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VERBS We divide verbs into two broad classifications: 1.

Helping verbs: have no meaning on their own, they are necessary for the grammatical structure of the sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use hel ing verbs with main verbs. !they hel the main verb. "magine that a stranger wal#s into your room and says: " can. $eo le must. %he earth will. With these alone you can&t understand anything, they are incom lete and they need at least a main verb to com lete them. $rimary hel ing verbs !' verbs: be, do, have( these can be use as hel ing verbs or as main verbs. Be as hel ing verbs, to ma#e continuous tenses !)e is watching t.v.( %o ma#e the assive !voice( !Small fish are eaten by big fish( Have to ma#e tenses !" have finished my home wor#( Do to ma#e negatives !" do not li#e you( %o as# *uestions !Do you want some coffee+( %o show em hasis !" do want you to ass your e,am.( %o stand for a main verb in some constructions !)e s ea#s faster than she does.(

Modal helping verbs (10 verbs) We use modal helping verbs to "modify" the meaning of the main verb in some way. A modal helping verb expresses necessity or possibility, and changes the main verb in that sense. These are the modal verbs:

can, could may, might will, would, shall, should must ought to

examples using modal verbs:

I can't speak Chinese. John may arrive late. Would you like a cup of coffee? ou should see a doctor. I really must go now.

Semi-modal verbs (3 verbs) !he following verbs are often called "semi#modals" because they are partly like modal helping verbs and partly like main verbs: need dare

used to

-. Main verbs: have meaning on their own. !they tell us something( " teach $eo le eat %he earth rotates

With these we receive an idea of something, not much but something

Transitive and intransitive verbs

$e died. %any verbs, like speak, can be transitive or intransitive. transitive: & transitive verb takes a direct ob'ect: e.g: Somebody killed the President

I saw an elephant. (elephant receive the action) *e are watching !+. $e speaks ,nglish.

intransitive: . &n intransitive verb does not have a direct ob'ect:

$e has arrived. ($e: the sub'ect, does or performs the action) John goes to school. -he speaks fast.

Linking verbs

& linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It "links" the sub'ect to what is said about the sub'ect. .sually, a linking verb shows e/uality (0) or a change to a different state or place (1). 2inking verbs are always intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs).

%ary is a teacher. (mary 0 teacher) (the verb be as a linking verb) !ara is beautiful. (tara 0 beautiful) !hat sounds interesting. (that 0 interesting) !he sky became dark. (the sky 1 dark) !he bread has gone bad. (bread 1 bad)

Dynamic and stative verbs

dynamic verbs -ome verbs describe action. !hey are called "dynamic", and can be used with continuous tenses. (examples):

hit, explode, fight, run, go

stative verbs: 3ther verbs describe state (non#action, a situation). !hey are called "stative", and cannot normally be used with continuous tenses (though some of them can be used with continuous tenses with a change in meaning). (examples):

be like, love, prefer, wish impress, please, surprise hear, see, sound belong to, consist of, contain, include, need appear, resemble, seem

Regular and irregular verbs

!his is more a /uestion of vocabulary than of grammar. !he only real difference between regular and irregular verbs is that they have different endings for their past tense and past participle forms. 4or regular verbs, the past tense ending and past participle ending is always the same: #ed. regular verbs: base, past tense, past participle

look, looked, looked work, worked, worked

Regular Verbs
,nglish regular verbs change their form very little. !he past tense and past participle of regular verbs end in -ed, for example: work, worked, worked 5ut you should note the following points: 6. -ome verbs can be both regular and irregular, for example: learn, learn, learnt, learnt learned, learned

7. -ome verbs change their meaning depending on whether they are regular or irregular, for example "to hang":
regula r irregu lar hang, hanged, ha nged to kill or die, by dropping with a rope around the neck to fix something for example, a picture! at the top so that the lower part is free

hang, hung, hung

8. !he present tense of some regular verbs is the same as the past tense of some irregular verbs:
regula r irregu lar found, founded founded,

find, found, found

Regular Verbs List

!here are thousands of regular verbs in ,nglish. !his is a list of 9:: of the more common regular verbs. ;ote that there are some spelling variations in &merican ,nglish (for example, "practise" becomes "practice" in &merican ,nglish).

