

Figure 4. Standard Cooling System G3612 & G3616 engines.

given in the section on Expansion Tanks for Inlet and Outlet Controlled Systems.

Combined Heat and Power Cooling System (CHP)


In applications where the heat energy from various engine components is used to provide hot water for domestic and industrial end users, the aftercooler, oil cooler and engine jacket are all cooled with the same cold water circuit. Typically the raw water in these applications is water from the local utility, referred to as district water. The engine block should be cooled by treated water only, so for these Combined Heat and Power applications the engine jacket circuit is cooled by treated water in a closed circuit with a heat exchanger. The district water recovers the jacket water heat load from the heat exchanger. The Combined Heat and Power Cooling System is currently offered only on G3612 and G3616 engines. The jacket water circuit is inlet controlled to a minimum of 93C (199F) with factory mounted temperature regulators, engine mounted pump, expansion tank and heat exchanger. The external system relies on district water pressure to flow water through

the circuit. The aftercooler and oil cooler are directly cooled by district water, see Figures 5 & 6. The aftercooler-oil cooler circuit requires a customer provided booster pump and does not require a temperature regulator. The automatic derating system on the engine starts to derate the engine when the aftercooler water inlet temperature increases beyond 32C (90F). The inlet water temperature to the aftercooler in this system should not exceed 70C (158F). The jacket water circuit in this system is designed as a closed circuit to control the quality of the coolant used in the engine jacket. The aftercooler and oil cooler can tolerate higher amounts of contaminants than the jacket water circuit, permitting district water to be used directly in them. For additional design guidelines to be followed for the CHP cooling system, refer to the section on Design Criteria for Standard Temperature Systems in the Heat Recovery chapter. The general guidelines for the water quality for use in G3600 engines is given in the Water Quality section in the Heat Recovery chapter. Strainers should be installed permanently in the aftercooler and oil cooler circuit to prevent entry of debris into the components

Turbo

Jacket Water Heat Exchanger Vent Line B A JW Pump 93C (199F) Expansion Tank C

Engine Jacket

Temperature Regulator

District Water In Factory Orifice

M
Motor Driven Pump 70C (158F) Maximum Aftercooler

Exhaust Heat Exchanger Second Stage Oil Cooler Exhaust Heat Exchanger First Stage District Water Out

Figure 5. G3600 Combined Heat and Power Cooling System - Option A.


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Turbo

Jacket Water Heat Exchanger Vent Line B A JW Pump 93C (199F) Expansion Tank C

Engine Jacket

Temperature Regulator

District Water In Motor Driven Pump Factory Orifice

M
Aftercooler 70C (158F) Maximum

Exhaust Heat Exchanger Second Stage

Oil Cooler Exhaust Heat Exchanger First Stage District Water Out

Figure 6. G3600 Combined Heat and Power Cooling System - Option B.

which can easily clog the water passages. The requirement for strainers in the cooling system is given in the section Cleanliness and Strainers.

Low Energy Fuel Engine Cooling System


Engines operating with landfill gas, digester gas or any other low energy fuel need to maintain higher cooling circuit operating temperatures for long engine and oil life. This helps to prevent condensation of acids formed during combustion in the oil. On the Low Energy Fuel Engine cooling system, see Figure 7, the jacket water is outlet controlled to a minimum of 110C (230F) and the aftercooler-oil cooler circuit is outlet controlled to a minimum of 64C (147F) with factory supplied temperature regulators. Engine mounted pumps supply water for both the jacket water circuit and the aftercooler-oil cooler circuit. The expansion volume for both jacket water and the aftercooler-oil cooler circuit should be provided and is typically provided in the radiator tanks. This cooling system must be pressurized to prevent steam formation at this high operating temperatures and appropriate
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expansion tank cap or radiator cap should be used to maintain system pressure. Refer to the section Pressure Limits for minimum and maximum system operating pressures and section on Minimum Pump Inlet Pressure for pump inlet pressures.

High Temperature Cooling System


The ability to produce low pressure steam or high temperature water is a necessity for some cogeneration applications. The G3600 High Temperature Cooling System, see Figure 8, is designed to provide a maximum outlet temperature of 130C (266F) on the jacket water circuit. The aftercooler-oil cooler system is similar to that of the Standard Cooling System can be inlet controlled to a minimum of 32C (90F) and 54C (130F) or outlet controlled to 64C (147F). A customer supplied pump and temperature regulating system is required to maintain flow through the jacket water circuit and the 130C (266F) water leaving the engine can be flashed to steam in an external boiler or used in the liquid phase. Steam formation inside the engine jacket is not allowed at any time and the control system will shut the engine down if there is any drop in coolant pressure which leads to steam formation. The operating

Vent Line Turbo Temperature Regulator

110C (230F) Jacket Water Pump

Engine Jacket

Jacket Water Radiator Vent Lines (G3606 & G3608 Only) Vent Lines (G3612 & G3616 Only) A Oil Cooler Mixer Box Aftercooler 64C (147F) Temperature Regulator C C

AC-OC Pump

AC-OC Circuit Radiator

Figure 7. G3600 Low Energy Fuel Engine Cooling System.

Pressure & Temperature Sensors

110C (230F)

Steam to Load

Engine Jacket

Condensate In Pressure Switch Remote Mounted Electric Pump

Steam Separator Raw Water Out

Oil Cooler Mixer Box Aftercooler Vent Line G3606 & G3608 Only Vent Line G3612 & G3616 Only A AC-OC Pump 32C (90F) 54C (130F)

B C

Raw Water In AC-OC Circuit Heat Exchanger

Full Flow Expansion Tank

Temperature Regulator

Figure 8. G3600 High Temperature Cooling System.

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pressure in the system should be maintained above the minimum specification to prevent water from vaporizing to steam inside the engine which causes serious damage to engine components. If the system results in a combined static and dynamic head of over 460 kPa (67 psi) at the engine outlet, use a heat exchanger to isolate the engine from the systems high static and dynamic heads. In sizing the jacket water pump, heat exchangers and other cogeneration equipment, adhere to limits specified in the Temperature Limits and Pressure Limits sections. The design guidelines for the High Temperature Cooling System are given in the High Temperature System section of the Heat Recovery chapter. The Heat Recovery section also has some more recommended configurations for heat recovery circuits.

Heat and Power application is shown in Figure 9. This configuration provides four different circuits to make optimum use of the heat recovery capabilities of each of the cooling system components on the engine with a two stage aftercooler. The oil cooler and first stage of aftercooler require a customer supplied pump to circulate coolant through them. The jacket water circuit is similar to the jacket water system in the Standard Cooling System. The aftercooler second stage coolant inlet temperature is regulated to a minimum of 32C (90F) by a temperature regulator. The aftercooler first stage coolant inlet temperature can vary from 45C (113F) to 95C (203F). The oil cooler is on its own circuit and the maximum inlet temperature to this circuit is 54C (130F). The second two stage aftercooler cooling system configuration shown in Figure 10 is intended to combine the aftercooler first stage heat load with the jacket water to reduce and optimize radiator sizing for the complete engine installation. The second stage aftercooler and oil cooler are cooled in parallel, similar to the AftercoolerOil Cooler circuit in Standard Cooling System. The jacket wateraftercooler first stage can be cooled by coolant at minimum inlet temperatures of either 83C (181F) or 93C (199F). The oil coolersecond stage aftercooler circuit has minimum coolant inlet temperatures of either 32C (90F) or 54C (130F) depending on the engine rating.

Two Stage Aftercooler Cooling Systems


The two stage aftercooler, currently offered for G3612 and G3616 engines, is intended to provide high temperature heat recovery for Electric Power Generation (EPG) applications and reduce overall radiator sizing for Gas Compression applications. There are two coolant stages on the two stage aftercooler, the first coolant stage uses high temperature coolant to cool the charge air to an intermediate temperature and the second stage cools the air down to engine rating requirements. The two stage aftercooler can also allow much higher coolant inlet pressure to both stages than the single stage aftercooler. The two stage aftercooler has round tubes on the coolant side with removable end tanks. The coolant tubes are mechanically cleanable. There are a variety of cooling systems available for use with the two stage aftercooler on the G3612 and G3616 engines. Two of the most common and distinct configurations are explained in this section. There are a total of eight configurations of cooling systems offered in the G3600 Price List for use with the two stage aftercooler. Contact the factory for more details on these cooling systems. The most appropriate cooling system for a two stage aftercooler engine in a Combined
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Special Cooling Systems


The systems discussed so far are the various production configurations offered. If an application requires special features or a unique cooling system configuration, order through the factory using Special Engineering Request (SER). The schematic of one such special cooling system with an engine mounted combined jacket water heat exchanger and plate fin oil cooler is shown in Figure 11.

Engine Jacket

To Heat Exchanger

From Heat Exchanger JW Pump 83C or 93C Expansion Temperature Tank Regulator Stage I Max 95C, 1000 kPa

Max 54C 1000 kPa Oil Cooler

Customer Pump

Aftercooler Stage I

To Heat Exchanger or Heating Plants

Customer Pump

Stage II 32C or 54C 1000 kPa

Stage II

To Heat Exchanger or Heating Plants

300 kPa AC Pump

Expansion Tank (Customer Provided)

Temperature Regulator

Figure 9. Inlet Controlled Cooling System.

Mixer Box To Heat Exchanger Engine Jacket From Heat Exchanger JW Pump Stage I Aftercooler Stage II Mixer Box To Heat Exchanger 83C Expansion Temperature or 93C Tank Regulator

Oil Cooler 32C or 54C 1000 kPa Max From Heat Exchanger 300 kPa Pump Expansion Tank (Customer Provided) Temperature Regulator

Figure 10. Two Stage Aftercooler cooling systems for G3612 & G3616 Gas Compression Applications.
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Engine Jacket

JW Pump

Full Flow Expansion Tank

93C (199F)

B A C

Temperature Regulator Jacket Water Heat Exchanger

Oil Cooler

Raw Water In

80C (176F) Maximum

Raw Water Out Raw Water Out

Aftercooler Mixer Box Vent Line B A AC-OC Pump 32C (90F) 54C (130F) C Raw Water In AC-OC Circuit Heat Exchanger

Full Flow Expansion Tank

Temperature Regulator

Figure 11. G3600 Special Cooling System -Combined JW Heat Exchanger and Oil Cooler.

Basic Operating Parameters


All engine cooling circuits are designated by the inlet or outlet temperature to that circuit. The basic operating parameters available for the G3600 Engine cooling systems are: Standard and CHP Cooling Systems Aftercooler-Oil Cooler Circuit temperatures a) Inlet 32C (90F) or 54C (130F) b) Outlet 64C (147F) Two Stage Aftercooler Temperatures a) Stage 1 45C (113F) to 95C (203F) b) Stage 2 32C (90F) or 54C (130F) Jacket Water Circuit temperatures Low Compression Ratio engines (9:1) a) Inlet 83C (181F) b) Outlet 88C (190F) High Compression Ratio engines (11:1) a) Inlet 93C (199F) b) Outlet 99C (210F) Low Energy Fuel Engine Cooling Systems Aftercooler-Oil Cooler Circuit temperatures Outlet 64C (147F)
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Jacket Water Circuit temperatures Outlet 110C (230F) High Temperature Cooling Systems Aftercooler-Oil Cooler Circuit temperatures a) Inlet 32C (90F) or 54C (130F) b) Outlet 64C (147F) Jacket Water Circuit temperatures Outlet 130C (266F) Engine Ratings are based on aftercooler water temperature, jacket water temperature, compression ratio and ambient conditions.

Recommended Temperature Rise


For efficient and trouble free operation of Caterpillar G3600 Engines the following values are recommended for the temperature rise across the various cooling system components. Aftercooler-Oil Cooler G3616 G3612 G3608 10C (18F) 8C (14.5F) 9C (16F)

G3606 Aftercooler (Single Stage) G3616 G3612 G3608 G3606 Aftercooler (Two Stage) Stage 1 Stage 2 Oil Cooler G3616 G3612 G3606 & G3608 Jacket Water

7C (12.5F) 10C (18F) 8C (14.5F) 9C (16F) 7C (12.5F) 10C (18F) 8C (14.5F) 8.5C (15F) 7.5C (13.5F) 6C (11F) 4.5C (8F)

Aftercooler (Two stage) Stage 1 Stage 2 Oil Cooler Jacket Water

12C (21F) 11C (20F) 10C (18F) 6C (11F)

The maximum limits for inlet or outlet temperature for coolant in the different circuits are: Aftercooler (Single stage) inlet 70C (158F) Aftercooler (Two stage) inlet Stage 1 95C (203F) Stage 2 54C (130F) Oil Cooler (Shell & tube) inlet Two cooler system G3606 & G3608 54C (130F) G3612 & G3616 32C (90F) Three cooler system 54C (140F) Jacket Water outlet, Non-pressurized 99C (210F) Pressurized 2848 kPa (47 psi) 105C (221F) Low Energy Fuel Engine Cooling Systems 83110 kPa (1216 psi) 110C (230F) High Temperature Cooling Systems 250460 kPa (3667 psi) 130C (266F) The minimum limit for inlet coolant temperatures to the various circuits are: Aftercooler inlet Oil cooler inlet Engine Jacket inlet 25C (77F) 0C (32F) 0C (32F)

Recommended Inlet Pressures


The recommended range of operating pressure at the inlet of different circuits are: Aftercooler-Oil Cooler Standard Cooling System 250330 kPa (3648 psi) Two Stage Aftercooler Cooling System Stage 1 up to 1000 kPa (145 psi) Stage 2 up to 1000 kPa (145 psi) Jacket water circuit Standard Cooling 225350 kPa (3351 psi) Low Energy Fuel Cooling System 300400 kPa (4458 psi) High Temperature Cooling System 300460 kPa (4467 psi) Note: These values of Recommended Temperature Rise and Recommended Inlet Pressures are specified to make most efficient use of the cooling system. In general, for a cooling system more flow is always better as long as the values are within the maximum limits as specified in the section on Flow Limits. Higher values of temperature rise or inlet pressure are also allowed if needed for specific sites, adhere to the maximum limits specified in the section on Temperature Limits and Pressure Limits for these.

The maximum allowable lubricating oil temperature to the engine is 85C (185F). Failure to abide by this could result in poor engine performance and or engine failure.

Pressure Limits
The following combined static and dynamic pressure limits to the engine cooling system components must be maintained to prevent damage to the engine or its components and ensure good heat dissipation. Maximum limits: Aftercooler (Single stage) 330 kPa (48 psi) Aftercooler (Two stage) Stage 1 1000 kPa (145 psi) Stage 2 1000 kPa (145 psi) Oil cooler (Shell & tube) 1000 kPa (145 psi) Engine Block 461 kPa (67 psi) Pump inlet 145 kPa (21 psi)
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Temperature Limits
Caterpillar G3600 Engines should not be operated for any reason beyond the following maximum temperature differential for coolant across the different circuits. Aftercooler-Oil Cooler Aftercooler (Single stage) 12C (22F) 12C (22F)

Caterpillar Expansion Tank 150 kPa (22 psi) Expansion Tank Pressure Cap 49 kPa (7 psi) Note: Minimum suction pressures for engine mounted aftercooler-oil cooler pump and jacket water pump at various operating temperatures are given in the section Minimum Pump Suction Pressure.

Total Heat Input can be calculated in


MJ/min = BSFC (MJ/kwhr) work (kw) 60 min/hr

or
Btu/min = BSFC (Btu/hphr) hp 60 min/hr

Flow Limits
There are some established maximum flow limits for specific Caterpillar G3600 engine components to prevent erosion of the coolant passages. Aftercooler (single stage) G3606 & G3608 G3612 & G3616 Oil cooler (shell & tube) AftercoolerOil Cooler (Standard) G3606 & G3608 G3612 & G3616 Aftercooler (Two stage) Stage 1 Stage 2 Cylinder block (Engine jacket) G3606 & G3608 G3612 & G3616 lpm (gpm) 800 (212) 1475 (390) 1000 (265) 1800 (476) 2475 (655) 1000 (265) 1000 (265) 1600 (422) 3000 (794)

Total fuel consumed in SCMH (SCFH) is obtained by dividing the total heat input by the heat content of the fuel, Lower Heating Value (LHV) in MJ/SCM (Btu/SCF). Work Output is the total horsepower developed. It is expressed in kW (Btu/min) where one horsepower= 0.7457 kW (42.4 Btu/min) Jacket Water heat rejection is the total amount of heat transferred to the engine jacket cooling circuit. Aftercooler Heat rejection is given for standard conditions of 25C (77F) ambient and 150 m (500 ft) altitude. This heat rejection increases for higher ambient temperatures and higher altitudes. On G3600 engines a constant aftercooler air outlet temperature is required for the engine. As air temperature into the aftercooler goes up, so does the heat load that must be removed. As the ambient air pressure decreases with altitude, the turbocharger must impart more energy to the incoming air to get it up to the required boost pressure. Use the Aftercooler Heat Rejection Factors given in the Technical Manual or G3600 Specification Sheets to adjust for ambient and altitude conditions. Failure to properly account for these factors could cause the engine to detonate and shutdown due to overheating. Oil Cooler heat rejection is the amount of heat transferred from the lubricating oil to the cooling system. Total exhaust heat load is the total energy available in the exhaust gases when it is cooled from the stack temperature down to standard conditions of 25C (77F). Values shown are lower heating values and do not include the heat of vaporization.

