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systems planning phase In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ usually begins

with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process. business model A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide. enterprise applications Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks. Modeling ____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify. O-O Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects. process-centered Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a(n) ____ technique. waterfall model Traditionally, the SDLC is pictured as a(n) ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, where the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase. object-oriented analysis The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable. SDLC Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____. adaptive The ____ method of developing systems stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values. tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do In launching a new information system, the greatest risk occurs when a company ____. systems support and security In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during ____, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system. methods properties. In object-oriented design, built-in processes called ____ can change an object's

business process reengineering (BPR) When companies attempt to simplify operations or reduce costs, a popular strategy is to have managers and systems analysts perform ____.

business process modeling Systems analysts use a process called ____ to represent a company's operations and information needs. Legacy systems When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____. 24 months Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore's Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-seed Internet access User productivity systems ____. False In a knowledge management system, a knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships. False Because they focus on a longer time frame, middle managers need less detailed information than top managers, but somewhat more than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations. True A corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business. True In the systems analysis phase, the first step is requirements modeling, where business processes are investigated and what the new system must do is documented. structured analysis Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together. Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly showing itself to be incapable of sticking with decisions. Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, Roark eliminates which of the following methods of development? agile/adaptive methods Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods, then, is he least likely to use, given what he knows about the disadvantages of each method?

economic A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs. have complex instructions A systems request form should not ____.

introduction In a preliminary investigation report, the ____ contain(s) a brief description of the system, the name of the person or group performing the investigation, and the name of the person or group who initiated the investigation. user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction of the following except a(n) ____. Examples of tangible benefits include all

Customer relationship management (CRM) ____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking. fishbone A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a(n) ____ diagram, which is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline. Strategic ____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources. determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview. SWOT During strategic planning, top managers ask a series of questions that is called a(n) ____ analysis because it examines a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. conduct interviews The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is to ____. Will the proposed system decrease revenue for the company? When assessing priorities for systems requests, a systems analyst should look for high scores in all of the following except ____. one person's bias is more likely to affect the decisions When evaluating systems requests, all of the following are disadvantages of a systems review committee except ____. define project scope as clearly as possible To avoid the problem of project creep, ____.

fishbone When using a ____ diagram to investigate causes of a problem, an analyst first states the problem and then draws a main bone with sub-bones that represent possible causes of the problem. discretionary projects. True Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called ____

Competition drives many information systems decisions.

False

Even if users have difficulty with a new system, it still will produce the expected benefits.

False When interacting with users, a systems analyst should focus on difficulties instead of questioning users about additional capability they would like to have. True Whenever possible, a systems analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values. Sales reps requested a more powerful sales analysis report. As part of the annual report for the fiscal year just ended, Lara is working on a grid that summarizes the major decisions that the small business for which she works made during the year. As part of her review, she is identifying whether a decision was impacted by factors internal to the company, or external.

Which of the following does not appear on Lara's list of external factors? The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction.Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc.

Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? TCO The estimated costs of a proposed system usually are considered the ____, which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs. operational feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers questions such as "Does management support the project?" and "Will the new system require training for users?" Creating a new report for a user ____ is an example of a discretionary project. preliminary A systems analyst conducts a(n) ____ investigation to study the systems request and recommend specific action. economic feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to the company in addition to costs. greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____. technical A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system.

findings In the preliminary investigation report, the ____ section contains the results of the preliminary investigation, including a description of the project's scope, constraints, and feasibility. Performance ____ limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced. scope Determining the project ____ means to define the boundaries, or extent, of a project being as specific as possible. False The purpose of an interview, and of the preliminary investigation itself, is to convince others that a project is justified, not to uncover facts. False Data entry controls should be excessive without being effective.

True If only one person has the necessary IT skills and experience to evaluate systems requests, that person should consult closely with users and managers throughout the company to ensure that business and operational needs are considered carefully. The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction.Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc.

Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? identify all tasksThe first step in creating a WBS is to ____. risk A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively.

milestones When maintaining schedules, if enough ____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly. successor When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, the concurrent tasks are called ____ tasks. identify all the project tasks The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____.

critical A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule. completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset All of the following are metrics of a successful project EXCEPT ____. critical Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track.

milestones In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project. all of the above task time estimates, sequences, personnel assignments A project manager must balance ____ to achieve a workable schedule; graphical planning aids like the one in the accompanying figure can help in the process. includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs planning _____. A project manager's

includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target For a project manager, monitoring and controlling _____. the team member most vulnerable to a given risk description of all of the following EXCEPT ____. all of the above project size and scope, prior experience with similar projects or systems, IT resources time and cost estimates, project managers must consider _____. any of the above personality conflicts among team members, turnover of project personnel, poor control methods Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate ____. groups The accompanying figure shows task ____, which each might represent several activities that can be shown in a more detailed chart. inaccurate TCO forecast All of the following are possible causes of cost overruns related to human resource factors EXCEPT ____. PERT/CPM Many project managers find ____ charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects. defining project constraints Project scheduling involves all of the following EXCEPT ____. In developing Most risk identifications include a brief

True Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later. True System developers can initiate a formal project as early as the preliminary investigation stage, or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur. True False Project planning is a dynamic task and involves constant change. When tasks must be completed one after another, they are called concurrent tasks.

They are predecessor tasks of each other. In discussing PERT/CPM charts, you discuss the types of task patterns that can occur in a project schedule. You give an example of two tasks, A and B, that can both begin as soon as task C is finished. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about tasks A and B? predecessor ____ task. Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a(n)

dependent task A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed. bottom-up PERT/CPM is called a(n) ____ technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks. concurrent When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a ____ task.

involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members A project manager's scheduling function _____. reference to successor tasks ____. response deal with it. False In a PERT/CPM chart, each task has all of the following EXCEPT a(n)

A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to

Using prior experience to make time and cost estimates works best for large projects.

False When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a predecessor task. True Although a Gantt chart provides more detailed information about a project, a PERT/CPM chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task. histogram A common tool for showing the distribution of a questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart called a(n) ____. use case diagram A(n) ____ is a UML technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system. more satisfied users ____. Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in

range-of-response questions In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale. actor In a use case diagram, the user becomes a(n) ____, with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with a system.

Student grades must be entered on machine-scannable forms prepared by the instructor a typical example of a system requirement for the input category.

____ is

systematic sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select every tenth customer for review. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps example of a system requirement for the output category. ____ is a typical

FDD Using a(n) ____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes. Analytical skills ____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution. FDD A(n) ____ is a top-down representation of a function or a process.

give the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed If an interviewee gives only short or incomplete responses to open-ended questions, a systems analyst should do all of the following EXCEPT ____. scrum In a(n) ____, team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives. systems analysis The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies. both a and b prototyping, user involvement RAD relies heavily on ____. open-ended questions In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses. True The ability to manage information is the mark of a successful systems analyst and an important skill for all IT professionals. False When fact-finding, asking what is being done is the same as asking what could or should be done.

False In the early stages of systems analysis, interviews usually focus on specific topics, but as the fact-finding process continues, the interviews are more general. True IT professionals recognize that successful systems must be user-oriented, and users need to be involved, formally or informally, at every stage of systems development. control Perry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team's new project, but unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categoriesor in some cases failed to categorize them correctlyso he needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly.

