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Table 1 CumulativeBinomial Probabilities- continued

0.01

n: LO O

r:0
I
2
J

4
5
6
7
8
9

0.02

0.03

1.0000
.6340
.2642
.0794
.0184

1.0000
.8674
.5967
.3233
.1410

1.0000 1.0000
.9524 .9831
.8054 .9128
.5802
.7679
.3528
.5705

.0034
.0005
.0001

.0508
.0155
.0041
.0009
.0002

10
11
12
13
t4

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


.994r
.9979 .9993
.9629 .9848 .9940
.8817 .9434 .9'742
.8570 .9256
.7422

r:0

n=5

r :0

.5640
.3840
.2340
.1280
.0631

.',t232
.s593
.3936
.2sr7
.1463

.8368
.7086
.5557
.4012
.2660

.9097
.8201
.6968
.s529
.4074

.9526
.8955
.8060
.6872
.5506

.0009
.0002

.0068
.0022
.0007
.0002

.0282
.0115
.0043
.0015
.0005

.0',175
.0376
.0168
.0069
.0026

.1620
.0908
.0469
.0224
.0099

.2780
.1757
.1028
.0559
.0282

.4125
.2882
.1876
.1138
.064s

.0001

.0009
.0003
.0001

.0041
.0016
.0006
.0002
.0001

.0133
".
.0058
.0024
.0009
.0003

.0341
.0169
.0078
.0034
.0014

.0001

.0005
.0002
.0001

I
2

1.0000
.1900
.0100

1.0000 1.0000
.2775
.3600
.0225
.0400

1.0000 1.0000
.4375 .5100
.0625 .0900

I
2

1.0000
.4095
.0815
.0086
.0005

1.0000
.5563
.1648
.0266
.0022

1.0000
.6723
.2627
.0519
.0067

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


.8840 .9222
."162',7 .8319
.3612 .4',1r8 .5',1r6 .6630
.2352 .3t74
.1035 .1631
.0540 .0870
.0156 .0308

.0001

.0003

1.0000
.6513
.2639
.0702
.0128

1.0000
.8031
.4s57
.1798
.0s00

1.0000
.8926
.6242
.3222
.t209

.0016
.0001

.0099
.0014
.0001

.0328
.0064
.0009
.0001

5
n: T0

r :0
I
2
J

4
5
6
7
8
9

0.25

.0010

0.30

.0024

1.0000 1.0000
.9437 .97t8
.8507
1560
.4744 .6t',12
.2241 .3504
.0781
.0197
.0035
.0004

.1503
.0473
.0106
.0016
.0001

1.0000 1.0000
.5775 .6400
.t225
.1600

0.45

0.50

1.0000
.6975
.2025

1.0000
.7500
.2500

1.0000 1.0000
.949',7 .9688
.7438
.8125
.4069
.5000
.1312
.1875

.0102

.0185

.0313

1.0000 1.0000
.9865 .9940
.9140 .9536
.7384 .8327
.4862 .6t77

1.0000
.9975
.9767
.9004
.7430

1.0000
.9990
.9893
.94s3
.8281

.3669
.1662
.0548
.0123
.0017

.4956
.2616
.1020
.0274
.0045

.6230
.3770
.t719
.0547
.0107

.0001

.0003

.0010

1.0000 1.0000
.9998 1.0000
.9979 .9995
.9879 .9964
.9556 .9840

1.0000
1.0000
.9999
.9991
.9951

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9998
.9987

.0053

.2485
.0949
.0260
.0048
.000s

l0
n:20

0.40

0.15

0.20

0.35

0.10

1.0000 1.0000
.9998
.9999
.9977
.9991
.9887
.99s2
.9633
.9827

.371r
.2t16
.t064
.0475
.0190

20
2l
22

n=2

0.09

.1821
.0808
.0312
.0106
.0032

15
T6
t7
18
19

n:

0.08

1.0000
.8784
.6083
.3231
.1330

1.0000
.96t2
.8244
.5951
.3523

1.0000
.9885
.9308
.'7939
.5886

5
6
7
8
9

.0432
.0113
.0024
.0004
.0001

.I't02
.0673
.0219
.0059
.0013

.3704
.1958
.0867
.0321
.0100

.5852
.3828
.2142
.1018
.0409

.7625
.5836
.3920
.22'17
.1133

.8818
3546
.5834
.3990
.2376

.9490
.8744
.7500
.5841
.4044

.9811
.9447
.8701
.7480
.5857

.9947
.9793
.9423
.8684
.7483

.0002

.0026
.0006
.0001

.0139
.0039
.0009
.0002

.0480
.0171
.0051
.0013
.0003

.1218
.0532
.0196
.0060
.0015

.244',7
.r27s
.0565
.0210
.0065

.4086
.2493
.1308
.0s80
.0214

.5881
.4tt9
.2517
.1316
.0577

.0003

.0016
.0003

.0064
.0015
.0003

.0207
.0059
.0013
.0002

r :0
1
2
-l

10
1l
t2
13
t4
15
16
l7
l8

1.0000 1.0000
.9968 .9992
.9757 .9924
.9087 .9645
.7748 .8929

Table I CumulativeBinomialProbabilites- continued


0.l0
n=50

r =o

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.50

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

I
2
3
4

1.0000
.9948
.9662
.8883
.7497

1.0000
.9997
.9971
.9858
.9544

5
6
7
8
9

.5688
.3839
.2298
.t221
.0s79

.8879
.7806
.6387
.4812
.3319

.9815
.9s20
.8966
.8096
.6927

.9979
.9930
.9806
.9547
.9084

.9998
.9993
.9975
.9927
.9817

l0
II
t2
13
14

.0245
.0094
.0032
.0010
.0003

.2089
.1199
.0628
.0301
.0r32

.5563
.4t64
.2893
.1861
.1106

.8363
.7318
.6184
.4890
.3630

.9598
.92IT
.8610
.7711
.6721

.9933
.9840
.9658
.9339
.8837

.9992
.9978
.9943
.9867
.9720

.9999
1.0000
.9998 1.0000
.9994 " 1.0000
.9982
.9998
.9955
.9995

15
l6
t7
l8
l9

.0001

.0053
.0019
.0007
.0002
.0001

.0607
.0308
.0144
.0063
.0025

.2519
.1631
.0983
.0551
.0287

.5532
.4308
.3161
.2178
.1406

.8r22
.7r99
.6111
.4940
.3784

.9460
.9045
.8439
.7631
.6644

.9896
.9780
.9573
.9235
.8727

.9987
.9967
.9923
.9836
.9675

.0009
.0003
.0001

.0139
.0063
.0026
.0010
.0004

.0848
.0478
.0251
.0123
.0056

.2736
. l86l
.l 187
.0710
.0396

.5535
.4390
.3299
.2340
.1562

.8026
.7138
.6100
.4981
.3856

.9405
.8987
.8389
.7601
.6641

.0001

.0024
.0009
.0003
.0001

.0201
.0100
.0045
.0019
.0007

.0978
.0573
.0314
.0160
.00'76

.2840
.1966
.1279
.0780
.0444

.5561
' .4439
.3359
.2399
.1611

.0003
.0001

.0034
.0014
.0005
.0002
.0001

.0235
.0116
.0053
.0022
.0009

.1013
.0595
.0325
.0164
.0077

.0003
.0001

.0033
.0013
.0005
.0002

20
2l
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
.9998 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
.9987
.9999 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
.9943
.9995 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000

30
31
33
34

1.0000 1.0000
.9999 1.0000
.9998 1.0000
.9992 .9999
.9975 .9998

35
36
JI

38

Table I gives binomial probabilities only for a limited range of values of n and p since, in practice, either the more compact
tabulation of the Poissondistribution (Table 2) or that of the Nonnal distribution (Table 3) can usually be used to give an
adequateapproximation.
As a reasonableworking rule:
(i)

usethe Poissonapproximationrfp < 0.1, puttingm= np

usethe Normal approximationif 0.1 <p i 0.9 andnp > S,puttingp : np and o=
p)
"dr(iii) usethe Poissonapproximationifp > 0.9, putting m = n(l -p) andworking in termsof 'failures'.
(it

Note:For valuesof p > 0.5, work in termsof lfailures'which will haveprobability q (= | - p).
Exarnple: What is the probability that 40 ol more seedswill germinate out of 50 if the germination rate is 70%? Since the
probability of 'success'is greaterthan 0.5, the table can not be useddirectly; howwer, 40 or more successes
is the sameas l0 or
fewer'failures'.Theprobabilityofl0orfewer'failures'=l-probabilityofllormore'failures'=1-0.9211:0.0739.

