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A simple design criterion for biaxially loaded columns

Autor(en): Objekttyp:

Menegotto, Marco / Pinto, Paolo E. Article

Zeitschrift:

IABSE reports of the working commissions = Rapports des commissions de travail AIPC = IVBH Berichte der Arbeitskommissionen

Band(Jahr): 17(1974)

Erstellt am: Dec 2, 2013 Persistenter Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.5169/seals-16495

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A Simple Design
Un
de

Criterion for Biaxially Loaded Columns


le

entere simple pour facon biaxiale

dimensionnement

de

colonnes chargees

Ein einfaches Kriterium fr zweiaxig exzentrisch belastete Stutzen

Paolo E. PINTO Marco MENEGOTTO di e Scienza Tecnica delle Costruzioni Istituto

University of Rome Rome, Italy

OBJECT.
The

biaxial
to

purpose

general loadings and restraints. Conditions for applicabiliload ty are: - the columns must have two major planes, - limit

failure
be

of of

the

reinforced concrete

criterion

is

to

check

the safety against slender columns subject

factors

can

major Diane.
an

The

determination, act together.


exact

determined for loadings acting separtely on each criterion orovides only a simplified check, not
of
the

limit

load

factor

when

both

loadings

DESCRIPTION.

Given

is

column,- with
to
one

different restraints

in

the
1

planes,
Systems

subject
of

lateral

fixed system of axial loads: loads: ^ and (Fig. 1).

two major and two

values of the multipliers a cHm and o % which se parately determine the limit State are calculated. The present criterion considers admissible a combination of Of + the two load Systems: ctx*X such that the following re a
the

First,

lationship

is

satisfied:
ax
<
^

au

with:

ax
ay

ctx/ctxlim

ay/aylim

or

equivalently:
ay<
1

Bg

SB

70

II

SIMPLE DESIGN CRITERION FOR BIAXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS

iZ

a
x

X j

aY y~

-&
Fig.
1

-mm

- Column

with

different restraints
above,
ay)
be

on

the

two

planes

The

that the point

inequalities
C

when

(a^.,

plotted internal to

as

in

Fig.

2,

the

triangle

imply 0-1-1

18

ax

Fig.
The

- Admissible

loading domain
by

factors
by
an

criterion itself does'nt specify


of

what
by

means
an

the load
or

major
of

planes

are

determined:
by
a

either
cases

"exact"
of

approximate
In

axial

fact,

analysis, or it just extends


a

code

formula.
any

to

biaxial

kind

uni

check

column.

Marco MENEGOTTO

- Paolo

E.

PINTO

71

COMMENTS.

Generally, the respective


When

loaded

cantilever column,
equivalent
to
a

analysis for the two separate directions, critical sections are not the same. these sections coincide, as for example in a biaxially
in

the

rion

is

diagram of the

section

itself

application 1inearization of
the

of

the

the

proposed crite reduced interaction

(Fig.

3).

^v
v

>^

Reduced interoction diogrom of the criticol section

\\

x \ \\ \

Lineorized interoction diogrom

Fig.

fact, several approximate expressions for reduced inte raction diagrams, including the linear, are in use today |1|, |4|. |5| ) When, instead, the "critical" sections of the two uniaxial loadings do not coincide, the criterion no longer refers to the interaction diagram of one section. For these cases, no adequate practical method or formulas exist to date. The following may be noted about the proposed criterion. It would provide very restrictive conditions for those li near elastic cases in which the effects of the two orthogonal deformations do not interfere: for example, if one considers deformed shapes shifted by quarter of wave, the actual limit load diagrams would approach the dotted rectangle in Fig. 2. For materials of non-linear behavior and shift of critical sections other than quarter, the actual diagram ordinarily lies between the triangle and the rectangle, so that the criterion is
In
a a

on

the

safe

side.

72

II

SIMPLE DESIGN CRITERION FOR BIAXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS

COMPARISONS.

empirical origin of the criterion requires numerical and experimental checks, for evaluating the degree of safety in different cases. A systematic investigation is currently under way, which makes use of rigorous methods of analysis recently set up |2|, |3|
The
As
a

columns
and

with

with

first results, cases coincidental critical sections critical sections wide apart.
sample
of

the

are presented of in the two planes,

A=25cm2

A=25cm2

ro
Ll5m
100

jlOO^
L=15m

L*10m

T<

fc

Ac

0.3

0 25

50

0 75

of

0 25

50

075

Fig.