Perry has found one system requirement that he thinks could fit into a couple of different categories. What is the best categorization of this requirement: An employee record must be added, changed, or deleted only by a member of the human resources department? questionnaire In projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people, a(n) ____, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, can be a valuable tool. The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. UML The ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design. ____ is

The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator a typical example of a system requirement for the control category. closed-ended questions In an interview, ____ limit or restrict the response.

informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. TCO In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the ____. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. False When designing a questionnaire, arrange questions in a random order, intermixing simple and more complex topics. True The main objective of a sample is to ensure that it represents the overall population accurately.

True A list of topics should be sent to an interviewee several days before the meeting, especially when detailed information is needed, so the person can prepare for the interview and minimize the need for a follow-up meeting. his own Kieran has finished compiling the list of the various members of the JAD group: He is the JAD project leader, Malia is the representative from top management, Simon is a manager, Alisa and Ian are users, Shakira and Max are systems analysts, and Devon is the recorder.

As Kieran develops the agenda he wants to put the name of the appropriate person next to the agenda item. Whose name would he put next to the final task on the agenda, the task of preparing the report that will be sent to JAD team members? validity In a data dictionary, some data elements have ____ rules, such as an employee's salary must be within the range defined for the employee's job classification. logical In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically. no output A black hole process is a process that has ____.

a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes A black hole process is a process that has ____. tree A decision ____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table. Leveling ____ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed DFDs, until all functional primitives are identified. All of the above Spontaneous generation, Gray holes, Black holes ____ is/are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow. horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right Decision trees show the logic structure in a ____. capital DFD symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name. value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it records and describes a default value, which is the ____. The data dictionary usually

records In a data dictionary, data elements are combined into ____, which are meaningful combinations of data elements that are included in data flows or retained in data stores.

domain A data dictionary specifies a data element's ____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element. field In a data dictionary, a(n) ____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system. rectangle with rounded corners In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a ____. exploded view Because diagram 0 is a more detailed or expanded version of process 0 on a context diagram, diagram 0 is called a(n) ____. alias In a data dictionary, any name other than the standard data element name is called a(n) ____.

ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD Balancing ____. line with a single or double arrowhead In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a ____. False False In most data dictionaries, records are defined together with the data flows and data stores. Two data stores can be connected by a data flow without an intervening process.

True In addition to describing each data element, data flow, data store, record, entity, and process, the data dictionary documents the relationships among these components. False In modular design, a rectangle represents a condition or decision, a diamond shape represents a step or a process, and the logic follows the lines in the direction indicated by the arrows. Costs may be high. The analysts at Novel Systems Worldwide are considering the four-model approach to system development for a new client.

If they pursue the four-model approach, which of the following is a likely outcome? A teleological model of the current system The analysts at Novel Systems Worldwide are considering the four-model approach to system development for a new client.

Which of the following will NOT be developed if they decide to use the four-model approach? repository A data ____ is a central storehouse of information about a system's data.

line with a single or double arrowhead In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a ____. one or more process steps based on the results of a test or condition completion of ____ The selection structure is the

process descriptions If processes must be performed in a specific sequence, you document the information in the ____. Balancing ____ maintains consistency among DFDs by ensuring that input and output data flows align properly. context diagrams Typical process description tools include all of the following EXCEPT ____.

pseudocode Structured English might look familiar to programming students because it resembles ____, which is used in program design. decision A(n) ____ table shows a logical structure, with all possible combinations of conditions and resulting actions. rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional symbol for an entity is a ____. In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson

type In a data dictionary, ____ refers to whether the data element contains numeric, alphabetic, or character values. True What makes one system more complex than another is the number of components, the number of levels, and the degree of interaction among its processes, entities, data stores, and data flows. True In a DFD, a data flow must have a process symbol on at least one end.

iteration Evan is an expert on all of the different kinds of process description tools, so when his colleagues have questions, they know where to turn.

One of the firm's beginner analysts is working on a financial process that will continue to print vendor payments until it reaches the end of the file. Which of the following processes will Evan suggest that the analyst use? association oval The line from the actor to a use case is called a(n) ____.

The UML symbol for a use case is a(n) ____ with a label that describes the action or event. A ____ is a command that tells an object to perform a certain method. A use case ____ is a visual summary of several related use cases within a system or

message diagram subsystem. attributes 0..*

An object has certain ____, which are characteristics that describe the object.

The UML notation ____ identifies a zero or many relation.

object A(n) ____ represents a real person, place, event, or transaction.

Relationships ____ describe what objects need to know about each other, how objects respond to changes in other objects, and the effects of membership in classes, superclasses, and subclasses. instance Your red Mustang is a(n) ____ of the CAR class.

child Inheritance enables an object, called a ____, to derive one or more of its attributes from another object. inherit In an object-oriented system, objects can ____ certain attributes from other objects. class All objects within a(n) ____ share common attributes and methods.

Encapsulation ____ allows objects to be used as modular components anywhere in the system. class An object belongs to a group or category called a(n) ____.

Relationships ____ enable objects to communicate and interact as they perform business functions and transactions required by the system. methods actor state An object's ____ are the tasks or functions the object performs.

In a use case, an external entity is called a(n) ____. The ____ of an object is an adjective that describes the object's current status.

True A major advantage of O-O designs is that systems analysts can save time and avoid errors by using modular objects. False False An object treats data and processes separately. Use cases cannot interact with other use cases.

False Just as objects are similar to adjectives, attributes resemble verbs that describe what and how an object does something. True Class diagrams evolve into code modules, data objects, and other system components.

microwave oven Alex is getting a little confused by the terminology in the object-oriented world, so he consults his roommate, who has been doing a lot of work in object modeling in previous coursework.

Which of the following does Alex's roommate use as an example of an instance of the APPLIANCE class? methods Alex is getting a little confused by the terminology in the object-oriented world, so he consults his roommate, who has been doing a lot of work in object modeling in previous coursework.

The following examplesbake cakes, self-clean, and reheat pastaare all what with regard to the oven object, according to Alex's roommate? Methods ____ resemble verbs that describe what and how an object does something.

method Your car performs a(n) ____ called OPERATE WIPERS when you send a message by moving the proper control. UML actor ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting an information system. In a use case, an external entity is called a(n) ____.

True By limiting access to internal processes, an object prevents its internal code from being altered by another object or process. False False True The same message to two different objects produces the same results. An object treats data and processes separately. A gas pump is an example of a black box.

0..* Jaime, the newest analyst at Novel Systems Worldwide, is responsible for assigning the appropriate UML notations to a given class diagram.

In a given diagram, Jaime is marking up a relationship in which a given employee can have no payroll deductions or she can have many deductions. Which of the following notations will Jaime write to mark this relationship? ASP A(n) ____ is a firm that delivers a software application, or access to an application, by charging a usage or subscription fee. fixed fee model When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ uses a set fee based on a specified level of service and user support. vendorsCompanies that develop software for sale are called software ____. request for proposal (RFP) A ____ is a document that describes a company, lists the IT services or products needed, and specifies the features required. service A firm that offers outsourcing solutions is called a ____ provider. transaction A(n) ____ model is an outsourcing fee model that charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application. data duplication should be encouraged Guidelines to follow when determining data entry and storage considerations include all of the following except ____.

build or buy decision.