accept add admire admit

allow amuse analyse announce

applaud appreciate approve argue

attach attack attempt attend

advise afford agree alert back bake balance ban bang bare bat bathe battle beam calculate call camp care carry carve cause challenge change charge chase cheat check cheer chew dam damage dance dare decay deceive decide decorate delay delight earn educate embarrass employ empty encourage

annoy answer apologise appear beg behave belong bleach bless blind blink blot blush boast choke chop claim clap clean clear clip close coach coil collect colour comb command communicate deliver depend describe desert deserve destroy detect develop disagree disappear end en#oy enter entertain escape examine

arrange arrest arrive ask boil bolt bomb book bore borrow bounce bow box brake compare compete complain complete concentrate concern confess confuse connect consider consist contain continue copy correct disapprove disarm discover dislike divide double doubt drag drain dream excite excuse exercise exist expand expect

attract avoid

brake branch breathe bruise brush bubble bump burn bury

bu"" cough count cover crack crash crawl cross crush cry cure curl curve


dress drip drop drown drum dry dust

explain explode extend

face fade fail fancy fasten fax fear fence gather ga"e glow glue hammer hand handle hang happen harass identify ignore imagine impress improve include #ail #am kick kill label land last laugh launch man manage march mark marry match mate nail

fetch file fill film fire fit fix flap grab grate grease greet harm hate haunt head heal heap increase influence inform in#ect in#ure instruct #og #oin kiss kneel learn level license lick lie matter measure meddle melt memorise mend mess up need

flash float flood flow flower fold follow fool grin grip groan guarantee heat help hook hop hope hover intend interest interfere interrupt introduce invent #oke #udge knit knock lighten like list listen live milk mine miss mix moan moor mourn nod

force form found frame frighten fry

guard guess guide hug hum hunt hurry

invite irritate itch

#uggle #ump knot

load lock long look love move muddle mug multiply murder



name obey ob#ect observe pack paddle paint park part pass paste pat pause peck pedal peel peep perform $uestion race radiate rain raise reach realise receive recognise record reduce reflect sack sail satisfy save saw scare scatter scold scorch scrape scratch scream screw scribble

nest obtain occur offend permit phone pick pinch pine place plan plant play please plug point poke polish $ueue refuse regret reign re#ect re#oice relax release rely remain remember remind shiver shock shop shrug sigh sign signal sin sip ski skip slap slip slow

offer open order pop possess post pour practise pray preach precede prefer prepare present preserve press pretend remove repair repeat replace reply report reproduce re$uest rescue retire return soothe sound spare spark sparkle spell spill spoil spot spray sprout s$uash s$ueak s$ueal

number overflow owe own prevent prick print produce program promise protect provide pull pump punch puncture punish push rhyme rinse risk rob rock roll rot rub ruin rule rush stop store strap strengthen stretch strip stroke stuff subtract succeed suck suffer suggest suit

scrub seal search separate serve settle shade share shave shelter talk tame tap taste tease telephone tempt terrify test thank undress unfasten vanish wail wait walk wander want warm warn wash x%ray yawn "ip

smash smell smile smoke snatch snee"e sniff snore snow soak thaw tick tickle tie time tip tire touch tour tow unite unlock visit waste watch water wave weigh welcome whine whip yell

s$uee"e stain stamp stare start stay steer step stir stitch trace trade train transport trap travel treat tremble trick trip unpack untidy whirl whisper whistle wink wipe wish wobble wonder

supply support suppose surprise surround suspect suspend switch

trot trouble trust try tug tumble turn twist type use

work worry wrap wreck wrestle wriggle


or irregular verbs, the past tense ending and the past participle ending is variable, so it is necessary to learn them by heart. irregular verbs: base, past tense, past participle

buy, bought, bought cut, cut, cut

do, did, done

We use irregular verbs a lot when speaking.

!ase orm *ith regular verbs, the rule is simple... finish !he past simple and past participle always end stop in #ed: work 5ut with irregular verbs, there is no rule... -ometimes the verb changes completely: -ometimes there is "half" a change: -ometimes there is no change: sing buy cut

"ast Simple

"ast "articiple

finished stopped worked

finished stopped worked

sang bought cut

sung bought cut

&ne good way to learn irregular verbs is to try sorting them into groups, as above.

Irregular Verbs List

!his is a list of some irregular verbs in ,nglish. 3f course, there are many others, but these are the more common irregular verbs.
Base Form awake be beat Past Parti!iple awoken been beaten