Heat Rejection
Before a cooling system can be designed, the designer must understand how much heat is being rejected by each of the engine components. This information is generally available in the TMI and Technical Manual available for the G3600 engines. The following guide will help the designer in interpreting and applying the heat rejection data. The theory of heat balance states that heat input into the engine should equal the sum of the heat output and work output. Formula:
Total Heat Input = Work output + Jacket Water heat rejection + Aftercooler heat rejection + Oil Cooler heat rejection + Total Exhaust heat load + Radiation

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Radiation is the amount of heat energy loss from the engine surface into the engine room or surrounding ambient. In every calculation using the engine data, there is a tolerance band or a deviation from norm. When using the heat rejection data for engine components use the following tolerances. Total Heat Input Jacket Water heat rejection Aftercooler heat rejection Oil Cooler heat rejection Total Exhaust Heat energy Radiation Recoverable Exhaust 2.5% 10% 5% 20% 10% 25% 10%

Flow Calculations
The first step in the design of a cooling system is to calculate the flow required for each circuit to transfer the heat load from the engine components to the Heat Exchangers or Radiators.
Flow (L/min) = Heat Rejection (kW) T (C) Density (KG/L) Specific Heat (kW.min/KG.C)

Flow (Gal/min) = Heat Rejection (Btu/min) T (F) Density (lb/Gal) Specific Heat (Btu/lb.F)

T = Outlet Temperature Inlet Temperature for that circuit. Density and Specific Heat can be used from the following table: A small tolerance should be added to this calculated flow to account for possible variances.
Design Flow = Calculated Flow 10%

Recoverable exhaust heat is not a separate component of the heat balance equation, but it is the customary number used in heat recovery calculations. It represents the heat energy available when cooling the exhaust from stack temperature to 177C (350F) unless specified otherwise. If exhaust temperature other than 177C (350F) is desired, the recoverable heat can be approximated by the following formula. The actual formula used to calculate the TMI data is more complex and requires data not available in published sources. The exhaust gas flow given is at standard pressure and stack temperature. Heat rejection in kW (Btu/min)
Q = Cp M (T1 T2)

The following table shows the density and specific heat capacities for the different coolant media used in cooling systems. The values on the last column show the Density multiplied by the Specific Heat capacity, this is a good indicator of the heat absorption capacity of the coolant. Flow calculations should be done with the correct coolant properties to get the right heat transfer.
Specific Heat kW min/ Sp. Ht x Den. kg C kW min/l C (Btu/lb. F) (Btu/Gal. F) 0.071 0.0696 (1.00) (8.1) 0.060 (0.85) 0.065 (0.92) 0.0618 (7.31) 0.0657 (7.728)

Cp = Specific Heat of Exhaust Gases: KJ/KG. C (Btu/lb. F) 1.107 (0.264) for Natural Gas Engines M = Mass flow of exhaust gases kg/min (lb/min) from Technical Manual T1 = Temperature of Exhaust gases from Engine in C (F) from Technical Manual T2 = Temperature of Exhaust gases at the outlet of Heat Recovery Silencer in C (F) Refer to the Heat Recovery chapter for a sample calculation of the recoverable exhaust heat energy.

Pure Water 50% Ethylene Glycol 50% Water 50% Propylene Glycol 50% Water

Density kg/l (lb/gal) 0.98 (8.1) 1.03 (8.6) 1.01 (8.4)

For engine mounted pumps the external resistance corresponding to the design coolant flow for different engine speeds can be determined from the External Restriction vs Coolant Flow charts given in subsequent sections (see Figures 1722). For circuits not using an engine mounted pump use the Internal System Restriction vs Flow charts to determine the pressure rise required
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corresponding to the design coolant flow (see Figures 2331). This data is also available in the TMI. Since TMI is updated more frequently than this publication, in the case of conflicting data between this guide and TMI, use TMI information. The following charts can also be used to verify the flow of coolant by measuring the pressure drop at inlet and outlet of the circuits. When verifying flow with the charts, it is very important to ensure that the pressure measurements are taken at the recommended locations for accurate comparison with the given charts. The recommended pressure measuring locations for both Jacket Water and standard Aftercooler-Oil Cooler circuit are shown in Figure 12 and for the Aftercooler and Oil cooler individually are shown in Figure 13. The measuring locations for two stage Aftercooler are shown in Figure 14. Even some of the minor components in the cooling system like the mixer box and other castings introduce significant restriction to flows and should be appropriately accounted for in the pressure drop measurements. External resistance measurements should be taken with blocked open temperature regulators, with no bypass flow. Recommended pressure measuring locations on Engine and customer side of cooling system are also discussed in the section on System Monitoring. For G3600 cooling systems provided with Caterpillar package mounted expansion tanks and temperature regulators for the jacket water system, the internal resistance of the expansion tank and the temperature regulator housing should be subtracted from the jacket water external restriction value obtained from the charts. In these systems the external resistance available is between the water inlet and outlet of the regulator housing as shown in Figure 14. The internal restriction of the expansion tank and temperature regulator housing is given in Figure 15. So, for engines with module mounted expansion tank and temperature regulator housing,

Available External Restriction = External Restriction from the chart Internal Restriction from Figure 15 corresponding to the design coolant flow.
G3606 & G3608
P6

P5

P4

P1

P3 P2

G3612 & G3616

P6

P3

P5

P4

P1

P2

Jacket Water External Restriction = P6 P4 Jacket Water Internal Restriction = P5 P6 Aftercooler-Oil cooler External Restriction = P3 P1 Aftercooler-Oil cooler Internal Restriction = P2 P3 Figure 12. Measuring points on G3600 Engines for External and Internal Restriction G3612 & G3616 Separate Circuit

P2 P1 P4

AC OUTLET AC INLET OC OUTLET

Aftercooler Internal Restriction = P2 P1 Aftercooler Internal Restriction = P4 P3 Figure 13. Internal Restriction Measuring points for Oil cooler and Aftercooler individually

P3
OC INLET

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P2 AC Stage 1 Outlet P1 AC Stage 1 Inlet P4 AC Stage 2 Outlet P3 AC Stage 2 Inlet

Aftercooler Stage 1 Internal Restriction = P1 P2 Aftercooler Stage 2 Internal Restriction = P3 P4

Figure 14. Internal Restriction Measuring Points for Two Stage Aftercooler.

Temperature Regulator Housing

Engine Mounted Expansion Tank

From Engine

P1 P2 To Heat Exchanger From Heat Exchanger

Jacket Water Circuit External Restriction = P1 P2 (Taken when Temperature Regulators are fully open)

Figure 15. Jacket External Restriction for Engines with Module Mounted Expansion Tanks.

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30

Internal System Restriction KPa

25

20

15

10

400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

Water Flow L/Min


Figure 16. Internal Restriction for Module mounted expansion tank and temperature regulator.

G3606 & G3608 External Resistance vs. Coolant Flow


psi kPa
Jacket Water Circuit

250 225 30 200 175 150 20 125 100 10 75 50 25 750 200 900 250 1050 300 Water Flow
Figure 17. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations..
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800 RPM 750 RPM 900 RPM 1000 RPM

External Restriction

1200

1350 350

1500 400

1650 L/Min
g/Min

G3606 & G3608 External Resistance vs. Coolant Flow


Aftercooler-Oil Cooler Circuit

psi

kPa

250 225 30 200 175 150 20 125


750 RPM 800 RPM 1000 RPM

External Restriction

900 RPM

100 10 75 50 25 400
100

550
150

700
200

850

1000
250

1150
300

1300
350

1450
400

1600

L/Min g/Min

Water Flow
Figure 18. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.

G3612 External Resistance vs. Coolant Flow


Jacket Water Circuit

psi

kPa

250 225 30 External Restriction KPa 200


900 RPM 1000 RPM

175 150 20 125 100 10 75 50 25 1200 1400


350
750 RPM 800 RPM

1600
400 450

1800
500

2000
550

2200
600

2400
650

2600
700

2800
750

3000 L/Min
g/Min

Water Flow
Figure 19. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.
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G3612 External Resistance vs. Coolant Flow


Aftercooler-Oil Cooler Circuit

psi

kPa

250 225 30 200 175 150 20 125 100 10 75 50 25 1200 350 1400 400 1600 450 1800 500 2000 550 2200 600 2400 L/Min
g/Min
800 RPM 750 RPM 900 RPM 1000 RPM

External Restriction

Water Flow
Figure 20. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.

G3616 External Resistance vs. Coolant Flow


Jacket Water Circuit

psi

kPa

250 225 30 200 175 150 20 125 100 10 75 50 25 1500 400 1700 450 1900 500 2100 550 2300 600 2500 650 2700 700 750 2900 L/Min
g/Min
800 RPM 750 RPM 900 RPM 1000 RPM

External Restriction

Water Flow
Figure 21. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.
22

G3616 External Resistance vs. Coolant Flow


Aftercooler-Oil Cooler Circuit

psi

kPa

250 225 30 200 175 150 20 125 100 10 75 50 25 1200 350 1400 400 1600 450 1800 500 2000 550 2200 600 2400 L/Min
g/Min
800 RPM 750 RPM 900 RPM 1000 RPM

External Restriction

Water Flow
Figure 22. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.

G3606 & G3608 Internal System Restriction vs. Coolant Flow


Jacket Water Circuit

psi

kPa

300 40 250 Internal System Restriction 30

200

150 20 100 10 50

0 400 600 150 800 200 1000 250 1200 300 Water Flow
Figure 23. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.
23

1400 350 400

1600 450

1800 L/Min
g/Min

G3606 & G3608 Internal System Restriction vs. Coolant Flow


Aftercooler-Oil Cooler Circuit

psi

kPa

150 20 125 Internal System Restriction 15

100

75 10 50 5 25

0 500 150

650

800 200

950 250

1100 300

1250 350

1400

1550 L/Min 400


g/Min

Water Flow
Figure 24. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.

G3612 Internal System Restriction vs. Coolant Flow


Jacket Water Circuit

psi

kPa

200 25 Internal System Restriction 175 150 20 125 15 100 75 50 5 25 0 1000

10

1200 300

1400 350

1600 400

1800 450 500

2000 550

2200 600

2400 650

2600 700

2800 L/Min
g/Min

Water Flow
Figure 25. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.

24

G3612 Internal System Restriction vs. Coolant Flow


Aftercooler-Oil Cooler Circuit

psi

kPa

200 25 Internal System Restriction 175 150 20 125 15 100 75 50 5 25 0 800

10

1000 250

1200 300

1400 350 400

1600 450

1800 500

2000 550

2200 600

2400
g/Min

Water Flow
Figure 26. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.

G3616 Internal System Restriction vs. Coolant Flow


Jacket Water Circuit

psi

kPa

250 25 Internal System Restriction 225 200 20 175 150 15 125 100 10 75 5 50 25 0 1000 1200 300 1400 350 1600 400 450 1800 500 Water Flow
Figure 27. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.

2000 550

2200 600

2400 650

2600 700

2800 L/Min
g/Min

25

G3616 Internal System Restriction vs. Coolant Flow


Aftercooler-Oil Cooler Circuit

psi

kPa

250 25 Internal System Restriction 225 200 20 175 150 15 125 100 10 75 5 50 25 0 900 250 1100 300 1300 350 1500 400 1700 450 1900 500 2100 550 2300 L/Min 600
g/Min

Water Flow
Figure 28. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.

G3600 Internal System Restriction vs. Coolant Flow


Oil Cooler (Shell & Tube Type)

psi

kPa

8 7 Internal System Restriction 6 5

70
2 Section Oil Cooler

60

50
3 Section Oil cooler

40 4 30 3 2 20

10 500 150

600

700

800 200 Water Flow

900 250

1000

1100

L/Min g/Min

Figure 29. Refer to Figure 11 for measuring locations.

26

G3612 & G3616 Internal System Restriction vs. Coolant Flow


psi kPa
Single Stage Aftercooler

375 50 325 Internal System Restriction 40 275 225 30 175 20 125 75 25 500 150

10

700 200

900 250

1100 300 Water Flow

1300 350

1500 400

1700 L/Min 450


g/Min

Figure 30. Refer to Figure 11 for measuring locations.

G3612 & G3616 Internal Restriction vs. Coolant Flow


Two Stage Aftercooler

psi

kPa

180

25
155 Internal System Restriction

Stage 2 Stage 1

20
130

15
105

10
80

55

30 500 150

700 200

900 250 Water Flow

1100 300

1300 L/Min
g/Min

Figure 31. Refer to Figure 10 for measuring locations.


27

G3600 Cooling System Design Procedure


The discussion in the previous sections are summarized in this section to present a simple step by step procedure for design and sizing of cooling systems for G3600 engines. Obtain Heat Rejection for any particular component (AC, OC, etc.) from the G3600 Technical Manual or Performance Specification Sheets. For cooling system design use the maximum Heat Rejection (nominal tolerance) value. Select a temperature rise for the circuit. The section on Recommended Temperature Rise gives recommended values for all components. The temperature rise should not exceed the maximum limits specified in the Temperature Limits section at any time. Depending on the coolant used (water, 50% glycol, etc.), the appropriate density and specific heat values should be used. The table in the section Flow Calculations gives these values for standard atmospheric conditions. These values can be used for cooling system calculations even at higher temperatures. The calculation of the coolant flow is explained in the section on Flow Calculations. Ensure that the design coolant flow is below the maximum limits given in the section Flow Limits. Once the design coolant flow is obtained, the external resistance values can be obtained if it is a standard AC-OC or JW circuit with engine mounted pump. Otherwise the flow can be used to determine the internal system restriction of the circuit for sizing external pumps. If module mounted expansion tank and temperature regulator is used, correct for its internal restriction.

Types of Cooling System


There are two basic types of cooling systems, open and closed. Examples of each are given below. Open Systems (not recommended): Cooling Tower (without heat exchanger) Spray Pond Body of Water Closed Systems: Radiator Heat Exchanger Cooling tower (with Heat Exchanger) Evaporative Cooler In the open system, the cooling water is exposed directly to air and is cooled by evaporation and water-to-air heat transfer. About 75% of the total heat is removed by evaporation and 25% by transfer. The continued process of evaporation means that any scale forming salts present in the water will gradually be concentrated and the water may pickup further contaminants from the air. These impurities can result in the formation of scale on the walls of the coolant passages in the engine, decreasing the cooling system efficiency which may result in overheating. Refer to the section on Water Quality for specifications for coolant acceptability. Open cooling systems are not recommended except when specific precautions have been taken to accommodate the above problems in an open system, such as using cleanable components like aftercooler and oil coolers. Since these are not presently offered on the G3600 engines, the use of open cooling system is restricted. In the closed system, proper water treatment can virtually eliminate scale formation and corrosion. The cooling water does not come into direct contact with the air. It is cooled by a process of heat transfer to a cooler medium, usually air or water. The amount of water in the engine closed system is relatively small and confined, can be economically treated.

28

System Design Requirements


Engine cooling systems must: Maintain a required minimum operating temperature Provide sufficient water pump inlet pressure to prevent pump cavitation Vent air introduced into the system by filling, leaks and engine combustion Allow filling without air entrapment (false fill) Reject heat from the jacket water and aftercooler-oil cooler circuit at greatest engine load, highest ambient temperature and altitude The following topics describe how these are accomplished by following recommended cooling system design practices.

Factory supplied temperature regulators are provided for most applications for G3600 engines either assembled with the factory packaged cooling system or shipped loose to be connected with the customers cooling system. The factory supplied temperature regulator is only capable of controlling the minimum temperature of the cooling circuit and can not control the maximum temperature. Once the temperature of the cooling system has reached the full open temperature of the regulator, the regulator does not bypass any flow and this condition is known as full open flow. The engine monitoring system provides warnings and shutdown for high water temperature on cooling systems. There are two basic methods of thermostatic control of minimum operating temperature in cooling systems, inlet controlled and outlet controlled.

Temperature Regulators
The function of the temperature regulator is to control minimum operating temperatures of the engine cooling system. All cooling systems must have a method of maintaining minimum operating temperature. If minimum operating temperature is not maintained, severe maintenance problems may result.

Inlet Controlled Cooling Systems


Inlet controlled cooling systems, see Figure 32, are designed to provide a consistent temperature at the inlet of the cooling circuit, jacket water or aftercooler-oil cooler. This is done by placing the sensing bulb of the temperature regulator in the inlet flow to the circuit, see Figure 33. If the inlet flow from the heat exchanger is cooler than the minimum opening temperature of the

B Expansion Tank C Engine Thermostat A Return Outlet

Heat Exchanger

Engine Driven J. W. Pump

A B: Cold Flow A C: Full External Flow

Piping Part of engine Caterpillar supplied when heat exchanger is mounted on oilfield base

Figure 32. Inlet Controlled Cooling System.


29

Temperature Regulator Housing

Bulb Side

Bulb Side

Temperature Regulator Housing

B From Engine C

A To Engine/ Expansion Tank From Engine

To Engine C

To Heat Exchanger

From Heat Exchanger

To Radiator

From Radiator

Figure 33. Inlet Controlled Regulator layout.

Figure 34. Outlet Controlled Regulator layout.

C Engine Thermostat Outlet B Radiator

Bypass Line

Return A Engine Driven J.W. Pump Piping Part of engine Supplied by packager or radiator supplier

B A: Cold Flow C A: Full External Flow

Figure 35. Outlet Controlled Cooling System.

temperature regulator, the regulator then balances the cool water from the heat exchanger with the bypass flow (hot water directly from the engine) to provide the correct temperature water at the inlet. As shown on Figure 33, for a factory supplied temperature regulator assembly, the bulb side of the temperature regulator housing, A, is connected to the inlet of the pump for an inlet controlled system. The port B is connected to the tee which gets the supply from the engine and sends it to the heat exchanger. The other port, C, is connected to the cold water supply from the heat exchanger. The inlet controlled systems, as will be explained in the subsequent section, are strongly

recommended for G3600 engines cooled by a heat exchanger or cooling tower.

Outlet Controlled Cooling Systems


Outlet controlled cooling systems, see Figure 35, are designed to provide a constant outlet temperature of coolant from the engine. This is accomplished by placing the sensing bulb of the regulator on the outlet side of the circuit, see Figure 34 and controlling the flow between the bypass circuit and the cooling circuit. As the outlet temperature becomes higher than the opening temperature of the regulator, water is allowed to flow to the cooling system. If water is too cool, the water is directed through the bypass and is recirculated through the engine without being cooled.

