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TYPES OF CONNECTIONS FOR STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS ROUNDWOOD USED IN BRAZIL

Leandro Dussarrat Brito1, Carlito Calil Junior2

ABSTRACT: Wood connections must be considered as key points in the safety of timber structures. The use of structural elements of roundwood from reforestation in Brazil has grown in recent years due to the research that had been conducted at universities, in order to make it a sustainable material more competitive relative to other materials used as structural function. However the joining of the structural elements of roundwood timber, are usually more difficult to be made than the connections made in sawn planks. In some cases, the raw timber connections have to be sawed by hand to facilitate and ensure that the connections will fit and work properly. The major problem of using roundwood in construction is that people have resistance against it because the work of preparing the connections is carried out by hand and depends upon the expertise of the construction sites carpenter, which in some cases can result in less efficiency and poor quality connections. With the aim to promote more efficient use of the joints connecting the structural elements of roundwood timber, the purpose of this paper is to present the main types of connections used in these structural and construction systems. KEYWORDS: sustainable buildings; structural systems; roundwood treated; connections between structural elements; reforestation.

1 INTRODUCTION 123
The joints, also known as connections, should be considered as key points in the safety of timber structures. The use of structural elements from reforestation roundwood in Brazil has grown in recent years because of research conducted at universities, in order to make it a sustainable material more competitive relative to other materials used as structural function in construction, BRITO (2010) [2]. However, connections to the structural elements of roundwood construction are usually more difficult to manufacturing than connections with sawn timber. In some cases part of roundwood needs to be cut manufacture artisanal to facilitate the connection and guarantee the best performance among the structural connections. This is the major problem in the resistance of using roundwood to build in Brazil. The process of implementing the connections is made by artisanal methods and troublesome enough, often with only carpenters practice work. Generally the building without adequate knowledge cases problems as low effectiveness connections. This kind of thing happens because as they dont know or dont have the procedures
1

to follow, they execute based on their practice, instead of technical methods and as a consequence, they do it improperly. In order to promote more efficient use of the connections between the structural elements of roundwood, specially those from reforested wood, the goal of this article is to present the main usual types of connections used in structural systems and construction commonly used in Brazil for the elaboration of structural design of projects with this material, BRITO (2010) [2].

TYPES OF JOINTS FOR ROUNDWOOD

Leandro Dussarrat Brito, Laboratory of Wood and Timber Structures, Department of Structural Engineering, School of Engineering of So Carlos, University of So Paulo. Labour Socarlense Avenue, 400, Downtown, CEP: 13566-590, PO Box 359, So Carlos, SP, Brazil. Email: dussarrat@sc.usp.br Carlito Calil Junior, Laboratory of Wood and Timber Structures, Department of Structural Engineering, School of Engineering of So Carlos, University of So Paulo. Labour Socarlense Avenue, 400, Downtown, CEP: 13566-590, PO Box 359, So Carlos, SP, Brazil. Email: calil@sc.usp.br

In this research, it was categorized the main varieties of connections with roundwood for structural elements, each corresponding to its function, such as notches in the wood, wooden dowel, threaded rods with washers and nuts, dowel nut, steel plate external fixed with screws, steel plate internal fixed with screws, galvanized perforated steel plate and nailed, steel straps woven into, steel rings with threaded rods fixed with washers and nuts, steel connectors for structures mixed roundwood and concrete, details on the interface of the timber structure with masonry, Connections log home walls, connections in parts compressed, connections to bases of columns and other, CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3]. The connections in the construction of structures with plump pieces of wood are more difficult to be made than the connections with lumber. In some cases it is necessary to cut the roundwood to facilitate the connection of the joints and to ensure the best behavior of the structural elements in the connections. Consequently, it is important to emphasize the major problem of building using pieces of roundwood, where the process of implementing the connections are made by artisanal methods and troublesome enough, which in some cases have low efficiency.

