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Linking Words Linking words are essential for your writing to be natural and clear.

Linking devices vary in three ways: 1. Position in the text. Some linking words normally form a link between clauses WITHIN a sentence. It is bad style to start a sentence with these words: and but so because then until such as are e am!les of this ty!e of linking word. "nother ty!e of linking device is used to form a link #$TW$$N sentences. These words must start with a ca!ital letter and are usually immediately followed by a comma: Furthermore, Moreover, However, Nevertheless, are used in this way. %ost linking words& however& can either start a sentence or form a link between sentences. The choice is u! to the writer. #. he !unction o! linking words here!ore, "n conclusion,

Linking devices are neither nouns& nor verbs. They !rovide a te t with cohesion and illustrate how the !arts of the te t relate to each other. Here are some of the functions which linking words !rovide. "dding e tra information to the main !oint& contrasting ideas& e !ressing cause and effect& showing e actly when something ha!!ened 'narrating(& e !ressing !ur!ose 'why)( and o!inion& listing e am!les& making conclusions and giving em!hasis. $. %rammatical di!!erences

Some linking words must be followed by a clause &'ub(ect ) *erb ) +b(ect,. $g. while why because although so whereas when

*ther linking words should be followed by a noun -hrase &Linking word ) &the, ) Noun.Pronoun or gerund, $g. because of des!ite during in s!ite of

The ma+ority of linking devices can be followed by either a noun !hrase or a clause. Here is a list of the !rinci!al linking words in $nglish& their function and if their !osition is usually fi ed.

/dding and ,and as well as besides %oreover& -urthermore& What is more& In addition& not only .... but also another !oint is that relative clauses who that whose when why where &which to whom what

0ontrasting ,but However& "lthough des!ite In s!ite of Nevertheless& *n the contrary& on the one hand on the other hand& whereas while but while -or one thing& In contrast& Neither...nor

1x-ressing cause . reason because as since "s a result& This is why because of .ue to *wing to -or this reason& 1x-ressing e!!ect . result ,so so....that such a...that Therefore Thus /onse0uently& too...for1to

Narration -irst 'of all( "t first "t the beginning In the beginning immediately *nce Suddenly "s soon as

not enough...for1to 1x-ressing -ur-ose to so as to in order that so that

then ne t #efore "fter "fter that afterwards When While during Soon !rior to 4iving e am!les for e am!le& for instance& this includes such as eg. 'for e am!le( i.e. 'that is(

on No sooner....than Hardly...when -inally $ventually "t the end In the end "t last To begin with& until 'umming u- . concluding "ll in all overall generally In conclusion& on the whole in the main To sum u!&

for 'Non2s!ecific( 1x-ressing o-inion I would say that In my o!inion& I think 'that( I believe 'that( 3ersonally "!!arently&

1m-hasis es!ecially !articularly Naturally& e actly because above all Whatever Whenever too 1 enough The more ....

, "void starting a sentence with these words. The linking words beginning with a ca!ital letter often start a sentence& -or those without& !osition in a sentence is o!tional. Linking words 2 3i!!icult cases 'o

"5*I. ST"6TIN4 " S$NT$N/$ WITH THIS W*6.7 8So8 can be used in two ways: 1. o show 41'5L .

$g. It was raining& so we decided not to go to the beach. N*T$7 8because8 shows the 6$"S*N. The above sentence could be e !ressed like this: $g. We decided not to go to the beach because it was raining.

N+ 16 To show a 6$"S*N LIN9 #$TW$$N S$NT$N/$S use 8Therefore&8. $g. The com!any are e !anding. Therefore& they are taking on e tra staff. #. 'o 7 such used !or 1MPH/'"'.

When used for em!hasis& 8So8 must be followed by either an ad+ective or an adverb and must be linked to an e !lanation /L":S$. $g. It was so hot that we decided not to go to the beach.

*6 We decided not to go to the beach because it was so hot. N+ 16 8such8 is used in the same way& but must be followed by a N*:N or ".;$/TI5$<N*:N. $g. It was such a hot day that we decided not to go to the beach.

*6 We decided not to go to the beach because it was such a hot day. N+ 16 When there is no e !lanation clause& use 85$6=8& unless referring to a !resent situation. $g. It was very hot yesterday& wasn8t it) It8s so nice to see you again7

1nough and too 8enough8 goes "-T$6 ".;$/TI5$S > ".5$6#S but #$-*6$ N*:NS. $g. =ou won8t !ass the e am if you don8t work hard enough.

*6 He didn8t get the +ob because he didn8t have enough e !erience. 8enough8 can also be used alone. $g. I8ll lend you some money if you haven8t got enough. 8too8 means 8more than necessary8 and comes #$-*6$ ".;$/TI5$S > ".5$6#S *NL=.

$g.

The coffee was too hot to drink.

8ut and However, 8but8 is used to /*NT6"ST clauses WITHIN " S$NT$N/$. $g. I like going to the beach& but I never go at midday.

8However&8 has the same function& but is used to show /*NT6"ST #$TW$$N S$NT$N/$S. $g. I8ve always en+oyed going to the beach. However& I never go there at midday.

/lthough, though, even though 7 "n s-ite o! . des-ite, 8"lthough8 must +oin two clauses& but it8s !osition can change. It can either start a sentence or come in the middle. $g. *6 "lthough it rained a lot& we en+oyed the holiday. We en+oyed the holiday although it rained a lot.