30

For outlet control systems, the factory supplied temperature regulator assembly is plumbed with the bulb side of the housing, A, connected to the outlet of the engine as shown in Figure 34. The port B is connected to the tee which branches to the inlet of the pump and accepts the cold water from the radiator. The port C is connected to the line sending the hot water to the radiator. Factory supplied temperature regulators are assembled inside the same housing for both inlet control and outlet control. If the regulator assembly is shipped loose to be plumbed at the customer site, care should be taken to plumb the temperature regulator housing appropriately for inlet or outlet control system. Please refer to the installation drawing of the specific regulator assembly to plumb the connections accordingly. Some of the frequent cooling system problems are a result of wrong connection of regulator housing in the circuit. Outlet controlled systems, as explained in the next section, are recommended for use with G3600 Engines which are cooled by a radiator.

with a radiator, since the outlet pressures are in the same range as the structural capability of some solder tube radiators. Outlet controlled systems tend to isolate the cooler from the pressure during bypass operation. Nuisance high temperature shutdowns can be experienced with an inlet controlled system if the system flow is inadequate. This is true even if there is adequate cooling capacity in the system. The inlet controlled system provides a fixed temperature coolant to the engine independent of the amount of flow. If the flow is low, the temperature rise across the engine will be high. If the temperature rise is higher than the maximum allowable outlet temperature the engine monitoring system will shut the engine down. An outlet controlled system would not have this problem since it will reduce the bypass flow and increase cooler flow. The temperature rise across the engine may be higher than desired for a short period until the system stabilizes but the engine will continue to operate. Thermal shock is caused when the temperature regulator tries to open and close to maintain temperature on an outlet control system. Thermal shock of the engine is a potential problem with an outlet controlled system because the coolant must pass through the engine before the temperature regulator detects the coolant temperature. If cool return temperature of coolant is possible the inlet controlled system will prevent the thermal shock to the engine components. An outlet controlled system with a full flow expansion tank will also prevent this problem. The deficiencies of both inlet and outlet controlled systems can be overcome with proper system design, specifically a full flow expansion tank. Engine side system pressures are usually the highest at full bypass. System pressures are lowest when nearly equal flow is in bypass and the cooler flow. System pressures at full open flow is near maximum and should match external resistance targets. The external pressure drop of both systems are identical at full open flow condition. The selection of expansion tanks for inlet and outlet controlled tanks is discussed in the
31

Selection of Inlet or Outlet Controlled Systems


There are certain applications that are better suited for either inlet controlled or outlet controlled systems. In general, inlet controlled systems work well with heat exchangers and outlet controlled systems work best with radiators. To understand which is the better choice for the system under consideration the following items should be considered. A shunt line is required on inlet controlled systems that do not use a full flow expansion tank. This is to prevent the possibility of pump cavitation by providing a positive head on the suction side of the pump. Outlet controlled systems generally do not have this requirement as full head pressure is not restricted by the temperature regulator and a shunt line is not required. Full engine outlet pressure is present at all times on the heat exchanging device for the inlet controlled system. This can be a concern

section on Expansion Tanks for lnlet and Outlet Systems with the help of some schematics.

Line Velocities
Caterpillar G3600 Cooling systems are designed for the following maximum line velocity limits. m/sec Pressurized lines 4.5 Pressurized thin walled tubes 2.5 Suction lines (Pump inlet) 1.5 Low velocity de-areation line 0.6 (ft/sec) (15.0) (8.0) (5.0) (2.0)

Observing these guidelines will help to prevent erosion of the internal passages of the engine and other engine cooling system components and extend its life. Figure 36 can be used to calculate water velocity in a pipe or tube.

head required is higher than that provided by the engine mounted pumps, use external pumps with additional pressure capacities. For external customer supplied pump use the data from Internal System Restriction vs Flow section to obtain the external head, which is the difference pump pressure rise and system restriction. Figure 54 in the System Monitoring section shows the preferred location for measuring internal system restriction and external restriction. There are ports provided for measuring pressure drops at some locations on the engine and there are some recommended locations on the customer cooling system for providing ports.

System Volume
The engine coolant volume for the jacket water and combined aftercooler-oil cooler circuit is given in the following table. This data can also be found in the TMI. The Jacket water circuit engine volume given does not include the expansion tank volume.
ACOC Circuit Engine Volume L (Gal) G3606 G3608 G3612 G3616 60 (16) 60 (16) 64 (17) 72 (19) JW Circuit Engine Volume L (Gal) 340 (90) 470 (124) 670 (177) 900 (238)

Additional External System Resistances


Piping and heat transfer equipment resist cooling water flow, causing an external pressure, referred to as head, which opposes the pump. Cooling water flow is reduced as external head increases. Total system resistance to flow must be limited to ensure adequate flow. Resistance to flow is determined by the length of pipe, number and type of fittings and valves used, coolant flow rate and losses contributed by the heat transfer devices. When designing an engine cooling system, the pressure drop (resistance) in the external cooling system can be calculated by totaling the pressure drop in each of the systems components. Figures 37 and 38 can be used to determine pressure drop through pipe fittings and valves. Figure 36 can be used to determine flow velocities in tubes and pipes for a given volume of flow. The velocities should remain within limits set forth in the section Line Velocities. Suppliers of other components such as strainers and heat transfer equipment can provide the required data on their components. The external head allowable if an engine mounted pump is used is shown in the section External Resistance vs Flow. If the external
32

The volumes for all other components such as expansion tanks, radiator and customer piping should be added to get a total system volume, if needed for filling and other purposes.

Figure 36. Velocity vs. Flow.

33

Typical Friction Losses of Water in Pipe (Old Pipe) Nominal Pipe Diameter

gal/min
gpm L/s 3/4 in. (19.05 mm) 1 in. (25.4 mm)

Head Loss In f/ 100 ft (m per 100 m)


1 1/4 in. (31.75 mm) 1 1/2 in. (38.1 mm) 2 in. (50.8 mm) 2 1/2 in. (63.5 mm) 3 in. (76.2 mm)

gal/min
gpm L/s

5 .34 10 .63 15 .95 20 1.26 25 1.58 30 1.9 35 2.21 40 2.52 45 2.84 50 3.15 60 3.79 70 4.42 75 4.73 80 5.05 90 5.68 100 6.31 125 7.89 150 9.46 175 11.05 200 12.62 225 14.20 250 15.77 275 17.35 300 18.93 20.5 325 350 22.08 375 23.66 400 25.24 425 26.81 450 28.39 475 29.97 500 31.55 750 47.32 1000 63.09 1250 78.86 1500 94.64 1750 110.41 2000 126.18

10.5 38.0 80.0 136.0


4 in. (101.6 mm)

0.13 0.17 0.22 0.28 0.34 0.47 0.63 0.72 0.81 1.00 1.22 1.85 2.60 3.44 4.40 5.45 6.70 7.95 9.30 10.8 12.4 14.2 16.0 17.9 19.8

3.25 11.7 25.0 42.0 64.0 89.0 119.0 152.0


5 in. (127 mm)

0.11 0.16 0.21 0.24 0.27 0.34 0.41 0.63 0.87 1.16 1.48 1.85 2.25 2.70 3.14 3.65 4.19 4.80 5.40 6.10 6.70 7.40 8.10

0.84 3.05 6.50 11.1 16.6 23.0 31.2 40.0 50.0 60.0 85.0 113.0 129.0 145.0
6 in. (152.4 mm)

0.17 0.26 0.36 0.48 0.61 0.77 0.94 1.10 1.30 1.51 1.70 1.95 2.20 2.47 2.74 2.82 2.90 7.09 12.0

0.40 1.43 3.05 5.20 7.85 11.0 14.7 18.8 23.2 28.4 39.6 53.0 60.0 68.0 84.0 102.0
7 in. (177.8 mm)

0.17 0.22 0.28 0.35 0.43 0.51 0.60 0.68 0.77 0.89 1.01 1.14 1.26 1.46 1.54 3.23 5.59 8.39 11.7

0.16 0.50 1.07 1.82 2.73 3.84 5.10 6.60 8.20 9.90 13.9 18.4 20.9 23.7 29.4 35.8 54.0 76.0
8 in. (203.2 mm)

0.15 0.19 0.24 0.27 0.32 0.37 0.43 0.48 0.55 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.82 1.76 2.97 4.48 6.24 7.45 10.71

0.05 0.17 0.37 0.61 0.92 1.29 1.72 2.20 2.76 3.32 4.65 6.20 7.05 7.90 9.80 12.0 17.6 25.7 34.0 43.1 54.3 65.5
9 in. (228.6 mm)

0.18 0.21 0.24 0.28 0.31 0.35 0.38 0.42 0.46 0.98 1.67 2.55 3.52 4.70 6.02

0.07 0.15 0.25 0.38 0.54 0.71 0.91 1.16 1.38 1.92 2.57 2.93 3.28 4.08 4.96 7.55 10.5 14.1 17.8 22.3 27.1 32.3 38.0 44.1 50.5
10 in. (254 mm)

0.19 0.21 0.23 0.26 0.28 0.59 1.23 1.51 2.13 2.80 3.59

5 .34 10 .63 15 .95 20 1.26 25 1.58 30 1.9 35 2.21 40 2.52 45 2.84 50 3.15 60 3.79 70 4.42 75 4.73 80 5.05 90 5.68 100 6.31 125 7.89 150 9.46 175 11.05 200 12.62 225 14.20 250 15.77 275 17.35 300 18.93 325 20.5 350 22.08 375 23.66 400 25.24 425 26.81 450 28.39 475 29.97 500 31.55 750 47.32 1000 63.09 1250 78.86 1500 94.64 1750 110.41 2000 126.18

Figure 37. Typical Friction Losses of Water in Pipe.

34

Figure 38. Resistance of valves and fittings to flow of fluids.

35

Minimum Pump Inlet Pressure


It is important for successful pump operation and obtaining the correct pump rise to provide sufficient pump inlet pressure at all conditions of flow. Insufficient suction pressure causes cavitation at pump outlet which results in reduced flow to the engine and erosion of the pump parts. While designing the external cooling system, care should be taken to ensure that the proper suction pressure is provided for the pump. The main factor that affects the suction pressure required are the operating temperature and type of coolant. The requirements of minimum inlet pressure for the engine mounted pump with water as coolant for various operating temperature is shown in Figure 39. This data can be used for 50% ethylene or propylene glycol solutions also (as they are more resistant to vaporization than water).

The minimum pressure specified in Figure 39 is valid for installations where the length of straight pipe at the pump inlet is at least 1.5m (5ft). For installations where the inlet to the pump is directly after a right angle (90) bend, the minimum suction pressure should be increased by 10%. The pump inlet pressure should exceed the maximum pump inlet pressure specified in the section on Pressure Limits. A properly designed expansion tank provides minimum pressure at the pump inlet all the time. The suction pressure also differs with the type of cooling system, inlet or outlet controlled as explained in the section on Expansion Tanks.

Expansion Tanks
There are two ways of providing expansion volume to a cooling system, by separate expansion tanks or as an integral part of the

Minimum Water Pump Suction (inlet) Pressure


125 115 Water Pump Inlet Temperature (Deg C) 105 95 85 75 65 55 45 35 25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

Water Pump Minimum Inlet Pressure Required (KPa gage)


Figure 39. Minimum water pump suction (inlet) pressure.

36

radiator header tank design. If the expansion is provided as part of the radiator tank, the customer does not need to provide any additional expansion tank. Many G3600 engines are installed with custom cooling systems and/or remote radiators which require a separate customer supplied expansion tank. The following discussion on expansion tanks is to guide users in specifying and installing those expansion tanks. An expansion tank must meet the following functions: The tank must be the highest point on the system and must be connected with the pump in a way to maintain a positive head on the water pump The tank must be vented to atmosphere or incorporate a pressure cap to assure system pressure and prevent boiling of the coolant The tank must provide de-areation and is usually the means for filling the system The size of the expansion tank should include the required expansion volume and the minimum reserve capacity to provide for expansion plus reserve The functions of the expansion tank require that it be located at the highest point of the system, otherwise the design criteria will be difficult to accomplish. The expansion tanks function is to allow for thermal expansion of the coolant. Coolant expansion is a function of the coolant temperature and type of coolant. In addition to thermal expansion, there should be volume for after-boil and sufficient reserve to allow operation with small leaks until they are fixed.

regulator, an expansion area to de-areate the coolant and a positive suction head at the pump inlet without a shunt line. A full flow tank eliminates the disadvantages of inlet versus outlet controlled systems. Since full flow expansion tank performs the de-areation function, it will require greater volume. This type of a tank must be well designed and constructed to withstand the full system pressure which is exerted on the tank. A full flow expansion tank requires careful attention to design to prevent the tank from causing coolant aeration at high flow. A full flow expansion tank might require a volume several times that of a remote tank to prevent aeration. Generally, a full flow tank should be sized to limit the fluid change rate to an absolute maximum of 50 times per minute at the low level mark. Fluid change rates of 30 times per minute or less and proper baffling will help insure that the expansion tank will not cause coolant aeration at the low coolant mark. A remote (or shunt) flow expansion tank is simply a tank mounted preferably at the highest point of the cooling system, see Figures 40 and 41. Its function is to contain the expansion volume of the coolant as it heats up, provide a positive head to the inlet of the pump and provide a filling and venting location from the system. In this type of an expansion tank very little flow takes place through the tank itself, usually the shunt line to vent line bypass flow.

Expansion Tanks for Inlet and Outlet Controlled Systems


Inlet controlled systems have temperature regulator between the heat exchanger and the suction side of the circulating pump. If remote expansion tank is used, the regulator creates restriction on the pump inlet and will result in cavitation. To prevent the negative pressure (vacuum) and pump cavitation, a shunt line is connected between the bottom of the expansion tank and the pump inlet, see Figure 42. The height of the expansion tank provides static head on the pump to raise the inlet pressure and prevent cavitation. The shunt line should be a minimum of 63.5 mm (2.5 in) in outside diameter. The diameter of
37

Full Flow and Remote Flow Expansion Tanks


There are two types of expansion tanks, full flow and remote flow. A full flow expansion tank performs several functions since all the flow passes through it, see Figures 1 and 2. It provides a blending chamber for cooled and bypass coolant from the temperature

Vent Line Turbo

Remote Flow Expansion Tank Jacket Water Heat Exchanger

Engine Jacket

Shunt Line Jacket Water Pump Vent Lines G3606 & G3608 Oil Cooler Mixer Box Aftercooler G3612 & G3616

83C (181F) 94C (201F) Temperature Regulator

Raw Water Out

Remote Flow Expansion Tank

Raw Water In

Raw Water Out

Shunt Line

Raw Water In Temperature Regulator AC-OC Circuit Heat Exchanger

AC-OC Pump

32C (90F) 54C (130F)

Figure 40. G3600 Cooling System with Remote Flow expansion tank - Inlet Controlled.

Vent Line Turbo

Remote Flow Expansion Tank

88C (190F) 99C (210F)

Temperature Regulator

Engine Jacket

Shunt Line Jacket Water Pump Vent Lines G3606 & G3608 Oil Cooler Mixer Box Aftercooler Shunt Line G3612 & G3616 64C (144F)

Remote Flow Expansion Tank Temperature Regulator

Jacket Water Radiator

AC-OC Pump

AC-OC Circuit Radiator

Figure 41. G3600 Cooling System with Remote Flow Expansion Tank - Outlet Controlled.

38

Remote Expansion Tank

Deaeration And Vent Line

Vent If Required

Outlet Shunt Line

Engine Thermostat

Return Heat Exchanger Engine Driven J. W. Pump

Figure 42. Inlet controlled system with remote flow expansion tank.

Full Flow Expansion Tank Return

Engine Thermostat

Outlet

Heat Exchanger

Engine Driven J. W. Pump

Figure 43. Inlet controlled system with full flow expansion tank.

39

Expansion Tank Deaeration And Vent Line Fill Line Engine Thermostat Outlet Connection Line Radiator Bypass Line Vent Line, If Required

Return

Engine Driven J.W. Pump

Figure 44. Outlet Controlled System with vertical radiator core.

Cap

Deaeration And Vent Line Vent Line, If Required Fill Line Engine Thermostat Outlet

Bypass Line Return

Alternate Connection In Return Line

Engine Driven J.W. Pump

Figure 45. Outlet Controlled System with vertical cross flow radiator core.

Cap Expansion Tank Deaeration And Vent Line Vent Line, If Required Fill Line Engine Thermostat

Outlet

Alternate Connection Location In Return Line Return

Bypass Line

Engine Driven J.W. Pump

Figure 46. Outlet Controlled System with horizontal radiator core.


40

the shunt line is important. The area of the shunt line must be at least four times the combined area of the vent lines connected to the tank. This will minimize any reduction of the static head because of vent and deareation flow. For a full flow expansion tank the tank is located in the suction line to the pump, see Figure 43, and no shunt line is needed. Outlet Controlled systems differ from the inlet controlled systems in the routing of the expansion tank connection. In this system the expansion tank connection is called fill line. The fill line size should also be a minimum of 63.5 mm (2.5 in). Since there is no temperature regulator located between the heat transfer equipment (radiator) outlet tank and the suction of the pump, the fill line does not need to be plumbed back to the inlet of the pump. The relative sizes of the return line of radiator provides minimum pressure loss. This means the expansion tank may be connected to either the outlet tank or anywhere in the return line to the pump, see Figures 44, 45 and 46. Do not connect the fill

line to the inlet tank. There will not be sufficient head for the de-areation circuit to function properly. There will also not be sufficient head on the pump suction and the pump head may force coolant to overflow the pressure cap.

Sizing Expansion Tanks


The required expansion volume for the jacket water circuit can be calculated based on the operating temperature and type of coolant. The expansion rate for the different type of recommended coolants are shown in Figure 47. The maximum expansion volume for the jacket water on standard cooling systems is 15%. For higher temperature systems (higher than 100C or 212F) will need a larger volume to adsorb after-boil that may occur on hot shutdown, see section on High Temperature Solid Water Systems in the Heat Recovery chapter for more information. A separate expansion tank is required for the aftercooler-oil cooler cooling system to eliminate the possibility of coolant exchange between the high temperature jacket water

10 9 8 Coolant Expansion % 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130


Pure Water 100% Propylene Glycol 50% Propylene Glycol 100% Ethylene Glycol 50% Ethylene Glycol

Temperature C
Figure 47. Expansion raterate of coolant. Figure 47. Expansion of coolant
41

system and this circuit. The maximum expansion required for this circuit is 8%. This is due to the lower coolant temperatures and system volume of the aftercooler-oil cooler circuit. The system volume for jacket water and standard aftercooler-oil cooler systems is given in the section System Volume. The minimum reserve capacity is determined from the following table:
Total External Circuit Vol. (% of Engine Coolant Vol.) 50 60 70 80 90 100 Min. Reserve Capacity (% of Total System Vol.) 10 9 8 7 6 5

Cooling System Pressure Altitude 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 PSI Feet Meters 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.60.70.81.0 kg/cm2 4300 14000 3700 12000 3000 10000 2400 8000 1800 6000 1200 4000 600 2000 Sea Level 0 Fahrenheit 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 Celsius 82 88 93 99 104 110 115 121 Boiling Point of Water

Figure 48. Boiling point change with change in cooling system pressure.