The choice between developing versus purchasing software often is called a ____

systems design The physical design is developed during the ____ phase of the SDLC. 4GL In a ____, the commands tend to resemble natural statements that people use.

middleware Web-based software usually requires additional layers, called ____, to communicate with existing software and legacy systems. obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software Typically, companies choose in-house software development for all of the following reasons except to ____. parameter A ____ is a value that the user enters whenever a query is run, which provides flexibility, enables users to access information easily, and costs less. default A ____ is a value that a system displays automatically. satisfaction of unique business requirements Advantages of purchasing a software package over developing software in-house include all of the following except ____. package provider. A software ____ is software that is obtained from a vendor or application service

cloud Some industry leaders predict that ____ computing will offer an overall online software and data environment supported by supercomputer technology. all of the above negotiating directly with the software vendor to make enhancements to meet the buyer's needs by paying for the changes, purchasing a basic package that vendors will customize to suit the buyer's needs, purchasing the software and making their own modifications, if this is permissible under the terms of the software license Buyers can customize a software package by ____. False The decision to develop software in-house will require less participation from the systems analyst than outsourcing or choosing a commercial package. False A subscription model charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application. True Many firms feel that in-house IT resources and capabilities provide a competitive advantage because an in-house team can respond quickly when business problems or opportunities arise. True Mission-critical IT systems should be outsourced only if the result is a cost-attractive, reliable, business solution that fits the company's long-term business strategy.

True Software vendors regularly upgrade software packages by adding improvements and enhancements to create a new version or release. design In an approach called ____ prototyping, systems analysts use prototyping to verify user requirements, after which the prototype is discarded and implementation continues. benchmark A ____ measures the time a package takes to process a certain number of transactions.

interface In addition to configuring software, an IT staff can create a user ____, which includes screens, commands, controls, and features that enable users to interact more effectively with the application. Web-based Building an application in a ____ environment can offer greater benefits, and sometimes greater risks, compared to a traditional environment. Prototyping ____, like that illustrated in the accompanying figure, produces an early, rapidly constructed working version of a proposed system. Outsourcing ____ is the transfer of information systems development, operation, or maintenance to an outside firm that provides these services, for a fee, on a temporary or long-term basis. read-only properties Some data files should be totally hidden from view, while others should have ____ so users can view, but not change, the data. .NET Microsoft's ____ is one of the major Web-based development environments.

True Building an application in a Web-based environment might involve different risks and benefits, compared to a traditional environment. False A request for quotation (RFQ) is less specific than an RFP (request for proposal).

True By designing a system in-house, companies can develop and train an IT staff that understands the organization's business functions and information support needs. True The primary objective of an evaluation and selection team is to eliminate system alternatives that will not work, rank the system alternatives that will work, and present the viable alternatives to management for a final decision. Data duplication should be encouraged. Now that they have joined the firm, Priscilla is providing the junior analysts on the team with some real-world illustrations to explain some of the system design concepts that they have studied in their coursework, to solidify their understanding.

Which of the following is NOT a guideline Priscilla will impart to the new class of analysts?

When Marny is tasked with the job, her output can involve outright purchase or a variety of leasing options. You have started the process of selecting a new system for the firm and you are weighing all of the various issues that need to be considered and the resources you have at your disposal as you make this important decision.

As you prepare to winnow the field in your selection of a new system, you want a quick refresher on the difference between RFPs and RFQs. If you need an RFP, Simone will write it, and if you need an RFQ, Marny is responsible for writing that. Which of the following is true?

systems planning phase In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process. business model A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide. enterprise applications Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks. Modeling ____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify. O-O Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects. process-centered Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a(n) ____ technique.

waterfall model Traditionally, the SDLC is pictured as a(n) ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, where the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase. object-oriented analysis The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable. SDLC Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____. adaptive The ____ method of developing systems stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values. tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do In launching a new information system, the greatest risk occurs when a company ____. systems support and security In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during ____, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system. methods In object-oriented design, built-in processes called ____ can change an object's properties.

business process reengineering (BPR) When companies attempt to simplify operations or reduce costs, a popular strategy is to have managers and systems analysts perform ____. business process modeling Systems analysts use a process called ____ to represent a company's operations and information needs. Legacy systems When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____. 24 months Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore's Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-seed Internet access User productivity systems ____. False In a knowledge management system, a knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships. False Because they focus on a longer time frame, middle managers need less detailed information than top managers, but somewhat more than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations. True A corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business.

True In the systems analysis phase, the first step is requirements modeling, where business processes are investigated and what the new system must do is documented. structured analysis Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together. Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly showing itself to be incapable of sticking with decisions. Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, Roark eliminates which of the following methods of development? agile/adaptive methods Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods, then, is he least likely to use, given what he knows about the disadvantages of each method? economic A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that the projected

benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs. have complex instructions A systems request form should not ____. introduction In a preliminary investigation report, the ____ contain(s) a brief description of the system, the name of the person or group performing the investigation, and the name of the person or group who initiated the investigation. user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction Examples of tangible benefits include all of the following except a(n) ____. Customer relationship management (CRM) ____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking. fishbone A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a(n) ____ diagram, which is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline. Strategic ____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources. determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview. SWOT

During strategic planning, top managers ask a series of questions that is called a(n) ____ analysis because it examines a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. conduct interviews The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is to ____. Will the proposed system decrease revenue for the company? When assessing priorities for systems requests, a systems analyst should look for high scores in all of the following except ____. one person's bias is more likely to affect the decisions When evaluating systems requests, all of the following are disadvantages of a systems review committee except ____. define project scope as clearly as possible To avoid the problem of project creep, ____. fishbone When using a ____ diagram to investigate causes of a problem, an analyst first states the problem and then draws a main bone with subbones that represent possible causes of the problem. discretionary Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called ____ projects. True Competition drives many information systems decisions. False Even if users have difficulty with a new system, it still will produce the expected benefits.