Thus, the use of roundwood timber treated as a constructive solution without project prepared by a professional with specific knowledge and without using skilled labor and raw materials selected, may result in enhancement of the final cost of construction, and nonwarranty safety of the structure. Then, in order, to promote more efficient use of the links between structural elements with pieces of wood, the objective of this paper is to present the most common types of connections to these structures, used today in Brazil. 2.1 NOTCHES IN THE WOOD The links are slots types of connections frequently adopted for beam-column system in Brazil, and is a fitting concave at the top of the column and sometimes with the addition of fixed vertical bar of galvanized steel or wooden dowel to prevent separation of parts, figure 1 to figure 3.

According to NBR 7190:1997 [1], the connections of pieces of wood can be made by means of metal pins, wooden pegs and or connectors. 2.2 THREADED RODS, WASHERS AND NUTS Connections using threaded steel rods attached with washers and nuts on the extremities have been widely used in structural connections between elements in roundwood in Brazil, figure 4.

Figure 4: Connection with threaded steel rods attached with washers and nuts. CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3].

2.3 DOWEL NUT This type of connection is a system with threaded steel bar, metal pin. In a transverse hole passing through the axis of the beam near the column connects the metal pin that has a female threaded hole compatible with the thread diameter of the steel bar to fix it, figure 5 and figure 6.

Figure 1: Connection with the notch at the top of the piece: Preparation of the notch with drill (Handicraft system). CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3].

Figure 2: Connection with the notch at the top of the piece: Making the notch with a chisel. CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3].

Figure 5: Connection dowel nut. CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3].

Figure 3: Connection with the notch at the top of the piece completed. CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3].

Figure 6: Connection dowel nut: System of connection beam-column. CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3].

2.4 CONNECTIONS WITH EXTERNAL METAL PLATES BOLTED The connections roundwood structural elements of wood, metal plates carried out with external may also be referred to as metal splints. The connection is performed via a threaded steel rods that traverse across the plates and pieces of roundwood. With the tightening of nuts on the ends of the steel bars, crash the system by compressing the wood pieces. Usually this type of connection is common to modify the slicing wood plump two external faces so as to become flat and continuous joining to adequately close to the faces of the plate. The figure 8 illustrates a rigid connection apparently because they have four screws in each part with external connecting sheet metal parts, forming the ridge of the roof of a gantry system shed.

Figure 9: Models of the connections with internal metal plates bolted. CALIL & MOLINA (2010)[5].

Figure 7: Connections with external metal plates bolted: System of connection Beam-Column. Cited in BRITO (2010)[2].

Figure 10: Connections with internal metal plates bolted: Systems Beam-Column connection. CALIL & MOLINA (2010)[5].

2.6 CONNECTIONS WITH FOILS EXTERNAL METALLIC GALVANIZED PERFORATED AND NAILED The connectors of galvanized perforated sheet metal and nailed (figure 11 e 12) are efficient components for construction of rural sheds, using roundwood with different diameters, designed to make connections between the parts in a simple manner, and provide shortrun time in assembling the structure. These connectors are typically manufactured by specialized companies. The GANG-NAIL Brazil is an online provider of connectors, and unique pieces made of special steel hot dip galvanized with 1.95 mm thick, welded or seamless, ensuring technical links between the pieces, figure 12.

Figure 8: Connections with external metal plates bolted: System of connection Beam-Beam. Cited in BRITO (2010)[2].

2.5 CONNECTIONS WITH INTERNAL METAL PLATES BOLTED These types of connections consist of metal plates with systems which are imputed into the cleft longitudinal axis of the pieces of roundwood, usually at the ends of these parts and the thickness of metal sheet. The connection also runs through threaded steel bars, crossing across the plates and pieces of roundwood. With tightening of the nuts on the ends of the steel bars, the lock system compressing the inner faces of the wood with the faces of metal sheet. The figure 9 and figure 10 illustrates details of the connection runs the project coverage LaMEM tower, making a call from the corner of a cover system and the metal tube that supports this system is connected to the column and attached by threaded steel bars, washers and nuts.

Figure 11: Connections Beam-column with foils external metallic galvanized perforated and mailed.Cited in BRITO (2010)[2].

Figure 12: Connections GANG-NAIL BRAZIL with foils external metallic galvanized perforated and mailed.

