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EE332 LAB 2 REPORT

Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers

September 12, 2013

GROUP 5 10ECE
Trng Hong Lnh L Quang Ha V Quang Tuyn

PROCEDURE 1 - BIASING UP AN NPN STAGE

From your measured values of VE, VB, and VC, calculate the current flowing through each resistor, and the emitter, base, and collector currents for the transistor. Verify that the terminal currents for the transistor sum to zero (Kirchoffs Current Law). Calculate the value of for the transistor in this bias state. For a forward-active npn BJT, order the emitter, base, and collector terminals in increasing voltage. For a forward-active pnp BJT, order the emitter, base, and collector terminals in increasing voltage. R1 = 10 R2 = 55.56 RC = 5 RE = 1

Measurement results: Part 1: RC is not inserted 1. Unconnected collector VB = 0.7087 V VE =0.1 V 2. Connected Collector VB = 1.5277 V VE = 0.9116 V Part 2: RC is inserted VB= 1.5275 V VTH = 1.525 V IB =
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1.5275 8.5

VE= 0.9083 V

VC= 5.5320 V

= 179.7 uA
EE332 Lab 2 Report 1

IR1 = +56.56k = 152.7 uA IR2= 55.56+10k = 26.99 uA IC =


(0.7087) 1000 10

= 1.3292

VCE =10 ICRC - IERE IE= 1.2697 mV = 7.4

For a forward-active npn BJT, order the emitter, base, and collector terminals in increasing voltage. For a forward-active pnp BJT, order the emitter, base, and collector terminals in increasing voltage. Mode : Forward-active BJT type Applied voltage NPN VE < VB < VC PNP VC < VB < VE

PROCEDURE 2 - COMMON-EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Starting from the biased-up npn BJT of procedure 1, add two capacitors C1 and C2

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EE332 Lab 2 Report

Measurement results:

The gain of this amplifier: =

= 1.28 = 3.87

4.96

At Vin = 1.65 V clipping occurs in negative polarity. At Vin = 1.95 V clipping occurs in positive polarity. At f = 1.13 MHz, when frequency increases, the amplitude decreases. Question & Answer: (a) Is the common-emitter amplifier inverting or non-inverting? The common-emitter amplifier is inverting amplifier as weve seen in the waveform plot because as base-emitter current increases, so does collectoremitter current, which pulls the collector towards the emitter, i.e. down, making it an inverting amplifier.

(b) Suggest a redesign of the amplifier to increase the upper clipping voltage To increase the upper clipping voltage we can increase the VCC or decrease the VBE to increase the Q-Point.

(c ) Suggest a redesign of the amplifier to decrease the lower clipping voltage. To decrease the lower clipping voltage we can increase the VCC or decrease the VBE to increase the Q-Point.
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(d) When the input is capacitor coupled through C1, what is the DC voltage gain of this amplifier? The Voltage gain:

= 1.08 = 4.296

4.64

(e) What function does the capacitor C1 serve? The capacitor C1 function as a coupling capacitor. PROCEDURE 3 - COMMON-EMITTER AMPLIFIER WITH BYPASSED EMITTER RESISTOR Measurement and result: Adjust the amplitude of the signal generator so that the output sinewave is as large as possible, but not yet clipping on either polarity peak. Vin amp = 60mV Calculate the voltage gain of the amplifier by dividing the amplitude of the output sinewave by the amplitude of the input sinewave and record the result in your lab notebook

Gain = 6.16/0.048 = 128

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EE332 Lab 2 Report

Increase the amplitude of the input sinewave from the signal generator until the output waveform just begins to clip at either the negative or positive peak. At Vin = 67mV clipping occurs in negative polarity

At Vin = 107mV clipping occurs in positive polarity

(a)

Is this amplifier inverting or non-inverting? This is an inverting amplifier because as base-emitter current increases, so does collector-emitter current, which pulls the collector towards the emitter, i.e. down, making it an inverting amplifier.

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EE332 Lab 2 Report

(b) How do the clipping points compare to those of the common-emitter amplifier without the emitter resistor bypass? Does the presence of the bypass capacitor affect the clipping levels? Without the emitter resistor bypass At Vin = 1.65V clipping occurs in negative polarity With the emitter resistor bypass At Vin = 67mV clipping occurs in negative polarity.