Therefore the minimum acceptable expansion tank volume is:


Minimum Tank volume (Expansion Rate System Volume) Minimum Reserve Capacity Expansion vol. Minimum Reserve Capacity

Caterpillar supplied expansion tanks have a suitable pressure cap to maintain correct system pressures for normal applications as discussed in the section Attachment Expansion Tank. When a factory expansion tank is not used, the following three methods can be used to ensure the right system pressure. 1. Use a pressure cap on the auxiliary expansion tank. 2. Providing the pressure with a water column by locating the auxiliary expansion tank (without pressure cap) at an elevation above the pump. 3. A combination of an elevated auxiliary expansion tank with a pressure cap 1 m of water = 9.8 kPa (1 ft = 0.43 psi) Static head is the maximum height the coolant is raised. Large static heads are encountered when radiators are located on the roof. Excessive static head can cause engine mounted pump seal leakage. Dynamic head is the sum of the static pressure head plus the pump rise at operating condition. Excessive dynamic head can cause leakage at gasket joints downstream of the coolant pumps. The combination of static and dynamic head must meet the pressure criteria specified in the Pressure Limits sections. Components in the external cooling system, particularly radiators, must meet operating pressure levels. When static and dynamic pressure exceed acceptable limits, isolate the

System Pressures
Depending on the altitudes and ambient of the engine site, pressurizing the system will help to prevent the coolant from boiling under occasional adverse conditions. Slight system pressures minimizes pump cavitation even at high altitudes and increases pump efficiency. For each 6.9 kPa (1 psi) of increase in system pressure, the boiling point of pure water is raised about 2C (3.5F). Elevations above 3048 m (10,000 ft) require higher rated pressure caps to avoid boiling. Ethylene and propylene glycol solutions raise the boiling point. However alcohol or other volatile antifreezes lower the boiling point. Figure 48 shows the effects of system pressure on boiling point of water at various altitudes.

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engine side by providing a heat exchanger or hot well.

Attachment Expansion Tank


An attachment expansion tank, designed with the functions discussed above, is available as a full flow expansion tank for the jacket water circuit for the G3600 engines. The Caterpillar expansion tank provides the following features. Expansion Volume for coolant Coolant Level Alarm Pressure Cap & Vent Coolant Sight gauge De-areation Chamber Temperature Regulator Mounting location The following recommendations and guidelines should be followed when using this tank, The maximum pressure capability of this expansion tank is 150 kPa (22 psi). This maximum pressure limitation would preclude the expansion tank from many high temperature applications. The standard pressure cap on this expansion tank is rated for 49 kPa (7 psi). Higher pressure rated caps have to be specially requested from the factory for coolant temperatures higher than 99C (210F). The expansion tank must be the highest point in the cooling system. If the attachment expansion tank is not the highest point of the system, an auxiliary expansion tank will be required. The additional added static head provided by the auxiliary tank may raise the system pressure above the limit for the attachment expansion tank. The auxiliary expansion tank is added cost and may make the attachment expansion tank redundant. Those installations may be better designed with a shunt flow expansion tank instead. Attachment expansion tanks have sufficient volume for a specific total system volume for the standard cooling configuration listed in the TMI. This expansion tank should not be used on larger systems than it is designed for. Application on larger systems

will result in coolant loss during operation from the overflow and a low coolant shutdown on a subsequent restart attempt.

Filling and Venting


G3600 Engines can be filled either through the filler cap on the expansion tank or by pumping coolant from the bottom, through the ports on the pump or cylinder block. The filler cap is usually located on the expansion tank. The line connecting the expansion tank with the pump suction should be sized to accept the maximum fill rate of the system. The maximum guidelines for filling rate, through the filler cap, is 19 L/min (5 Gal/min). Bottom fill by pumping should not exceed a rate of 112 lpm (30 GPM). Air trapped in the high point of the cooling system during the initial fill is difficult to purge and requires venting. A cooling system that will not purge itself on initial fill must have vent lines from the highest points of the system to the expansion tank. Some high points that must be vented on the G3600 engine are turbocharger housing, mixer box (both jacket water and aftercooler-oil cooler sides) on G3612 and G3616 and oil cooler on G3606 and G3608. Vent lines must travel at a continuous upward slope from the engine and enter the expansion tank below normal water level and contain no air traps. An adequate vent line would be 9.5 mm (0.375 in) to 12.7 mm (0.5 in) outside diameter tubing. Vent lines must be provided by the customer for all installations. Refer to the installation drawings of the specific engine for venting locations. The preferred system is to have all high points vented to the expansion tank. There are some installations where that is not possible, especially when modifying existing installations. Mechanical vent valves can be added to high points to vent air and gases, that accumulate at high points, after every fill. Vent valves require servicing. Occasionally they leak coolant or allow air to enter the system during shutdown. In some areas, coolant may be considered a hazardous liquid and coolant leaks should be avoided. In those locations an active venting system is preferred over mechanical vent valves.

43

Caution: The constant fill level in the expansion tank must be above all piping. Vent high points of the engine to the expansion tank to allow specified fill rate and prevent false fill.

De-aeration
Air can be trapped in the cooling system at initial fill or enter through combustion leakage during engine operation. This air and gas must be vented from the system, or system deterioration and pump cavitation will occur. Since there is a possibility of entrained combustion gases in the cooling system, deareation capabilities are required to be built into the system. De-aeration may be with a centrifugal de-aeration gas separator with the gases vented back to the expansion tank, see Figure 49. If a centrifugal de-aeration gas separator is not used separation of gas from the liquid medium requires a low coolant velocity of 94 mm/sec (2 fps) with a diverted flow to the expansion tank, where the

relatively static velocity in the tank allows the gases to be separated. The de-aeration flow is regulated by a 10 mm (3/8 in) diameter orifice placed in the line. Therefore, in the areas where de-aeration must take place hold the coolant velocity below this limit by increasing the diameter of the pipe, see Figure 50. The de-aeration line is typically connected to the radiator inlet tank, most radiator tanks have sufficient cross-sectional area to meet this velocity requirement, see Figure 50. Full flow expansion tanks must be designed with sufficient cross-sectional area to slow the velocity of the water. They must have the internal baffles designed to separate the gases from the coolant. Closed accumulator type expansion tanks are not recommended since they cannot be designed to actively de-aerate the coolant.

Figure 49. De-aeration Chamber (modified).


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To System Expansion Tank

To System Expansion Tank

The radiator inlet tank loses its venting capability if it is located below the level of the engine regulator housing. When a radiator must be mounted lower than the engine an expansion tank must be used, see Figure 52. If an engine mounted expansion tank is used, the radiator must be selected with the inlet controlled guidelines and the core must withstand full pump pressure. This will usually require a round tube radiator. If the core is vertical reverse water flow through the radiator. This ensures gas or air is not trapped in the radiator inlet tank. Radiator design operating pressure must be increased by 6.9 kPa (1 psi) for every 610 mm (2 ft) the engine is above the radiator. Do not use radiator pressure caps. It should be removed and the opening sealed. The expansion tank pressure cap can be used to relieve excess pressure and fill the system.

To System Expansion Tank

Water Velocity Less Than 0.6 m/s (2 ft/sec)

Figure 50. Pipe Diameter for De-aeration.

Radiators
Radiator Cooling is the most common type of cooling systems. Radiator cooling provides a closed, self-contained system that is both simple and practical for most installations. Figure 51 shows a diagram of a typical radiator design. Hot engine water flows to the inlet tank and then through the radiator core where it is cooled by air being pushed (or pulled) through the core by a fan. Cooled water is then pumped back to the engine. Circulation is then maintained by a gear driven, engine mounted water pump. The cooling system is designed to operate under a pressure of 2748 kPa (47 psi).

Radiator Design Criteria


Consider the following factors when designing and installing a radiator cooling system. Size the radiator to accommodate a heat rejection rate approximately 10% greater than the engines maximum (nominal + tolerance) heat rejection. The additional 10% will compensate for possible variations from the published or calculated heat rejection rates, overload and system deterioration. Even if the expected load is less than the engine rated power, size the radiator to match engine rated power. Correction factors to the observed ambient air temperature capability for the machine must not be overlooked. Altitude above sea level reduces the density of air and its ability to cool the radiator. A good correction factor is 1.38C (2.5F) deducted from the observed ambient temperature capability for each 305 m (1000 ft) above sea level. It must be kept in mind that the ambient air temperature may not be the same as the air temperature flowing across the radiator core. An engine equipped with an engine mounted radiator and blower fan will increase the air temperature as it flows across the engine to the radiator. The decrease in the ambient capability of a radiator can be found from the following table.
45

Remote Mounted Radiators


Remote Systems impose added restriction on cooling water flow by additional piping and fittings. An auxiliary pump in series with the engine mounted pump should not be used to overcome this restriction. When long distances separate the engine from the radiator, oversized piping may be required to minimize piping restriction. Never locate remote mounted radiators more than 17.4 m (57 ft) above the pump. At greater heights the static head developed may cause leakage at the engine water pump seal.

C Engine Thermostat Outlet B Radiator

Bypass Line

Return A Engine Driven J.W. Pump Piping Part of engine Supplied by packager or radiator supplier

B A: Cold Flow C A: Full External Flow

Figure 51. Radiator Cooling System.

Cap Expansion Tank

Vent And De-aeration Line

Fill Line Sealed Radiator Cap

Engine

Pump

Figure 52. Radiator Cooling System with expansion tank.

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Estimated Air to Core Rise Blower Fan 3C (5.4F) 4C (7.2F) 7C (12.6F) 9C (16.2F)
Not Recommended with generator

Engine only, outside or in a large engine room Engine/generator outside or in a large engine room Engine/generator in enclosure with external muffler Engine/generator in enclosure with internal muffler

Suction Fan None


Not Recommended with generator

Another correction which must be included is the effect of antifreeze. The ability to transfer heat diminishes with the addition of any antifreeze, ethylene glycol or propylene glycol. Antifreeze decreases heat transfer capability of a radiator by approximately 2% for every 10% of antifreeze. If antifreeze is used year-round, this must be considered. Year-round use of antifreeze decreases radiator capabilities by at least 3.3C (6F). When selecting radiator location, consider fan noise. Noise transmits through the air inlet as well as outlet. Soft flexible joints between radiator and duct will prevent vibration and noise transmission.

Position the radiator so prevailing winds do not act against the fan. One form of wind protection for the radiator is a baffle set several feet away from the radiator exhaust. Another method is to install an air duct outside the wall. Direct the air outlet (or inlet) vertically. Large radius bends and turning vanes prevent turbulence and air flow restriction. For remote- mounted radiators, the radiator can be mounted horizontally so the prevailing winds do not effect fan flows as shown in Figure 53. Care must be taken to prevent the hot radiator discharge from recirculating to its inlet or the inlet of another radiator, see Figures 54a and b. Radiators must be arranged so that the engine exhaust gases and crankcase ventilation gases are not drawn into the air inlet of the radiator, see Figure 54c.

Figure 53. Remote mounted radiator cooling system.


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Radiator Recirculation

Incorrect Incorrect

Correct

Figure 54. Radiator Recirculation.

Heat Exchangers
A heat exchanger is sometimes preferred to cool the engine when ventilation air is limited or when excessive static head on the engine must be avoided. The most common type of heat exchanger is the shell and tube type. Inside the heat exchanger, the engine coolant is cooled by the transfer of heat to some other liquid at a lower temperature. Heat exchangers are single or multi pass type depending on the flow in the raw water circuit of the exchanger, see Figure 55. In the multi pass exchanger, water flows twice or more through the exchanger, single pass type flows raw water once. Raw water in the single pass type flow in the opposite direction to the coolant flow to provide maximum differential temperature and heat transfer. In multi pass exchanger, relative direction of flow is not significant.

Figure 55. Heat Exchanger Types.

Heat Exchanger Design Criteria


Some heat exchangers suitable for G3600 engines are listed in the price list. Consider the following factors when designing and installing a heat exchanger cooling system. Size the heat exchanger to accommodate a heat rejection rate approximately 10% greater than the maximum (nominal + tolerance) heat rejection of the engine or component. The additional 10% will compensate for possible variations from the published or calculated heat rejection rates and engine overload. Different cooling mediums have varying cooling capacities and tendencies to foul or
48

reduce the heat transfer and are represented by the fouling factor. Fouling factor affects the heat transfer of a heat exchanger by the following formula:
FF = 1 Ucoolant 1 Uclean core

Fouling Factors Chart Correction Factors Engine Coolant Temperature 116C (240F) Raw Water Temperature 52C (125C) Raw Water Velocity Sea Water Brackish Water Cooling Tower and Artificial Spray Pond: Treated Makeup Untreated City or Well Water (such as Great Lakes) River Water Hard (over 15 grains/gal) Engine Jacket Treated Boiler Feedwater 0.9 m/s (3 ft/s) 1.0 0.83 1.0 0.71 1.0 0.71 0.71 1.0 1.0 > 0.9 m/s (3 ft/s) 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.56 1.0 0.71 0.56 1.0 1.0

where: FF = Fouling factor, m2.C/kW (h ft2.F/Btu) Ucoolant = Heat transfer coefficient of core with coolant, kW/m2.C (Btu/h ft2.F) Uclean core = Heat transfer coefficient of the clean core, kW/m2. C (Btu/h ft2.F) Factors for commonly used water types is given in this table,
Fouling Factor Chart for Water Engine Coolant Temperature 116C (240F) Raw Water Temperature 52C (125C) Raw Water Velocity Sea Water Brackish Water Cooling Tower and Artificial Spray Pond: Treated Makeup Untreated City or Well Water (such as Great Lakes) River Water Hard (over 15 grains/gal) Engine Jacket Treated Boiler Feedwater 0.9 m/s (3 ft/s) 0.0005 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.003 0.001 0.001 > 0.9 m/s (3 ft/s) 0.0005 0.001 0.001 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.0005

Since heat exchanger tubes can be cleaned more easily than the surrounding shell (jacket), the raw water should be passed through the tubes and the engine cooling water through the shell or jacket. If solenoid valves are used to control cooling water, position them upstream of the heat exchanger. The drain for the heat exchanger is always open and the heat exchanger is relieved of pressure when inoperative. If solenoid valves are installed on both sides, raw water could be trapped in the tubes if the solenoids fail to open. Water trapped during engine operation expands and could rupture the exchanger. All solenoid valves should include manual bypass. Do not add temperature regulators in raw water supplies. Engine jacket water is controlled by a temperature regulator, additional controls add expense, restriction and decrease reliability.

For the coolants listed above fouling factors greater than 0.001 will result in significant change in the heat transfer capacity. Use the following table to correct the heat capacity of the heat exchanger given in TMI for fouling factor different than the base of 0.001. For coolants with fouling factors less than 0.001 the values have been left unchanged. Caterpillar does not recommend designing for a fouling factor less than 0.001.

Submerged Pipe Cooling


This method is simplest to use if the engine is stationary and is used to pump water, or is near a supply of relatively cool water, preferably 29C (85F) or less. In this system, the engine coolant water is pumped through coils or lengths of pipe submerged in the cooler water. These coils can be placed in a concrete catch basin or tank placed in a drainage ditch. Care must be taken to protect the coils from damage and to insure they do not become buried in the mud or silt. Figure 56 shows a typical submerged pipe cooling system.
49

Engine Mounted Expansion Tank

Flexible Connectors Galvanized Pipe

Support Pipe In Water To Allow Circulation Of Water Around Pipe

Drain Plug

Figure 56. Submerged Pipe Cooling.

Submerged Pipe Design Criteria


Engine heat rejection and the temperatures of the cooling medium must be carefully considered in determining the correct size and length of pipe to use. As a rule of thumb 0.003 m2 (0.0353 ft2) of submerged pipe surface area is required for every kW (56.87 Btu/min) of engine heat rejection that must be removed. This rule of thumb is for raw water temperatures up to 29C (85F). A trial and error method can be used if jacket water temperature is too high or low. By adding or removing pipe as necessary, the engine cooling water temperature can be maximized. Pipe must be kept out of mud and off the bottom of the tank to insure maximum cooling efficiency. Connect the system so that the engine water flows from the engine to the cooling coils and to the expansion tank before returning to the water pump inlet.

in direct contact with the cooling water. Cooling is accomplished in two ways, approximately 75% occurs by water evaporation and about 25% by direct heat transfer from the water spray to the passing air. Since the primary mechanism for cooling the water is through evaporation, the ability of the air to absorb moisture is critical to the effectiveness of a cooling tower. It is for this that the performance of a cooling tower depends on the relative humidity of the ambient air. Relative humidity is the measure of the airs ability to absorb moisture. When the relative humidity is 100%, the wet-bulb and the dry-bulb temperatures are equal and the air cannot absorb any more moisture. Therefore there will be no evaporation and little cooling. However, when the relative humidity is less than 100%, the wet-bulb temperature is less than the dry-bulb temperature and the air can absorb moisture by evaporation. The use of cooling towers are most practical in areas with an ambient dry-bulb temperature above 37.8C (100F) and when the relative humidity averages 50% or less. The prevailing wet-bulb temperature is a key factor in the design of a cooling tower. It is the theoretical limit to which a cooling tower will cool. However, in practical application of a cooling tower, the coolant temperature can only be maintained down to about 5.6C (10F) above the wet-bulb temperature.

Cooling Towers
Since radiators are often ineffective for cooling AC-OC water below 54C (130F), an alternate source of water is needed for low temperature cooling circuits like 32C (90F). In such cases cooling towers are used when a large supply of cool water (i.e. a river, lake, cooling pond, etc.) is not available or not usable for environmental reasons. Though there are several types of cooling towers, the basic method of heat transfer is the same. As seen in Figure 57, air is brought
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In open cooling systems using cooling towers, the engine cooling water is sprayed directly into the tower and is subjected to the inherent concentrations of water contaminants of this system. Unless special provisions are made, such as cleanable aftercooler and corrosion resistant plumbing, the use of an open cooling system is NOT recommended for G3600 engines. Figure 57 demonstrates how a heat exchanger can be used to maintain a closed cooling system for the engine while using a cooling tower. In this system raw water is circulated by an auxiliary water pump driven by the engine or by an electric motor. The pump flows cool water from a basin at the bottom to the cooling tower, forces it through the heat exchanger and to the distribution system at the top of the tower. As the heated water passes through the tower it cools and collects in the basin.

circulated to the cooler eliminating the heat exchanger at the engine, see Figure 58. The coolant in the closed loop can be treated to prevent corrosion eliminating the requirement for corrosion resistant piping.