Figure 14: Bridge Pensil Tiete, in So Paulo, Brasil: Connections with metal rings, steel bars, washers and nuts.HELLMEISTER (1978) cited in CALIL & BRITO (2010)[3].

2.7 CONNECTIONS WITH METAL RINGS, STEEL BARS, WASHERS AND NUTS A type of connection to composite parts with higher load capacity is that which employs the metal rings (figure 13) that are inserted into grooves previously executed parts. The transmission of efforts between parts tends to cause the shear hard wood internal to the ring and compression between the wood and the ring, CALIL et al (2003) [6]. The metal rings with steel bars, washers and locking nuts to allow unification of composite beams, suitable for large spans and high loads. Given this context, a important research in this area was performed at the Laboratory of Wood and Wood Structures (LaMEM), using rings cut from water pipes, galvanized, with diameters ranging from 2 "to 8". Closed rings were studied, parties and split, figure 13.

The figure 15 illustrates the connection, with metal rings, steel bars, washers and nuts, for a connection for the composition of double circular beam, HELLMEISTER (1978) cited in CALIL & BRITO (2010)[3]. .

Figure 15: Connections with metal rings, steel bars, washers and nuts. HELLMEISTER (1978) cited in CALIL & BRITO (2010)[3].

(a) (b) (c) Figure 13: (a) Ring Party; (b) Ring double Party; (c) Closed ring. MATTHIESEN (1987).

HELLMEISTER (1978) cited in CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3] presented a system for beam composite bridge structures, the beams using two unified by double circulars cross section metal rings, as details of connections in Figure 16.

HELLMEISTER (1978) cited in CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3] presented a system in which the Bridge Pensil Tiete, in So Paulo, Brasil tray longitudinal beams are designed with two circular sections, connected with metal rings and steel bars threaded and secured with washers and nuts on the ends, figure 14.

Figure 16: System two double circular beam. HELLMEISTER (1978) cited in CALIL & BRITO (2010)[3].

According LOGSDON (1982) mentioned in CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3], can also be the union of several horizontal cylindrical logs of wood by using rings and metal bars bolted to form plate elements. The figure 17 shows a scheme with links to metal rings and bars in bridge structures in single card.

The figure 20 and figure 21 presents details of project board connectors for steel bridges of roundwood in composite structures, reinforced concrete. The main feature of this system is the uniform distribution of the load applied on the whole CALIL et al (2006) cited in CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3].

Figure 17: Connections with metal bars and rings (arranged in horizontal position), combining the structural elements of cylindrical logs of wood, forming the deck of the bridge structure in single card. LOGSDON (1982) cited in CALIL & BRITO (2010)[3].

Figure 20: Steel connectors for structures mixed roundwood and concrete. CALIL et al (2006)[4].

According MATHIESSEN (1987) mentioned in CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3] presents a mixed system of a leveling concrete and asphalt unified with the union of several horizontal logs of roundwood using metal rings and flat steel bars screwed, which behaves plate system, reinforced with ribs of double circular sections, also connected with metal rings and bolted steel bars, figure 18 and figure 19.

Figure 21: Concreting Bridge timber mixed concrete, Bridge II Exit Campus II, USP, So Carlos, Brazil. CALIL et al (2006) cited in BRITO (2010)[3]. Figure 18: Connections with metal bars and rings (arranged in horizontal and vertical positions), combining the structural elements of cylindrical logs of wood, forming the deck of the bridge structure in ribbed plate with mixed system of a leveling concrete and asphalt . MATHIESSEN (1987) cited in CALIL & Brito (2010) [3].

2.9 CONNECTIONS IN PARTS COMPRESSED The compressed parts may be simple or compound. They may be present in parts of trusses, bracing systems, as well as isolated columns or porches. The figure 22 shows examples of amendments in parts compressed axially,
BRITO (2010)[2].

Figure 19: Cross Section: details of the connections with metal bars and rings (arranged in horizontal and vertical positions), combining the structural elements of cylindrical logs of wood, forming the deck of the bridge structure in ribbed plate with mixed system of a leveling concrete and asphalt . MATHIESSEN (1987) cited in Brito (2010)[3].