False When interacting with users, a systems analyst should focus on difficulties instead of questioning users about additional capability they would like to have. True Whenever possible, a systems analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values. Sales reps requested a more powerful sales analysis report. As part of the annual report for the fiscal year just ended, Lara is working on a grid that summarizes the major decisions that the small business for which she works made during the year. As part of her review, she is identifying whether a decision was impacted by factors internal to the company, or external. Which of the following does not appear on Lara's list of external factors? The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction. Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc. Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? TCO The estimated costs of a proposed system usually are considered the ____, which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs. operational feasibility

Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers questions such as "Does management support the project?" and "Will the new system require training for users?" Creating a new report for a user ____ is an example of a discretionary project. preliminary A systems analyst conducts a(n) ____ investigation to study the systems request and recommend specific action. economic feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to the company in addition to costs. greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____. technical A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system. findings In the preliminary investigation report, the ____ section contains the results of the preliminary investigation, including a description of the project's scope, constraints, and feasibility. Performance ____ limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced.

scope Determining the project ____ means to define the boundaries, or extent, of a project being as specific as possible. False The purpose of an interview, and of the preliminary investigation itself, is to convince others that a project is justified, not to uncover facts. False Data entry controls should be excessive without being effective. True If only one person has the necessary IT skills and experience to evaluate systems requests, that person should consult closely with users and managers throughout the company to ensure that business and operational needs are considered carefully. The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction. Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc. Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? identify all tasks The first step in creating a WBS is to ____. risk A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively.

milestones When maintaining schedules, if enough ____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly. successor When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, the concurrent tasks are called ____ tasks. identify all the project tasks The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____. critical A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule. completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset All of the following are metrics of a successful project EXCEPT ____. critical Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track. milestones In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project. all of the above task time estimates, sequences, personnel assignments A project manager must balance ____ to achieve a workable schedule; graphical planning aids like the one in the accompanying figure can help in the process. includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

A project manager's planning _____. includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target For a project manager, monitoring and controlling _____. the team member most vulnerable to a given risk Most risk identifications include a brief description of all of the following EXCEPT ____. all of the above project size and scope, prior experience with similar projects or systems, IT resources In developing time and cost estimates, project managers must consider _____. any of the above personality conflicts among team members, turnover of project personnel, poor control methods Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate ____. groups The accompanying figure shows task ____, which each might represent several activities that can be shown in a more detailed chart. inaccurate TCO forecast All of the following are possible causes of cost overruns related to human resource factors EXCEPT ____. PERT/CPM Many project managers find ____ charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects. defining project constraints

Project scheduling involves all of the following EXCEPT ____. True Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later. True System developers can initiate a formal project as early as the preliminary investigation stage, or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur. True Project planning is a dynamic task and involves constant change. False When tasks must be completed one after another, they are called concurrent tasks. They are predecessor tasks of each other. In discussing PERT/CPM charts, you discuss the types of task patterns that can occur in a project schedule. You give an example of two tasks, A and B, that can both begin as soon as task C is finished. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about tasks A and B? predecessor Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a(n) ____ task. dependent task A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed. bottom-up PERT/CPM is called a(n) ____ technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks. concurrent

When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a ____ task. involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members A project manager's scheduling function _____. reference to successor tasks In a PERT/CPM chart, each task has all of the following EXCEPT a(n) ____. response A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to deal with it. False Using prior experience to make time and cost estimates works best for large projects. False When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a predecessor task. True Although a Gantt chart provides more detailed information about a project, a PERT/CPM chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task. histogram A common tool for showing the distribution of a questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart called a(n) ____. use case diagram A(n) ____ is a UML technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system. more satisfied users

Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in ____. range-of-response questions In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale. actor In a use case diagram, the user becomes a(n) ____, with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with a system. Student grades must be entered on machinescannable forms prepared by the instructor ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the input category. systematic sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select every tenth customer for review. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers.

The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the output category. FDD Using a(n) ____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes. Analytical skills ____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution. FDD A(n) ____ is a top-down representation of a function or a process. give the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed If an interviewee gives only short or incomplete responses to open-ended questions, a systems analyst should do all of the following EXCEPT ____. scrum In a(n) ____, team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives. systems analysis The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies. both a and b prototyping, user involvement RAD relies heavily on ____. open-ended questions In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses.

True The ability to manage information is the mark of a successful systems analyst and an important skill for all IT professionals. False When fact-finding, asking what is being done is the same as asking what could or should be done. False In the early stages of systems analysis, interviews usually focus on specific topics, but as the fact-finding process continues, the interviews are more general. True IT professionals recognize that successful systems must be user-oriented, and users need to be involved, formally or informally, at every stage of systems development. control Perry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team's new project, but unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categoriesor in some cases failed to categorize them correctly so he needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly. Perry has found one system requirement that he thinks could fit into a couple of different categories. What is the best categorization of this requirement: An employee record must be added, changed, or deleted only by a member of the human resources department? questionnaire In projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people, a(n) ____, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, can be a valuable tool.

The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. UML The ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design. The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the control category. closed-ended questions In an interview, ____ limit or restrict the response. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. TCO In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the ____. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes.

False When designing a questionnaire, arrange questions in a random order, intermixing simple and more complex topics. True The main objective of a sample is to ensure that it represents the overall population accurately. True A list of topics should be sent to an interviewee several days before the meeting, especially when detailed information is needed, so the person can prepare for the interview and minimize the need for a follow-up meeting. his own Kieran has finished compiling the list of the various members of the JAD group: He is the JAD project leader, Malia is the representative from top management, Simon is a manager, Alisa and Ian are users, Shakira and Max are systems analysts, and Devon is the recorder. As Kieran develops the agenda he wants to put the name of the appropriate person next to the agenda item. Whose name would he put next to the final task on the agenda, the task of preparing the report that will be sent to JAD team members? validity In a data dictionary, some data elements have ____ rules, such as an employee's salary must be within the range defined for the employee's job classification. logical In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically. no output A black hole process is a process that has ____.

a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes A black hole process is a process that has ____. tree A decision ____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table. Leveling ____ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed DFDs, until all functional primitives are identified. All of the above Spontaneous generation, Gray holes, Black holes ____ is/are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow. horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right Decision trees show the logic structure in a ____. capital DFD symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name. value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it The data dictionary usually records and describes a default value, which is the ____. records In a data dictionary, data elements are combined into ____, which are meaningful combinations of data elements that are included in data flows or retained in data stores. domain

A data dictionary specifies a data element's ____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element. field In a data dictionary, a(n) ____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system. rectangle with rounded corners In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a ____. exploded view Because diagram 0 is a more detailed or expanded version of process 0 on a context diagram, diagram 0 is called a(n) ____. alias In a data dictionary, any name other than the standard data element name is called a(n) ____. ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD Balancing ____.
systems planning phase In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process. business model A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide. enterprise applications Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks. Modeling ____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify. O-O Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects. process-centered Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a(n) ____ technique.

waterfall model Traditionally, the SDLC is pictured as a(n) ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, where the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase. object-oriented analysis The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable. SDLC Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____. adaptive The ____ method of developing systems stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values. tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do In launching a new information system, the greatest risk occurs when a company ____. systems support and security In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during ____, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system. methods properties. In object-oriented design, built-in processes called ____ can change an object's

business process reengineering (BPR) When companies attempt to simplify operations or reduce costs, a popular strategy is to have managers and systems analysts perform ____. business process modeling Systems analysts use a process called ____ to represent a company's operations and information needs. Legacy systems When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____. 24 months Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore's Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-seed Internet access User productivity systems ____. False In a knowledge management system, a knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships. False Because they focus on a longer time frame, middle managers need less detailed information than top managers, but somewhat more than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations.

True A corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business. True In the systems analysis phase, the first step is requirements modeling, where business processes are investigated and what the new system must do is documented. structured analysis Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together. Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly showing itself to be incapable of sticking with decisions. Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, Roark eliminates which of the following methods of development? agile/adaptive methods Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods, then, is he least likely to use, given what he knows about the disadvantages of each method? economic A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs. have complex instructions A systems request form should not ____.

introduction In a preliminary investigation report, the ____ contain(s) a brief description of the system, the name of the person or group performing the investigation, and the name of the person or group who initiated the investigation. user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction of the following except a(n) ____. Examples of tangible benefits include all

Customer relationship management (CRM) ____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking. fishbone A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a(n) ____ diagram, which is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline.

