Sie sind auf Seite 1von 150

Republic of the Philippines

Department of the Education

PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: Perform Mathematical Computations Module No.: 1 Module Title: Performing Mathematical Computations

Module 1 QUALIFICATION TITLE UNIT OF COMPETENCY : : FISH PROCESSING NC II PERFORM MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS PERFORMING MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS 20 HOURS NC II

MODULE TITLE

NOMINAL DURATION CERTIFICATE LEVEL

: :

This module covers the knowledge, skills and attitude required in performing mathematical computation such as gathering and tabulating the recorded data, reviewing the various formulations, calculating production input and output and computing production cost. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? After completing this lesson, you should be able to; 1. gather and tabulate the recorded data; 2. review the various formulation; and 3. calculate production input and output.

LESSON 1.

4. What is the equivalent of 320F in Centigrade? a. 00C b. 20C c. 10C d. 30C 5. What do you call a form where only few data are presented? a. tabular form b. textual form c. graphical form d. none of the above LET US STUDY Let us define Conversion - a change from one state or position to another or from one form to another. Data - a collection of information about a study under investigation. It may be a number (quantitative) or a word (qualitative). Measurement - a way of comparing certain attribute of an object with some given standard. Tabulate - to count record or list systematically. Gathering the Record of Weights and Measurement of Ingredients and Materials Not a day would pass without any of us making certain measurements. You may measure the time it takes you to solve problem in STVEP. The meat dealer measures the amount of pork your mother could buy for P 100.00. Your sister measures the flour she needs for her cake recipe. Even the infants get a share of measurement through the amount of milk formula given to them at some specific time of the day. What do you really do when you take measurements? For instance, when you take your weight, you use a weighing scale and mark and record your weight, and you are trying to measure. Below are some measurements usually gathered: Mass is the amount of material an object has. The base unit of mass is gram (g). For larger mass, the unit used is the kilogram(kg). Volume is the amount of space something occupies. The unit usually used for liquid volume is the litre. (L). Capacity refers to how much a container will hold.

Temperature refers to the degree of hotness or coldness of a body. The metric unit of temperature is degree Celsius (0C). In the Celsius Scale, 00C is the freezing point of water, and 1000C is the boiling point of water. The instrument used for measuring temperature is the thermometer. Another unit of temperature is degree Fahrenheit (00F).

Measurements and Conversions It is important to weigh or measure all ingredients accurately especially for beginners. There are cooks and chefs who seem to be able to produce good results by guesswork and intuition but they are generally people who have long experience of cooking and have learne by bitter experience and many failures. Weighing is more accurate than measuring but it is essential to buy a good pair of scales as they should last a lifetime. The only accurate way of measuring is to use level measures ie. Level - off the top of the measure with a spoon or knife. A heaped spoonful can contain anything from 2 to 4 times as much as a level spoonful. A good selection of measuring cups and spoons (as listed below) can be very handy. a. Measuring Cups 1 Cup (C) 1/2 C 1/3 C 1/4 C 1/8 C

b. Measuring Spoons 1 Tablespoon (tbsp or T) 1 Teaspoon (tsp or t) 1/2 tsp 1/4 tsp

A clear glass measuring cup is necessary to get precise liquid measurements.

Dry Ingredients . The most important thing to know about measuring dry ingredients is that they should be level with the top of your measuring cup. Dip your cup into the bin, fill to overflowing and level it off by sweeping the edge of a knife across the top. Spoon flour and similar ingredients into measuring cups. Do not scoop the ingredient using the cup itself because this packs the cup too much and the measurement wont be precise. Be careful if you are using a cup larger than what is needed (as in a 1 cup measure to get 1/2 C worth of ingredients). The same leveling technique should be used with measuring spoons. Tip: Measure dry ingredients over a plate or bowl so you can catch the excess and put it back in the container. Most ingredients don't need to be packed into the measuring cup. Granulated sugar does it for you. Flour should actually be aerated or fluffed up before measuring. Brown sugar is the only exception, this you pack it down while measuring in order to get the proper amount. Measure liquids at eye level. This is done by placing the cup on a flat surface and crouching down so your eyes are at the same level as the cup in order to check the accuracy of the amount in the cup. To measure solid fats (shortening, butter etc.) : Most butter have measurements listed on the wrapper, so you can simply cut off the amount you need. In case the information is not available, you measure fats accurately, pack them down in the cup to get rid of air pockets. Its easier to pack fats at room temperature. Another method that works well for butter and especially shortening is water displacement (this works for any fraction of a cup measurement). For instance, if you need 1/2 C shortening fill a 1 cup measure 1/2 full with water. Carefully add shortening to the cup until the water reaches the level for cup. Drain the water and use the shortening.