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

2.8 STEEL CONNECTORS FOR STRUCTURES MIXED ROUNDWOOD AND CONCRETE In structures mixed roundwood and concrete, to ensure adequate adhesion of the concrete structural element of wood, facilities are required connectors bolted steel with epoxy adhesive into holes in roundwood.

(g) (h) (i) (j) Figure 22: Connections in elements compressed. CALIL & BRITO (2010)[3].

Etam figure 22 illustrates the types of connections common in Brazil, for splicing elements in tablets, with plump pieces of wood, cited in, Brito (2010) [2]: (a) amendment of the top with four sides splints perforated sheet metal and screwed bars with threaded bushings, washers and nuts; (b) amendment of the top with four sides splints perforated sheet metal and screwed with self-tapping screws; (c) amendment of the top, with four side splints perforated sheet metal and fastened; (d) amended by cutting tilted with galvanized steel brackets, bolts, washers and nuts; (e) amendment by cutting vertical bars and bolted with threaded bushings, washers and nuts; (f) amended by cutting angled bars and bolted with threaded bushings, washers and nuts; (g) section consists of three cylindrical logs, connections with steel threaded bushings, washers and nuts; (h) section consists of four cylindrical logs, brought with spacers of roundwood; (i) section consists of four cylindrical trunks, with special connections for attaching metal stretchers risers; (j) section consists of four cylindrical trunks, with spacers interposed pieces of lumber and metal connections with special stretchers for fixing bolts.

2.11 CONNECTIONS TO BASES OF COLUMNS One of the most economical ways of building with roundwood is the use of wooden columns embedded directly into the foundation block, and this is a common practice in several countries around the world. This type of foundation is a system in which the column round wood is installed in a hole in the ground borer type, with circular section of diameter D greater than the diameter of the pole, and in the region of the blank surrounding the base of the post is filled with concrete, or only occasionally with gravel, as shown in figure 25. As a result, costs for foundations of buildings with these systems are mostly reduced PARTEL (1999) cited in CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3]. However, to enable the use of this type of foundation, the soil should have adequate bearing capacity, which should be investigated "in situ" by engineer foundations. Also, for this type of foundation, one should be a guarantee adequate preservative treatment of timber, according to the Class of Use 5. This type of system has been widely used in constructions in Brazil.

2.10 CONNECTIONS BUILDING SYSTEMS FOR LOGHOME Another type of connection using rods, washers and nuts, are industrialized systems for buildings of wall type loghome systems with roundwood turned (figure 23), overlapping fitting male and female. But they are special long bars, threaded ends, figure 24.

Figure 23: System link to the type of building with logs turned loghome Cited in BRITO (2010) [2].

Figure 25: Columns embedded directly into the foundation block. CALIL & BRITO (2010)[3].

Figure 24: Special long bars, threaded ends, for wall type loghome systems with roundwood turned.

Another alternative very efficient is to fix the base of the column in the concrete block foundation through a metal connector (base plate), avoiding contact of wood with soil and moisture. One can, however, to design various types of metal connectors (base plate), and the most suitable one that does not induce cracking of the part roundwood (Figure 26).

3 CONCLUSIONS
The LaMEM is one of the most important research laboratories of wooden structures in Brazil in recent years has held several lines of theoretical and experimental research of structural elements and connections between structural elements with roundwood, especially from reforestation, as species of eucalyptus and pine. In May 2010, Engineer Civil Leandro Dussarrat Brito, presented the dissertation of master in structures engineering "Recommendations for the Design and Construction of Structures with Roundwood from Reforestation", directed by teacher Dr. Carlito Calil Junior in the Department of Structural Engineering School of Engineering of So Carlos University of So Paulo. The chapter 4 of the dissertation deals with the connections between structural elements in roundwoods structures. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present briefly, a literature reference review of some major types of connections, between structural elements common to roundwood used in Brazil as suggestions in the application of models in design and construction with this material. The aim of this study is to guide students and professionals in civil engineering and architecture, presenting some of the most appropriate models of connections in order to provide enough information to help them to choose the most convenient structural construction systems that use reforestations roundwood. For the types of connections shown, the natural taper of the parts affects the detailing of the buildings with plump pieces of wood. A common practice is to modify the slicing wood plump one hand, to provide a continuous planar face, as well as making and holes or slots. The flattened face allows for greater safety at the junction of metallic connection with the structural elements. It must be remembered that the penetration of the preservative is generally limited to the sapwood, yet the planning may result in less protection than in any other part of the post is not flattened. All cutting and machining must be preferably performed prior to preservative treatment.