Table I CumulativeBinomial Probabilities- continued


0 .1 5

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

t.0000
1.0000
.9997
.9 9 8 1
.9922

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

.9763
.9424
.8828
.7939
.6791

.9 9 9 6
.9984
.9 9 5 3
.9878
.9725

1.0000
1.0000
.9999
.9997
.9991

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

.5487
.4168
.2970
.1982
.1239

.9449
.9006
.8 3 6 5
.7527
.6526

.9977
.9943
.9874
.9747
.9531

1.0000
.9999
.9996
.9990
.997s

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

.0726
.0399
.0206
.0 1 0 0
.0046

.5428
.4317
.3275
.2367
.1628

.9196
.8715
.8077
.7288
.6379

.9946
.9889
.9789
.9624
.9370

.9998
.9996
.9990
.9978
.9955

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999
.9999

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000*
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

.0020
.0008
.0003
.0001

.10 6 5
.0663
.0 3 9 3
.0221
.0 11 9

.5398
.4405
.3460
.1891

.9005
.8512
.7886
.7136
.6289

.9911
.9835
.97t2
.9521
.9245

.9997
.9992
.9983
.9966
.9934

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999
.9997

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

27
28
29

.0061
.0030
.0 0 1 4
.0006
.0003

.1314
.0875
.u))6
.0342
.0200

.5383
.4465
.3583
.2776
.2075

.8864
.8369
.7756
.7036
.6232

.9879
.9789
.9649
.9442
.9r52

.9994 1.0000
.9988 l.0000
.9976
.9999
.9954 .9998
.9916 .9996

JU

.0001

.0112
.0061
.0031
.0016
.0007

.1495
.1038
.0693
.0446
.0276

.5377
.4509
.3669
.2893
.2207

.8764
.8270
.7669
.6971
.6197

.9852
.9752
.9602
.9385
.9087

.9992
.9985
.9970
.9945
.9902

.0003
.0001
.0001

.0164
.0094
.0052
.0027
.0014

.1629
.1161
.0799
.0530
.0340

.5376
.4542
.3731
.2976
.2301

.8697
.820s
.7614
.6932
.6178

.9834
.9728
.9571
.9349
.9049

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
l 0000
1.0000
1.0000
r.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999
.9998
.9996
.9991
.9982
.9967
.9940
.9895

.0007
.0003
.0001
.0001

.0210
.0125
.0072
.0040
.0021

.1724
.1250
.0877
.0594
.0389

.0011
.UUU)
.0003
.0001
.0001

.0246
.0150
.0088
.0050
.0027

.5379
.4567
.3775
.3033
.236s
.1789
.1311
.0930
.0638
.0423

.8657
.8169
.7585
.6913
.6172
.s387
.4587
.3804
.3069
.2404

.0015
.0007
.0004
.0002
.0001

.0271
.0168
.0100
.0058
.0032

.1827
.1346
.0960
.0662
.0441

.0017
.0009
.0004
.0002
.000r

.0284
.0176
.0106
.0061
.0034

.8644
.8159
.7579
.6914
.6t78
.5398
.4602
.3822
.3086
.2421
.1841
.1356
.0967
.0666
.0443

.0018
.0009
.0005
.0002
.0001

.0284
.0176
.0105
.0060
.0033

0 .1 0
n= 100

r=0
1
2
J

4
5
o

7
8
9
10
11
12
t3
l+

15
to

17
l8
l9

20
21
22
23
24
25

31
JJ

34
35
36
JI

38
39
40
41
1Z

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
oz

63
64
65
66
67
68
69

.zotl

0.45

0.s0

.9824
.9716
.9557
.9334
.9033

.0018
.0009
.0004
.0002
.0001

Table 2 CumulativePoissonProbabilities
The table gives the probability tltat r or more random events are contained in an interval when the average number of
suclr eventsper interval is m, i.e.

-^ffi '

*''!
Where there is no entry for a particular pair of values of r and m, this indicates that the appropriate probability is less
than 0.000 05. Similarly, except for the case," = 0 when the eniry is exact, a tabulated value of 1.0000 representsa
probability greaterthan 0.999 95.

0 .1
r :0
I
2
3
4

0.2

0.3

L0000 1.0000 1.0000


.0 9 52 .1813 .2592
.0047 .0175 .0369
.0 0 02 .001I
.0036
.0001 .0003

5
6
7

l.l

tn=

r: 0
|
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

r=0
|
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
l0
ll

t2

t.2

1.3

1 .00 00 1.0000 1.0000


.667|
.6988 .727s
.3010 .3374 .3732
.0996 .1205 .t429
.0257 .0338 .0431

0.4

0.5

1.0000 1.0000
.3297 .3935
.0616 .0902
.0079 .0144
.00 0 8 . 0 0 1 8

0.6

0.7

0.8

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


.4512 .5034 .5507
.12t9
. 1 5 5 8 .t9t2
.0231 .0341 .0474
.0034 .0058 . 0 0 9 1

.0001

.0002

.0004

.0008
.0001

.0014
.0002

r.4

1.5

1.6

r .7

1.8

1.0000 1.0000
.7s34 .7769
.4082 .4422
.1 6 6 5 . 1 9 t 2
.0537 .0656

0.9

1.0000 1.0000
.5934. .6321
.2275 .2642
.0629
.0803
.0135 .0190
.0023
.0003

1.9

L0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


.7981 .8t73
.8347
.8504
. 4 7 s 1 . 5 0 6 8 . 5 3 7 2 .5663
.2166 .2428 .2694
.7963
.0788 .0932 . 1 0 8 7 .1253

.0054
.0 0 1 0
.0 0 0 1

.0077
.0015
.0003

.0107
.0022
.0004
.0001

.01 4 3
.0032
.0006
.0001

.0186
.0045
.0009
.0002

.0237
.0060
.0013
.0003

.0296
.0080
.0019
.0004
.0001

.0364
.0104
.0026
.0006
.0001

.0441
0132
.0034
.0008
.0002

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

1 .00 00 1.0000 1.0000


.87 7 5 .8892 .8997
.6204 .6454 .6691
.3s0 4 .3773 .4040
.16 t4
. I tr06
.2007

t.00 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0
.9093 .9179
.69 1 6 . 7t 2 7
.4303 .4562
.22t3
.2424

1.0

.0037
.0006
.0001

2.0
1.0000
.8647
.s940
.3233
.t429
.0527
.0166
.0045
001I
.0002

3.0

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


.9257 .9328 .9392
.9450
.9502
. 7 3 2 6 . 7 5 1 3 .7689
.7854
.8009
. 4 8 1 6 . 5 0 6 4 . 5 3 0 5 .5540
.5768
.2640 .28s9
. 3 0 8 1 .3304
.3528