Strategic ____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources. determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview. SWOT During strategic planning, top managers ask a series of questions that is called a(n) ____ analysis because it examines a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. conduct interviews The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is to ____. Will the proposed system decrease revenue for the company? When assessing priorities for systems requests, a systems analyst should look for high scores in all of the following except ____. one person's bias is more likely to affect the decisions When evaluating systems requests, all of the following are disadvantages of a systems review committee except ____. define project scope as clearly as possible To avoid the problem of project creep, ____.

fishbone When using a ____ diagram to investigate causes of a problem, an analyst first states the problem and then draws a main bone with sub-bones that represent possible causes of the problem. discretionary projects. True False Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called ____

Competition drives many information systems decisions. Even if users have difficulty with a new system, it still will produce the expected benefits.

False When interacting with users, a systems analyst should focus on difficulties instead of questioning users about additional capability they would like to have. True Whenever possible, a systems analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values. Sales reps requested a more powerful sales analysis report. As part of the annual report for the fiscal year just ended, Lara is working on a grid that summarizes the major decisions that the small business for which she works made during the year. As part of her review, she is identifying whether a decision was impacted by factors internal to the company, or external.

Which of the following does not appear on Lara's list of external factors?

The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction.Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc.

Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? TCO The estimated costs of a proposed system usually are considered the ____, which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs. operational feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers questions such as "Does management support the project?" and "Will the new system require training for users?" Creating a new report for a user ____ is an example of a discretionary project. preliminary A systems analyst conducts a(n) ____ investigation to study the systems request and recommend specific action. economic feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to the company in addition to costs. greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____. technical A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system. findings In the preliminary investigation report, the ____ section contains the results of the preliminary investigation, including a description of the project's scope, constraints, and feasibility. Performance ____ limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced. scope Determining the project ____ means to define the boundaries, or extent, of a project being as specific as possible. False The purpose of an interview, and of the preliminary investigation itself, is to convince others that a project is justified, not to uncover facts. False Data entry controls should be excessive without being effective.

True If only one person has the necessary IT skills and experience to evaluate systems requests, that person should consult closely with users and managers throughout the company to ensure that business and operational needs are considered carefully. The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction.Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc.

Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? identify all tasksThe first step in creating a WBS is to ____. risk A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively.

milestones When maintaining schedules, if enough ____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly. successor When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, the concurrent tasks are called ____ tasks. identify all the project tasks The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____.

critical A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule. completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset All of the following are metrics of a successful project EXCEPT ____. critical Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track. milestones In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project. all of the above task time estimates, sequences, personnel assignments A project manager must balance ____ to achieve a workable schedule; graphical planning aids like the one in the accompanying figure can help in the process. includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs planning _____. A project manager's

includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target For a project manager, monitoring and controlling _____. the team member most vulnerable to a given risk description of all of the following EXCEPT ____. all of the above project size and scope, prior experience with similar projects or systems, IT resources time and cost estimates, project managers must consider _____. any of the above personality conflicts among team members, turnover of project personnel, poor control methods Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate ____. groups The accompanying figure shows task ____, which each might represent several activities that can be shown in a more detailed chart. inaccurate TCO forecast All of the following are possible causes of cost overruns related to human resource factors EXCEPT ____. PERT/CPM Many project managers find ____ charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects. defining project constraints Project scheduling involves all of the following EXCEPT ____. In developing Most risk identifications include a brief

True Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later. True System developers can initiate a formal project as early as the preliminary investigation stage, or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur. True False Project planning is a dynamic task and involves constant change. When tasks must be completed one after another, they are called concurrent tasks.

They are predecessor tasks of each other. In discussing PERT/CPM charts, you discuss the types of task patterns that can occur in a project schedule. You give an example of two tasks, A and B, that can both begin as soon as task C is finished. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about tasks A and B? predecessor ____ task. Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a(n)

dependent task A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed.

bottom-up PERT/CPM is called a(n) ____ technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks. concurrent When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a ____ task.

involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members A project manager's scheduling function _____. reference to successor tasks ____. response deal with it. False In a PERT/CPM chart, each task has all of the following EXCEPT a(n)

A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to

Using prior experience to make time and cost estimates works best for large projects.

False When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a predecessor task. True Although a Gantt chart provides more detailed information about a project, a PERT/CPM chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task. histogram A common tool for showing the distribution of a questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart called a(n) ____. use case diagram A(n) ____ is a UML technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system. more satisfied users ____. Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in

range-of-response questions In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale. actor In a use case diagram, the user becomes a(n) ____, with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with a system. Student grades must be entered on machine-scannable forms prepared by the instructor a typical example of a system requirement for the input category. ____ is

systematic sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select every tenth customer for review. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart.

stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps example of a system requirement for the output category. ____ is a typical

FDD Using a(n) ____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes. Analytical skills ____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution. FDD A(n) ____ is a top-down representation of a function or a process.

give the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed If an interviewee gives only short or incomplete responses to open-ended questions, a systems analyst should do all of the following EXCEPT ____. scrum In a(n) ____, team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives. systems analysis The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies. both a and b prototyping, user involvement RAD relies heavily on ____. open-ended questions In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses. True The ability to manage information is the mark of a successful systems analyst and an important skill for all IT professionals. False When fact-finding, asking what is being done is the same as asking what could or should be done. False In the early stages of systems analysis, interviews usually focus on specific topics, but as the fact-finding process continues, the interviews are more general. True IT professionals recognize that successful systems must be user-oriented, and users need to be involved, formally or informally, at every stage of systems development. control Perry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team's new project, but unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categoriesor in some

cases failed to categorize them correctlyso he needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly.

Perry has found one system requirement that he thinks could fit into a couple of different categories. What is the best categorization of this requirement: An employee record must be added, changed, or deleted only by a member of the human resources department? questionnaire In projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people, a(n) ____, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, can be a valuable tool. The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. UML The ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design. ____ is

The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator a typical example of a system requirement for the control category. closed-ended questions In an interview, ____ limit or restrict the response.

informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. TCO In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the ____. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. False When designing a questionnaire, arrange questions in a random order, intermixing simple and more complex topics. True The main objective of a sample is to ensure that it represents the overall population accurately.

True A list of topics should be sent to an interviewee several days before the meeting, especially when detailed information is needed, so the person can prepare for the interview and minimize the need for a follow-up meeting. his own Kieran has finished compiling the list of the various members of the JAD group: He is the JAD project leader, Malia is the representative from top management, Simon is a manager, Alisa and Ian are users, Shakira and Max are systems analysts, and Devon is the recorder.