Fig.

A=50cmz
e'cr
S5 %.

Nx

*ZScw?/h00l

V,
L=I5

L-IOm

100

L"I5
lF*

F.

fc

^=0.3 AC

fr

25

075

tx

0 25

0 50

0 75

5-

Fig.

Fig.
200

'f
Figs.
4,
5,
f

kg/cm2

fc

360

kg/cm2

=4000

Fig.

fy =16000

Marco MENEGOTTO

- Paolo
to

E.

PINTO

73

in the other. in Fig. 4 is acted by concentrated loads, while for the other two examples the loading consists of a distributed load in one plane and a couple in the other. The diagram in Fig. 7 shows a rectangular cantilever column with two different heights. The solid line diagrams refer to fai
one
The

and figures 4, plane and cantilevered


The
5

refer

columns

simply supported

in

column

calculated with unlimited compressive concrete strain, whe for the dotted lines the strain was limited to 3.5&. 15 The diagram relative to L the enters partially into in when the the This slendernesses can occur triangulr area. major planes are such that the column collapses for instability in one direction the materiaTs sti11 in the linear field-, - with while it undergoes a clear "material failure" in the other major plane. A trend can be caught from the examples presented: the ap proximation improves the more the "critical zones" in the two
lures
reas

planes

spread

into

each

other,

as

loading or of the

restraints,

or

consequence both.
a

of

the

way

of

CONCLUSIONS.

proposed criterion is that a very sim ple diagram checks the capacity of all the sections including the second order effects, once the uniaxial Problems have been soved. On the other hand, the criterion provides sometimes too re striktive values, namely for cases of linear materials and distant

advantage of the Operation in a Single


The

criterion could undoubtely be re fined by means of extensive numerical checks. It is feit, however, that in the present form it can be of use for those non Standard cases whose importance does not call for rigorous analysis.
For

critical sections

in

the

two

prineipal planes.

Standard

columns,

the

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.

This

work

forms

for the revision of the

part of the

studies supported by the C.N.R., Italian Code for Reinforced Concrete.

REFERENCES.

|1|

AAS-JAKOBSFN,

C.E.B.
and:

"Bulletin
Revision

A.- "Biaxial Eccentricities".


d

Information N.93":
at

Chapter M.42 of Buckling Manual,

proposed

the

Athens

Meeting,

April

1974.

74

II

SIMPLE DESIGN CRITERION FOR BIAXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS

|2|

MENEGOTTO,

- "Strength of Reinforced or Prestressed Concrete Slender Columns under Biaxial Load"


M.,
PINTO,

P.E.

IABSE IABSE

Symposium

Quebec

1974,

Preliminary

Report

Vol.
M.,

16.

|3|

MENEGOTTO,

bli shed.
|4|

PINTO, P.E. - "Hyperstatic Slender Columns under Biaxial Load" Istituto di Scienza e Tecnica delle Costruzioni, Univ. di Roma, Rep. N. 47, 1974, to be puRAFLA,

KORDINA,K.,
Techn.

K.,

HJORTH,

0.

druckgliedern unter schiefer Univ. Braunschweig, Juli


NIEVERS, Columns

- "Traglast von Stahlbeton Biegung mit Achsdruck" 1973.

|5|

PARME,

A.L., tangular
Vol.
63,

J.M., GOUWENS, A. - "Capacity of Rec Subject to Biaxial Bending" Proc. A.C.I.,

Sept.

1966

|6|

IABSE

"Design and Safety of Compression members"- Quebec, 1974 IABSE, Vol. 15.
Symposium -

Reinforced Concrete

Introductory Report

SUMMARY
A

load of

simplified criterion

interaction diagram.

is illustrated for checking the biaxial ultimate reinforced concrete slender columns, based on a linearization of the

RESUME
Un

colonnes
du

simple entere permet la elancees en beton arme;

verification
ce

de

la
base

diagramme

d'interaction.

entere est

charge ultime deviee de sur une lmeansation

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
Es wird ein vereinfachtes Kriterium zur Nachprfung der Tragfhigkeit schlanker Stahlbetonstutzen unter zweiaxig exzentrischer Last gegeben, welches auf einer Linearisierung des Interaktionsdiagramms beruht.