Cooling Tower Design Criteria


As a general rule, cooling towers are most effective in areas with an ambient dry-bulb temperature above 37.8C (100F) and when the relative humidity averages 50% or less. Cooling towers are very sensitive to approach temperatures (i.e. the difference between the wet-bulb temperature and the desired coolant temperature). For an approach temperature of 8.3C (15F), all other factors held constant, tower size increases by 50% if approach temperature of 5.6C (10F) is required. Any approach temperature below 2.8C (5F) becomes unrealistic. As with radiators, cooling towers are very sensitive to recirculation and the presence of other upwind cooling towers, see Figure 59. Any recirculation ingestion of exhaust air from another cooling tower effectively reduces the approach temperature and the

Types of Cooling Towers


Cooling towers are generally two types, the open type described above and the closed loop type or evaporative cooler. For the closed loop cooling tower the engine coolant can be

Air Flow Fan Water Spray

Engine Mounted Expansion Tank

Water Sump

Circulating Pump

Heat Exchanger

Figure 57. Cooling Towers with External Mounted Heat Exchangers.

51

Air Flow Expansion Tank Fan Deareration Line Water Spray Outlet Fill Line Bypass Line Engine Thermostat

Return

Water Sump Circulating Pump

Engine Driven J.W. Pump

Figure 58. Closed Loop Cooling Tower.

wet-bulb temperature of the incoming air. As was demonstrated earlier, the approach temperature has a significant effect on the cooling tower, size. Therefore, factors such as location of the towers, direction of the prevailing winds and the height of the towers (a taller tower will reduce recirculation) should be taken into consideration.
Wind

air. These impurities can result in the build up of scale on the cooling water passages, decreasing the cooling system efficiency. As these salts and minerals collect, they must be drained and the tower diluted with fresh water. Solids such as dust may also accumulate in the tower water and can be reduced by a filter or centrifugal separators. If the tower water is used in engine circuits such as aftercooler, tower water should be treated with corrosion inhibitors to be compatible with engine piping and components. Even with treated water a cleanable aftercooler core is required when used with cooling tower water. Cooling towers installed in frigid locations require additional design requirements to prevent freezing.

Aftercooler Heat Exchanger Sizing


Tower Recirculation due to wind

Figure 59. Tower recirculation due to wind.

The continued process of evaporation means that any scale forming salts present in the water will gradually be concentrated and the water may also pick up contaminants from the
52

The aftercooler heat rejection data given in TMI and Technical Manual is for standard conditions of 25C (77F) and 150 m (500 ft) altitude. This data meets all standard conditions for SAE J1349, ISO 3046, DIN 6271, BS 5514 and API 7B11C. Ambient temperature higher than standard will raise the amount of heat in the inlet air to be rejected to the aftercooler circuit. Altitudes

higher than standard will require a higher compression ratio across the turbocharger (i.e. the turbocharger works harder) to obtain the rated absolute pressure in the intake manifold. Higher pressure ratios result in more heat of compression and more heat rejected to the aftercooler circuit. For ambients and altitudes above the standard conditions, the aftercooler heat exchanger must be enlarged to dissipate the additional heat described in the above paragraph. To properly size the aftercooler for a specific ambient and altitude, it is necessary to multiply the heat rejection at standard conditions by a multiplier. These multipliers (between 1.0 and 3.0) are for a combination of the ambient and altitude and are found in the Aftercooler Heat Rejection Factors charts in the Technical Manual or Specification Sheets. Heat rejection data and the multipliers as well as the air flow and compressor outlet pressure can be found in TMI or the Technical Manual for G3600 engines. Since the altitude and ambient temperature aeration curves are designed to be used with a known water temperature, some effort must be put into converting the inlet air temperature of the aftercooler to a water circuit temperature. Failure to compensate for the actual air inlet temperature can cause detonation and result in engine shut down and possible damage. To obtain the turbocharger compressor outlet (inlet air to aftercooler) temperature for other than standard conditions, use the formula:
Tc = Fac [Tcstd Tman] Tman

radiator or heat exchanger is theoretically possible. Practice has shown that only identical engines at the same loads and speeds can be successfully combined in a joint cooling system. A failure on one engine can adversely affect all engines. For this reason, interconnected engines should have isolating valves. Check valves are required on the outlet line of each engine to prevent recirculation through an engine that is shut down with the temperature regulators open. The cooling systems for mixed engines with mixed speeds and loads are very difficult to design and are rarely successful. They must meet the required criteria (water flows, temperatures, pressure, etc.) for each engine while operating in all possible combinations with other units. Central cooling systems are not recommended for G3600 engines. If a central system is desired, each engine can be cooled by an individual heat exchanger and all the heat exchangers can be cooled by a central system.

Flexible Connections
Use flexible connections for all connections to the engine (rubber hoses are not recommended). The positions of flexible connections are important. Shut off valves should be located to allow replacement of flexible connections without draining the entire cooling systems. Orient the flexible connection to take the maximum advantage of the flexibility. When selecting connections consider normal thermal expansion and maximum expected movement. The flexible connection should be rated for conditions well above the anticipated maximum operating temperature and pressure of the cooling system. Clamp type flexible connections are not recommended for the high temperature circuits on G3600 Engines. Bolted flange type connections should be used for all jacket water circuits and any other circuit running more than 65C (149F). Material compatibility must also be evaluated. The internal surface must be compatible with the coolant used and the liner material must be compatible with potential coolant contaminants, such as lube oil and
53

Tc = Actual Compressor Outlet air temperature Fac = Aftercooler Heat Rejection Factor Tcstd = Compressor Outlet Air Temperature at standard conditions Tman = Inlet manifold air temperature

Interconnection of Engines
Central cooling systems utilize a single external circuit supplying coolant to several engines. Although separate cooling systems for each engine is preferable, use of single

system cleaning solutions. The outer cover must be compatible with its environment (temperature extremes, ozone, grease, oil, paint, etc.). Factory provided flexible connections are available for most pipe sizes, refer to the Price List for available options.

exposure to the elements can affect sizing. Contact Caterpillar for special voltages, three phase current and special heaters for ambient temperatures lower than listed. For customer installed systems, the following guidelines should be considered. Mount the heater as low as possible, see Figure 60. The cold water inlet to the heater should be from the lowest possible point in the engine cooling system. Avoid cold water loops, any situation where cold water must rise to enter the heater, see Figure 60, location A. Join the hot water side of the heater near the top of the engine cooling system, but below the temperature regulators. Use the same pipe size (or larger) as the heater connections. Caution: Do not create hot water loops. Hot water line should enter the engine in either a horizontal or slightly inclined plane, eliminating the possibility of forming a steam pocket, see Figure 60.

Piping Supports
All piping to and from the engine must be suitably supported by means of brackets and clamps. Piping must not overhang excessively from the pump inlet, mixer box outlet, temperature regulators and expansion tanks. The weight of the piping combined with the water in the pipes can load the engine components considerably, especially when the engine is vibrating during operation. Piping should be supported adequately on installations where the radiators or heat exchangers are roof-mounted or the piping is routed through the roof.

Jacket Water Heaters


Jacket water heaters are recommended for faster, easier starting in ambient air temperatures below 21C (70F). All automatic starting installations should include these heaters. The correct size heaters for each engine at minimum ambient room temperature to maintain engine jacket water at approximately 32C (90F) is shown in the table below.
Jacket Water Heater Sizes kW (Btu/min) [Conditions are no winds and 10 hours for warm up, power to heat from -18C (0F) to 32C (90F)] G3606 G3608 G3612 G3616 18.0 (1024) 18.0 (1024) 30.0 (1706) 30.0 (1706)

Cleanliness and Strainers


All pipe and water passages, external to the engine, must be cleaned before initial engine operation. There must be flow and any foreign material must be removed. The radiators and heat exchangers must also be clean. The cooling system should be filled with rust inhibitors and strainers should be installed before a package test or installation at customer site. Rust inhibitors can be in the form of ethylene or propylene glycol if operating temperatures are expected to go below freezing, or in the form of coolant conditioner. The coolant conditioners or rust inhibitors should be compatible with the antifreeze used in the engine, refer to the section Water Quality and Treatment in the Heat Recovery chapter or Caterpillar publication Coolant and Your Engine (SEBD0970) for more information.

Heater sizing is based on wind velocity of 0 kmph (0 mph) around the engine. When a 24 kmph (15 mph) wind is present the heater requirement doubles. Factory provided jacket water heaters are available for the above specifications. Time required for temperature to stabilize is 10 hours. Wattage requirements for shorter periods are inversely proportional to the 10 hour requirement. Physical location and
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Regulator

Upper Water Level of Engine B

Lower Water Level of Engine A Recommended Not recommended

Figure 60. Pipe routing with jacket water heater.

Strainers are available from Caterpillar to be installed in all pipes leading to equipment added externally during installation. They are available for 100 mm, 127 mm and 152 mm (4 in, 5 in, and 6 in) pipe sizes and all have 1.6 mm (1/16 in) mesh size. On closed systems, these strainers should be removed after commissioning the unit. On open systems like the Combined Heat and Power systems where the raw water is directly cooling aftercoolers and oil coolers, permanent strainers should be installed in the customer piping to prevent large particles from entering the engine components. Similar precautions must be taken when significant modifications are made to the external cooling circuit. If an engine is expected to be stored for long periods without operating or before commissioning, special treatment in the form of Vapor Corrosion Inhibitor (VCI) is required for the cooling system to prevent rust formation. Please refer to the other Caterpillar cooling systems publications listed at the end of the Heat Recovery chapter for more information on coolant additives for engine protection. There are long-term preservation treatment for cooling systems provided by the factory, please refer to the Price List for more information.

Ser viceability and Isolation Valves


Access to the heat exchangers is required for cleaning or removal of the tube-bundle assembly. Engine water pumps must be easy to remove. Remote water temperature regulators should be accessible and have appropriate isolation valves to allow servicing of engine and temperature regulators without draining the entire system. Apply similar guidelines to radiators, heat recovery units, de-areation units, jacket water heaters and other components requiring service or replacement.

System Monitoring
Provide locations to measure pressure and temperature differentials across major system components. This allows accurate set-up and performance documentation of the cooling system during the commissioning procedure. Future system problems or component deterioration (such as fouling) are easier to identify if basic data is available. It also provides information for relating field conditions to original factory tests. Temperature and pressure measurement locations should give accurate reading of fluid stream conditions. Preferred locations are in straight lengths of piping reasonably close to each system component. Avoid pressure measurements in bends, piping transition
55

pieces or turbulent regions. Plan to install monitoring ports during the design and construction of the cooling system. If the ports are installed later, ensure the pipes are cleaned of drill chips and weld slag after the pressure ports are installed. Install sample ports and fittings before the cooling system is filled. The preferred sizes for the ports on the customer side are 3.17 mm (1/8 in) or 6.35 mm (1/4 in) NPT and 14.3 mm (9/16 in) O-ring ports. These port adapters are available as standard Caterpillar parts, refer to the G3600 Price List for part numbers. The recommended locations for measurements and available measurement ports are shown in Figure 61. Self-sealing probe adapters are available in several sizes of male pipe threads and straight threads for g-ring ports. The adapters use a rubber seal allowing temperature and pressure to be measured without leakage. Probe diameters up to 3.2 mm (0.125 in) may be used. The straight threaded adapters are used on the engines with available ports. Pipe threaded adapters are more easily incorporated in the customer supplied system. The adapters are an excellent alternative to permanently installed thermometers, thermocouples or pressure gauges. They are not subject to breakage, fatigue failures and gauge to gauge reading variations.

Customer Connections
The customer connection points for all configurations explained in the Basic System Configurations Section are given in Figures 6265.

56

JW Pump Inlet JW Pump Outlet JW Engine Outlet JW Heat Exchange Inlet JW Heat Exchange Outlet

P1, T1* P2 P3, T3 P4, T4* P5, T5*

ACOC Pump Inlet ACOC Pump Outlet ACOC Engine Outlet ACOC Heat Ex. Inlet ACOC Heat Ex. Outlet

P6, T6* P7 P8, T8 P9, T9* P6, T6*

Mixer Box

P3, T3

P4*, T4*

Engine Jacket P2 P1*, T1* A B C P5*, T5*

Jacket Water Pump

Full Flow Expansion Tank

Temperature Regulator

Jacket Water Heat Exchanger

P8, T8 Oil Cooler Mixer Box Aftercooler

P9*, T9*

P7

P6*, T6*

B A C P10*, T10* AC-OC Circuit Heat Exchanger

AC-OC Pump

Full Flow Expansion Tank

Temperature Regulator

JW: Internal Restriction = P2 P3 ACOC: Internal Restriction = P7 P8

External Restriction = P3 P1 External Restriction = P8 P6

* Recommended Customer Provided Ports

Figure 61. Port locations for system monitoring.

57

Mixer Box/Manifold

F
JW Temperature Regulator

AC-OC Heat Exchanger (Customer Provided)

C
Oil Cooler Aftercooler

Jacket Water Expansion Tank

G
Engine Block JW Pump

AC-OC Pump

AC-OC Temperature Regulator

AC-OC Expansion Tank (Customer Provided) JW Heat Exchanger (Customer Provided)

Weld Flanges Provided or Available

Factory Plumbing Provided or Available Flange Type

Customer Plumbing

A JW Pump Inlet G3606 G3608 G3612 G3616 CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5"

B JW Eng. Outlet CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5"

C JW Reg. Conn. CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5"

D Exp Tank to Eng. CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5"

E AC-OC Inlet CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5"

F AC-OC Outlet CAT 4.5" CAT 4.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5"

G AC-OC Reg Conn. CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5"

Flange Dimensions Inner Dia. mm (in.) CAT 4.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 6.5" 116 (4.57) 143 (5.63) 171 (6.73) Outer Dia. mm (in.) 168 (6.61) 194 (7.64) 225 (8.86) Number of Bolts 8 8 8 Bolt Circle Dia. mm (in.) 146 (5.75) 174.6 (6.87) 200 (7.87) Bolt Hole Dia. mm (in.) 10.5 (0.41) 10.5 (0.41) 10.5 (0.41) Thickness mm (in.) 23 (0.91) 23 (0.91) 23 (0.91)

Figure 62. Customer connections - Standard Cooling System.

58

Mixer Box/Manifold

A
JW Temperature Regulator

Aftercooler

B
Jacket Water Expansion Tank Engine Block JW Pump

D
Oil Cooler

JW Heat Exchanger

Factory Plumbing Provided or Available

Customer Plumbing

Flange Type A AC Inlet G3612 G3616 DIN 3.5" DIN 3.5" B AC Outlet DIN 4" DIN 4" C OC Inlet DIN 4" DIN 4" D OC Outlet DIN 5" DIN 5" E Heat Ex. In & Out DIN 4" DIN 4"

Flange Dimensions Inner Dia. mm (in.) DIN 3.5" DIN 4" DIN 5" 88.9 (3.5) 116.1 (4.57) 127.0 (5.0) Outer Dia. mm (in.) 220 (8.66) 220 (8.66) 220 (8.66) Number of Bolts 8 8 8 Bolt Circle Dia. mm (in.) 180 (7.09) 180 (7.09) 180 (7.09) Bolt Hole Dia. mm (in.) 17 (0.67) 17 (0.67) 17 (0.67) Thickness mm (in.) 23 (0.91) 23 (0.91) 23 (0.91)

Figure 63. Customer connections - Combined Heat and Power Cooling System.

59

Mixer Box/Manifold

Oil Cooler

Aftercooler

Engine Block JW Temperature Regulator JW Pump AC-OC Pump AC-OC Temperature Regulator

JW Radiator (Customer Provided)

AC-OC Radiator (Customer Provided)

Factory Plumbing Provided or Available

Customer Plumbing

Flange Type A JW Inlet G3606 G3608 G3612 G3616 ANSI 6" ANSI 6" ANSI 6" ANSI 6" B JW Outlet ANSI 6" ANSI 6" ANSI 6" ANSI 6" C AC-OC Inlet ANSI 6" ANSI 6" ANSI 6" ANSI 6" D AC-OC Outlet ANSI 6" ANSI 6" ANSI 6" ANSI 6"

Flange Dimensions Inner Dia. mm (in.) ANSI 6" 168.3 (6.63) Outer Dia. mm (in.) 279.4 (11.0) Number of Bolts 8 Bolt Circle Dia. mm (in.) 241.3 (9.5) Bolt Hole Dia. mm (in.) 20.5 (0.81) Thickness mm (in.) 25.4 (1.0)

Figure 64. Customer connections - Low Energy Fuel Cooling System.

60

Mixer Box/Manifold

AC-OC Heat Exchanger (Customer Provided)

Oil Cooler

Aftercooler

E
Engine Block External JW Pump (Customer Provided) AC-OC Pump

AC-OC Temperature Regulator

AC-OC Expansion Tank (Customer Provided)

Weld Flanges Provided or Available

Factory Plumbing Provided or Available

Customer Plumbing

Flange Type A JW Pump Inlet G3606 G3608 G3612 G3616 ANSI 4" ANSI 4" ANSI 6" ANSI 6" B JW Eng. Outlet CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5" ANSI 6" ANSI 6" C AC-OC Inlet CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5" CAT 6.5" D AC-OC Outlet CAT 4.5" CAT 4.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5" E AC-OC Reg Conn. CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 5.5"

Flange Dimensions Inner Dia. mm (in.) CAT 4.5" CAT 5.5" CAT 6.5" ANSI 4" ANSI 6" 116 (4.57) 143 (5.63) 171 (6.73) 144.3 (4.5) 168.3 (6.63) Outer Dia. mm (in.) 168 (6.61) 194 (7.64) 225 (8.86) 228.6 (9.0) 279.4 (11.0) Number of Bolts 8 8 8 8 8 Bolt Circle Dia. mm (in.) 146 (5.75) 174.6 (6.87) 200 (7.87) 190.5 (7.5) 241.3 (9.5) Bolt Hole Dia. mm (in.) 10.5 (0.41) 10.5 (0.41) 10.5 (0.41) 19.1 (0.75) 20.5 (0.81) Thickness mm (in.) 23 (0.91) 23 (0.91) 23 (0.91) 23.8 (0.94) 25.4 (1.0)

Figure 65. Customer connections - High Temperature Cooling System.