As Kieran develops the agenda he wants to put the name of the appropriate person next to the agenda item. Whose name would he put next to the final task on the agenda, the task of preparing the report that will be sent to JAD team members? validity In a data dictionary, some data elements have ____ rules, such as an employee's salary must be within the range defined for the employee's job classification. logical In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically. no output A black hole process is a process that has ____.

a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes A black hole process is a process that has ____. tree A decision ____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table. Leveling ____ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed DFDs, until all functional primitives are identified. All of the above Spontaneous generation, Gray holes, Black holes ____ is/are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow. horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right Decision trees show the logic structure in a ____. capital DFD symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name. value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it records and describes a default value, which is the ____. The data dictionary usually

records In a data dictionary, data elements are combined into ____, which are meaningful combinations of data elements that are included in data flows or retained in data stores. domain A data dictionary specifies a data element's ____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element. field In a data dictionary, a(n) ____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system. rectangle with rounded corners In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a ____.

exploded view Because diagram 0 is a more detailed or expanded version of process 0 on a context diagram, diagram 0 is called a(n) ____. alias In a data dictionary, any name other than the standard data element name is called a(n) ____.

ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD Balancing ____. line with a single or double arrowhead In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a ____. False False In most data dictionaries, records are defined together with the data flows and data stores. Two data stores can be connected by a data flow without an intervening process.

True In addition to describing each data element, data flow, data store, record, entity, and process, the data dictionary documents the relationships among these components. False In modular design, a rectangle represents a condition or decision, a diamond shape represents a step or a process, and the logic follows the lines in the direction indicated by the arrows. Costs may be high. The analysts at Novel Systems Worldwide are considering the four-model approach to system development for a new client.

If they pursue the four-model approach, which of the following is a likely outcome? A teleological model of the current system The analysts at Novel Systems Worldwide are considering the four-model approach to system development for a new client.

Which of the following will NOT be developed if they decide to use the four-model approach? repository A data ____ is a central storehouse of information about a system's data.

line with a single or double arrowhead In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a data flow is a ____. one or more process steps based on the results of a test or condition completion of ____ The selection structure is the

process descriptions If processes must be performed in a specific sequence, you document the information in the ____. Balancing ____ maintains consistency among DFDs by ensuring that input and output data flows align properly. context diagrams Typical process description tools include all of the following EXCEPT ____.

pseudocode Structured English might look familiar to programming students because it resembles ____, which is used in program design. decision A(n) ____ table shows a logical structure, with all possible combinations of conditions and resulting actions. rectangle, which may be shaded to make it look three-dimensional symbol for an entity is a ____. In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson

type In a data dictionary, ____ refers to whether the data element contains numeric, alphabetic, or character values. True What makes one system more complex than another is the number of components, the number of levels, and the degree of interaction among its processes, entities, data stores, and data flows. True In a DFD, a data flow must have a process symbol on at least one end.

iteration Evan is an expert on all of the different kinds of process description tools, so when his colleagues have questions, they know where to turn.

One of the firm's beginner analysts is working on a financial process that will continue to print vendor payments until it reaches the end of the file. Which of the following processes will Evan suggest that the analyst use? association oval The line from the actor to a use case is called a(n) ____.

The UML symbol for a use case is a(n) ____ with a label that describes the action or event. A ____ is a command that tells an object to perform a certain method. A use case ____ is a visual summary of several related use cases within a system or

message diagram subsystem. attributes 0..*

An object has certain ____, which are characteristics that describe the object.

The UML notation ____ identifies a zero or many relation.

object A(n) ____ represents a real person, place, event, or transaction. Relationships ____ describe what objects need to know about each other, how objects respond to changes in other objects, and the effects of membership in classes, superclasses, and subclasses. instance Your red Mustang is a(n) ____ of the CAR class.

child Inheritance enables an object, called a ____, to derive one or more of its attributes from another object.

inherit In an object-oriented system, objects can ____ certain attributes from other objects. class All objects within a(n) ____ share common attributes and methods.

Encapsulation ____ allows objects to be used as modular components anywhere in the system. class An object belongs to a group or category called a(n) ____.

Relationships ____ enable objects to communicate and interact as they perform business functions and transactions required by the system. methods actor state An object's ____ are the tasks or functions the object performs.

In a use case, an external entity is called a(n) ____. The ____ of an object is an adjective that describes the object's current status.

True A major advantage of O-O designs is that systems analysts can save time and avoid errors by using modular objects. False False An object treats data and processes separately. Use cases cannot interact with other use cases.

False Just as objects are similar to adjectives, attributes resemble verbs that describe what and how an object does something. True Class diagrams evolve into code modules, data objects, and other system components.

microwave oven Alex is getting a little confused by the terminology in the object-oriented world, so he consults his roommate, who has been doing a lot of work in object modeling in previous coursework.

Which of the following does Alex's roommate use as an example of an instance of the APPLIANCE class? methods Alex is getting a little confused by the terminology in the object-oriented world, so he consults his roommate, who has been doing a lot of work in object modeling in previous coursework.

The following examplesbake cakes, self-clean, and reheat pastaare all what with regard to the oven object, according to Alex's roommate? Methods ____ resemble verbs that describe what and how an object does something.

method Your car performs a(n) ____ called OPERATE WIPERS when you send a message by moving the proper control.

UML actor

____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting an information system. In a use case, an external entity is called a(n) ____.

True By limiting access to internal processes, an object prevents its internal code from being altered by another object or process. False False True The same message to two different objects produces the same results. An object treats data and processes separately. A gas pump is an example of a black box.

0..* Jaime, the newest analyst at Novel Systems Worldwide, is responsible for assigning the appropriate UML notations to a given class diagram.

In a given diagram, Jaime is marking up a relationship in which a given employee can have no payroll deductions or she can have many deductions. Which of the following notations will Jaime write to mark this relationship? ASP A(n) ____ is a firm that delivers a software application, or access to an application, by charging a usage or subscription fee. fixed fee model When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ uses a set fee based on a specified level of service and user support. vendorsCompanies that develop software for sale are called software ____. request for proposal (RFP) A ____ is a document that describes a company, lists the IT services or products needed, and specifies the features required. service A firm that offers outsourcing solutions is called a ____ provider. transaction A(n) ____ model is an outsourcing fee model that charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application. data duplication should be encouraged Guidelines to follow when determining data entry and storage considerations include all of the following except ____. build or buy decision. The choice between developing versus purchasing software often is called a ____

systems design The physical design is developed during the ____ phase of the SDLC. 4GL In a ____, the commands tend to resemble natural statements that people use.

middleware Web-based software usually requires additional layers, called ____, to communicate with existing software and legacy systems. obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software Typically, companies choose in-house software development for all of the following reasons except to ____. parameter A ____ is a value that the user enters whenever a query is run, which provides flexibility, enables users to access information easily, and costs less. default A ____ is a value that a system displays automatically. satisfaction of unique business requirements Advantages of purchasing a software package over developing software in-house include all of the following except ____. package provider. A software ____ is software that is obtained from a vendor or application service

cloud Some industry leaders predict that ____ computing will offer an overall online software and data environment supported by supercomputer technology. all of the above negotiating directly with the software vendor to make enhancements to meet the buyer's needs by paying for the changes, purchasing a basic package that vendors will customize to suit the buyer's needs, purchasing the software and making their own modifications, if this is permissible under the terms of the software license Buyers can customize a software package by ____. False The decision to develop software in-house will require less participation from the systems analyst than outsourcing or choosing a commercial package. False A subscription model charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application. True Many firms feel that in-house IT resources and capabilities provide a competitive advantage because an in-house team can respond quickly when business problems or opportunities arise. True Mission-critical IT systems should be outsourced only if the result is a cost-attractive, reliable, business solution that fits the company's long-term business strategy. True Software vendors regularly upgrade software packages by adding improvements and enhancements to create a new version or release. design In an approach called ____ prototyping, systems analysts use prototyping to verify user requirements, after which the prototype is discarded and implementation continues. benchmark A ____ measures the time a package takes to process a certain number of transactions.

