Sie sind auf Seite 1von 0

Load Tap Changers

for Power Transformers


Dr. Dieter Dohnal / Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen GmbH
Dipl. Ing. Bernhard Kurth / Reinhausen Manufacturing Inc.
11/24/2003 Page 2
Load Tap Changers for Power Transformers
Content
Basic Principle of the Load Tap Changer (LTC) / General LTC Arrangements
Commonly Used Winding Connections
Basic Arrangements of Regulating (Tap) Windings
Basic Switching Principles of LTCs
Design Principles of Oil Type LTCs
Design Principles of Vacuum Type LTCs
Todays Expectations from LTCs
The Vacuum Switching Technology of Today
Summary of Advantages of the Vacuum Switching Technology
Life-Cycle Cost Considerations
11/24/2003 Page 3
Basic Principle of LTCs
LTCs allow to change the ratio of a transformer by adding turns to or
subtracting turns from either the primary or the secondary winding
LTC
For this purpose, the transformer is equipped with a regulating or tap
winding , which is connected to the LTC terminals
Principle winding arrangement of a
regulating transformer in Y-connection
11/24/2003 Page 4
General LTC Arrangements
LTCs divided in 2 groups:
11/24/2003 Page 5
Commonly Used Winding Connections
LTC Application at the Neutral End of Y-Connected
Transformer Windings
Three-phase star point LTC
(LTC operating voltage in general
only 10% of the line voltage)
11/24/2003 Page 6
Commonly Used Winding Connections
LTC Application in Delta-Connected Transformer Windings
11/24/2003 Page 7
Examples for basic arrangements of the tap winding for regulation of U
2
Commonly Used Winding Connections
LTC Application in Autotransformers
11/24/2003 Page 8
Examples for basic arrangements of the tap winding for regulation of U
1
Commonly Used Winding Connections
LTC Application in Autotransformers
11/24/2003 Page 9
Commonly Used Winding Connections
LTC Application in Autotransformers with a Series Transformer
Examples for basic arrangements of the tap winding for regulation of the U
2
11/24/2003 Page 10
Commonly Used Winding Connections
LTC Application in Phase-Shifting Transformers
Example for single core design / direct circuit arrangement
11/24/2003 Page 11
Commonly Used Winding Connections
LTC Application in Phase-Shifting Transformers
connection diagram phasor diagram
series unit
exciting unit
Example for dual core design / symmetrical circuit
11/24/2003 Page 12
Basic Arrangements of Regulating (Tap) Windings
11/24/2003 Page 13
Single Contact Switching
Not applicable due to the loss of the
system load / short circuit
I: through current
arcing
I
Basic Switching Principle of LTCs
Transfer of Load Current
Make Before Break Switching
Applicable but requires an impedance to
limit the circulating current that appears
in the bridging or transition positions
reactorprinciple
impedance = reactor (pa)
(pa=preventive auto transformer)
resistorprinciple
impedance = resistor
I
C
I
C
I
I
11/24/2003 Page 14
Design Principles of Oil Type LTCs
Resistor Oil Type LTCs
Arcing Switch (Diverter Switch) and Tap Selector
(Reinhausen: M, MS, R)
Arcing Tap Switch (Selector Switch)
WES/ABB: UZD, UZE, Reinhausen: V; combine selecting and switching
functions into one device
Reactor Oil Type LTCs
Arcing Switch (Transfer Switch) and Tap Selector (*)
Arcing Tap Switch (Selector Switch) (*)
(Combines selecting and switching functions into one device)
(*) discontinued
11/24/2003 Page 15
Design Principles of Resistor Oil Type LTCs
Diverter Switch (Arcing Switch) with Tap Selector Design
tap selector
diverter switch
switching principle
design
11/24/2003 Page 16
switching principle example for in-tank design
Design Principles of Resistor Oil Type LTCs
Selector Switch (Arcing Tap Switch) Design
11/24/2003 Page 17
Design Principles of Vacuum Type LTCs
Resistor Vacuum Type LTCs
Vacuum Diverter Switch and Tap Selector
Reinhausen plans start of series production for 1
st
Quarter 2004
Tap Selector with integrated Vacuum Interrupters
Type V V introduced by Reinhausen in 2000
Reactor Vacuum Type LTCs
Vacuum Interrupter Mechanism and Tap Selector
(LRT200)
By-pass Switch, Vacuum Interrupter Mechanism and Tap Selector
Reinhausen RMV, Westinghouse UVT
11/24/2003 Page 18
Design Principles of Reactor Vacuum Type LTCs
Tap selector, By-pass and Vacuum Interrupter (VI) Design
Switching principle RMV-II
V I
tap selector
by-pass
___reactor___
11/24/2003 Page 19
Today's Performance Expectations from LTCs
Low failure rate
Long-term uninterrupted availability of the regulating
transformer
Extension of the maintenance intervals
Reduction of the maintenance work
Main target
Reduced operating costs
The Available Tool
The Vacuum Interrupter
11/24/2003 Page 20
The Vacuum Switching Technology in LTCs
One Solution for the next Generation of LTCs
Historically:
Rapidly wearing tungsten-copper
arcing contacts in mineral
transformer oil
Today and Tomorrow:
Primarily Vacuum
Interrupters
replaced by
11/24/2003 Page 21
The Vacuum Switching Technology in LTCs
Highlights
arc has no interaction with the surrounding medium
The vacuum interrupter is a hermetically sealed system
low energy consumption (~ I x U
arc
x t)
The arc (drop) voltage in vacuum (5-10V) is considerably lower than in oil
(25-30V) or SF
6
the switching characteristics do not depend on the surrounding medium
reduced contact wear
11/24/2003 Page 22
The Vacuum Switching Technology in LTCs
Highlights
elimination of by-products e.g. carbon when using transformer oil
Elimination of the insulating medium as the arc quenching agent
easy disposal of used insulating medium
Eliminates need of an on-line filtration system
11/24/2003 Page 23
The Vacuum Switching Technology in LTCs
Highlights
constant switching characteristics throughout the entire lifespan of the
vacuum interrupters
No aging of the quenching medium
No interaction/oxidation during switching
high rate of re-condensation of metal-vapor on contacts
getter effect of metal-vapor plasma with absorption of free gas molecules
significantly extends contact life
consistently low contact resistance
11/24/2003 Page 24
The Vacuum Switching Technology in LTCs
Highlights
Ensures short arcing times (less than one half-cycle)
Extraordinarily fast dielectric recovery of the quenching distance of up to
10 kV/s
even in the case of large phase angles between current and voltage
high voltage steepness dU/dt after the current zero e.g. converter
transformers
or
11/24/2003 Page 25
Reinhausen Vacuum Interrupters for LTCs
Key Design Parameters
Mechanical lifespan
in transformer oil
any other given insulating medium
operating temperature range
expected lifespan of the LTC
Switching performance
(current, step voltage)
Contact lifespan
Physical dimension
11/24/2003 Page 26
Reinhausen Vacuum Interrupters for LTCs
Permanent Improvement in Research and Development
Vacuum interrupter for
1320A, introduced in 2000
(VACUTAP