Past awoke


was, were beat

become begin bend bet bid bite blow break bring broadcas t build burn buy catch choose come cost cut

became began bent bet bid bit blew broke brought broadcast

become begun bent bet bid bitten blown broken brought broadcast

built burned'burnt bought caught (hose (ame cost cut

built burned'burnt bought caught chosen come cost cut

dig do draw dream

dug did drew dreamed'drea mt drove drank ate fell felt fought found flew forgot forgave fro"e got gave went

dug done drawn dreamed'drea mt driven drunk eaten fallen felt fought found flown forgotten forgiven fro"en gotten given gone

drive drink eat fall feel fight find fly forget forgive free"e get give go

grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay lead learn leave lend let lie lose

grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid led learned'learnt left lent let lay lost

grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid led learned'learnt left lent let lain lost

make mean meet pay put read ride ring rise run say see sell send show

made meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent showed

made meant met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent showed'show n shut sung sat

shut sing sit

shut sang sat

sleep speak spend stand swim take teach tear tell think throw understa nd wake wear win write

slept spoke spent stood swam took taught tore told thought threw understood

slept spoken spent stood swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood

woke wore won Wrote

woken worn won written

Phrasal Verbs and other multi-word verbs $hrasal verbs are art of a large grou of verbs called .multi/word verbs.. $hrasal verbs and other multi/word verbs are an im ortant art of the English language. 0ulti/word verbs, including hrasal verbs, are very common, es ecially in s o#en English. 1 multi/ word verb is a verb li#e . ic# u ., .turn on. or .get on with.. 2or convenience, many eo le refer to all multi/word verbs as hrasal verbs. %hese verbs consist of a basic verb + another word or words. %he other word!s( can be re ositions and3or adverbs. %he two or three words that ma#e u multi/word verbs form a short . hrase.4which is why these verbs are often all called . hrasal verbs.. %he im ortant thing to remember is that a multi/word verb is still a verb. .5et. is a verb. .5et u ., is also a verb, a different verb. .5et. and .get u . are two different verbs. %hey do not have the same meaning. So you should treat each multi/word verb as a se arate verb, and learn it li#e any other verb. 6oo# at these e,am les. 7ou can see that there are three ty es of multi/word verb: single/word verb Loo direct your eyes in a 7ou must loo certain direction you lea . ta#e care of before

multi/ word verbs

re ositional verbs hrasal verbs

loo a!ter

Who is loo ing a!ter the baby+

loo up

search for and find 7ou can loo up my information in a number in the reference boo# tele hone directory. antici ate leasure with

hrasal/ re ositional verbs

loo !orward to

" loo !orward meeting you.


Phrasal prepositional verbs" look after verb ) preposition "hrasal-prepositional verbs are made o#: verb < adverb < preposition: ,.g: I won=t put up with your attitude.

#nglish $onditionals
!here are several structures in ,nglish that are called conditionals. "Condition" means "situation or circumstance". $# a particular condition is true, then a particular result happens.

*eople sometimes call conditionals "+," structures or sentences, because there is usually but not always! the word "if" in a conditional sentence.

First $onditional" real possibilit%

*e are talking about the future. *e are thinking about a particular condition or situation in the future, and the result of this condition. !here is a real possibility that this condition will happen. 4or example, it is morning. ou are at home. ou plan to play tennis this afternoon. 5ut there are some clouds in the sky. Imagine that it rains. *hat will you do?
I F !ondition Result

present simple +f it rains

&ILL ' base verb

+ will stay at home.

;otice that we are thinking about a future condition. It is not raining yet. 5ut the sky is cloudy and you think that it could rain. *e use the present simple tense to talk about the possible future condition. *e use *I22 < base verb to talk about the possible future result. !he important thing about the first conditional is that there is a real possibility that the condition will happen. $ere are some more examples (do you remember the two basic structures: >I4 condition result? and >result I4 condition??):
I F !ondition result

present simple +f +f + see -ary Tara is free tomorrow

&ILL ' base verb + will tell her. he will invite her.


they do not pass their their teacher will be sad. exam it rains tomorrow will you stay at home.



it rains tomorrow

what will you do.




&ILL ' base verb + will tell -ary /e will invite Tara Their teacher be sad Will you home stay will if if

present simple + see her. she is free tomorrow.


they do not pass their exam.



it rains tomorrow.

What will you do


it rains tomorrow.

0ometimes, we use shall, !an, or ma% instead of (ill, for example: +f you are good today, you can watch T1 tonight.

e!ond $onditional" unreal possibilit% or dream

!he second conditional is like the first conditional. *e are still thinking about the future. *e are thinking about a particular condition in the future, and the result of this condition. 5ut there is not a real possibility that this condition will happen. 4or example, you do not have a lottery ticket. Is it possible to win? ;o@ ;o lottery ticket, no win@ 5ut maybe you will buy a lottery ticket in the future. -o you can think about winning in the future, like a dream. ItAs not very real, but itAs still possible.
I F !ondition result

past simple +f + won

&)*L+ ' base verb

the + would buy a car.