Figure 26: Column base plate fixed in the concrete pad foundation through a metallic connector (base plate). AM (2009) cited in BRITO (2010)[2].

The figure 27 presented two distinct articulated base plate, with masts for roundwood timber used in stiff structures. The figure 28 is a picture of the base plate of the pole of Eucalyptus Citriodora wood, the first Latin American cable-stayed bridge constructed with prestressed curved board. This walkway, whose board is supported by distributed and you are set on top of this single column, which is hinged at the base, was the result of the doctoral thesis of PLETS (2003) cited in CALIL & BRITO (2010) [3], developed in LaMEM, School of Engineering of So Carlos, University of So Paulo.

(a) (b) Figure 27: Models base articulated plates, galvanized steel. PLETS (2003) cited in BRITO (2010)[2].

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors acknowledge the CNPq for the scholarship doctorete, the researchers LaMEM/SET/EESC/USP, and the organizing committee and scientific WCTE 2012.

REFERENCES
[1] ABNT NBR 7190:1997. Design structures. Rio de Janeiro, 1997. of timber

[2] BRITO, Leandro Dussarrat (2010). Recommen-

dations for the Design and Construction of Structures with Roundwood from Reforestation. So Carlos. 339 pg. Masters, SET/EESC/USP. Download: << http://web.set.eesc.usp.br/static/data/
producao/2010ME_LeandroDussarratBrito.pdf>> Figure 28: Base articulated plates for base pole. PLETZ (2003) cited in BRITO (2010)[2].

[3] CALIL JR., Carlito; BRITO, Leandro Dussarrat (2010). Manual of Design and Construction of

Structures with Roundwood from Reforestation. SET/EESC/USP. So Carlos. 332 pg. Download: <<
http://www.montana.com.br/Comunicacao/Publicacoes/Li vros-Manuais-e-Cartilhas/Manual-de-Projeto-eConstrucao-de-Estruturas-com-Pecas-Rolicas-de-Madeirade-Reflorestamento >> ISBN: 978-85-8023-000-0.

[4] CALIL JR., Carlito; et al (2006). Manual for design and construction of timber bridges. So Carlos: Suprema, 2006. 252p. ISBN: 85-98156-19-1. [5] CALIL JR. Carlito; MOLINA, Julio Cesar (2010). Coberturas em estruturas de madeira: Editora PINI. So Paulo. 207 pg. ISBN: 978-85-7266-224-6. [6] CALIL JR. Carlito; ROCCO LAHR, F.A.; DIAS, A.A. (2003). Dimensionamento de Elementos Estruturais de Madeira. Barueri-S.P.. Editora Manole. ISBN: 85-204-1515-6. [7] HELLMEISTER, J. (1978). So Carlos, 85p. Pontes de eucalipto Citriodora. Tese (Livre docncia). Escola de Engenharia de So Carlos, Universidade de So Paulo, So Carlos, 1978. [8] LOGSDON, N. B. (1982) Contribuio ao Estudo das Pontes de Madeira. Dissertao de Mestrado. Escola de Engenharia de So Carlos da Universidade de So Paulo. [9] MATTHIESEN, J. A. (1987). Contribuio ao Estudo das Pontes de Eucalipto Citriodora. So Carlos, 220p. Tese. Escola de Engenharia de So Carlos, Universidade de So Paulo. [10] PLETZ, Everaldo (2003). Passarela Estaiada com Tabuleiro de Madeira Laminada Protendida em Mdulos Curvos. Tese (Doutorado) - Escola de Engenharia de So Carlos, Universidade de So Paulo, So Carlos, 2003.