LTC type
RMV-A)
Example for Application in Reactor Type LTCs
Vacuum interrupter for
2500A, introduced in the
early 70s (VACUTAP

LTC type UVT)


Vacuum interrupter for
2500A, introduced in 1993
(VACUTAP

LTC type
RMV-II)
180 mm
11/24/2003 Page 27
Reinhausen Vacuum Interrupters for LTCs
Comparison of Contact Wear
Vacuum interrupter: Low arc drop voltage and re-condensation of metal-
vapor plasma
The contact wear rate for LTC vacuum interrupters is at least 10
times less than for copper-tungsten contacts
Message
Vacuum interrupters
specifically designed for LTCs
easily reach 500,000
switching operations
Example for 1000 A shows only 3% of
wear found in copper-tungsten contacts
11/24/2003 Page 28
Reinhausen Experience with the Vacuum Switching
Technology in LTCs
Application in reactor type tap-changers (UVT, RMV-I, RMV-II and RMV-A)
Reactor VACUTAP

LTC
type RMV-II for 1,500A,
2,000A and 2,500A
Reactor VACUTAP

LTC type
RMV-A for 600A and 1,320A
since the mid-eighties
approx. 4,000 LTCs built with 12,000 vacuum interrupters
more than 51,000 years of trouble-free field operation
11/24/2003 Page 29
Reinhausen Experience with the Vacuum Switching
Technology in LTCs
Application in resistor type tap changers for external mounting
for the regulation of dry type transformers
Resistor VACUTAP

LTC
type VT for 500A
Resistor VACUTAP

LTC
type AVT for 150A
since 1995 approx. 640 LTCs built with 2,100 vacuum
interrupters
11/24/2003 Page 30
Reinhausen Experience with the Vacuum Switching
Technology in LTCs
Application in resistor type tap-changers for in-tank installation
for the regulation of oil-filled power transformers
Resistor VACUTAP