0621
.0704
.0 0 5 9
.0 0 l-5
.0003

0725
.0249
.0075
.0020
.0005

0838
.0300
.0094
.0026
.0006

.09 5 9
.0357
.01 t 6
.0033
.00 0 9

.1088
.0470
.0t42
.0042
.001I

.1226
.0490
.0172
.0053
.0015

t37l
.0567
.0206
.0066
.0019

.1523
.0651
.0244
.0081
.0024

.1682
.0742
.0287
.0099
.0031

t847
.0839
.0335
.0119
.0038

0001

.0001

.0001

.0002

.0003
.0001

.0004
.0001

.0005
.0001

.0007
.0002

.0009
.0002
.0001

.0011
.0003
.0001

Table 2 CumulativePoissonProbabilities- continued


3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

1.0000
.9550
.8153
.5988
.3752

1.0000
.9592
.8288
.6201
.3975

1.0000
.9631
.8414
.6406
.4197

1.0000
.9666
.8s32
.6603
.44t6

)
6
7
8
9

.2018
.0943
.0388
.0142
.0047

.2194
.1054
.0446
.0168
.0057

.2374
.l l7l
.0510
.0198
.0069

.2558
.1295
.0579

l0
ll
t2
l3
t4

.0014
.0004
.0001

.0018
.0005
.0001

4.1

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

1.0000
.9698
.8641
.6792
.4634

1.0000
.9721
.8743
.6973
..4848

1.0000
.9753
.8838
.7t46
.5058

1.0000
.9776
.8926
.73tt
.s265

1.0000
.9198
.9008
.7469
.s468

1.0000
.98t7
.9084
.76t9
.5665

.2936
.1559
.0733
.0308

.0083

.2746
.r424
.0653
.0267
.0099

.0rt7

.3128
.1699
.0818
.0352
.0137

.3322
.1844
.0909
.0401
.0160

.3516
.1994
.1005
.0454
.0185

.ti,ttz
.2149
.tto7
.0511
.0214

.0022
.0006
.0002

.0027
.0008
.0002
.0001

.0033
.0010
.0003
.0001

.0040
.0013
.0004
.0001

.0048
.0016
.0005
.0001

.0058
.0019
.0006
.0002

.0069
.0023
.0007
.0002
.0001

.0081
.0028
.0009
.0003
.0001

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

5.0

r.0000
.9834
.9155
.7762
.5858

1.0000
.9850
.9220
.7898
.6046

1.0000
.9864
.9281
.8026
.6228

1.0000
.9877
.9337
.8149
.6406

1.0000
.9889
.9389
.8264
.6577

1.0000
.9899
.9437
.8374
.6743

1.0000
.9909
,9492
.8477
.6903

1.0000
.9918
.9523
.8575
.7058

1.0000
.9926
.9s61
.8661
.7207

1.0000
.9933
.9s96
.8753
.7350

5
6
7
8
9

.3907
.2307
.12T4
.0s73
.0245

.4t02
.2469
.1325
.0639
.02'19

.4296
.2633
.t442
.0710
.03t7

.4488
.2801
.1564
.0786
.0358

.4679
.2971
.1689
.0866
.0403

.4868
.3t42
.1820
.0951
.04s1

.5054
.3316
.t954
.1040
.0503

.s237
.3490
.2092
.1133
.0558

.5418
.366s
.2233
.t231
.0618

.5595
.3840
.2378
.1334
.0681

l0
ll
T2
l3
T4

.0095
.0034
.001I
.0003
.0001

.0lll
.0041
.0014
.0004
.0001

.0129
.0048
.0017
.0005
.0002

.0149
.0057
.0020
.0007
.0002

.0171
.0067
.0024
.0008
.0003

.0195
.0078
.0029
.0010
.0003

.0222
.0090
.0034
.0012
.0004

.0251
.0104
.0040
.0014
.0005

.0283
.0120
.0047
.00n
.0006

.0318
.0137
.0055
.0020
.0007

.0001

.0001

.0001

.0001

.0001

.0002
.0001

.0002
.0001

r:0
I
2
J

r=0
I
2
J

l5
l6

r:0
I
2
3
4
)
6
8
9

l0
ll
t2
l3
t4
l5
l6

t7
l8
t9

.023r

3.9

4.0

5,2

5.4

5.6

5.8

6.0

6.2

6.4

6.6

6.8

7.0

1.0000
.9945
.9658
.8912
.76t9

1.0000
.9955
.9711
.9052
.7867

1.0000
.9963
.9756
.9r76
.8094

1.0000
.9970
.9794
.9285
.8300

1.0000
.9975
.9826
.9380
.8488

1.0000
.9980
.9854
.9464
.8658

1.0000
.9983
.9877
.9537
.8811

1.0000
.9986
.9897
.9600
.8948

1.0000
.9989
.9913
.9656
.9072

1.0000
.9991
.9927
.9704
.9182

.5939
.4191
.2676
.155I
.0819

.6261
.4539
.2983
.1783
.0974

.6579
.4881
.3297
.2030
.1143

.6873
.52t7
.3616
.2290
.1328

.7149
.5543
.393',7
.2560
.1528

.7408
.5859
.4258
.2840
.t741

.7649
.6t63
.4577
.3127
.t967

.7873
.6453
.4892
.3419
.2204

.8080
.6730
.5201
.37t5
.2452

.8270
.6993
.5503
.4013
.2709

.0397
.0t77
.0073

.0488
.0225
.0096
.0038
.0014

.0591
.0282
.0125
.0051
.0020

.0708
.0349
.0160
.0068
.(r027

.0839
.0426
.0201
.0088
.0036

.0984
.0514
.0250
.0113
.0048

.tt42
.0614
.0307
.0143
.0063

.1314
.0726
.0373
.0t19
.0080

.1498
.0849
.0448
.0221
.0t02

.1695
.0985
.0534
.0270
.0128

.Ofi)5
.0002
.0001

.0007
.0002
.0001

.0010
.0004
.0001

.0014
.0005
.0002
.0001

.0019
.0007
.0003
.0001

.0026
.0010
.0004
.0001

.0034
.0014
.0005
.0002
.0001

.0044
.0018
.0007
.0003
.0001

.0057
.0024
.0010
.0004
.0001

.(ru28
.00I()
(XX)3
.0001

Table 2 CumulativePoissonProbabilities- continued


m:

7.2

7.4

7.6

7.8

8.0

8.2

8.4

8.6

8. 8

9.0

r=O
I
2
3
4

1.0000
.9993
.9939
.9745
.9281

1.0000
.9994
.9949
.9781
.9368

1.0000
.9995
.9957
.98t2
.9446

1.0000
.9996
.9964
.9839
.9515

1.0000
.9997
.9910
.9862
.9576

1.0000
.9997
.9975
.9882
.9630

1.0000
.9998
.9979
.9900
.9677

1.0000
.9998
.9982
.99t4
.9719

1.0000
.9998
.9985
.9927
.97s6

1.0000
.9999
.9988
.9938
.9788

5
6
7
8
9

.8445
.7241
.5796
.431I
.2973

.8605
.7474
.6080
.4607
.3243

.8751
.7693
.6354
.4900
.3518

.8883
.7897
.6616
.5188
.3796

.9004
.8088
.6866
.5470
.4075

.91l3
.8264
.7104
.5746
.4353

.92t1
.8427
.7330
.6013
.463r

.9299
.8578
.7543
.62',72
.4906

.9379
.8716
.7744
.6522
.5177

.9450
.8843
.7932
.6161
.5443

l0
ll
t2
l3
l4

.1904
.1133
.0629
.{t327
.0159

.2r23

.2351
.1465
.0852
.0464
.0238

.2589
.1648
.0980
.0546
.0286

.2834
. l84l
.ll19
.0638
.0342

.3085
.2045
.1269
.0739
.0405

.3341
.2257
.1429
.0850
.0476

.3600
.2478
.1600
.0971
.0555

.3863
.2706
.1780
.rto2
.0642

.4126
.2940
.1970
.1242
.0739

l5
l6
t7
l8
l9

.00?3
.0031
.0013
.0005
.0002

.0092
.0041
.0017
.0007
.0003

.0114

.0141
.0066
.0029
.0012
.0005

.0173
.0082
.0037
.0016
.0006

.0209
.0102
.0047
.0021
.0009

.02s1
.olzs
.0059
.0027
.0011

.0299
.0t52
.0074
.0034
.0015

.0353
.0184
.0091
.0043
.0019

.0415
.0220
.0111
.0053
.0024

20
2l
22
23

.0001

.0001

.0001

.0002
.0001

.0003
.0001

.0003
.0001

.0005
.0002
.0001

.0006
.0002
.0001

.0008
.0003
.0001

.0011
.0004
.0002
.0001

m=

9.2

9.4

9.6

9.8

10.0

11.0

t2.0

13.0

14.0

r=Q
1
2
3
4

1.0000
.9999
.9990
.9947
.9816

1.0000
.9999
.999r
.9955
.9840

1.0000
.9999
.9993
.9962
.9862

1.0000
.9999
.9994
.9967
.9880

1.0000
1.0000
.9995
.9972
.9897

1.0000
1.0000
.9998
.9988
.9951

1.0000
1.0000
.9999
.9995
.9977

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9998
.9990

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999
.9995

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9998

5
6
7
8
9

.9514
.8959
.8108
.6990
.5704

.957r
.9055
.8273
.7208
.5958

.9622
.9t62
.8426
.74t6
.6204

.9667
.9250
.8567
.7612
.6442

.9107
.9329
.8699
.7798
.6672

.9849
.962s
.9214
.8568
.7680

.9924
.9797
.9542
.9105
.84s0

.9963
.9893
.9741
.9460
.9002

.9982
.9945
.9858
.9684
.9379

.9991
.9972
.9924
.9820
.9626

l0
t2
l3
L4

.4389
.3180
.2t68
.1393
.0844

.4651
.3424
.2374
.1552
.0958

.491I
.3671
.2588
.t721
. l08l

.5168
.3920
.2807
.1899
.12t4

.5421
.4170
.3032
.2084
.1355

.6595
.5401
.420'7
.3113
.2187

.7576
.6528
.5384
.4240
.3185

.8342
.7483
.6468
.5369
.4270

.8906
.8243
.7400
.6415
.5356

.9301
.8815
.8152
1324
.6368

l5
16^
l7
t8
l9

.0483
.0262
.0135
.0066
.0031

.0559
.0309
.0162
.0081
.0038

.0643
.0362
.0194
.0098
.0048

.0735
.042r
.0230
.0119
.0059

.0835
.0487
.0270
.0143
.0072

.1460
.0926
.0559
.0322
.0177

.2280
.1556
.1013
.0630
.0374

.3249
.2364
.t645
.1095
.0698

.4296
.3306
.2441
.1728
.rt"l4

.5343
.4319
.3359
.2511
.1805

20
2l
22
23
24

.0014
.0006
.0002
.0001

.0017
.0008
.0003
.0001

.0022
.0010
.0004
.0002
.0001

.0028
.0012
.0005
.0002
.0001

.0035
.0016
.0007
.0003
.0001

.0093
.004'7
.0023
.0010
.0005

.0213
.0116
.0061
.0030
.0015

.0427
.0250
.0141
.0076
.0040

.076s
.0479
.0288
.0167
.0093

.1248
.0830
.0531
.0327
.0195

.0002
.0001

.0007
.0003
.0001
.0001

.0020
.0010
.000s
.0002
.0001

.0050
.0026
.0013
.0006
.0003

.0122
.0062
.0033
.0017
.0009

.0001
.0001

.0004
.0002
.0001

.1293
.0735
.0391
.0195

.00s2

.0022
.0009
.0004

25
26
27
28
29
30
3l
32

l0

Table 2 Cumulative PoissonProbabilities- continued


m=

16 .0

t7.0

18.0

19 . 0

20.0

r=0
I
2
3
4

1.0000
I.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

5
6
7
E
9

.9996
.9986
.9960
.9900
.9780

.9998
.9993
.9979
.9946
.9874

.9999
.9997
.9990
.9971
.9929

l0
ll
T2
l3
t4

.9567
.9226
.8730
.8069
.7255

.9739
.9509
.9153
.8650
.7991

,9846
.9696
.9451
.9083
,8574

.9911
.9817
.9653
.9394
.9016

.9950
.9892
.9786
.9610
.9339

9972
.9937
.9871
.9755
.9s66

.9985
.9965
.9924
.9849
.9722

15
t6
t7
l8
l9

.6325
.5333
.4340
.3407
.2577

.7192
.6285
.5323
.4360
.3450

.7919
.7t33
.6249
.53t4
.4378

.8503
.7852
.7080
.62t6
.5305

.8951
.8435
.7789
.t030
.5186

.9284
.8889
.8371
.7730
.6983

20
2l
22
23
24

.18 78
.131 8
.0892
.0582
.0367

.2637
.194s
.1385
.0953
.0633

.349t
.2693
.2009
.t449
.1011

.4394
.3528
.2745
.2069
.1510

.5297
.4409
.3553
.2794
.212s

25
26
27
28
29

.0223
.01 31
.0075
.0041
.0022

.0406
.0252

,0683
.0446

.0050

.0103

.1067
.0731
.0486
.0313
.0195

30
3l
32
33

.0 0 1I
.0006
.0003
.0001
.0001

.0027
.0014
.0007
.0004
.0002

.0059
.0033
.0018
.0010
.0005

.0001

.0002
.0001
.0001

34s

35
36
37
38
39
40
4l
42
43
44

.0ts2 .0282
.0088 .0t73

2t.0

22.0

23.0

24.0

25.0

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


r.0000 1.0000 1.0000
.9999 .9999 1.0000
.9996 .9998 .9999
.9989 .9994 .9997

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9998

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999

.9992
.9980
.9956
.9909
.9826

.9996
.9989
.9975
.9946
.9893

.9998
.9994
.9986
.9969
.9935

.9523
.923t
.8830
.8310
.7675

.9689
.9480
.9179
.8772
.82s2

.9802
.9656
.9437
.9129
.87t7

.9876
.9777
.9623
.9395
.9080

.6157
.s290
.4423
.3595
.2840

.6940
.6131
.5284
.4436
.3626

.7623
.6899
.6106
.5277
.4449

.8t97
.7574
.6861
.6083
.5272

.8664
.8145
.7527
.6825
.6061

.1568
.tt22
.0779
.0525
.0343

.2178
.1623
.1t74
.0825
.0564

.2883
.2229
.1676
.t225
.0871

.3654
.2923
.2277
.1726
.t274

.4460
.3681
.2962
.2323
.1775

.5266
.4471
.3706
.2998
.2366

.01 l8
.0070
.0040
.0022
.0012

.0218
.0135
.0081
.0047
.0027

.0374 .0602
.0242 .0405
.0152 .0265
.0093 .0169
.0055 . 0 1 0 5

.0915
.0640
.0436
.0289
.0187

.1321
.0958
.0678
.0467
.0314

.t821
.1367
.1001
.07t5
.0498

.0006
.0003
.0002
.0001

.0015
.0008
.0004
.0002
.0001

.0032
.0018
.0010
.0005
.0003

.0064
.0038
.0022
.0012
.0007

.0118
.0073
.0044
.0026
.0015

.0206
.0t32
.0082
.0050
.0030

.0338
.0225
.0t46
.0092
.0057

.0001

.0001 .0004
.0001 .0002

.0008
.0004
.0002
.0001
.0001

.0017
.0010
.0005
.0003
.0002

.0034
.0020
.0012
.0007
.0004

.0001

.0002
.0001

1.0000 1.0000
.9998 .9999
.9995 .9997
.9985 .9992
.9961 .9979

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

.0001

45
46

ll

Table 2 Cumulative PoissonProbabilities- continued


m=

26.0

27.0

28.0

29.O

30.0

32.0

34.0

36.0

38.0

40.0

1.0000
1.0000
.9999
.9998
.9994
.9987

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999
.9997
.9993

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999
.9998
.9996

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

r=9
l0
11
t2
13
t4

1.0000
.9999
.9991
.9992
.9982
.9962

l5
t6
t7
t8
19

.9924
.9858
.9752
.9580
.9354

.99s4
.9912
.9840
.9726
.9555

.9973
.9946
.9899
.982r
.9700

.9984
.9967
.9937
.9885
.9801

.9991
.9981
.9961
.9927
.9871

.9997
.9993
.9986
.9912
.9948

.9999
.9998
.9995
.9990
.9980

1.0000
.9999
.9998
.9997
.9993

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999
.9998

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9999

20
2T
22
23
24

.9032
.8613
.8095
.1483
.6791

.9313
.8985
.8564
.8048
.7441

.9522
.9273
.8940
.8517
.8002

.9614
.9489
.9233
.8896
.8471

.9781
.9647
.9456
.9t94
.88s4

.9901
.9841
.9740
.9s94
.9390

.9963
.9932
.9884
.9809
.9698

.9986
.9913
.9951
.991s
.9859

.9995
.9990
.9981
.996s
.9938

.9998
.9996
.9993
.9986
.9974

25
26
27
28
29

.6041
.5261
.4481
.3730
.3033

.6158
.602t
.5256
.449r
.3753

.7401
.6728
.6003
.5251
.4500

.7958
.7363
.6699
.5986
.5247

.8428
.7916
.7327
.6671
.s969

.9119
.8772
.8344
.7838
.1259

.9540
.9326
.9047
.8694
.8267

.9176
.9655
.9487
.9264
.8977

.9897
.9834
.9141
.9611
.9435

.9955
.9924
.9871
.9807
.9706

30
31
32

.2407
.1866
.1411
.1042
.0751

.3065
.2447
.1908
.1454
.1082

.3774
.3097
.2485
.1949
.t495

.4508
.3794
.3126
.2521
.1989

.5243
.4516
.3814
.3155
.2556

.6620
.5939
.5235
.4532
.3850

.7765
.7196
.6573
.591I
.5228

.8621
.8194
.7697
.7139
.6530

.9204
.8911
.8552
.8125
.1635

.9568
.9383
.9t45
.8847
.8486

.0528
.0363
'.0244

.0787
.0559
.0388
.0263

.1535
.1159
.0856
.0619
.0438

.2027
.t574
.1196
.0890
.0648

.3208
.262r
.2099
.1648
.1268

.4546
.3883
.3256
.2681

.0r75

.tt2l
.0822
.0589
.0413
.0283

.2r66

.5885
.5222
.4558
.3913
.3301

.7086
.6490
.5862
.52t6
.4s70

.8061
.7516
.7037
.6453
.5840

JJ

34
35
36
JI

38
39

.0160
.0103

40
4T
42
43
44

.0064
.0039
.0024
.0014
.0008

.0113
.0072
.0045
.0027
.0016

.0190
.0t25
.0080
.0050
.0031

.0303
.0205
.0136
.0089
.0056

.0463
.0323
.0221
.0148
.0097

.0956
.0707
.0512
.0364
.0253

.t717
.r336
.1019
.0763
.0561

.2737
.2229
.1783
.1401
.1081

.394r

.szr0

.3343
.2789
.2288
.1845

.4581
.3967
.3382
.2838

45
46
47
48
49

.0004
.0002
.0001
.0001

.0009
.0005
.0003
.0002
.0001

.0019
.0011
.0006
.0004
.0002

.0035
.0022
.0013
.0008
.0004

.0063
.0040
.0025
.0015
.0009

.0173
.0116
.0076
.0049
.0031

.0404
.0286
.0199
.0136
.0091

.0819
.0609
.0445
.0320
.0225

.1462
.1139

.2343
.1903

.06s7
.0486

.1196
.0925

.0001
.0001

.0002
.0001
.0001

.0005
.0003
.0002
.0001
.0001

.0019
.0012
.0007
.0004
.0002

.0060
.0039
.0024
.0015
.0009

.0156
.0106
.0071
.0047
.0030

.0353
.0253
.0178
.0123
.0084

.0703
.0526
.0387
.0281
.0200

.0001
.0001

.0006
.0003
.0002
.0001
.0001

.0019
.0012
.0007
.0005
.0003

.0056
.0037
.0024
.0015
.0010

.0140
.0097
.0066
.0044
.0029

.0002
.0001
.0001

.0006
.0004
.0002
.0001
.0001

.0019
.00t2
.0008
.0005
.0003

50
51
{t

53
54
))
56
JI

58
59
60
6l
62
63
64
65
66
67

.0872 .rszr

.0002
.0001
.0001

For values of m greaterthan 30, usethe table of areasunderthe Normal curve(Table 3) to obtainapproximatePoisson
probabilities,puttingp= m ando=Ji .

tz

Table 3 Areas in upper TaiI of the Normal Distribution


The function tabulateditsl - <D(z)wtlerc <D(z)is the cumulativedistribution function
of a standardisedNormal

rhus
1-o(z)=#1"- .2 tc

variable, z.

is the probabilitythat a standardisedNormal variate selectedat random


will be greaterthan a

varueorz(=+)
o (")

