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Figure 1


Before operating the system for the first time, perform the initial inspection by following these procedures: 1. Check your local AC source and set the voltage selector switch at the back of the KL-31001 accordingly, either 110V or 220V AC, 50 or 60Hz. NOTE : Excessive voltage will damage internal components while low voltage will cause inaccurate outputs. 2. Connect the mains cord between KL-31001 and AC socket. 3. Check the fuse socket to see if there is a fuse (1A @ 110V, 0.5A @ 220V) inside. If there is, turn on the power switch and the 7-segment LED displays should show 0000. Check other supply units with oscilloscope, frequency counter, and multimeter to see if the outputs are correct. 4. If you find any discrepencies or maltifunctionings, please disconnect power immediately and notify your local distributor or King Instrument Electronics Co. Ltd.

1.1. Specifications Range : +1.5V ~ +15V Maximum Output Current : 0.5A Built-in overload protection 1.2. Operation Turn the knob clockwise to increase output, counter clockwise to decrease the output. 1.3. Circuit Analysis Fig. 3-2 is the circuit diagram of the adjustable DC power supply. U301 (LM317) is the voltage adjustment control, its reference voltage Vf is 1.25V. R301, R502 and R302 are used for voltage control.

2.1. Specifications Range : +5V/1.5A ; -5V/0.3A ; 12V/0.3A Built-in overload protection 2.2. Operation 4 terminal with +5V, -5V, +12V, -12V 2.3. Circuit analysis Also shown in Fig. 3-2, the circuit is constructed with 78XX and 79XX series ICs. The output are 5V ; 12V.

3.1. Specifications Frequency : 50/60Hz Output Voltage : 6Vrms Built-in overland protection 3.2. Operation Equipped with a 50mA fast-blow type fuse to protect the transformer from accidental damages. 3.3. Circuit Analysis Also shown in Fig. 3-2, it is connected directly to the transformer. Output is 6Vrms/0.1A.

the internal fine adjustment U105, U109 and U110 are frequency dividers. U112 is an amplifier.

5.1. Specifications Frequency : 1MHz, 50/60Hz, 1Hz Accuracy : 0.01% @ 1MHz Fanout : 10 TTL loads 5.2. Operation 1Hz, 1MHz and 50/60Hz outputs, TTL and CMOS level outputs. 5.3. Circuit Analysis Shown in Fig. 3-4, CY101, C101 and C102 makes up a network which shifts the 10MHz output of CY101 by 180 and triggers oscillation. R101 is a biased feedback resistor that provides bised input DC current. CY101s 10MHz output is divided to 1MHz by U102 and amplified by U107a and U107b. The 1MHz output is subsequently divided by U103, U104, U105, U106 into 1Hz output. CR101 is a rectifier while U101a/b/c are pulse trimmers for the 50/60Hz output. The actual output (50 or 60Hz) is determined by local AC source.

4.1. Specifications Frequency : 1Hz ~ 1MHz, 6 ranges, continuously adjustable Fanout : 10 TTL loads 4.2. Operation Six range from 10Hz to 1MHz ; FREQUENCY knob for fine adjustment (X0.1 ~ X1) ; TTL and CMOS level outputs. 4.3. Circuit Analysis Shown in Fig. 3-3, U108a, U108b act as an Astable Multivibrator. R501, R116, R117 and C103 determine the oscillation frequency (adjustable from R115). R116 act as

6.1. Specifications Two 8-bit DIP switches, 16-bit TTL level output. Fanout : 10 TTL loads 6.2. Operation Two 8-bit DIP switches 6.3. Circuit Amalysis As shown in Fig. 3-5, there is a +5V output when the DIP switch is ON.

NOTE : SW0~SW3 have the exact same functions.