As we can easily see that the clipping point of common-emitter amplifier with the emitter resistor bypass is much lower than (about 24.6 times smaller) that of common-emitter amplifier without the emitter resistor bypass. The presence of the bypass capacitor did affect the clipping levels. (c) Calculate the frequency at which the impedance of the bypass capacitor is equal to the resistance of RE. XC = = 2 = = 1 f = 10002 = 15.915
1 1 1

Above this frequency, capacitor C2 forms an effective bypass for RE.

(d)

What is the flat frequency response range for this amplifier? At 15.92Hz, it causes the capacitance of C2 to equal to the resistance of RE. At 900 KHz, it causes the amplitude of the output sinewave fall to about 70 percent of its initial value. Therefore, frequency range is from 15.92Hz to 900 KHz.

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EE332 Lab 2 Report

(e) How does the 3 dB bandwidth of the bypassed common-emitter amplifier compare to the unbypassed case? Does the presence of the bypass capacitor have any effect on the high frequency characteristics? Bypassed common-emitter amplifier At f = 900 kHz, when frequency increases, the amplitude decreases 70%. Unbypassed common-emitter amplifier At f = 1.13 MHz, when frequency increases, the amplitude decreases by 70%

Obviously, the cut-off frequency (-3dB bandwidth) of bypassed CE amplifier is lower than that of unbypassed CE amplifier. When frequency gets higher, capacitance (XC = ) becomes smaller and approaches 0 so it will short emitter to ground at high frequency. Bypass capacitor lowers the cut-off frequency of common-emitter amplifier.
1

PROCEDURE 4 - COMMON-COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER (EMITTER-FOLLOWER) Measurement and result: Gain:

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EE332 Lab 2 Report

At Vin = 2V clipping occurs in negative polarity

At f = 9MHz, when frequency increases, the amplitude decreases 70%.

(a)

Is the common-collector amplifier inverting or non-inverting?

The common-collector amplifier is non-inverting. Actually, this is an emitter follower with gain is less than 1.

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EE332 Lab 2 Report

(b) Since the voltage gain of this amplifier is actually less than unity, what is the usefulness of this amplifier? The common collector amplifier also called the emitter follower is used for current gain. A typical example is the audio output stage of a surround sound or stereo receiver or amplifier. The output voltage gain might be a little lower than 1 but the current gain allows the amplifier to provide power gain for the speakers (load). It can also be used for impedance matching as its input impedance is very high and its output impedance is low PROCEDURE 5 - COMMON-BASE AMPLIFIER

Measurement result: a. Gain

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EE332 Lab 2 Report

= b. Clipping

3.8 0.044

= 86

At Vin = 367 mV clipping occurs in negative polarity

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At Vin = 420 mV clipping occurs in positive polarity

At f = 1.25 MHz, when frequency increases, the amplitude decreases 70% (From 3.8V to 1.8V) Question & Answer: a. Is the common-base amplifier inverting or non-inverting?

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Based on waveform displayed, common-base amplifier is non-inverting. Mathematically speaking Voltage gain A= gmRC > 0

b. Speculate on the effect of not bypassing the base resistors R1 and R2. If you dont have any ideas, go ahead and try this in the lab if you have time. If we dont use bypass capacitor the voltage gain dramatically decreases

c. From the results of this lab experiment and those of experiment 1, explain why the base terminal of a BJT is never useful as an amplifier output. From CE amplifier with input at B node and output at C node, we got the high voltage gain A. In the case we reverse the input and output (B output and C 1 input), we will receive reverse gain which is very small. Therefore base terminal cannot be the amplifier output.

d. From the results of this lab experiment and those of experiment 1, explain why the collector terminal of a BJT is never useful as an amplifier input. As we can clearly see that, the voltage gain of common collector amplifier Again, CE amplifier with input at C node and output at E node, we got the high voltage gain A. In the case we reverse the input and output (C output and E input), we will receive reverse gain 1/A which is very small. Therefore base terminal cannot be the amplifier output.

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