x- p
o

.0 0

.0 1

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

.09

0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4

.5000
.4602
.4207
.3821
.3446

.4960
.4562
.4168
.3783
.3409

.4920
.4522
.4t29
.3745
.3372

.4880
.4483
.4090
.3707
.3336

.4840
.4443
.4052
.3669
.3300

.4801
.4404
.4013
.3632
.3264

.4761
.4364
.3974
.3594
.3228

.4721
.4325
.3936
.3557
.3192

0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

.4681
.4286
.3897
.3520
.3156

.3085
.2743
.2420
.2119
.1 8 4 1

.4641
.4247
.3859
.3483
.3t21

.3050
.2709
.2389
.2090
.1814

.3015
.2676
.2358
.2061
.1788

.2981
.2643
.2327
.2033
.t762

.2946
.26t1
.2296
.2005
.t736

.2912
.2578
.2266
.r977
. t 7 lL

.2877
.2546
.2236
.t949
.1685

.2843
.2514
.2206
.1922
.1660

1.0
t.l
t.2
1.3
1.4

.28t0
.2483
.2177
.1894
.1635

.1s87
.t35'7
.11 5 1
.0968
.0808

.2776
.2451
.2148
.1867
. 1 6 1I

.1562
.1335
.113l
.0951
.0793

.1539
.13t4

.r492

.0934
.0778

.15l5
.1292
.1093
.0918
.0764

.1271
.t075
.0901
.0749

.1469
.1251
.1056
.0885
.0735

.t446
.1230
.1038
.0869
.0721

.1423
.t210
.1020
.0853
.0708

1.5
t.6

.1401
. 11 9 0
.1003
.0838
.0694

.0668
.0548
.0446
.0359
.0287

.r379
.1t70
.0985
.0823
.0681

.0655
.0537
.0436
.0351
.0281

.0643
.0526
.0427
.0344
.0274

.0630
.0516
.0418
.0336
.0268

.0618
.0505
.0409
.0329
.0262

.0606
.4495
.0401
.0322
.0256

.0594
.0485
.0392
.0314
.0250

.0582
.0475
.0384
.0307
.0244

.0571
.0465
.0375
.0301
.0239

.0559
.0455
.0367
.0294
.0233

.021l8
.01659
.01287
.00990
.00755

.02068
.01618
.01255
.00964
.00734

.02018
.01578
.01222
.00939
.00714

.01970
.01539
. 0 1 l9 l
.00914
.00695

.01923
.01500
.01160
.00889
.00676

.00570
.00427
.0031 7
.00233
.00169

.00554
.00415
.00307
.00226
.00164

.00508
.00379
.00280
.00205
.00149

.00122
.00087
.00062
.00043
.00030

.00118
.00084
.00060
.40042
.00029

.00021
.00014
.000096
.000064
.000042

.00020
.00014
.000092
.000062
.000041

.00539 .00523
.00402 .00391
.00298 .00289
.00219 .00212
.00159 .00154
.00114 .001I
.00082 .00079
.000s8 .000s6
.00040 .00039
.00028 .00027
.00019 .00019
.00013 .00013
.000088 .000085
.000059 .000057
.000039 .000037

.01876 . 0 1 8 3 1
.01463 .01426
.01130 .01101
.00866 .00842
.00657 .00639
.00494 .00480
.00368 .00357
.00272 .00264
. 0 0 1 9 9 .00193
.00144 . 0 0 1 3 9
.00104 .00100
.00074 .00071
.00052 .00050
.00036 .00035
.00025 .00024
.00017 .00017
.00012 .0001I
.000078 .000075
.000052 .000050
.000034 .000033

r.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4.0

.ttt2

.02275 .02222 .02169


.0 1 7 8 6 .0r743 .01700
.0 1 3 9 0 .01355 .01321
.0t072 .01044 .01017
.00820 .00798 .00776
.00621 .00604 .00587
.00466 .00453 .00440
.00347 .00336 .00326
.00256 .00248 .00240
.00 1 8 7 .00181 .00175
.0 0 1 3 5 .00131 .00126
.00097 .00094 .00090
.00069 .00066. .00064
.00048 .00047 .00045
.00034 .00032 .00031
.00023 .00022 .00022
.00016 .00015 .00015
.000108 .000104 .000100
.000072 .000069 .000067
.000048 .000046 .000044
.000032

5.0-+ 0.0000002867

5.5-+ 0.0000000190
l3

.00107
.00076
.00054
.00038
.00026
.00018
.00012
.000082
.000054
.000036

6.0-+ 0.0000000010

Table 4 PercentagePoints of the Normal Distribution


The table gives the l00a percentage points, zo of a standardisednormal distribution whsre

o = Ll*
.lZt

Jzo

,-,2124,
.

Thus zo is the value of a standardised normal variate which has probability a of being exceeded.

d.

za

za

za

.50
.45
.40
.35
.30

0.0000
0.t257
0.2533
0.3853
0.5244

.050
.048
.046
.044
.042

1.6449
1.6646
t.6849
1.7060
13279

.030
.029
.028
.027
,026

1.8808
1.8957
1.9910
1.9268
t.9431

.020 2.0537 .010 2.3263 .050


.019 2.0749 .009 2.3656 .010
.018 2.0969 .008 2.4089 .001
.017 2.1201 .007 2.4573 .0001
.016 2.1444 .006 2.5t21 .0000l

1.6449
2.3263
3.0902
3.7190
4.2649

.25
.20
.15
.10
.05

0.6745
0.84 1 6
1.0364
1 .28 1 6
1.6449

.040
.038
.036
.034
.032

1.7507
t.7744
t.7991
1.8250
1.8522

025
024
023
022

1.9600
t.9774
1.9954
2.0t41
2.0335

.015 2.r70r 005

1.9600
2.5758
3.2905
3.8905
4.4t72

02r

za

.0t4 2.t973
.013 2.2262
.012 2.2571
.0ll
2.2904

004
003
002
001

za

2.5758
2.6521
2.7478
2.8782
3.0902

zd

.025
.005
.0005
.00005
.000005

Table 5 Ordinates of the Normal Distribution


The table gsvesSQ)for valuesof the standardised
normatvariate,z, inthe interval 0.0 (0.1) 4.0 where

obl=L"-t,,
.l2tt

0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0

.0

.t

.2

.3989
.2420
.0540
.0044
0001

.3970
.2179
.0440
.0033

.3910

.r942
.0355
.0024

.J

.3814
.17t4
.0283
.0017

.4

.5

.6

.3683
.t497
.0224
.0012

.352t
.r295
.017s
.0009

.3332
. 11 0 9
.0136
.0006

I4

.7
.3123
.0940
.0104
.0004

.8

.2897
.0790
.0079
.0003

.2661
.0656
.0060
.0002

Table 7 PercentagePoints of the t Distribution


The table gives the value of lo u - the l00a percentagepoint of the r distribution for v degreesof freedom.

The valuesof r are obtainedby solutionof the equation:


a -- f[%(v+ t)]Ir(%v)l-' (ro)-'o

I?t

. x' / vy-<'*')rz
*

Note: The tabulation is for one tail only, that is, for positive values of l.
For i r I the column headings for o should be doubled.
t a,v

0.10

0.05

4
5

3.078
1.886
1.638
1.533
t.476

6
7
8
9
l0
il

0.025

0.01

0.005

0.001

6 .3 t4
2.920
2.353
2.132
2.0t5

12j06
4.303
3.182
2.776

2.57r

3r.821
6.965
4.541
3,747
3.365

63.657
9.925
5.841
4.604
4.032

318.31
22.326
r0.213
7.t73
5.893

636.62
3 1 .5 9 8
t2.924
8 . 61 0
6.869

t.440
1.415
1.397
1.383
r.372

r.943
1 .8 9 5
1 .8 6 0
1 .8 3 3
1 .8 1 2

2.447
2.365
2.306
2.262
2.228

3.t43
2.998
2.896
2.821
2.764

3.707
3.499
3.355
3.250
3.t69

5.208
4.785
4.501
4.297
4.144

5 . 95 9
5.408
5 . 04 1
4.781
4.587

1.363
1.356
1.350
1.345
1.341

r.796
t.7 8 2
r.7 7 1
1 .7 6 1
t.7 5 3

2.201
2.179
2.160

3.106
3.055
3.0t2
2.977
2.947

4.025
3.930
3.852
3.787
3.733

4.437
4 . 31 8

2.131

2.7t8
2.681
2.650
2.624
2.602

4.140
4.073

t6
t7
l8
19
20

1.337
1.333
1.330
1.328

2.t20
2.IIO
2 .l0 l
2.093
2.086

2.583
2.567
2.552
2.539
2.528

2.921
2.898
2.878

r.325

r.746
1 .7 4 0
r.7 3 4
1.729
r.725

2.845

3.686
3.646
3.610
3.579
3.552

4.015
3.965
3.922
3.883
3.850

2l
22
23
24
25

1.323
1.327
1.319
1.3l8
1.316

1.72r
t.7 1 7
t.7 1 4
t.7 l r
1 .7 0 8

2.080
2.074
2.069
2.064
2.060

2.518
2.508
2.500
2.492
2.485

2.831
2.819
2.807
2.797
2.787

3.527
3.505
3.485
3.467
3.450

3.819
3.792
3.767
3.745
3.72s

26
27
28
29
30

1.315
1.314
1.313
1.311
1.310

t.7 0 6
1 .7 0 3
|.7 0 1
1.699
t.6 9 7

2.056
2.052
2.048
2.045
2.042

2.479
2.473
2.467
2.462
2.457

2.779
2.771
2.763
2.756
2.750

3.435
3.421
3.408
3.396
3 . 38 5

3.707
3.690
3.674
3.659
3.646

40
60

1.303
t.296
L289
1.282

1 .6 8 4
1 .6 7 1
1 .6 5 8
1 .6 4 5

2.02r

2.423
2.390
2.358
2.326

2.704
2.660
2.617
2.576

3.307
3 232
3.160
3.090

3 . 5 5I
3.460
3.373
3.291

v:l
2
J

T2
l3
T4
l5

r20

2.r45

2.000
1.980
1.960

2.86r

0.0005

4.22r

This table is taken from Table III of Fisher & Yates: Statistical Tablesfor Biological, Agicultural and Medical Research,
reprinted by permission of Addison Wesley Longman Ltd. Also from Table 72 of Biometrika Tables for Statisticians.
Volume I , by permission of Oxford University Press and the Biomehika Trustees.

l7

Table 8 PercentagePoints of thef

Distribution

Tableof f o, - the l0Oapercentagepoint ofthe fdisribution for vdegreesof freedom.