61

G3600 Heat Recovery


Heat Balance Types of Heat Recovery Systems Standard Temperature System Design Criteria for Standard Temperature Systems High Temperature Systems High Temperature Liquid Water System Design Criteria for Water-Steam System Water Quality Treatment Water Quality and Treatment for Standard Temperature Systems Water Quality and Treatment for High Temperature Systems Total Dissolved and Suspended Solids Measurement of TDS Control Alkalinity Total Alkalinity Reserve or Hydroxide Alkalinity Other Caterpillar Cooling System Related Publications

Heat Recovery
G3600 Engines convert about 3541% of their input fuel energy into mechanical power. Another 22% is rejected to the cooling system, 34% to the exhaust gas and 3% to the environment. A large portion of the heat energy rejected to the cooling systems and contained in the exhaust gas can be recovered by various means. In large engines like the G3600s this recoverable energy is quite significant. The following sections discuss the means of harnessing this heat energy.

Heat Balance
The typical Heat Balance for the G3600 engines is shown in Figure 66. Heat rejection values for the following components is provided for all G3600 Engines in the Technical Data Manual or Specification Sheets. 1. Jacket Water heat rejection 2. Oil cooler heat rejection 3. Aftercooler heat rejection 4. Exhaust heat rejection 5. Exhaust heat recoverable Typical Heat Balance Calculations are illustrated in Figure 67. The values used in the example are for illustration purposes and should not be used for design. Refer to the published heat rejection data for the specific engine for design calculations.

Mechanical Work Energy 41%

Exhaust Gas 34%

Aftercooler Cooler Water 9%

Engine Jacket Cooling Water 8%

Oil Cooling Water 5% Radiation 3%

Total Fuel Energy Input 100%

Figure 66. Typical Heat Balance for the G3600 Engines.


65

HEAT BALANCE EXAMPLE Using a G3612 Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Engine with 11:1 compression ratio rated at 2990 bKw Prime Power at 1000 rpm, with the CHP cooling system, as an example: Engine Output Generator Output 2990 bkW (4010 bhp) 2875 kW (At 100% load conditions) (At 96.2% Generator Efficiency) kW 534 365 652 1551 (Btu/min) (30,321) (20,725) (37,021) (88,066)

Heat Rejection Available (from Specification Sheet): a) Engine Jacket (cylinder block) water at 99C (210F) b) Oil Cooler (std. shell & tube, 3 coolers) c) Aftercooler (single stage) Total Heat Rejected to the cooling system

Fuel input can be taken from the specification sheet or calculated as shown below, Total Fuel Input = BSFC bkW in kW or = BSFC bhp in Btu/min 3.6 60 = 8.66 2990 = 7192 kW (409,009 Btu/min) 3.6 Recoverable Heat rejection can be taken from the Specification sheets or calculated. Total Exhaust flow from Specification Sheet = 20892 KG/hr (45.962 lb/hr) Exhaust Stack Temperature =359C (678F) Recoverable Exhaust Heat Rejection at 120C (248F)* = Specific Heat of Exhaust Gas Total Exhaust Flow T kW (Btu/min) = 1.107 KJ/KG.C (20892/3600) KG/sec (359 120)C 1554 (88,376) where Specific Heat of Exhaust Gases, Cp, is given in the Heat Rejection section of the Cooling System chapter Total Recoverable Heat Energy = Jacket water heat energy Oil cooler heat energy Aftercooler heat energy Exhaust heat energy (at 120C or 248F) = 534 365 652 1554 = = 3105 kW (176,581 Btu/min) Recoverable Heat in % Brake Thermal Efficiency, Total Thermal Efficiency Total Thermal Efficiency = 3105 kW/Fuel input kW = (3105/7192) 100 = 43.2% =bkW/Fuel input kW = (2990/7192) 100 = 41.6% = Brake thermal efficiency Recoverable Heat energy = 41.6 43.2 = 84.8%

* The values of Recoverable Exhaust Heat Rejection calculated with this formula will vary by 3% from the specification sheet values due to changes in Cp value with temperature and other conditions.

Figure 67. Heat Balance calculation for G3600 Engines Example.


66

Types of Heat Recover y Systems


The heat rejected to the jacket water, oil cooler and aftercooler can be totally recovered and 70% of the exhaust gas energy is economically recoverable as shown in the previous example. Heat Recovery results in total efficiencies as high as 85% for G3600 Engines. Heat Recovery design best suited for any installation depends on many considerations, both technical and economical. The primary function of any heat recovery system design is to cool the engine sufficiently. The engine must be cooled even when the heat demand is low but power is still required. Heat recovery methods are grouped into Standard Temperature Systems (up to 99C or 210F jacket water outlet temperature) and High Temperature Systems (up to 130C or 266F jacket water outlet temperature). High Temperature Systems can be liquid water systems or water-steam systems.

systems are modified versions of the Standard Cooling Systems and Combined Heat and Power Cooling Systems discussed in the previous chapter on Cooling Systems. Heat recovery of a standard engine may amount to nothing more than utilizing heat transferred from the engine radiator. This air is usually 3865C (100150F). The recovered heat is quite suitable for preheating boiler combustion air, space heating, drying grain or lumber. The system cost is minimal and overall efficiency will increase to approximately 60%. It is not recommended to place the entire engine-radiator unit in the air duct, operational and maintenance problems can result from the cool air flow across the engine. The radiator should only be placed in the air duct. A more versatile method of recovering heat from a standard temperature system is to use a heat exchanger to transfer rejected engine heat into a secondary circuit, usually process water to heat load such as buildings or equipment. One of the commonly used configurations is illustrated in Figure 68. There are many advantages inherent with this design, the standard engine jacket water pump, temperature regulators and bypass line

Standard Temperature System


These Standard Temperature Heat Recovery Systems are designed to operate at coolant temperatures below 99C (210F). These

Exhaust Heat Recovery Device

To Load From Load Temperature Regulator Engine Coolant Heat Exchanger A/C Engine Load Balancing Heat Exchanger To Remote Cooling Device To Load From Load Engine Mounted Expansion Tank

123

Generator

O/C

Separate Circuit Cooling

Load Balancing Temperature Regulator

Figure 68. Standard Temperature Heat Recovery System.

67

are retained. The engine jacket water cooling system is isolated from the load process loop, which allows operation with antifreeze and coolant conditioner. This alleviates water quality concerns for using process water to cool the engine jacket. When engine is cold, a temperature regulator bypasses the engine coolant heat exchanger and recirculates the coolant within the engine. After the coolant reaches the opening temperature of the temperature regulator, the regulator begins to open and allows some coolant flow through the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger transfers heat energy to the load. When normal process load is insufficient to absorb enough heat, load balancing temperature regulator limits jacket water inlet temperature by directing coolant through a secondary cooling source (load balancing heat exchanger). The secondary cooling source should be incorporated in the engine loop, not the load loop. The load balancing device should be a heat exchanger or a radiator. Heat transfer through the load balancer is usually cyclical. If a radiator is used, it must be designed to withstand thermal shocks developed from the cyclic loading. The second option of a standard heat recovery system uses an exhaust heat recovery device included in the system in

series, parallel or as a separate water or steam circuit, see Figure 69. A muffler is included in series with the engine system. Note the engine loop is still separate from the load loop. The engine expansion tank may be utilized. Generally, boiler water is used as the medium in the load loop. Boiler water is pumped through the jacket water heat exchanger and the exhaust heat recovery muffler in series where it is heated to the desired temperature. As shown the water flow through the expansion tank provides deareation. A third variation on the standard heat recovery system is to incorporate the exhaust heat recovery device into the engine cooling loop, see Figure 70. To ensure coolant flow through the muffler, the engine temperature regulators and the by-pass line must be removed and an external warm-up temperature regulator must be added. The added restriction of the exhaust heat recovery device may exceed the allowable external restriction from the engine mounted pump. An auxiliary circulation pump may be required. The advantages of this system are that the obtainable process water temperature is usually higher and there are fewer components. The disadvantages to this system are the engine cooling system is modified, and the design of this system

Pressure Cap & Vacuum Breaker Air Vent & Deareration Exhaust Heat Recovery Device X Excess Flow Bypass Valve Low Water Level Shut Down

Relief Valve

Expansion Tank

Engine Mounted Expansion Tank

Load Heat Exchanger To Load To Remote Cooling Device From Load Load Balancing Heat Exchanger

123 A/C Generator O/C Jacket Water Pump Separate Circuit Cooling Engine

J.W. Heat Exchanger Low Water Flow Shut-Down

Circulating Pump

Load Balancing Temperature Regulator

Figure 69. Standard Temperature Heat Recovery System with series exhaust muffler.
68

Pressure Cap & Vacuum Breaker Air Vent & De-aeratrion Line

Relief Valve Low Water Level Shut Down

Expansion Tank

Exhaust Heat Recovery Device

To Load From Load

Warm-up Temperature Regulator

Load Balancing Heat Exchanger

Engine Coolant Heat Exchanger To Load

123
Engine A/C Generator O/C Circulating Pump

To Remote Cooling Device

From Load

Load Balancing Temperature Regulator

Figure 70. Standard Temperature Heat Recovery System combined JW and muffler circuit.

becomes more critical to the successful engine operation. Any heat recovery system where the process water circulates in the engine jacket is not recommended. Experience has shown that in most cases the user can not economically treat the quantity of process water to the level required to avoid maintenance problems with the engine. The Combined Heat and Power Cooling System discussed in the Cooling Systems chapter also explains similar heat recovery configurations offered.

The expansion tank must be the highest point in both the engine and the load loop cooling systems. Use only treated water or antifreeze, as recommended in the Water Quality and Treatment for Standard Temperature System section, in the engine jacket cooling circuit. Incorporate air vents to eliminate air traps and locks as recommended in the section Filling and Venting. A load balancing temperature regulator must be used to regulate coolant through the secondary cooling source to maintain jacket water inlet temperatures below maximum limits. Coolant must continually flow through the exhaust heat recovery device when the engine is operating to avoid thermal shock on hot muffler surfaces. To keep external resistance within allowable limits for the engine mounted pump, locate heat recovery mufflers and heat exchangers as close to the engine as possible. An engine mounted jacket water pump requires a minimum inlet pressure, as specified in the section on Minimum

Design Criteria for Standard Temperature Systems


The purpose of the following discussion is to call attention to certain basic criteria critical to the proper operation of a heat recovery system, additional criteria may be required. Contact the Caterpillar dealer or the factory for specific requirements. The system must provide adequate coolant flow through the engine jacket to maintain coolant temperature differential (outletinlet) below 6C (11F) at all conditions.

69

Suction Head in the Cooling Systems chapter, at all times.

High Temperature Systems


The basic operation of these systems is already described in the section on High Temperature Cooling System in the Cooling System chapter. The aftercooler-oil cooler circuit in this system is similar to one in the Standard Cooling System. The jacket water circuit is cooled by high temperature water. As mentioned earlier, there are two types of high temperature systems, liquid water and water-steam systems. For both systems, the standard temperature regulator and bypass are removed and replaced by an external control. The standard jacket water pump is removed and must be replaced by an external electric pump capable of the high temperature and pressures of this system. Steam formation is not acceptable inside the engine jacket at any time for Caterpillar G3600 engines. The engines with High Temperature cooling systems have a factory provided protection system to ensure that there is no steam formation inside the engine jacket. The protection system checks the temperature pressure of the coolant at the

engine outlet to ensure that the minimum pressure is maintained for that temperature. If a low pressure at the engine outlet is detected, the protection system shuts the engine down.

High Temperature Liquid Water System


This system functions similar to a standard temperature system, except for the elevated jacket water outlet temperatures 99130C (210266F), see Figure 71. A pressure cap or static head must be provided in the engine coolant circuit to assure a pressure of 7085 kPa (1012 psi) above the pressure at which steam forms at that particular engine outlet temperature of the coolant. The source of this pressure may be a static head imposed by an elevated expansion tank or controlled air pressure in the expansion tank. For 130C (266F) water, the pressure at the engine outlet should be minimum of 345 kPa (50 psi) to prevent steam formation. Maximum system pressure allowed on the engine jacket, measured at the inlet to the engine, is 460 kPa (67 psi). Excess pressure may result in internal water leaks and damage the water cooled turbocharger housing.

Pressure Cap & Vacuum Breaker Air Vent & De-aeratrion Line

Relief Valve Low Water Level Shut Down

Expansion Tank

Exhaust Heat Recovery Device

To Load From Load

Warm-up Temperature Regulator

Load Balancing Heat Exchanger

Engine Coolant Heat Exchanger To Load

123
Engine A/C Generator O/C Circulating Pump

To Remote Cooling Device

From Load

Load Balancing Temperature Regulator

Figure 71. G3600 High Temperature Liquid Water System.


70

Design Criteria for Liquid Water System


The criteria for this system is similar to the Standard Temperature Heat Recovery system: The system must provide adequate coolant flow through the engine so the engine coolant temperature differential (outlet minus inlet) does not exceed 6C (11F). The expansion tank must be the highest point in the cooling system. The pressure cap on the expansion tank should be rated for pressure higher than the inlet pressure requirements of the jacket water pump. Proper water treatment is essential for the successful system operation as recommended in the section Water Quality and Treatment for High Temperature Systems. Incorporate de-aeration circuit and air vents to eliminate air traps and locks as recommended in the section Filling and Venting. A load balancing temperature regulator must be used to direct coolant through a secondary cooling source to maintain the jacket water inlet temperature within limits. Coolant must continually flow through the exhaust heat recovery device when the engine is operating to avoid thermal shock on hot muffler surfaces. This may be accomplished using a low water flow shutdown device. A high temperature system requires a pressure control for the engine coolant circuit to maintain a required range of pressure. Water pumps must be suitable for use with elevated temperatures and pressures. An external warm-up temperature regulator is required. The load balancing heat exchanger must be incorporated in the engine loop, not the load loop. The load balancing condenser may be either a heat exchanger or radiator. Heat transfer through the load balancer is

usually cyclic. Thus if a radiator is used, it must be designed to withstand thermal shocks developed from cyclic loading. For multiple units that share a single steam separator, all circulating pumps must run when any one engine operates. This practice prevents a severe thermal shock if a unit is started later. High jacket water temperatures will result in after-boil if there is a hot shut down. Add an additional 10% of system volume to the normal expansion tank sizing guidelines.

High Temperature Water-Steam System


The high temperature water-steam system, see Figure 72, provides liquid water to cool the engine, but then flashes it to steam to be used for loads requiring low pressure steam 97 kPa (14 psi). A circulation pump forces water through the cylinder block to the steam separator. In the steam separator, some of the water flashes to steam and the rest is condensed back to water and returns to the engine. The pressures shown in Figure 72 are representative values. The relief valve pressure 103 kPa (15 psi) is set by boiler codes. Pressure in the separator is controlled by the pressure control valve. Once pressure builds to 97 kPa (14 psi), the control valve allows steam to flow. The actual steam pressure in the load line is a function of load requirements. If the load is not consuming the steam the pressure in the steam line will increase. Once the pressure reaches 90 kPa (13 psi), the excess steam valve will open to transfer engine heat to the waste cooling device (load balancing condenser). Caterpillar requires excess steam valve to be located downstream of the pressure control valve. If it is upstream, the pressure control valve will not function properly.

Design Criteria for Water-Steam System


The system must provide adequate coolant flow through the engine so the engine coolant temperature differential (outlet minus inlet) does not exceed 6C (11F).
71

14 psig 15 psig Maximum Relief Pressure


X

Steam To Load

Pressure Control Valve 13 psig Steam Separator

X Valve

Excess Steam Condensate From Load

Water Level Control Load Balancing Condenser To Waste Cooling Device

Exhaust Heat Recovery Device

To Load From Load

Low Water Level Shut-down Air Eliminator Make-up Water Condensate Condensate Tank Pump

123
A/C Generator O/C Engine

Separate Circuit Cooling

Circulating Pump

Figure 72. G3600 High Temperature Water Steam System.

There are no elevation or static head requirements for the steam separator other than what suction head is used for the circulating pump. So, this system may be used in locations with limited overhead clearance. Since a electric motor driven pump should be used for the jacket water circuit, it is important to insure that the pump is operating while the engine is running. The pump should continue running approximately five minutes after the engine is stopped, to cool the engine. Maximum temperature at the engine outlet must not exceed 130C (266F). Inlet pressure to the pump should be maintained within limits to prevent cavitation at the high temperatures. A pressure switch is required at the jacket water inlet to the engine to monitor absolute pressure. Use only treated water in the engine jacket cooling circuit as recommended in the section Water Quality and Treatment for High Temperature Systems. Continuous water chemistry monitoring with automatic
72

boiler blow-down devices are recommended. A low water shutdown on steam separator device is required. A low water level prealarm is also recommended. Low water level could cause engine overheating and serious damage. The excess steam valve cannot be in the steam separator and must be downstream of the pressure control valve. No warm-up temperature regulator is required since the pressure control valve does not allow any heat (steam) to exit the system until the engine has warmed up and the separator has reached system pressure.

Water Quality and Treatment


The coolant used in the Caterpillar G3600 engine cooling systems should adhere to the specifications given in the following sections. If the available coolant is not within acceptable limits, proper water or coolant treatment should be incorporated to use that coolant.

Water quality is prime consideration in closed or open cooling systems. Excessive hardness will cause deposits, fouling and reduced effectiveness of the cooling system components. Water used for initial fill and makeup must meet the criteria shown in the subsequent sections. If the engine is expected to operate under freezing conditions, antifreeze must be added to the coolant. Ethylene glycol or propylene glycol is recommended. They both have similar properties, but propylene glycol has slightly better heat absorption capability than ethylene glycol. The concentration required for ethylene glycol can be determined from Figure 73. If the operating temperature will not drop near freezing, water with a 68% mixture of coolant conditioner is recommended for cooling systems. For more information on recommended coolant composition, refer to the Caterpillar publication Coolant and Your Engine (No. SEBD0970).

Caterpillar recommends using a 50%/50% mixture of glycol and water by volume in all G3600 engines. Concentrations less than 30% require the addition of corrosion inhibitors to maintain cleanliness, reduce scale and foaming and to provide acidity and alkalinity (pH) control. The corrosion inhibitor must be compatible with the glycol mixture and not damage flexible connections, seals or gaskets. Avoid sudden change in coolant composition to minimize adverse effects on non-metallic components. Caterpillar antifreeze contains the proper amount of coolant conditioner. Caterpillar inhibitors are compatible with glycol base antifreeze. The reduction in heat transfer capability of the coolant by the addition of antifreeze is explained in the section Radiator Design Criteria. Note: Do not use coolant conditioner elements or liquid coolant conditioners with Dowtherm 209 full-fill coolant. Soluble oil or chromate solutions should not be used. Methoxypropanol based coolants must not be used in G3600 Engines.