interface In addition to configuring software, an IT staff can create a user ____, which includes screens, commands, controls, and features that enable users to interact more effectively with the application. Web-based Building an application in a ____ environment can offer greater benefits, and sometimes greater risks, compared to a traditional environment. Prototyping ____, like that illustrated in the accompanying figure, produces an early, rapidly constructed working version of a proposed system. Outsourcing ____ is the transfer of information systems development, operation, or maintenance to an outside firm that provides these services, for a fee, on a temporary or long-term basis. read-only properties Some data files should be totally hidden from view, while others should have ____ so users can view, but not change, the data. .NET Microsoft's ____ is one of the major Web-based development environments.

True Building an application in a Web-based environment might involve different risks and benefits, compared to a traditional environment. False A request for quotation (RFQ) is less specific than an RFP (request for proposal).

True By designing a system in-house, companies can develop and train an IT staff that understands the organization's business functions and information support needs. True The primary objective of an evaluation and selection team is to eliminate system alternatives that will not work, rank the system alternatives that will work, and present the viable alternatives to management for a final decision. Data duplication should be encouraged. Now that they have joined the firm, Priscilla is providing the junior analysts on the team with some real-world illustrations to explain some of the system design concepts that they have studied in their coursework, to solidify their understanding.

Which of the following is NOT a guideline Priscilla will impart to the new class of analysts? When Marny is tasked with the job, her output can involve outright purchase or a variety of leasing options. You have started the process of selecting a new system for the firm and you are weighing all of the various issues that need to be considered and the resources you have at your disposal as you make this important decision.

As you prepare to winnow the field in your selection of a new system, you want a quick refresher on the difference between RFPs and RFQs. If you need an RFP, Simone will write it, and if you need an RFQ, Marny is responsible for writing that. Which of the following is true?

systems planning phase In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a systems request, which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process. business model A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide. enterprise applications Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks. Modeling ____ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify. O-O Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects. process-centered Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a(n) ____ technique. waterfall model Traditionally, the SDLC is pictured as a(n) ____, like that shown in the accompanying figure, where the result of each phase, which is called a deliverable or end product, flows sequentially into the next phase.

object-oriented analysis The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable. SDLC Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system. provide direction, necessary resources, and performance feedback to supervisors and team leaders In a typical company organizational model, middle managers ____. adaptive The ____ method of developing systems stresses team interaction and reflects a set of community-based values. tries to decide how the system will be implemented before determining what the system is supposed to do In launching a new information system, the greatest risk occurs when a company ____. systems support and security In the model of the SDLC shown in the accompanying figure, during ____, the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system. methods In object-oriented design, built-in processes called ____ can change an object's properties. business process reengineering (BPR) When companies attempt to simplify operations or reduce costs, a popular strategy is to have managers and systems analysts perform ____. business process modeling

Systems analysts use a process called ____ to represent a company's operations and information needs. Legacy systems When planning an information system, a company must consider how a new system will interface with older systems, which are called ____. 24 months Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore's Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____. include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, and high-seed Internet access User productivity systems ____. False In a knowledge management system, a knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships. False Because they focus on a longer time frame, middle managers need less detailed information than top managers, but somewhat more than supervisors who oversee day-to-day operations. True A corporate culture is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business. True In the systems analysis phase, the first step is requirements modeling, where business processes are investigated and what the new system must do is documented.

structured analysis Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. It is a new day at the firm. Roark has been in place for a few weeks, strengthening the communications skills of his employees, getting them to work much better together. Now, the challenge that he faces is not an internal one; it lies with the client, which is increasingly showing itself to be incapable of sticking with decisions. Roark, based on his past experience with other clients like this, is afraid that the client will throw them a curveball and want to make changes late in the game but that they also will be unwilling to absorb the costs of those changes. For this reason, Roark eliminates which of the following methods of development? agile/adaptive methods Roark has just joined the company and in his role as lead analyst, he will be responsible for determining which systems development method the team uses to create the new application for a major medical supplier. After Roark has spent a week getting to know the members of the team, including their strengths and weaknesses, and what has worked well (and not so well) for this particular team in the past, one theme keeps recurring: the team has particularly weak communications skills. Which of the following methods, then, is he least likely to use, given what he knows about the disadvantages of each method? economic A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs. have complex instructions A systems request form should not ____. introduction

In a preliminary investigation report, the ____ contain(s) a brief description of the system, the name of the person or group performing the investigation, and the name of the person or group who initiated the investigation. user-friendly system that improves employee job satisfaction Examples of tangible benefits include all of the following except a(n) ____. Customer relationship management (CRM) ____ components can provide automated response to sales inquiries, Web-based order processing, and online inventory tracking. fishbone A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a(n) ____ diagram, which is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline. Strategic ____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources. determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview. SWOT During strategic planning, top managers ask a series of questions that is called a(n) ____ analysis because it examines a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. conduct interviews The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is to ____.

Will the proposed system decrease revenue for the company? When assessing priorities for systems requests, a systems analyst should look for high scores in all of the following except ____. one person's bias is more likely to affect the decisions When evaluating systems requests, all of the following are disadvantages of a systems review committee except ____. define project scope as clearly as possible To avoid the problem of project creep, ____. fishbone When using a ____ diagram to investigate causes of a problem, an analyst first states the problem and then draws a main bone with subbones that represent possible causes of the problem. discretionary Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called ____ projects. True Competition drives many information systems decisions. False Even if users have difficulty with a new system, it still will produce the expected benefits. False When interacting with users, a systems analyst should focus on difficulties instead of questioning users about additional capability they would like to have. True Whenever possible, a systems analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible

costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values. Sales reps requested a more powerful sales analysis report. As part of the annual report for the fiscal year just ended, Lara is working on a grid that summarizes the major decisions that the small business for which she works made during the year. As part of her review, she is identifying whether a decision was impacted by factors internal to the company, or external. Which of the following does not appear on Lara's list of external factors? The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction. Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc. Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? TCO The estimated costs of a proposed system usually are considered the ____, which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs, as well as acquisition costs. operational feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ considers questions such as "Does management support the project?" and "Will the new system require training for users?" Creating a new report for a user ____ is an example of a discretionary project.