r'o.,
a=

.995

.99

.98

.975

v: |
2
3
4
5

.04393
.0100
.0717
.201
.4t2

.o3ls7
.020t
.115
.291
.554

.03628
.0404
.185
.429
.752

.03982
.0506
.216
.484
.831

.95

.90

.75

.70

.00393
.103
.352
.7ll
1.145

.0158
.ztt
.584
l.064
1.610

.0642
.446
1.005
1.649
2.343

.r02
.s75
t.2t3
1.923
2.675

.148
.7r3
t.424
2.19s
3.000

.455
1.386
2.366
3.357
4.351

3.455
4.255
5.071
5.899
6.731

3.828
4.671
5.527
6.393
7.267

5.348
6.346
7.344
8.343
9.342

6
7
8
9
l0

.676
.989
1.344
1.735
2.156

.872
t.239
1.646
2.088
2.558

1.134
r.564
2.032
2.s32
3.059

1.237
1.690
2.180
2.700
3.241

1.635
2.t67
2333
3.325
3.940

2.204
2.833
3.490
4.168
4.865

3.070
3.822
4.594
5.380
6.179

11
12
13
14
15

2.603
3.074
3.565
4.015
4.601

3.053
3.571
4.101
4.660
5.229

3.609
4.t78
4.76s
5.368
5.985

3.816
4.404
5.009
5.629
6.262

4.515
5.226
5.892
6.s7r
7.26t

5.578
6.304
1.042
7.790
8.541

6.989
7.807
8.634
9.467
10.307

7.584 8.148 10.341


8.438 9.034 11.340
9.299
9.926 12.3&
10.16s 10.821 13.339
11.036 tI.72t
14.339

16
t7
18
19
20

5.142
5.691
6.265
6.844
7.434

5.812
6.408
7.Ots
7.633
8.260

6.614
7.255
1.906
8.561
9.237

6.908
1.s64
8.231
8.907
9.591

7.962
8.612
9.390
10.117
10.85r

9.312
10.08s
10.865
11.651
t2.443

ll.l52
r2.oo2
12.857
13.716
r4.s78

Lt.9t2
t2192
t3.675
14.s62
15.452

t2.624
13.531
t4.440
ts.352
t6.266

15.33E
16.338
17.338
18.338
19.337

2t
22
23
24
25

8.034
8.643
9.260
9.886
10.s20

8.897
9.542
10.196
10.856
1t.524

9.9t5
10.600
tt.293
L1.992
t2.697

10.283
10.982
11.688
t2.401
13.120

ll.59l
12.338
13.091
13.848
t4.6tt

t3.240
t4.041
14.848
15.659
t6.473

t5.44s
t6.314
17.t87
18.062
18.940

16.344
t7.240
18.137
19.037
19.939

I7.tS2
18.101
t9.O2t
t9.943
20.867

20.337
2t.337
22.337
23.337
24.337

26
27
28
29
30

11.160
11.808
t2.461
13.t2r
13.787

12.198
12.879
13.565
t4.2s6
t4.953

13.409
14.125
t4.847
15.514
16.306

t3.844
14.573
15.308
16.047
t6.791

15.379
16.151
t6.928
t7.708
18.493

t7.292
18.114
18.939
19.768
20.599

19.820
20.703
21.588
22.475
23.364

20.843
21.749
22.657
23.567
24.478

2t.792
22.719
23.647
24.577
25.508

25.336
26.336
27.336
28.336
29.336

40
s0
60
70
80

20.706
27.991
3553s
43.27s
5t.t7l

22.t64
29.107
37.485
45.442
53.539

23.838
31.664
39.699
47.893
56.213

24.433
32.357
40.482
48.758
51.L53

26.509
34.764
43.188
5t.739
60.391

29.05t
31.689
46.459
55.329
64.278

32.345
41.449
50.641
59.898
69.207

33.660
42.942
52.294
61.698
1I.t45

34.872
44.313
53.809
63.346
72.9t5

39.335
49.33s
59.335
69.334
79.334

90
100

59.196
67.327

6t.754
70.065

64.634
73.142

65.646
14.222

69.126
77.929

73.291
82.358

78.558
87.945

80.625 82.51I
90.133 92.t29

89.334
99.334

normal deviate cutting off the correspondingtails of a normal distribution. f It


taken at the 0.02 level. so that 0.01
o
normaldistributionis in eachtail, the expressionyields
f atthe 0.99 and 0.01points.
For very large values of v, it is sufficiently accurateto compute l*,
arounda meanof ,,!2v - I and with a standarddeviationof l.

the distribution of which is approximately

Tabfe taken liom Table IV of Fisher and Yates: Statistical Tables for Biological, Agricultural and Medical Research, reprintod by permission of Addison
Lnngman Ltd, and from Table tl of Biometrika Tables for Statisticians,VoL l, by permission of Oxfbrd Uuiversity Pre,ssand the Biometrika Trustees.

l8

Table 8 PercentagePoints of the f

.25

.20

.10

.05

t.323
2.773
4.108
5.385
6.626

1.642
3.219
4.642
5.989
7.289

2.706
4.605
6.251
7.779
9.236

3.841
5.991
7.815
9.488
t 1.070

:.231
8.i83
9 524
I ,656
.l ?81

7.841
9.037
10.219
11.389
12.549

8.558
9.803
l1.030
r2.242
t3.442

10.64s
12.0t7
13.362
14.684
15.987

It 899
r+ 0ll
r.i l19
\6 222
'-- 322

13..701
14.845
15.984
t7.tt7
18.245

14.631
15.812
16.985
18.l5 I
19.311

r 5.418
-9.,iII
:, 601
: r 589
:t --5

19.369
20.489
21.605
22.718
23.828

:i 858
:.r 939
:5 1l18
t':196
:s 1-2
:i :{6
: -,-i19
-'i l9l
-"1+bi
-'-:5-:r

I -r-.r
I 4rl8
_:665
I 878
r 064

Distribufion - continued

.025

.02

.01

5.024
7.378
9.348
l 1.143
t2.832

5.412
7.824
9.837
l1.668
13.388

6.635
9.210
r1.345
13.277
15.086

7.879
10.597
12.838
14.860
16.750

10.827
13.815
16.268
18.465
20.5t7

v: I
2
3
4
5

12.592
14.067
15.507
16.919
18.307

t4.449
16.013
17.s35
19.023
20.483

15.033
16.622
18.168
19.679
2t.t6I

16.812
t8.475
20.090
21.666
23.209

18.548
20.278
2t.95s
23.589
25.188

22.457
24.322
26.125
27.877
29.588

6
7
8
9
10

17.275
18.549
19.812
2t.064
22.307

t9.67s
2r.026
22.362
23.68s
24.996

21.920
23.337
24.736
26.1I9
27.488

22.618
24.054
25.472
26.873
28.2s9

24.725
26.2r7
27.688
29.141
30.578

26.757
28.300
29.819
31.319
32.801

31.264
32.909
34.528
36.123
37.697

1l
t2
13
14
15

20.46s
2t.6ts
22.760
23.900
2s.038

23.542
24.769
25.989
27.204
28.412

26.296
27.s87
28.869
30.t44
31.410

28.845
30.t9l
31.526
32.8s2
34.170

29.633
30.995
32.346
33.687
35.020

32.000
33.409
34.805
36.191
37.566

34.267
35.718
37.156
38.582
39.997

39.2s2
40.790
42.312
43.820
45.315

16
t7
18
19
20

24.935
26.039
27.t4l
28.241
29.339

26.t71
27.301
28.429
29.553
30.675

29.6t5
30.813
32.007
33.196
34.382

32.6'71
33.924
35.172
36.415
37.652

35.479
36.781
38.076
39.364
40.646

36.343
37.659
38.968
40.270
41.566

38.932
40.289
41.638
42.980
44.314

41.401
42.796
44.l8l
45.558
46.928

46.797
48.268
49.728
5L179
52.620

2l
22
23
24
25

30.434
31.528
32.620
33.71I
34.800

3t.795
32.912
34.027
35.139
36.250

35.563
36.741
37.916
39.087
40.256

38.885
40.I 13
41.337
42.557
43.773

41.923
43.194
44.46I
45.722
46.979

42.856
44.140
45.4t9
46.693
47.962

45.642
46.963
48.278
49.588
50.892

48.290
49.645
50.993
52.336
53.672

s4.052
s5.476
56.893
58.302
s9.703

26
27
28
29
30

47.269
58.164
68.972
79.7t5
90.405

51.805
ss.759 s9.342
63.167
67.s0s 7r.420
74.397
79.082
83.298
85.527
90.531 95.023
96.578 101.880 t06.629

60.436
72.6t3
84.580
96.388
108.069

63.691
76.154
88.379
t00.425
112.329

66.766
79.490
91.952
t04.2t5
lt6.32L

73.402
86.661
99.607
rt2.3t7
124.839

40
50
60
70
80

119.648 124.176 128.299


t3r.I42
135.807 140.170

137.208
149.449

90
100

r-+ tr6_< 45.616


56.334
-;-r-tl
;,i l:66.981
-_r689
77.577...
ti 5 l:{)
88.130

;r -51-t 98.650 101.054 107.565 I 13.145 I 18.136


I .'b9f6 109.141 Ilt.667
118.498 r24.342 t29.561

t9

001

Table 9 PercentagePoints of the F Distribution


The table gives the vatus d Fo;\,r,
numf,atorand n degreesdfreedm

tle l00a prDtrfiagE


poid d the F ,tiarihtioo

ia the d.ryrnirr*r.

having yi degreesof freedom in the

Fc "-+r trir dvatus 6 vlnul v2, F=a;v1,"2istabulated for a = 0.05,

O.O25,0.01,
0.001,the 0.025valpesbrng hactsEt
The low percemagsPoiffi d6e fi$rilrrirrr 6sy be ffi
fromthe relaion:
Fr-orur,u,=l / F.,;rr,t,
= t/F.*,r,r, :r lz15= 0..3,5.L
Exaryle: F.cs,r2,s

t61.4
199.5
(648)
(800)
4052
5000
40531 5000*
18. 5
(38.5)
98.5
998.5

2t5.7
(864)
54p3
5405*

224.6
(e00)
5625
5625*

Fotrr,r,

230.2
(n2)
57U
57U*

2y.0
(e37)
5859
5859*

236.8
(%8)
5y)8
5929'

23t.9
(es7)

241.9

243.9

(%e)

Qm

5981
5981.