Water Quality and Treatment for Standard Temperature Systems


Water hardness is usually described in parts per million, ppm (or grains/Gal) of calcium carbonate content. Water containing up to 60 ppm (3.5 grains/Gal) is considered soft and causes very few deposits. Usable water for cooling systems must be below the following limits: Chloride (CL) Sulfate (SO4) Total Hardness Total Solids pH 40 ppm (2.4 grains/Gal) 100 ppm (5.9 grains/Gal) 170 ppm (10 grains/Gal) 340 ppm (20 grains/Gal) 5.59.0

Water softened by removal of calcium and magnesium is acceptable. Distilled or deionized water is preferred over water softened by salts. Corrosion inhibitors added to water or antifreeze solution maintain cleanliness, reduce scale and foaming and provide pH control. With the addition of an inhibitor, a pH of 8.5 to 10 should be maintained.
Figure 73. Recommended glycol concentration.

73

Water Quality and Treatment for High Temperature Systems


The engine cooling water for a low pressure steam (water-steam) or high temperature water system is circulated within the engine water jacket at temperatures above 99C (210F). As a result, there is a potential for steam to form in both of these applications. For these purposes, treat the engine coolant as for a steam boiler. Since several localized areas of the engine jacket water system can have very high heat flux rates and very narrow water flow passages, the engine water chemistry will have the same chemistry as a close tolerance steam boiler. The coolant specifications published above and in the Caterpillar Operator Manual are for less than 99C (210F) ethylene glycol or propylene glycol systems. This is not applicable for low pressure steam and liquid water heat recovery systems. Minerals in the water can precipitate during the heating process and form deposits within the cooling system of the engine. These deposits can restrict the heat transfer and water circulation, resulting in engine failure. To prevent these deposits within the cooling systems, the following engine jacket water (boiler water) quality guidelines are recommended. Make-up water is added to a low pressure steam system to replace steam and blow-down losses. It should not exceed the following maximum concentrations: Iron Copper Total Hardness 0.1 ppm 0.05 ppm 0.3 ppm as CaCO3

has left the engine jacket water loop. Water treatment chemicals that are added to the system are usually mixed with the feed water as it enters the engine jacket water system. Engine jacket water (boiler water) is a mixture of feed water and resident water. It is the water circulated within the water jacket of the engine to cool the engine and recover heat. Engine jacket water (boiler water) should not exceed the following maximum concentrations: Silica Concentration 150 ppm as SiO2 Total Alkalinity 700 ppm as CaCO3 Specific Conductance 3500 micro mho per cm Total Suspended solids 10 ppm In addition to the above chemistry, Caterpillar recommends the engine jacket water (boiler water) be treated with chemicals as listed below: An oxygen scavenger to remove oxygen from the feed water with sufficient reserve in the engine jacket (boiler water) to remove all the oxygen from the water. Maintain 200 to 400 ppm as CaCO3 equivalent of hydroxide alkalinity in the engine jacket water (boiler water). The reserve alkalinity prevents corrosion and causes precipitation of iron and silica in the form that can be removed by blow-down. A blend of dispersants to adequately condition and suspend the precipitation solids in the water. The dispersants keep the solids suspended until they are removed during blow-down. Appropriate treatment of the steam to provide condensate returning to the engine that meets the engine jacket water (boiler water) specifications.

The make-up water can be treated to reduce or remove, the impurities from the water. In general, the water is treated when one or more of the feed water impurities is too high to be tolerated by the system. There are many types of water treatment softening, evaporation, de-aeration and ion exchange that can be used to treat make-up water for a particular system. Feed Water is a mixture of returning condensate and make-up water that enters the engine jacket water loop to replace steam that
74

Total Dissolved and Suspended Solids


Depending on the make-up water source and treatment, the feed water will contain some dissolved and suspended solids. On a low pressure steam system, the steam will leave the engine; the minerals and chemicals will remain. This results in a concentrating of the total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The amount of

make- up water per hour approximately equals twice the system volume. This means for feed water with a TDS of 100 ppm, the TDS in the engine jacket water will increase by 200 ppm per hour. Engine jacket water scale forms when the concentration of solids reaches a critical point. This depends on the type of contaminants in the feed water, engine operating temperature and other factors. The maximum allowable concentration of dissolved solids can be expressed in parts per million TDS or in terms of conductivity (micro mhos/cm).

Measurement of TDS Control


TDS can be measured by ppm or by conductivity (micro mhos/cm). The Caterpillar level for TDS is given in michro mhos/cm because conductivity is easier to measure with commercial continuous monitoring equipment or hand-held equipment. There is a direct relationship between ppm and conductance, 3500 mhos = 2680 ppm. To avoid exceeding the maximum allowable conductivity, it is necessary to drain off some of the engine jacket water (boiler water) periodically. This is referred to as boiler blow-down. As it occurs new feed water is added to dilute the water in the engine water jacket, thereby reducing its conductivity. Historically operators have performed blowdown manually by periodically opening a valve to drain the steam separator. This may be done once per hour, once per shift or some other interval, depending on the circumstances. A less common method of monitoring TDS is to measure chlorides in both the engine jacket water (boiler water) and the make-up water by a titration process. Since chlorides are not affected by chemical treatment, the operator can determine the number of concentrations that have occurred in the engine jacket water (boiler water) by comparing the ratio of the two values. Based on known values of the make-up water, the operator can calculate the acceptable number of concentration that can occur before blow-down is required.

Because blow-down is only performed periodically, significant dilution is needed to ensure that the engine jacket water (boiler water) conductivity does not exceed the maximum before the operator returns to blow-down the engine again. Note that the conductivity can exceed targeted maximum or even absolute maximum if the operator does not blow-down the boiler at the appointed time, or if the engine steaming rate increases between blow-down operations. If the absolute maximum is exceeded, scaling will occur. Because small amounts of scale wastes energy and can lead to engine damage, it is very important to stay below the absolute maximum. Conversely, the steam production rate may decrease and as a result the operator would blow-down the engine sooner than necessary. Therefore, Caterpillar recommends continuously monitoring of TDS and automatic blow-down controls.

Alkalinity
Alkalinity is required in a high temperature water and a low pressure steam system to prevent corrosion. Alkalinity holds silica in solution and causes iron to precipitate in a form removable by blow-down. Too much alkalinity can result in a high pH and cause caustic cracking and caustic attack to external engine compartments.

Total Alkalinity
Total alkalinity is usually measured on site by a titration with methyl orange and is frequently referred to as M alkalinity. Many coolant analysis companies refer to pH of coolant water. Because of the wide variation in local make-up water and commercial treatments, there is no direct correlation between total alkalinity and pH. Generally, in high temperature water and low pressure steam systems, the pH will be in a range of 10.0 to 11.5 pH

Reser ve or Hydroxide Alkalinity


To prevent corrosion and scale deposits, a reserve of hydroxide (OH) alkalinity is required. The OH alkalinity is not easily measured in the field, but can be calculated. A "P" alkalinity is measured by phenopthalein and sulfuric acid titration. Once P value is

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determined, the following formula is used to calculate OH alkalinity.


OH Alkalinity 2 P Alkalinity M Alkalinity

A comprehensive discussion of feed water problems and treatment of boiler feed water is available in a bulletin from Nalco Chemical Co. To obtain the bulletin, write to: Nalco Chemical Co 1 Nalco Center Naperville, IL 60566 Attention: Marcom Dept. Request bulletin 30, titled Boiler feed Water Treatment. There is no charge for the bulletin.

Low pressure steam engines will have special requirements if the unit does not run continuously. Any low pressure steam engine that is shut down frequently can be prone to deposits even with good water treatment programs. Once the engine is shutdown, the dispersants in the feed water can no longer keep the solids in suspension. They will collect and harden to form scales and can result in engine failure. For engines that do not run continuously, we recommend a circulating pump of 100 lb water/lb of steam capacity to be operated even while the engine is shutdown to keep the solids in suspension. The above water chemistry limits are stringent, but not when considering that deposits formed inside the engine are cumulative. Cogeneration and heat recovery equipment is intended to last 20 years or longer. To maintain performance and value of equipment, it is important to eliminate scale deposits within engines. Once a deposit is formed it is very difficult and may be economically impractical to remove. To emphasize again, scale formation is cumulative and the successful method of avoiding scale is to not permit conditions for scale to form. These guidelines are based on established limits of the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA) and suggested guidelines by the ASME research committee on Water in Thermal Power Systems. We have reasonable confidence that operators who adhere to these guidelines will have years of deposit free and scale free performance from their Caterpillar Engines. Since water chemistry and water treatment are very regional items and tend to vary considerably around the world, the engine owner has the ultimate responsibility for the engine water treatment.

Other Caterpillar Cooling System Related Publications


In addition to this publication the user is recommended to refer to other related Caterpillar publications for more information. Some of them are listed below, for other information contact your Caterpillar dealer or the factory. Cooling System Fundamentals (text and slides) LEKQ1475 Coolant and your Engine SEBD0970 Special Instructions Storage Procedures for CAT products SEHS9031 System Operation and Adjustment G3606 and G3608 engines SENR4258 System Operation and Adjustment G3612 and G3616 engines SENR5528

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G3600 Lubrication System


General System Description Engine Sump Strainer Main Oil Pump Emergency Pumps Oil Thermostats Oil Cooler Oil Filters Priority Valve Oil Metering Pump Prelubrication Air Prelube Motor Types of Prelubrication Intermittent Prelube System Quick Start Prelube System Postlubrication Lubricating Oil Heaters (Optional) Oil Level Alarm, Shutdown, and Makeup (Optional) Oil Level Gauge (Dipstick)

Oil Selection Caterpillar Natural Gas Engine Oil (NGEO) Commercial Oils Sour Gas & Alternate Fuel Gas Applications Multi-Viscosity Oils Synthetic Oils Lubricant Viscosity Monitoring Lubricating Oil Quality Scheduled Oil Sampling (SOS) Lubrication Oil Condemning Limits Oil Change Interval Oil Consumption

G3600 Lubrication
Engine

Main Oil Pump Flow Rates *Pump Type high speed low speed high speed low speed high speed low speed high speed low speed **900 rpm Lpm (gpm) 1,000 (263) 1,260 (333) 1,260 (333) 1,470 (388) 1,470 (388) 1,630 (430) 1,630 (430) 2,050 (540) **1,000 rpm Lpm (gpm) 1,110 (293) 1,400 (370) 1,400 (370) 1,630 (431) 1,630 (431) 1,810 (477) 1,810 (477) 2,280 (600)

General System Description


Figures 74 and 75 show the G3600 lube oil system. Figures 76 and 77 contain simplified schematics of the lubrication circuit. Figures 78 and 79 show oil and coolant flow directions through the oil cooler bundles. Below is a description of each component in the system. Note: The G3600 lubrication circuit has been designed such that only filtered oil reaches the cylinder block main oil manifold. At no time (during prelubrication/postlubrication, engine startup, or during normal engine operation) is unfiltered oil allowed to enter the cylinder block main oil manifold.

G3606 G3606 G3608 G3608 G3612 G3612 G3616 G3616

* High speed pumps are used for constant speed applications at 900 or 1000 rpm. Low speed pumps are used for variable speed applications ranging from 800 to 1000 rpm. **Engine speed

Table 2.

Emergency Pumps
Emergency pumps may be required in some applications in case of main oil pump failure. Table 3 contains the flow rates to fulfill minimum lubrication requirements at full power for rated speeds between 700 and 1000 rpm.
Minimum Flow Rates for Emergency Oil Pump, Lpm (gpm) G3606 G3608 G3612 G3616 750 (198) 770 (203) 890 (235) 1200 (317)

Engine Sump
Table 1 contains the sump capacities for G3600 engines. Use the oil level gauge to insure proper fill after each oil change.
G3600 Sump Capacities * Stopped, Cold Engine Full Volume, L (gal) G3606 G3608 G3612 G3616 708 (187) 912 (241) 1,030 (272) 1,325 (350)

* Corresponds to oil in pan temperature of 21C (70F)

Table 3.

Table 1.

Oil Thermostats
The oil thermostats begin to divert oil to the coolers between 75C and 78C (167F and 172F). The full open temperature of an oil thermostat is 85C. The desired steady state oil temperature is 83C.

Strainer
The strainer is a 650 micron (0.025 in.) screen located between the suction bell and suction tube.

Main Oil Pump


The main oil pump is a fixed displacement pump. The pump output depends on engine speed and varies little with back pressure. The pump operates at 1.524 times the engine speed. Table 2 contains the pump flow rates. It is important to note that not all of the oil pumped goes through the cooler/filter circuit. To maintain 430 kPa (63 psig) to the main oil manifold, a significant quantity is bypassed immediately back to the sump via the priority valve (see priority valve in this section).

Oil Cooler
The oil coolers are of tube bundle construction. The coolant water is contained in the tube side; the oil is contained in the shell side of the oil cooler. G3606 and G3608 engines use two oil cooler bundles. The maximum water approach temperature to the coolers is 54C (140F). G3612 and G3616 engines may use two or three oil cooler bundles. If two oil coolers are used, the maximum water approach temperature to the coolers is 32C (90F). If two oil coolers are used, the maximum water
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approach temperature is 54C (140F). For water inlet temperatures above 54C (140F) consult the factory for custom, off-engine platetype heat exchangers.

Figures 78 and 79 show oil and coolant flow directions through the oil cooler bundles. The maximum water flow through one tube bundle is 1,000 lpm (260 gpm). Exceeding this flow limit will cause erosion and weaken the tube walls.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Oil Pump Prelube Pump Oil Coolers Oil Filters Oil Themostat Housing Oil Filter Duplex Valve Handle Priority Valve Emergency Oil Connection

9. Oil Manifold (Oil to Bearings) 10. Oil Manifold (2) (Oil to Piston Cooling Jets) 11. Oil to Main Bearings 12. Oil to Camshafts 13. Turbocharger 14. Bypass Oil 15. Check Valve 16. Piston Cooling Jets

* Flow in Opposite Direction During Prelube

Figure 74. G3600 Inline Lubrication System.


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Oil Pump Prelube Pump Oil Coolers Oil Filters Oil Themostat Housing Oil Filter Duplex Valve Handle Priority Valve Emergency Oil Connection

9. Oil Manifold (Oil to Bearings) 10. Oil Manifold (2) (Oil to Piston Cooling Jets) 11. Oil to Main Bearings 12. Oil to Camshafts 13. Turbochargers 14. Bypass Oil 15. Check Valve 16. Piston Cooling Jets

* Flow in Opposite Direction During Prelube

Figure 75. G3600 Vee Lubrication System.

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Intake Air Plenum

Main Oil Manifold (Oil to Bearing): Continuous Flow

Piston Cooling Jet Manifold: Flow Begins at 140 kPa (20 psi)

Bypass Valve: Flow to Sump Begins at 430 kPa (63 psi)

Relief Valve: Flow to Sump Begins at 1000 kPa (145 psi)

Oil Metering Pump

Priority Valve

Vent to Sump

Oil Filter (3 Filter Elements)

Oil Cooler

Filter Change Valve

Oil Temp Regulator

Oil Filter (3 Filter Elements)

Oil Cooler

Vent to Sump

Breather to Atmosphere

Check Valve Engine Sump

Check Valve

Intermittent Pump

Main Oil Pump

Strainer

Intermittent Prelube

Figure 76: G3600 Engine Lubrication System with Intermittent Prelube.

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Intake Air Plenum

Main Oil Manifold (Oil to Bearing): Continuous Flow

Piston Cooling Jet Manifold: Flow Begins at 140 kPa (20 psi)

Bypass Valve: Flow to Sump Begins at 430 kPa (63 psi)

Relief Valve: Flow to Sump Begins at 1000 kPa (145 psi)

Oil Metering Pump

Priority Valve

Vent to Sump Spill Valve Oil Filter (3 Filter Elements) Flow to Sump When Pilot Pressure is Below 48 kPa (7psi) Oil Cooler

Filter Change Valve

Oil Temp Regulator

Oil Filter (3 Filter Elements)

Oil Cooler

Vent to Sump Spill Valve Pilot Line

Breather to Atmosphere

Check Valve Engine Sump

Check Valve

Check Valve

Booster Pump (17 gpm)

Continuous Pump (6 gpm)

Main Oil Pump

Strainer

Optional Quick Start Prelube

Figure 77: G3600 Engine Lubrication System with Optional Quick Start Prelube.

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Oil Filters
Each engine contains six oil filter elements. The filter change valve allows filter elements to be changed during engine operation. The oil filters are rated at 20 microns. The oil filter change interval is 1000 hrs. The maximum allowable pressure drop across the filters is 103 kPad (15 psid).

Prelubrication
All G3600 engines must be adequately prelubed prior to cranking or rotating the crankshaft with the barring device. Prelubrication systems supplied by Caterpillar are integrated with starting controls, electric or air powered pumps, check valve and engine piping. For remote mounted prelube pumps, the pump must be located and piped to prevent excessive inlet restriction. The maximum allowable line velocity at the prelube pump inlet is 1.5 m/sec (5 ft/sec) to prevent pump cavitation. The net positive suction head required to fill the pump is 2m H20 (6.5 ft H20).

Priority Valve
The priority valve regulates oil pressure at the inlet to the cylinder block main oil manifold not at the oil pump. Thus, the oil manifold pressure is independent of the pressure drop across the oil filter and oil cooler. The priority valve serves the four following functions: 1) The priority valve serves as the passage to the engine's main oil manifold. Only filtered oil passes to engine's main oil manifold. 2) It diverts flow to the piston cooling jets once pressure at the valve reaches 140 kPa (20 psig). Only filtered oil passes to the engine's cooling jets. 3) The priority valve contains a bypass valve to control the oil pressure to the main oil manifold. The desired pressure to the main oil manifold is 430 kPa (63 psig). The bypass valve adjusts pressure by directing unfiltered oil to the oil sump. 4) The priority valve contains a relief valve to protect the system from excessive oil pressure. When system pressure at the valve reaches 1000 kPa (145 psig) the valve begins to divert flow back to the sump. The relief valve directs unfiltered oil back to the oil sump.

Air Prelube Motor


A schematic for the air flow to an air prelube motor is shown in Figure 80. The air prelube motor operates at 689 kPa (100 psig); air consumption is 1.84 m3/min (65 ft3/min). Air consumption is given at standard conditions.