preliminary A systems analyst conducts a(n) ____ investigation to study the systems request and recommend specific action. economic feasibility Of the measures of feasibility in the accompanying figure, ____ assesses tangible and intangible benefits to the company in addition to costs. greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____. technical A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which refers to the practical resources needed to develop, purchase, install, or operate the system. findings In the preliminary investigation report, the ____ section contains the results of the preliminary investigation, including a description of the project's scope, constraints, and feasibility. Performance ____ limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced. scope Determining the project ____ means to define the boundaries, or extent, of a project being as specific as possible. False The purpose of an interview, and of the preliminary investigation itself, is to convince

others that a project is justified, not to uncover facts. False Data entry controls should be excessive without being effective. True If only one person has the necessary IT skills and experience to evaluate systems requests, that person should consult closely with users and managers throughout the company to ensure that business and operational needs are considered carefully. The new system is more user-friendly, thus increasing employee job satisfaction. Sam is the analyst with the responsibility for assessing the economic feasibility of the new system that his team has been hired to develop for Widgets, Inc. Sam's boss has asked for a quick list of the tangible benefits of the new system, because the client has expressed some concerns about the project and she wants to reassure him. Which of the following would NOT be on such a list as developed by Sam? identify all tasks The first step in creating a WBS is to ____. risk A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively. milestones When maintaining schedules, if enough ____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly. successor When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, the concurrent tasks are called ____ tasks.

identify all the project tasks The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____. critical A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule. completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset All of the following are metrics of a successful project EXCEPT ____. critical Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track. milestones In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project. all of the above task time estimates, sequences, personnel assignments A project manager must balance ____ to achieve a workable schedule; graphical planning aids like the one in the accompanying figure can help in the process. includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs A project manager's planning _____. includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target For a project manager, monitoring and controlling _____. the team member most vulnerable to a given risk

Most risk identifications include a brief description of all of the following EXCEPT ____. all of the above project size and scope, prior experience with similar projects or systems, IT resources In developing time and cost estimates, project managers must consider _____. any of the above personality conflicts among team members, turnover of project personnel, poor control methods Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate ____. groups The accompanying figure shows task ____, which each might represent several activities that can be shown in a more detailed chart. inaccurate TCO forecast All of the following are possible causes of cost overruns related to human resource factors EXCEPT ____. PERT/CPM Many project managers find ____ charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects. defining project constraints Project scheduling involves all of the following EXCEPT ____. True Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later. True System developers can initiate a formal project as early as the preliminary investigation stage,

or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur. True Project planning is a dynamic task and involves constant change. False When tasks must be completed one after another, they are called concurrent tasks. They are predecessor tasks of each other. In discussing PERT/CPM charts, you discuss the types of task patterns that can occur in a project schedule. You give an example of two tasks, A and B, that can both begin as soon as task C is finished. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about tasks A and B? predecessor Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a(n) ____ task. dependent task A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed. bottom-up PERT/CPM is called a(n) ____ technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks. concurrent When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a ____ task. involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members A project manager's scheduling function _____. reference to successor tasks In a PERT/CPM chart, each task has all of the following EXCEPT a(n) ____.

response A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to deal with it. False Using prior experience to make time and cost estimates works best for large projects. False When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a predecessor task. True Although a Gantt chart provides more detailed information about a project, a PERT/CPM chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task. histogram A common tool for showing the distribution of a questionnaire or sampling results is a vertical bar chart called a(n) ____. use case diagram A(n) ____ is a UML technique that visually represents the interaction between users and an information system. more satisfied users Greater user involvement in the system development process usually results in ____. range-of-response questions In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale. actor

In a use case diagram, the user becomes a(n) ____, with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with a system. Student grades must be entered on machinescannable forms prepared by the instructor ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the input category. systematic sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select every tenth customer for review. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers. The contact management system must generate a daily reminder list for all sales reps ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the output category. FDD Using a(n) ____, an analyst can show business functions and break them down into lower-level functions and processes.

Analytical skills ____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution. FDD A(n) ____ is a top-down representation of a function or a process. give the interviewee easy access to supporting material that might be needed If an interviewee gives only short or incomplete responses to open-ended questions, a systems analyst should do all of the following EXCEPT ____. scrum In a(n) ____, team members prepare to lunge at each other to achieve their objectives. systems analysis The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies. both a and b prototyping, user involvement RAD relies heavily on ____. open-ended questions In an interview, ____ encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses. True The ability to manage information is the mark of a successful systems analyst and an important skill for all IT professionals. False When fact-finding, asking what is being done is the same as asking what could or should be done.

False In the early stages of systems analysis, interviews usually focus on specific topics, but as the fact-finding process continues, the interviews are more general. True IT professionals recognize that successful systems must be user-oriented, and users need to be involved, formally or informally, at every stage of systems development. control Perry has inherited an Excel sheet that lists all of the system requirements for his team's new project, but unfortunately, his predecessor did not label the requirements with categoriesor in some cases failed to categorize them correctly so he needs to take care of this so the requirements can be sorted correctly. Perry has found one system requirement that he thinks could fit into a couple of different categories. What is the best categorization of this requirement: An employee record must be added, changed, or deleted only by a member of the human resources department? questionnaire In projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people, a(n) ____, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, can be a valuable tool. The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category. random sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select any 20 customers.

UML The ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design. The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator ____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the control category. closed-ended questions In an interview, ____ limit or restrict the response. informal In a(n) ____ structure, which usually is based on interpersonal relationships, some people have more influence or knowledge than appears on an organization chart. TCO In addition to direct costs, systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the ____. stratified sample When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ could ensure the sample is balanced geographically by selecting five customers from each of four zip codes. False When designing a questionnaire, arrange questions in a random order, intermixing simple and more complex topics. True The main objective of a sample is to ensure that it represents the overall population accurately. True

A list of topics should be sent to an interviewee several days before the meeting, especially when detailed information is needed, so the person can prepare for the interview and minimize the need for a follow-up meeting. his own Kieran has finished compiling the list of the various members of the JAD group: He is the JAD project leader, Malia is the representative from top management, Simon is a manager, Alisa and Ian are users, Shakira and Max are systems analysts, and Devon is the recorder. As Kieran develops the agenda he wants to put the name of the appropriate person next to the agenda item. Whose name would he put next to the final task on the agenda, the task of preparing the report that will be sent to JAD team members? validity In a data dictionary, some data elements have ____ rules, such as an employee's salary must be within the range defined for the employee's job classification. logical In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically. no output A black hole process is a process that has ____. a process step that is repeated until a specific condition changes A black hole process is a process that has ____. tree A decision ____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table. Leveling

____ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed DFDs, until all functional primitives are identified. All of the above Spontaneous generation, Gray holes, Black holes ____ is/are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow. horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right Decision trees show the logic structure in a ____. capital DFD symbols are referenced by using all ____ letters for the symbol name. value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it The data dictionary usually records and describes a default value, which is the ____. records In a data dictionary, data elements are combined into ____, which are meaningful combinations of data elements that are included in data flows or retained in data stores. domain A data dictionary specifies a data element's ____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element. field In a data dictionary, a(n) ____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system. rectangle with rounded corners In a DFD, the Gane and Sarson symbol for a process is a ____.

exploded view Because diagram 0 is a more detailed or expanded version of process 0 on a context diagram, diagram 0 is called a(n) ____. alias In a data dictionary, any name other than the standard data element name is called a(n) ____. ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD Balancing ____.