6056
6056*

6106
6107.

r9.4
(3e.4)
99.4
999.4

8.74
8.U
(14.3) (14 . 1)
27.1
26.6
128.3 125.9

19.0
t9.2
t9.2
19.3
19.3
19.4
t9.4
(3e.0) (3e.2) (3e.2) (3e.3) (3e.3) (3e.4) (3e.4)
99.0
999.0

99.2
999.2

99.2
999.2

99.3
999.3

99.3
999.3

10.13
9.55
9.28
9.t2
9.01
8.94
(r7.4) (16.0) (15.4) (15.1) (14.e) (14.7)
34.1
30.8
29.5
28.7
28.2
27.9
167.0 148.5 l4l.l
t37.1
t34.6
132.8
7.71
6.94
6.59
(10.6s) (e.e8)
02.n)
21.2
18.0
t6.7
74.14 61.25 56.18

99.4
999.4

99.4
999.4

r9.4
(3e.4)
99.4
999.4

8.89
(14.6)
27.7
l 3l .s

8.85
(14.s)
27.5
130.6

8.79
(r4.4)
27.2
129.2

6.39
(e.60)
16.0
53.44

6.26
(e.36)
15.5
51.71

6.16

6.09

(e.20)
15.2
50.53

(e.07)
ls.0
49.66

6.04
(8,e8)
14.8
49.00

5.96
5.91
(8.84) (8.75)
t4.s
t4.4
48.05 47.4r

5.79
5.41
5.19
(8.43) (7.76) (7.3e)
13.27 12.06 11.39
37.12 33.20 31.09

5.05
(7.15)
10.97
29.75

4.95
(6.e8)
t0.67
28.83

4.88
(6.85)
10.46
28.t6

4.82
(6.76)
10.29
27.65

4.74
(6.62)
10.05
26.92

s.99
(8.8r)
13.74
35.51

5.14
(7.26)
rO.92
27.00

4.76
(6.60)
9.78
23.70

4.53
(6.23)
9.15
2r.92

4.39
(s.ee)
8.7s
20.80

4.28
(s.82)
8.47
20.03

4.21
(s.70)
8.26
19.46

4.15

4.06

(s.60)
8.10
19.03

5.59
(8.07
12.25
29.2s

4.74
(6.54)
9.55
2t.69

4.35
(5.8e)
8.45
t8.77

4.12

3.97

3.87

3.79

7.85
17.20

7.46
t6.21

7.19
15.52

6.61
(r0.0r)
16.26
47.18

254.3
(1018)
6366
6366*

19 . 5

19. 5

(3e.s)

(3e.5)

99.5
999.5

99.5
999.5
8.53
( 13. e)
26.1
123.5

5.77
(8.51)
13. 9
45.77

5.63
(8.26)
13. 5
44.0s

4.53

9.89
26.42

9.47
25.14

4.36
(6.02)
9.02
23.79

(s.46)
7.87
18.41

4.00
(s.37)
7.72
17.99

3.84
(s.12)
7.3t
16.90

3.67
(4.85)
6. 88
15.75

6.99
t5.O2

3.73
(4.e0)
6.W
14.63

3.64
(4.76)
6.62
14.08

3.57
(4.67)
6.47
13.7r

3.41
(4.42)
6.07
12.73

3.23
(4 14)
5.65
1t.70

3.58
(4.6s)
6.37
12.86

3.50
(4.s3)
6.18
12.40

3.44
(4.43)
6.03
12.05

3.35
(4.30)
5.81
11.54

3.28
(4.20)
s.67
l l .l 9

3. 12
(3.e5)
5.28
10.30

2. 93
(3.67)
4.86
9.34

(s.sz) (s.2e) (s.rz) (4.ee)

5.32
4.46
4.07
3.84
(7.s7) (6.06) (s.42) (s.05)

4.68

24e.0
(ee7)
6235
6235*

(6.s2) (6.28)

11.26
25.42

8.65
18.49

7.59
15.83

7.0r
14.39

3.69
(4.82)
6.63
13.48

5.12
(7.2r)
10.56
22.86

4.26
(5.71)
8.02
16.39

3.86
(5.08)
6.99
13.90

3.63
(4.72)
6.42
t2.56

3.48
(4.48)
6.06
tl.1l

3.37
(4.32)
5.80
I l.l3

3.29
(4.20)
5.61
10.69

3.23
(4.10)
5.47
10.37

3.14
(3.e6)
5.26
9.87

3.07
(3.87)
s.l l
9.57

2.90
(3.61)
4. 73
8.72

2.71
( 3. 33)
4. 31
7.81

4. 96
(6.e4)
10.04

4 .1 0
(s.46)
7.56

3 .7 1
(4.83)
6.55

2t.04

14.91 r2.s5

3.48
(4.47)
5.99
11.28

3.33
(4.24)
5.U
10.48

3.22
(4.07)
5.39
9.93

3.14
(3.es)
5.20
9.52

3.07
(3.ss)
5.06
9.20

2.98
(3.72)
4.85
8.74

2.91
(3.62)
4.71
8.44

2.74
(3.37)
4. 33
7.64

2.54
(3.08)
3. 91
6.76

ll

4.84
(6.72)
9.65
19. 69

3.98
(s.26)
7.21
1 3 .8 1

3.59
(4.63)
6.22
I 1 .5 6

3.36
(4.28)
5.67
10.35

3.20
(4.04)
5.32
9.58

3.09
(3.88)
5.07
9.05

3.01
(3.76)
4.89
8.66

2.95
(3.66)
4.74
8.35

2.85
(3.s3)
4.54
7.92

2.79
(3.43)
4.40
7.63

2.61
(3.17)
4.02
6.85

2.40
(2.88)
3.60
6.00

t2

4.75
(6.s5)
9. 33
18.64

3.89
(s.10)
6 .9 3
t2.97

3.49
(4.47)
5 .9 5
10.80

3.26
(4.r2)
5.41
9.63

3.ll
(3.8e)
5.06
8.89

3.00
(3.73)
4.82
8.38

2.91
(3.61)
4.64
8.00

2.85
(3.5r)
4.50
7.71

2.75
(3.37)
4.30
7.29

2.69
(3.28)
4.16
7.00

2. 51
(3.02)
3. 78
6.25

2. 30
(2.72)
3. 36
5.42

l0

* Entries markedthus must be multiplied by 100

Table 9 Percentagepoints of the F Distribution continued


l0

2s? 283 2.77 2.67 260


22",
.l ::. .: g:. (3
(6
4t) ,:(4:1.
e7) ,'^':!,
(4.00)
(.1sr
60) '4.44
a.77)
ri.iit rlrh ,iir,
'4.62'
,3f3, ,3.17,,121,
9.07
6-70
'4.10'
5.74
5.21
4.86
4.30
3.96
3.59

17-82
14

4. 60

12.31
3 .7 4

10.21
3 .3 4

s.07

8.35

3 .l l

2.96

(6'30) (4.86) (4.24) (3.8e) (1gg

8'86
r 7' r 4
16

6.51
1l'78

5.56
9 .7 3

5.04
8 .6 2

7.86

7.4g

2.85

2.76

(3.50) ri.:sl
'q.zs

4.70
7 .92

4.46
7.44

7.21

6 80

6.52

5.78

3.r7
4.s7

2.70

2.60

2.53

2.35

2. 13

3.43
5.4r

3.00
4. 60

e.?e)
ri.iir
'4.r4'
'3.g4'. (3.05) (z..,s) (2.4s)

7.08

6.80

2.66

2.5g

6.40

3.80
6.13

4.49

3.63

(6'12)
8'53
16'12

3.24

(4'6e)
6.23
to-97

3.01

(4.08)
5.29
9.01

2.85

(3.73)
4.77
7.94

2.74

(1
:g)
4.44
7.27

2.4g

Q.34)
4.20
6.80

2.42

1i.zz1 a lrl
4.03
3.89
a.qa
6.19

2.24

4.4r

3.55

(2.8s)
3.55
5.s5

2.01

ri.gs)
'i.os',

3.16

(2.63)
3.r8
4.85

2.g3

Q.32)
2.75
4.06

2.77

2.66

2.58

2.41

2.34

2.1s

1.g2

8'29
15'38

6'01
10.39

5.09
8-49

4.58
7.46

4.25
6.81

4' 35

3.37
5.13

3'49

3.00
4.45

3'10

2.57
3.67

2 .8 7

2 . 71

14'82

9.95

8.r0

7.10

6.46

18

(5'e8) (4.s6) (3.es) (3.6r) (l:g)

2.5r

5.8r

(191) Q.;
G.22) rJ.ro;
'3.84
':.sr',
4.0r
6.35

o.oz

3.71
5.76

s,s9

(2.77) (2.50) Q.1s)

2.60
2.51
2.4s
2.35
2.28
2.08
(s'87) (4.46) (3g6) (3.5r) (3.2s) (1
1. 84
(3.01)
(?s-l)
(2.41) (2.0e)
1z.tt7
11)
ri.z'el
8'10
5'85
4'94
4.43
4.10
3.87
3.70

6.02

s.6g

4'30
3.44
3-05
2.82
2.66
2.5s
(s.7e) (4.38) (3.78) (3.44) (3.22) (:9:)

es3)

7'95
14'38

s'72
9'61

4-82
7.80

4'26

3.40

3.01

(s.72) (4.32) (37?