In s!oken $nglish 8though8 can be used instead of 8although8 when it is used for the second clause. $g. ?I didn8t get the +ob though I had all the necessary 0ualifications.?

8though8 can also come at the end of a sentence. $g. ?The house isn8t very nice. I like the garden though.?

8$ven though8 is a stronger form of 8although8. $g. $ven though I was really tired& I couldn8t slee!.

8In s!ite of8 or 8.es!ite8 must be followed by a N*:N& 36*N*:N 'this& that& what etc.( or @IN4. $g. *6 In s!ite of the rain& we went to the beach. We went to the beach in s!ite of the rain.

It is common to use the e !ression 8In s!ite of the fact 'that(....8 or 8.es!ite the fact 'that(....8 $g. She8s 0uite fit in s!ite of the fact that she smokes AB cigarettes a day.

Linking words o! time 2 'till, 9et and alread9 8Still8 tells us that an action is continuing& or hasn8t ha!!ened yet. It has !ositive& negative and 0uestion forms.

$g. or or

It8s CB o8clock and ;ohn8s still in bed. She said that she would be here an hour ago and she still hasn8t come. "re you still living in #otofogo)

8yet8 asks if something has ha!!ened& or to say that something hasn8t ha!!ened. It is mainly used in N$4"TI5$S > D:$STI*NS and comes at the end of a sentence. 8=et8 is usually used with the !resent !erfect tense. $g. *6 He hasn8t finished the re!ort yet. Is dinner ready yet)

8"lready8 is used to say that something ha!!ened before e !ected& it usually comes in middle !osition& but can also come in final !osition. 8"lready8 is not used in negatives and in #ritish $nglish is only used in 0uestions to show considerable sur!rise. $g. I8ll tell her that dinner is ready. She already knows. Have you finished already)7 I thought it would take you longer7 In order to understand this ty!e of linking word& you must be clear about the conce!ts of 8a !oint in time8 and 8a !eriod of time8. " !oint in time is the answer to a 8when8 0uestion& and a !eriod of time is the answer to a 8how long8 0uestion. $g. 3oints of time E F!m& Wednesday& she arrived& summer& CGGG& /hristmas& five minutes ago. 3eriods of time E H seconds& A days& ages& CBB years& the /hristmas holiday& five minutes. 3uring and while #oth 8during8 and 8while8 tell us WH$N something ha!!ened. The difference between them is that 8during8 is followed by a noun !hrase 'no verb(& and 8while8 is followed by a clause 'sub+ect < verb < ob+ect(. $g. When did you go to #arcelona)

I went there during my holiday in $uro!e. *6 I went there while I was on holiday in $uro!e. 8#y8 means 8at some time before8 and tells us when something ha!!ens. It is followed by !oint in time and can be used for both !ast and future time. $g. This re!ort must be finished by F!m.

8#y the time8 has the same meaning but is followed by a clause. It is common with !erfect tenses. $g. #y the time we get there the !arty will have finished.

For, since and until These words all tell us how long something ha!!ens. 8-or8 focuses on duration and can be used in most tenses. It is followed by a !eriod of time. 8Since8 is only used with !erfect tenses and must be followed by a !oint in time. $g. *6 They stayed in #arcelona for two weeks. They8ve been in #arcelona since last -riday. E They are still in #arcelona now.

8:ntil8 also tells us how long something ha!!ens& but the focus is on the end of the action or situation. It is followed by a !oint in time. $g. They stayed in #arcelona until last -riday. E They left #arcelona last -riday.

Not....an9 more.longer and no longer These e !ressions tell us that a situation has changed. 8not....any more1longer8 go at the end of a sentence and 8no longer8 is used in the middle of a sentence. $g. %r. ;ones doesn8t work here any longer. *6 She no longer works here.

/s 7 like 8"s8 and 8like8 can be used in /*%3"6IS*NS. However& 8"s8 %:ST #$ -*LL*W$. #= " /L":S$& and 8like8 %:ST #$ -*LL*W$. #= " N*:N. $g. *6 He worked for the com!any& as his father had done before him. She acts like a child sometimes.

8"s8 can also be followed by a !re!osition $g. In CGGI& as in CGGJ& inflation in #raKil fell steadily. 8'not( as....as 8 < ".;$/TI5$ or ".5$6# shows $D:"LIT= or IN$D:"LIT=. $g. She isn8t as tall as her father was. it is in SLo 3aulo. *6 The traffic can be as bad in 6io as

8"s8 can be used to state the 6*L$& ;*# or -:N/TI*N of a !erson or thing.

$g. *6 *6

We all worked together as a team. She worked as a manager in the Human 6esources .e!artment. He used his handkerchief as a flag to attract attention.

8"s8 can be used in the same way as 8because8M however& it gives less em!hasis than 8because8. $g. *6 "s the weather was so bad& we didn8t go to the beach. I bought her some flowers as she had been so kind to me.

8"s8 tells us that actions occur at the same time. $g. "s the door o!ened& she saw him standing by the wall.

8"s8 is often used in these common e !ressions: "s hard as& as soon as& as long as& as well as& as far as& as good as. $g. He can stay here as far as I8m concerned. home early. 8"s8 is also the !re!osition used after these verbs: 6egarded as see sth. as be thought of as #e looked on as. =ou can go as long as you come