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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

Cahn Cain

that are. of great geographical interest. Some years fjefore his death Cahun ceased writing for the Parisian periodicals, but to the end he contributed to "Le Phare de la Loire." He left unfinished a history of the Arabs, and a historical novel dealing with the story of the Arabs. He was a member of several learned societies. s. Z. K. CAIAPHAS or CAIPHAS (Kdid^ac, a Greek word; in the Hebrew original, probably not SB'S, t>utf)'p; compare Mishnah Parah iii. 5; Derenbourg, "Essai sur l'Histoire de la Pal." p. 215, note 2; Schiirer, "Gesch." 3d ed., ii. 218); full name, JOSEPH CAIAPHAS (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 2, 2) Son-in law of the high priest Ananas or Annas (John xviii. 13); held that office himself through appointment of Valerius Gratus, about 18-36, hence for a longer period than several of his predecessors and successors. Luke iii. 2 speaks of two high priests, Annas and Caiaphas. The mention of the two at one and the same time has been a great stumbling-block to the commentators. John made a curious error (xi. 49, xviii. 13) in speaking of Caiaphas as the high priest " in that year," as if he interchanged every year with Annas. It appears that even while Caiaphas performed the duties of the office, the power of high priest lay in the hands of Annas. Caiaphas' historic importance lies in the fact that he is expressly mentioned by Matt. xxvi. 3, 57, and John xi. 49, xviii. 13, 24, 28, in connection with the crucifixion of Jesus, though not by Mark and Luke. After his arrest, however, Jesus was taken not to Caiaphas but to Annas (John xviii. 13 et seq.), who questioned him only privately. The actual trial took place on the next day, the eve of the Passover, before the twenty three members of the Sanhedrin over whom Caiaphas presided (Matt. xxvi. 57). Caiaphas is reported to have said on that occasion that it was expedient that one man should die for the people (John xviii. 14), a saying found also among the Rabbis (Gen. R. xciv. 9). The fact that Jesus was taken not to Caiaphas but to Annas is explained on the ground that the latter's palace was nearer the place of arrest than that of the former. Through the travels of Theodosius Archidiaconus, 530, it is known that there were 100 paces between the house of Caiaphas and the hall of judgment ("Nuovo Bull, di Arch. Crist." vi. 184, Rome, 1900). Peter and other disciples, however, being ignorant of the state of affairs, went to Caiaphas' house in the night. After Pontius' recall Caiaphas was removed by the new governor, Vitellius (Josephus, "Ant. "xviii. 4, 3), and was succeeded by Jonathan, who was the son of Anan (36) and perhaps a brother-in-law of Caiaphas. It was probably at this time that the meeting with the apostles took place, at which Caiaphas is mentioned as belonging to the high-priestly family (Acts iv. 6). It was said later in the Syrian Church that he had been converted to Christianity, and was identical with the historian Josephus Flavius (Assemani, "Bibl. Orient." ii. 156, iii. 522; Solomon of Bassora, "The Book of the Bee," ed. Budge, tr. p. 94). His house outside Jerusalem is still (1902) shown.

B I B L I O G R A P H Y : Commentaries on the Gospels, Z.c; Renan, La Vie de Jesus, eh. xxiv.; Edersheim, The Jewish Messiah, ii. 647; Strauss, Das Leben Jesu, iv. 30 et seq., ed. Bonn, 1895. a. S, KE. CAIN.1. Biblical Data: First-born of Adam and Eve, named " Cain " (" Kayin ") because " gotten " (root, "kanah") "with the help of Ynwn." He became a tiller of the ground, and made an offering of its fruits which YHWH did not accept, though He had accepted that of Abel. Cain Was angered, whereupon YHWH assured him that divine acceptance depended upon conduct. Cain slew Abel, and was cursed by YHWH so that the soil should yield no return to his labor, and he should be driven out to wander over the earth. At Cain's appeal YHWH " made to" him a sign, lest, any one finding him should smite him." Cain went forth to the land of Nod (Wandering), cast of Eden; his wife bore him a son Enoch, after whom he named a city which he had built. From him were descended Lamech, who is recorded as having married two wives; Jabal, who instituted nomad life; Jubal, who invented music; and Tubal-Cain, the inventor of metal weaponsi.e., the authors of material and social progress. K. AV. H. B. In Rabbinical Literature: Cain, the murderer of his brother Abel, presented to the views of the Rabbis two different types. One was that of a sinner who yielded to his passions, who was greedy, " offering to God only worthless portions; the remnants of his meal orflaxseed"; whom either God's favorable acceptance of Abel's sacrifice or Abel's handsomer wife and twin sister filled with jealousy; who, because he claimed the pasture-land or the wife of Abel as his birthright, quarreled with his brother. He was nevertheless sincere in his repentance when he said, "Too great is my sin [A. V., "punishment"] to bear" (Gen. iv. 13). and so the mark the Lord set upon him was a token of forgiveness. Like a man who had slain another without premeditation, he was sent into exile to atone for his sin (Sanh. 37b); and his crime wasfinallyatoned for when he met death through the falling upon him of his house (Book of Jubilees, iv. 31), or at the hands of his great-grandson Lamech, who took him for a wild beast in the distance and shot him (Tan., Bereshit, ed. Vienna, p. 6b, and Yalk. i. 38). Cain was also viewed as a type of utter perverseness, an offspring of Satan (Pirke R. El. xxi.), "a son of wrath " (Apoc. Mosis, 3), a lawless rebel who said, "There is neither a divine judgment nor a judge" (Midr. Lekah Tob and Targ. Yer. to Gen. iv. 8), whose words of repentance were insincere (Sanh. 101b; Tan.), whose fleeing from God was a denial of His omnipresence (Gen. R. xxii.), and whose punishment was of an., extraordinary character: for every hundred years of the seven hundred years he was to live was to inflict another punishment upon him; and all his generations must be exterminated (Test. Patr., Benjamin, 7, according to Gen. iv. 24; Enoch, xxii. 7). For him and his race shall ever be " the desire of the spirit of sin " (Gen. R. xx., after Gen. iv. 7). He is the first of those who have no share in the world to come (Ab. R. N. xii., ed. Schechter, p. 133). The seven generations of Cain, as the brood of Satan, are accordingly represented as types of rebels