8.1. Specifications 2 independent toggle switches with Q and Q outputs. Pulse width : > 5mS. Each switch equipped with DEBOUNCE circuit. Fanout : 10 TTL loads. 8.2. Operation Two toggle switched with TTL; CMOS; Q; Q outputs. 8.3. Circuit Analysis As shown in Fig. 3-6, the flip-flop made up of U114f/U114e is capable of eliminating bouncing noise generated by S504. When U114f goes from Lo to Hi, positive voltage charges the differential circuit of C106 and R139. Inversely, when U114f goes from Hi to Lo, C106 discharges toward R139, the discharge time is T = 0.8 X C106 X R139. The discharge time determines bandwidth of the output pulse. U114a and U114d are single-pulse buffer gates which drives U115a, U115b, U115d, U115e with sufficient current. NOTE : Pulser switch A and B has exact same functions.

7.1. Specifications Four toggle switches with DEBOUNCE circuit Fanout : 10 TTL loads. 7.2. Operation Four toggle switches 7.3. Circuit Analysis When S505 is OFF, the +5V output will charge C107 through R150 until C107 reaches its full capacity of 5V. Bouncing noise occurs when S505 is ON and is cleared when C107 discharge through R149. U116 is a Schmitt triggers circuit that monitors the status of C107 and triggers rapid output changes. U117 and U118 are output amplifiers.

9.1. Specifications 2-digit, BCD output, common point input 9.2. Operation Two BCD thumbwheel switches, binary output, commonpoint input. 9.3. Circuit Analysis As shown in Fig. 3-7-a, the output terminal is connected trough R124 to establish a standard level.

Note that all terminals use TTL signals as input voltage. Excessive input voltage will damage the display. 10.3. Circuit Analysis As shown in Fig. 3-7-b, +5V is connected internally. U120 is decoder. NOTE : D0~D3 have the exact same functions


10.1. Specifications 4 independent 7-segment LED displays With BCD, 7-segment decoder/driver and DP input terminal Input with code 10.2. Operation Four 7-segment LED displays, BCD input, displays digits 0~9. Digits 10~14 are displayed according to table 1: 15 will not be displayed. A is the LSB (or 1) of binary signals, D is the MSB (or 8) of binary signals. DP is decimal point input and is ON at Low state. A, B, C, D input terminals are all ON at Hi state. Table 1


11.1. Specifications 16 independent LED for Hi/Low logic state indication Input Impedance : <100K

11.2. Operation 16 independent LEDs ; Displays on at Hi state 11.3. Circuit Analysis As shown in Fig.3-8, R191 and R192 are current limiting resistors. Q101~Q116 are transistor switches. When the input Hi and Q is Hi, the LED display will be ON.

To be used together with the testing probe included in the accessory pack. On one end of the testing probe are two 2mm terminals. The red one is to be connected to the input terminal while the black one should be connected to ground. (1) TTL Threshold : Vdc < 0.7V 0.2V, Lo, LED ON, BUZZER ON 0.7V < Vdc <2.4V, LED OFF, BUZZER OFF Vdc > 2.4V 0.2V, Hi, LED ON, BUZZER ON (2) CMOS Threshold : Vdc < 1.5V 0.2V, Lo, LED ON, BUZZER ON 1.5V < Vdc < 3.5V, LED OFF, BUZZER OFF Vdc > 3.5V 0.2V, Hi, LED ON, BUZZER ON (3) PULSE : When the switch is set to PULSE and the input sequence is 0 1 0 1, the yellow LED and the buzzer will be ON (4) MEM : When the switch is set to MEM position, the PULS LED will be ON 13.3. Circuit Analysis As shown in Fig. 3-9, U310 is the center of the probe. LM339 is a comparator IC. R310, R312, R313, R314 AND R315 determines the incoming signals. S511 switch between TTL and CMOS output. R319 and R320 determines the frequency and tone of the buzzer.

12.1. Specifications An 8, 0.25W speaker with driver circuit. 12.2. Operation One 8, 0.25W speaker with driver circuit. 12.3. Circuit Analysis As shown in Fig. 3-8, U119 is used for audio amplification


13.1. Specifications TTL and CMOS level indication 3mm LED displays Low and Hi LED for low/high logic state indication 13.2. Operation

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