Types of Prelubrication
There are two prelubrication systems available for G3600 engines. The standard system is an intermittent prelube system. The intermittent prelube gives suitable performance for applications not requiring quick start capability. The other prelube option is a quick start prelube system. A quick start system significantly reduces the amount of prelube time prior to engine crank. Refer to the G3600 Price List for the various options available.

Intermittent Prelube System


An intermittent prelube system sends filtered engine oil to the main engine manifold prior to startup. The system uses an engine mounted motor and pump. The prelube pump can be driven by either an electric motor, a compressed air motor, or a compressed natural gas motor. In Figure 76 is shown a schematic of an intermittent prelube system. Oil is drawn from the sump, passes through the prelube pump and is sent to the oil coolers (if needed) and oil filters. The oil enters the priority valve

Oil Metering Pump


The oil metering pump is driven by the camshaft. The oil metering pump is sometimes called a 'mister pump' as it forces oil droplets into the air stream in the air plenum. The purpose of aerating the oil in the air plenum air stream is to provide further lubrication of the intake valves.

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To Radiator or Heat Exchanger

Rear Oil Cooler

From Coolant Pump

Front Oil Cooler

Oil Thermostat Housing

To Priority Valve and Oil Mister Pump

From Oil Pump

Oil Circuit Coolant Circuit

Figure 78: G3600 Oil and Coolant Flow for Two Bundle Oil Cooler.

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To Radiator or Heat Exchanger

Rear, Bottom Oil Cooler

Front, Top Oil Cooler

From Coolant Pump

Front, Bottom Oil Cooler

Oil Thermostat Housing

To Priority Valve and Oil Mister Pump

From Oil Pump

Oil Circuit Coolant Circuit

Figure 79: G3600 Oil and Coolant Flow for Three Bundle Oil Cooler.

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mounted on the front housing of the engine and then passes to the engine's main oil manifold. The intermittent prelube sequence follows: 1) The start initiate signal is given from the ESS panel. 2) Prelube motor begins to operate. 3) Prelube motor continues as the oil pressure in the main oil manifold rises. 4) As the oil manifold pressure rises, the prelube pressure switch will close at 6.89 kPa (1 psig). (The prelube pressure switch is located at the right rear of the block.) 5) Thirty seconds after the prelube pressure switch closes, the starters are engaged. 6) The prelube motor continues to operate until the engine reaches 250 rpm. Intermittent prelube time will vary with oil temperature. Typical intermittent prelube times, measured from the start initiate signal to starter engagement, is 90 to 120 seconds with 25C (77F) oil (with a 30 second delay after the pressure switch closes).

The engine control software is set to a zero second delay between pressure switch closure and engine crank, so the engine starts immediately. Upon starting, the spill valve remains closed. When the engine shuts down, the intermittent pump will postlube. After postlube the oil pressure decreases and the pilot controlled spill valve opens and the prelube pressure switch opens. When the pressure switch opens the continuous pump will energize and maintain the oil level in the engine. The quick start prelube sequence follows: 1) While the engine is not operating, the continuous prelube pump circulates low pressure oil through the engine's main oil manifold. The oil level is maintained near the top of the block by the spill valve. 2) Once the start initiate signal is given from the ESS panel the continuous pump stops and the booster pump begins operating. 3) The pressure created by the booster pump closes the pilot operated spill valve. 4) Oil manifold pressure quickly rises since the spill valve is closed and the manifold is already filled with oil. The prelube pressure switch will close at 6.89 kPa (1 psig). (The prelube pressure switch is located at the right rear of the block.) 5) Immediately after the prelube pressure switch closes the starters are engaged. 6) The booster pump continues to operate until the engine reaches 250 rpm. Quick start prelube time will vary little with oil temperature. Typical quick start prelube times, measured from the start initiate signal to starter engagement, is 5 to 7 seconds with 25C (77F) oil (with a 0 second delay after the pressure switch closes).

Quick Start Prelube System


The quick start prelube system consists of two electric prelube pumps, a 23 Lpm (6 gpm) continuous pump and a 64 Lpm (17 gpm) booster pump. In Figure 77 is shown a schematic of a quick start prelube system. When the engine is off, the continuous pump draws oil from the sump and sends oil to the coolers (if needed), oil filters, priority valve and the engine's main oil manifold. Oil level is maintained near the top of the cylinder block by a pilot operated spill valve. When the engine is signaled to start, the continuous pump shuts off and the booster pump starts. The pressure created by the booster pump is sufficient to close the pilot operated spill valve and quickly fill the engine as well as close the oil pressure switch at the right rear of the cylinder block.

Postlubrication
G3600 engines have a standard postlube cycle of sixty seconds. Postlubrication protects the turbo's bearings upon engine shutdown.
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ESS Panel Prelube Oil Pressure Sensor Engine Block Engine Sump Prelube Solenoid Valve Pressure Relief Valve Starter Relay Valve Lubricator

Exhaust Air Prelube Pump

Pressure Regulator

Pressure Relief Valve

Pressure Regulator

Strainer

Lubricator

Starter Relay Valve Air Starter

Exhaust Starter Solenoid Valve Barring Device Customer Supplied Air Compressor Water Separator Air Filter Air Storage Tank Check Valve

Electrical Signal Air Circuit Oil Circuit

Figure 80: G3600 Air Prelube.

An engine will not postlube if the Emergency Stop (E-Stop) button is depressed to shutdown the engine. Since an oil leak could potentially require the use of the E-Stop button, the postlube is disabled to stop oil flow to a possible leak. An E-Stop button is located on the ESS panel, junction box, and the customer terminal strip. Since no postlube occurs with the use of the E-Stop button, the E-Stop should only be used for emergency shutdowns.

Lubricating Oil Heaters (Optional)


Oil heaters are recommended for heating the lube oil to 10C (50F) when ambient conditions are below this temperature. Heating elements in direct contact with lubricating oil are not recommended due to the danger of coking. To avoid coking the oil when heating oil, heater skin temperatures must not exceed 150C (300F) and must have a maximum heat density of 1.24 w/cm2 (8W/in2).

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Oil Level Alarm, Shutdown, and Makeup (Optional)


The oil level alarm and shutdown switches alert the operator when low oil levels are present. The oil level alarm should sound when the oil in the sump drops below the Add mark on the oil level gauge (dipstick). An oil level shutdown occurs when the oil in the sump drops below an acceptable level in the sump. It is important to mount the oil level alarm and shutdown switchgauges in the proper location. Failure to properly locate the gauges could result in premature alarm/shutdown conditions or allow the sump oil level to drop far below recommend levels before the alarm/shutdown is activated. See Figure 81 for proper mount locations. Most oil level switches and oil level makeup devices are vented. If vented to the atmosphere they will regulate to some erroneous level due to the crankcase pressure. The vent line from these devices

should go to the crankcase (well above the oil line). An oil makeup system maintains a constant oil level in the oil sump. The system should add oil to the sump when the level drops below the Running Full mark on the oil level gauge (dipstick). See Figure 81 for proper mount location. This automatic system senses the oil level and feeds oil into the sump from an external oil reservoir as required. The external reservoir must be able to feed the oil into the sump at all operating conditions. Some makeup systems are pump operated while others are gravity fed. Depending on the height at which the makeup line enters the oil pan, pressure in the oil pan can range from 0 kPa to 7 kPa (0 psig to 1 psig). In general, the oil pressure prior to the makeup valve should be above 21 kPa (3 psig). However, each system should be inspected to insure proper operation and positive flow.

A: Oil Level Makeup B: Oil Level Alarm C: Oil Level Shutdown

Block

175 mm

Top of Oil Pan

Sump

B C 341 mm 261 mm

Vent Line: Vent eack component to crankcase pressure

Figure 81. Locations for Oil Level Alarm, Shutdown, and Makeup Gauges.
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Oil Level Gauge (Dipstick)


The oil level gauge has three graduations on it as shown in Figure 82. Below is a description of each mark: STOPPED FULL OIL COLD NO PRELUBE: This mark indicates the correct oil level for a drained engine (no oil in block), 25C (77F) oil, and no prelube operating. RUNNING FULL: This mark indicates the correct oil level for a running engine with an oil to block temperature of 83C (181F). ADD: Below this level oil should be added. If the oil level is below the ADD line during engine operation, oil should be added until the RUNNING FULL mark is reached. If the oil level is below the ADD line for a stopped, drained, and cool engine, oil should be added until the STOPPED FULL OIL COLD NO PRELUBE mark is reached.

Caterpillar NGEO is formulated from select base stock blended with special additives to provide excellent anti-oxidation/nitration properties and thermal stability. Cat NGEO reduces levels of carbon and sludge formation and provides excellent oil and filter life. The product has superior resistance to foaming, exhibits good demulsibility, and provides protection against corrosion. This oil uses an additive technology which offers excellent valve and seat protection, improved piston cleanliness, and control of deposit formation. Caterpillar NGEO is especially useful for Caterpillar Gas Engines when used with fuels having a concentration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at 0.10% by volume, or less. Sites using landfill or biogas fuels would typically have such H2S concentrations.

Commercial Oils
No universal industry specifications are defined for the performance requirements of lubricating oils for G3600 engines. The following guidelines have been established for commercial oils to be used in G3600 engines. These oil requirements are for processed natural gas. Caterpillar recommends the use of oils formulated specifically for heavy duty gas engines--oils that are designed for gas engines operating at 1240 kPa (180 psi) BMEP rating. Do not use oils formulated exclusively for gasoline or diesel engines. Caterpillar recommends oils that have sulfated ash values between 0.40 and 0.60% to be used in G3600 engines. Caterpillar recommends oils that have successfully completed 7,000 hours of documented field service in G3600 engines. The field trial must be performed in a similar configuration to the proposed engine and at a power level (BMEP) that

Oil Selection
Caterpillar does not recommend lube oils by brand name. Field operation may identify oil brands which yield good results. Oils which may be listed as having good field operating results by oil companies do not form a Caterpillar recommendation. They serve only as potential oils which may be successful. Each particular oil company has control of its product and should be accountable for its oil performance.

Caterpillar Natural Gas Engine Oil (NGEO)


Caterpillar has an oil formulated to provide maximum performance and life in Caterpillar Gas Engines. This low ash oil has 0.45% sulfated ash (ASTM D874) and 5.0 Total Base Number (TBN), (ASTM2896).

Add

Running Full

Stopped Full Oil Cold No Prelube

Figure 82. G3600 Oil Level Gage (Dipstick).

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meets or exceeds the proposed engine. During the field trial, the following parameters must be monitored: oil consumption, oil deterioration and valve recession. At the completion of the field trial, the condition of the oil and the engine must be within the following limits. No ring sticking or ring scuffing. No liner scuffing or carbon cutting from excessive piston top land deposits. Valve recession and deposits must not exceed the limits established for Caterpillar G3600 engines. Oil consumption must not exceed two times the initial oil consumption. Initial oil consumption is established during the first 1000 hours of operation. At the end of all specific oil change periods, the oil condition must remain within Caterpillar's limit for oxidation, nitration, TBN, TAN, and wear metals. At the end of the 7,000 hour field trial, two pistons must be removed for visual inspection. Photographs of the pistons, piston rings, and cylinder liners are required.

deteriorates, and they need servicing or replacing. Caterpillar recommends that even though a fuel gas is scrubbed to a pipeline level of H2S, the precautions listed below should be taken for high sulfur fuels to protect against those intervals of operation with high sulfur fuel without precautions can severely damage the engine. Maintain the jacket water outlet temperature between 96C and 102C (205F and 215F). Water and sulfur oxides are formed during combustion and will condense on cylinder walls at low temperature. The higher jacket temperature will minimize the amount of condensation. Maintain the temperature of the oil in the sump high enough to prevent water from condensing in the oil. Normally, maintaining the jacket water outlet temperature at a minimum of 96C (205F) will accomplish this. G3600 engines have outlet-controlled jacket water systems available that operate at 110C (230F). Establish an oil analysis program to assure oil change periods are not extended beyond safe limits and that other problems are not overlooked. Caterpillar Dealers are capable of establishing and conducting such programs. Where it is possible to start the engine on sweet gas, bring the engine up to operating temperature on sweet gas, then switch to sour gas. Reverse the procedure when shutting down the engine. Select a natural gas engine oil with a higher TBN, or select a natural gas engine oil specifically formulated for use with alternate fuel gas. Use the same selection method of this oil as specified in the previous section. Oils with higher TBN values generally have higher levels of sulfated ash. Ash can cause deposit buildup that leads to valve, combustion chamber, and turbocharger damage. These deposits can potentially shorten engine life.

Sour Gas & Alternate Fuel Gas Applications


Sour gas generally refers to fuels containing a high concentration of sulfur compounds (above 10 ppm), primarily hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Fuels such as field, digester, bio-mass, or landfill gas generally fall in this category. Sweet gases are fuels with low concentrations of sulfur compounds (below 10 ppm). If gas with excessive sulfur levels is used as a fuel, sulfur compounds could be dissolved in the oil from blow-by gas and cause corrosive attack on internal engine components. The corrosion usually is caused by a direct H2S attack of the bright metals within the engine, such as the oil cooler and bronze/ brass bushings or bearings. This direct H2S attack can not be deterred by high TBN oils or controlled by oil analysis. There are various devices available to reduce H2S in the fuel gas such as chemical active filters, reactive beds, and solutions. Most of these devices deplete the reactive chemicals, their performance

91

There is no known oil additive than can protect the internal bright metal engine components from H2S attack. A positive crankcase ventilation has proven to successfully reduce the H2S attack of internal engine components. The ventilation system should positively remove the fumes from the crankcase and allow filtered air to enter the crankcase to dilute the levels of H2S. Guidelines for installing and sizing a crankcase ventilation system is contained in the Crankcase Ventilation A & I Guide.

Monitoring Lubricating Oil Quality


Scheduled Oil Sampling (SOS)
Caterpillar Dealers offer Scheduled Oil Sampling (SOS) as a means of determining engine condition by analyzing lubricating oil for wear particles. This program will analyze the condition of your engines, indicate shortcomings in engine maintenance, show first signs of excessive wear, and help reduce repair costs. This program is not able to predict a fatigue or sudden failure. Caterpillar recommendations for oil and oil change periods are published in service literature. Caterpillar does not recommend exceeding the published oil change recommendations unless the change intervals are established by a comprehensive maintenance management program that includes oil condition analysis.

Multi-Viscosity Oils
The operation of gas engines using multiviscosity oils has been very limited. Results from these tests has indicated poor oil performance as compared with single grade oils relative to deposits. For applications where continuous cold starting is an absolute, single grade oil used in combination with jacket water heaters and/or oil heaters are recommended. Performance requirements for multi-viscosity oils in G3600 engines are the same as single grade oils. Multi-viscosity oils require a successful 7000 hour field trial as previously described for commercial oils. Field trial data from single grade oils using similar additives do not apply to multi-viscosity oils.

Lubrication Oil Condemning Limits


The lubricating oil condemning limits were developed from engine operating experience and oil analysis. The limits provide guidelines in determining the oil's useful life in the engine. Table 4 and 5 establishes the limits for oil service life.
Scheduled Oil Sampling Parameter Oxidation Nitration Sulfur Products Water Glycol Wear Materials Limit 100% as defined by SOS Program 100% as defined by SOS Program 100% as defined by SOS Program 0.5% maximum 0% Trend Analysis

Synthetic Oils
The use of synthetic base stock oils is very limited in Caterpillar gas engines because of their high cost. Performance requirements for synthetic oils in G3600 engines is the same as single grade oils. Synthetic oils require a successful 7000 hour field trial as previously described for commercial oils.

Table 4.
Alternate Oil Analysis (additional test procedure for more data) Parameter Viscosity (ASTM D445) Total Base Number (TBN), (ASTM D2896) Total Base Number (D664) Total Acid Number (TAN) (D664) Limit 3cSt increase from new oil 50% of original TBN 1.5 minimum 3.0 max or 2.0 over new oil

Lubricant Viscosity
All G3600 engines currently operate with SAE 40 oil. Other lubricant viscosities are not recommended for use with G3600 engines. Oils other than SAE 40 require require a successful 7000 hour field trial as previously described for commercial oils.

Table 5.

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There have been occurrences where wear metal levels indicate a TBN depletion but the TBN by ASTM D2896 has not shown significant depletion. Those occurrences have been with corrosive fuels such as landfill gas. Those customer have found that measuring the TAN by ASTM D664 has given a better correlation between wear metals protection . If there are wear metals with adequate TBN reserve by ASTM D2896 it is suggested to try ASTM 664.

hour (lb/bhp-hr). The following lists the typical mid-life BSOC for engines operating at 100% load factor.
Engine Model G3600 g/bkW-hr 0.304 lb/bhp-hr 0.000521 g/bhp-hr 0.227

Table 6.

Oil Change Inter val


To achieve maximum life from the engine oil and provide optimum protection for the internal engine components, a Scheduled Oil Sampling program (SOS) must be used. Information is available through Caterpillar Dealers. The program will determine oil change intervals based on trend analysis and condemning limits established for the engine. For an optimized program, oil samples must be taken every 250 operating hours through the life of the engine. The typical oil change interval for G3600 engines is 5,000 operating hours for continuous operation on pipeline gas. However, due to the variety of applications and fuel qualities, the SOS must be used to monitor the quality of the engine's oil. If the SOS results condemn the oil, then the oil must be changed regardless of the operating hours. If oil change intervals are consistently lower than 5,000 hours, consult your Caterpillar Dealer.

Note: BSOC can typically vary by as much as +275% to minus 50%. Also, with very low consumptions, measurement methods become difficult and number erratic. Therefore these values can only be used as a guide for make up oil requirements. The following formula may be used to estimate oil consumption per hour:
L/hr = Engine bkW Load Factor(%) BSOC (g/bkW-hr) Density of Oil** gal/hr = Engine bhp Load Factor(%) BSOC (lb/bhp-hr) Density of Oil**

**Typical engine oil has a density of 899 g/L (7.5 lb/gal)

Oil Consumption
Oil consumption, along with fuel consumption and maintenance information, can be used to estimate total operating cost. Oil consumption data may also be used to estimate the quantity of make-up oil required to accommodate maintenance intervals. Many factors such as engine load, oil density, oil additive packages and maintenance practices can affect oil consumption. The rate of oil consumption is called BSOC (brake specific oil consumption) and the unit of measure is grams per brake kilowatt hour (G/bkW-hr) or pounds per brake horsepower
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Materials and specifications are subject to change without notice.

1997 Caterpillar Inc. Printed in U.S.A.