LTC type
VV for 250A, 400A and 600A
since 2000 approx. 800 LTCs built with 4,800 vacuum interrupters
11/24/2003 Page 31
Resistor type
In-tank design
Max. rated through current
Max. rated step voltage: 4,000 V
Max. BIL level to ground: 1,175 kV
3-phase/2-phase: 1,300 A
1-phase: 3,000 A
Reinhausen Vacuum Switching Technology
Latest Development: Resistor VACUTAP

LTC Type VR
Switching principle
11/24/2003 Page 32
Reinhausen Vacuum Switching Technology
The Next Step
Series production and delivery start: beginning of 2004
Introduction of the vacuum switching technology in all resistor type
diverter switches in Reinhausens main product segments
Vacuum type LTCs to replace Oil type LTCs in the range of 600A to
3,000 A
Vacuum type LTCs as an alternative to Oil type LTCs in the range up to
600A
11/24/2003 Page 33
Reinhausen Vacuum Switching Technology
Development of Market Share
Vacuum Type LTCs versus Oil Type LTCs
in percentage of units
1987
< 1 % Vacuum Type
Oil Type
2001
17 % Vacuum Type
Oil Type
2005
50 % Vacuum Type
Oil Type
2010
75 % Vacuum Type
Oil Type
11/24/2003 Page 34
Advantages of the RMV Vacuum Type LTC
Summary
Vacuum Interrupter is a hermetically sealed system
Arc does not interact with the surrounding medium
Carbon by-product eliminated when working in insulating oil
Reduction of mechanical wear of mechanism
Eliminates need for on-line filtration equipment
Allows use of alternative insulating fluids
Vacuum Interrupter has a fast dielectric recovery of the quenching medium
Short arc time
Reduced contact wear (<10% of wear found in oil)
No aging of the quenching medium
Constant or improving switching characteristics (gas molecules absorption by getter
effect = the more it switches the better the vacuum interrupter becomes!!)
11/24/2003 Page 35
Advantages of the RMV Vacuum Type LTC
Summary (Cont.)
Substantial Reduction of Operating Costs
Elimination of on-line filter (acquisition, operating and maintenance costs)
Fewer oil replacements (oil can be re-used several times), easier oil disposal
Contact replacements basically eliminated for network applications
Easier contact wear evaluation and maintenance procedures
Note: UZ type LTCs have only 30,000 operations contact life per stationary contact.
There are 17 stationary contacts per phase (51 total) that need to be evaluated for
contact wear, together with 18 moving contacts. 500,000 operations can only be
achieved if the customer uses entire operating range uniformly,
16LN16RN16LN16R
RMV-II: 1,000,000 operations vacuum interrupter life
RMV-A: 750,000 operations vacuum interrupter life
Reduction of maintenance costs (contacts, oil, labor)
11/24/2003 Page 36
Advantages of the RMV Vacuum Type LTC
Summary (Cont.)
Substantial Reduction of Operating Costs (Cont.)
Reduction of transformer down-time for maintenance
Extension of maintenance interval
Reinhausen Vacuum LTCs: the 1
st
LTCs without time-based
maintenance intervals!!!
Type V V: maintenance free through 150,000 operations
Type V R: maintenance free through 150,000 operations
RMVs with with new
VIM Model B
VIM Model B
VIM Model B :
Type RMV-II: maintenance free through 500,000 operations
Type RMV-A: maintenance free through 250,000 operations
Vacuum Interrupter Monitoring System (VIM System) model A supplied standard with
every RMV
11/24/2003 Page 37
Vacuum Type
Maintenance
FREE
10 x
maintenance
Delta
application
Oil Type
Maintenance requirements during LTC
lifespan for a typical network application
Significant savings in maintenance costs
Vacuum Switching Technology in Reinhausen LTCs
Life-Cycle-Cost Considerations
Maintenance-free through 150,000 operations with type V V and V R LTCs
Maintenance-free through 250,000/500,000 operations with type RMV LTCs
Example:
lifespan of 40 years
< 150,000 operations
Benefits
Oil Type
no time-based maintenance
longer availability of the transformer
simplified maintenance logistics
protection of environment and natural
resources due to reduction of oil
changes
Considerably reduced operating costs
Star-point
application
6-7 x
maintenance
11/24/2003 Page 38
At the present time and for the
foreseeable future the Vacuum
Switching Technology in LTCs
presents the best formula to
achieve the highest standards of
towards a maintenance-free LTC design
Vacuum Switching Technology in LTCs
Conclusions
Quality
Reliability
Economy