7. 82
14'03

5 .6 1
9.34

4' 23

3 .3 7

4 .7 2
7-s5

4'31
6.81

3.99
6.19

3.76
5.76

2.78

2.62

2.5r

2.46

3.56
5.44

3.37
5.08

3.23
4.82

2.86
4.r5

2.42
3.38

2.40

2.30

2.23

2.03

1.78

2.7s
3.s2

2.31
3.15

1.98

1.73

(?\1)

3.5g
5.44

3.45
5.19

2.42

2.36

(3.38) (3.15) (?22) Q.87) q7l)


4 .2 2
6.59

3 .90
5.98

3.67
5.55

3.50
5.23

3.36
4.9g

2 .9 8
2 .7 4
2 .5 g
2.47
2.32
(5.65) (4.27) (3.67) (3.33) (3.10) (?3-1) 2.3g
1z.zz1
q71)
7'72
'3.2g
5.53 4.64 4.r4
3.82 3.5g 3.42

28

eto1
3.26
4.83

3.12
4.58

2.2s

2.18

Q.64) ri.iit
3.17
4.64

3.03
4.3g

2.22

2.r5

QssT Q.4s)
3.09 2.s6

120

1. 69

(1.88)
2.13

6.41

5.80

5.3S

5.07

4.83

4.48

4.24

4. 20

3 .3 4

3.59

2.82

2 .9 5

2 .7 1

2 .5 6

2.45

2.36

2.2g

2.19

2.12

l .9r

1. 65

2.90
4.11

2.s2
3.46

2.06
2. 69

2.0g

1.S9

r.62

13. 50

8 -9 3

7 .r9

6 .2 5

5 .66

4'17

3.32

2.92

2.69

2.53

5.24

3.36
4.g3

3.23
4.69

2.42

2.33

2.27

2.16

Qss)
3.17

rz.sil
't.ti

Q.87) (?71)
3.47 3.30

4.35

13' 29

8.7 7

7 .0 5

6 .1 2

5 .5 3

5.12

4.82

4.s8

q.zq

4. 08

3. 2 3

2 .8 4

2 .6 1

2 .45

2.34

2.25

2.18

2.08

7 -31
12-61

s.r 8
8.25

4-31
6.59

3.83
5-70

3.51
5.13

4.00

3.r5

2.76

2.53

2.37

Q.74)
3.2s
4.73

3.12
'1g?,
4.44

2.r7
(s.2e) (3e3) (3.34) (3.01) (r^7nt 2.25 (?:l)
e.63)
7. 08
4.9 8
t 1. 97

7.7 7

4 .1 3
6 .1 7

3 92

3.0 7

2 .6 8

3 .6 5
5 .3 1

3 .3 4
4 .7 6

2 .4 5

2 .2 g

(s.rs) (3.80) (3.23) (2.8e) (?g?


6. 8s

1.95

(2.22)
2.s8

2. 21
2.g7

7-36

(s'42)" (4'05) (3.46) (3.13) (?2y

60

2.66
3.74

9'r2

(5'57) (4'18) (3'5e) (3.2s) (:


91)
7.s6
5.3e 4.s1
4.02 3.70

40

Q.27) (1.s4)

13'74

(5'61) (4'22) (3'63) (3.2s) (:99) (2.e0) (?.7^g)


1z.ey ri'\l
7.64
s-4s
4.s7
',.0t
4.07
3.7s
3.s3

30

ri.Zol (2.33) (2.00)

' . 38
3. 84

4.7 9
7.3 2

3 .9 s
5 .7 8

3 .4 8
4 .9 5

3 .r7
4 .4 2

3. 0 0

2 .6 0

2 .3 7

2 .2 1

3.r2
4.37

2.95
4.Og

2.18

2.0g

2.7g
3.77

2.s9
4.21

2.10

r?jy

2.82
3.86

2.02

2.66
3.55

2.tO
z.Ot
t.g4
(5'02) (3'6e) (3'r2) (2.7s) (?17) (2.4r)
r,?n)
{ltss
6. 63
4. 6 1
3 .7 8
3 .3 2
3 .0 2

10. 83

6. 9 1

5 .4 2

4 .6 2

4 .1 0

2.80
3.74

This table i" t*""

Sffil ifi":lf$$:::,Ttrtff"t":l#ff-:tf#*1*

2.64
3.47

Q 41) (2.14) (1.7e)


2.84
2.47
2.0r
4.00

3.36

2. sg

2.00

1.7g

1. 51

2.66
3.64

2.2e
3.01

r.80
2.23

r.g2

1.70

1.39

2.50
332

2.12
2.69

1. 60
1. 89

1.83

1.61

t . zs

2.34
3.02

1.95
2.40

1. 38
r . 54

1.75

t.S Z

1. 00

1.79
2.13

r . 00
1. 00

1z.sz7 <i.igl
(2.2s) (2.01) (r.64)
't.i'

Q.s2) (212) qg
2.s6
4.04

(2.4s) (2.17) (r.s3)

2.51
3.27

z.sl
1.99

r).zil
2.63
z.sq

1.91

ri.ii>
'z
qi
z.zq

1.83

(2.17) (1.88) (r.48)

(2.05) (1.76) (r.31)

(1e4) (1.64) (r.00)


rz.o\l
'2
32'
2.96

2.18
2.74

ti"" i"ti" ti'or'iio^"t,trorabtifor statisticians,Vorume


r, bypermission
or
2l

raulc I t_urlulartve rrlnomral frobabilities


p = probability of successin a single tial; n:
successesin n independenttrials. That is

number of trials. The table gives the probability of obtaining r or more

E(,)o'o-P)'-'
Whenthere is no entry for a particular pair of valuesof r ffid p, this indicatesthat tlre appropriateprobability is less
than 0.00005. Similarly,exceptfor the casei'= 0, whenthe entry is exact,a tabulatedvalue of t.bOOO
represents
a
probabilitygreaterthan 0.99995.
p:
n=2

0.01

r :0
I
2

n=5

r =0
I
2
J

4
n= l0

r=0
I
2
a
J

0.02

0.03

0.04

r=0
I
2

I
2
a

4
5
6
7
8
9

10
ll
T2
l3
t4

0.08

0.09

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


.0784 .0975 .t164
.1351 .1536 .1719
.0016 .0025 .0036
.0049 .0064 .0081.

1.0000 1.0000
.0490 .0961
.0010 .0038
.0001

1.0000
.14t3
.0085
.0003

1.0000
.1846
.0148
.0006

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


.2262 .2661 .3043
.3409
.3760
.0226 .0319 .042s
.0s44
.0674
.0012 .0020
.0031
.0045
.0063
,0001 .0001
.0002
.0003

1.0000 1.0000
.0956 .1829
.0043 .0t62
.0001 .0009

1.0000
.2626
.0345
.0028
.0001

1.0000
.3352
.0582
.0062
.0004

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


.40t3
.46t4
. 5 1 6 0 . 5 6 56 . 6 1 0 6
.0861 .1176 .1517 .1879 .2254
. 0 1 1 5 . 0 1 8 8 .0283
.0401
.0540
.0010 .0020
.0036 .0058 .0088
.0001

1.0000
.t821
.0169
.0010

1.0000
.3324
.0599
.0071
.0006

5
6
7
8
r :0

0.07

1.0000
.0591
.0009

n= 50

0.06

1.0000 1.0000
.0199 .0396
.0001 .0004

5
6
n=20

0.05

.0002

.0003

.0006

.0010
.0001

1.0000
.4562
. 11 9 8
.0210
.0027

r.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


.5580 .6415 .7099
. 7 6 5 8 . 8 11 3
.8484
.t897
.2642 .3395
.4131 .4831 .5484
. 0 4 3 9 . 0 7 5 5 . 1 1 5 0 .1610 .212t
.2666
.0074 .0159 .0290
.0471
.0706' .0993

.0003

.0010
.0001

.0026
.0003

.0056
.0009
0001

.0107
.0019
.0003

.0183
.0038
.0006
.0001

.0290
.0068
.0013
.0002

1.0000
.3950
.0894
.0138
.0016

1.0000
.6358
.2642
.0784
.0178

1.0000
.7 8 1 9
.4447
.1892
.0628

1.0000
.8701
.5995
.3233
.139t

1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000


.9231 .9547
.9734 .9845 .9910
.7206 .8100 .8735
.9t73
.9468
.4595 .5838
.6892
.t740
.8395
.2396 .3527
.4673
.5747
.6697

.0001

.0032
.0005
.0001

.0168
.0037
.0007
.0001

.0490
.0t44
.0036
.0008
.0001

.1036
.0378
.0118
.0032
.0008

.1794
.0776
.0289
.0094
.0027

.27t0
.13s0
.0583
.0220
.0073

.3710
.2081
. 1 0 19
.0438
.0t67

.4723
.2928
1596
.0768
.0328

.0002

.0007
.0002

.0022
.0006
.0001

.0056
.0017
.0005
.0001

.0125
.0043
.0013
.0004
.0001