;otice that we are thinking about a future condition. *e use the past simple tense to talk about the future condition. *e use *3.2B < base verb to talk about the future result. !he important thing about the second conditional is that there is an unreal possibility that the condition will happen. $ere are some more examples:
I F !ondition result

past simple +f + married -ary 2am rich became

&)*L+ ' base verb + would be happy.


she would marry him.


it snowed next would you be surprised. 3uly it snowed next what would you do. 3uly



I F ' base


&)*L+ verb

past simple

+ would be happy


+ married -ary. he became rich.

0he would marry if

2am Would you surprised be


it snowed next 3uly.

What would you do


it snowed next 3uly.

0ometimes, we use should, !ould or might instead of (ould, for example: +f + won a million dollars, + !ould stop working.

,hird $onditional" no possibilit%

!he first conditional and second conditionals talk about the future. *ith the third conditional we talk about the past. *e talk about a condition in the past that did not happen. !hat is why there is no possibility for this condition. !he third conditional is also like a dream, but with no possibility of the dream coming true. 2ast week you bought a lottery ticket. 5ut you did not win. :#(
!ondition Past Perfe!t result &)*L+ -.V# ' Past Parti!iple


+ had won the + would have bought a car. lottery

;otice that we are thinking about an impossible past condition. ou did not win the lottery. -o the condition was not true, and that particular condition can never be true because it is finished. *e use the past perfect tense to talk about the impossible past condition. *e use *3.2B $&+, < past participle to talk about the impossible past result. !he important thing about the third conditional is that both the condition and result are impossible now.

0ometimes, we use should have, !ould have, might have instead of (ould have, for example: +f you had bought a lottery ticket, you might have won.

2ook at some more examples in the tables below:




past perfe!t

&)*L+ -.V# parti!iple




+ had seen -ary Tara had yesterday been free

+ would have told her.


+ would have invited her.


they had not passed their their teacher would have exam been sad. would you have stayed at home. what would you have done.


it had rained yesterday


it had rained yesterday

result &)*L+ parti!iple -.V# ' past



past perfe!t

+ would have told -ary + would have invited Tara

if if

+ had seen her. she had been free yesterday.

Their teacher would have been if sad Would you have stayed at home What would you have done if if

they had not passed their exam.

it had rained yesterday. it had rained yesterday.

/ero $onditional" !ertaint%

*e use the so#called %ero conditional when the result of the condition is always true, like a scientific f

!ake some ice. Cut it in a saucepan. $eat the saucepan. *hat happens? !he ice melts (it becomes w ou would be surprised if it did not.
I F !ondition result

present simple +f you heat ice

present simple it melts.

;otice that we are thinking about a result that is always true for this condition. !he result of the condi an absolute certainty. *e are not thinking about the future or the past, or even the present. *e are th about a simple fact. *e use the present simple tense to talk about the condition. *e also use the p simple tense to talk about the result. !he important thing about the Dero conditional is that the con always has the same result.

We can also use (hen instead of if, for example: &hen + get up late + miss my bus.

2ook at some more examples in the tables below:

I F !ondition result

present simple

present simple 4 + am work. late for


+ miss the o5clock bus


+ am late for work

my boss angry. they hungry.



people don5t eat



you heat ice

does it melt.




present simple + am late for if work -y boss angry *eople hungry gets

present simple

+ miss the 4 o5clock bus.


+ am late for work.



they don5t eat.

6oes ice melt


you heat it.



$ere is a chart to help you to visualiDe the basic ,nglish conditionals. Bo not take the E:F and 6:F figures too literally. !hey are 'ust to help you.
probabilit% !onditiona l "ero e0ample time

788 9





it any time


always true
first conditional real possibility second conditional unreal possibility third conditional 89


but we structure it using the present


+f it rains, + (ill stay at future home.


+f + won the lottery, + future (ould buy a car.

no possibility

+f + had won the lottery, + (ould have bought past a car.

#nglish Prepositions
& preposition is a word governing, and usually coming in front of, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element, as in:

0he left before breakfast. What did ,or what did you come.! you come for.

#nglish Prepositions List

!here are about 6E: prepositions in ,nglish. et this is a very small number when you think of the thousands of other words (nouns, verbs etc). Crepositions are important words. *e use individual prepositions more fre/uently than other individual words. In fact, the

prepositions o#, to and in are among the ten most fre/uent words in ,nglish. $ere is a short list of G: of the more common one#word prepositions. %any of these prepositions have more than one meaning. Clease refer to a dictionary for precise meaning and usage.

before behind below beneath beside besides between beyond but by

concerning considering despite down during except excepting excluding aboard

of off on onto opposite outside over past per plus

about above across after against

along amid among anti around as

at regarding round save since than through to toward towards

under underneath unlike until up upon versus via with

within without