Abbreviation c gal gm kg lb ml oz pt qt tbsp tsp fl. oz.

Long cup gallon gram kilogram pound mililiter ounce pint quart tablespoon teaspoon fluid ounce

Weight Measurements and Conversions Weight Conversion Factors Multiply By To Get Grams (gm) 0.035 Ounces Grams 0.0022 Pounds Grams 0.001 Kilograms Kilograms (kg) 2.21 Pounds Kilograms 1000 Grams Pounds (lb) 453.6 Grams Pounds 0.4536 Kilograms Pounds 16 Ounces Ounces (oz) 0.0625 Pounds Ounces 28.3 grams Approximate Metric Equivalent by Weight (US-Metric) U.S. Metric ounce (oz) 7 grams (g) ounce 14 grams 1 ounce 28 grams 1 ounces 35 grams 1 ounces 40 grams 2 ounces 70 grams 4 ounces 112 grams 5 ounces 140 grams 8 ounces 228 grams 10 ounces 280 grams 15 ounces 425 grams 16 ounces (1 pound) 454 grams Liquid Measurements and Conversions
tsp. Tbsp. fl.oz gill 1 teaspoon = 1 tablespoon = 1 fluid ounce = 1 gill = 1 cup = 1 pint = 1 quart = 1 gallon = 1 3 6 24 48 96 1/3 1 2 8 16 32 1/6 1/24 1/2 1/8 1 4 8 16 32 1/4 1 2 4 8 1/16 1/8 1/2 1 2 4 16 1/16 1/4 1/2 1 2 8 1/8 1/4 1/2 1 4 1/16 1/8 1/4 1 cup pint Quart gallon

192 64 768 256

128 32

US Customary System 1/16 cup (c) = 1/8 cup = 1/6 cup = 1/4 cup = 1/3 cup = 3/8 cup = 1/2 cup = 2/3 cup = 3/4 cup = 1 cup = 1 3/4 cup = 2 cups = 1 pint = 3 cups = 4 cups = 1 quart =

Spoons 1 tablespoon (tbsp) = 3 teaspoons (tsp) 2 tablespoons 2 tablespoons + 2 teaspoons 4 tablespoons 5 tablespoons + 1 teaspoon 6 tablespoons 8 tablespoons 10 tablespoons + 2 teaspoons 12 tablespoons 16 Tablespoons

fluid Approx. oz. mililiters 1/2 fl.oz 1 fl.oz. 1.3 fl.oz 2 fl.oz. 2.7 fl.oz 3 fl.oz. 4 fl.oz. 5.3 fl.oz. 6 fl.oz. 8 fl.oz. 14 fl.oz. 16 fl.oz. 24 fl.oz. 32 fl.oz. 15 ml 30 ml 40 ml 60 ml 80 ml 90 ml 120 ml 155 ml 180 ml 235 ml 410 ml 470 ml 700 ml 940 ml

MISCELLANEOUS EQUIVALENT 1 pinch 1 teaspoon 1 dessertspoon (UK) 1/8 teaspoon or less 60 drops 2 teaspoons

Approximate liquid measurement conversion factors Multiply Quarts (qt) Quarts By 0.95 4 To Get liters cups

Liters (l) Liters Cups Cups Cups Mililiters (ml) Mililiters Mililiters Fluid ounce (fl. oz) Fluid ounce Gallons (gal)

1.06 1000 235 8 0.25 0.0042 0.067 0.034 29.6 0.125 3.785

quarts mililiters mililiters fluid ounce quarts cups tablespoons fluid ounce mililiters cups liters

Temperature Measurements and Conversions

To convert Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) C to Degrees Fahrenheit (F), multiply C by 1.8 and add 32. For example, to convert 100C to F, 100 x 1.8 + 32 = 212F To convert Degrees Fahrenheit (F) to Degrees Celsius (C), subtract 32 from F first, then multiply by 0.56. For example, to convert 200F to C, (200 - 32) x 0.56 = 94C Freezing point for water = 0C = 32F Boiling point for water = 100C = 212F Temperature Conversion Table Fahrenheit Celcius 32 F 40 F 50 F 60 F 70 F 80 F 90 F 100 F 0C 4.4 C 10 C 15.6 C 21.1 C 26.7 C 32.2 C 37.8 C Celcius 0 C 10 C 20 C 30 C 40 C 50 C 60 C 70 C Fahrenheit 32 F 50 F 68 F 86 F 104 F 122 F 140 F 158 F 8

110 F 120 F 130 F 140 F 150 F 160 F 170 F 180 F 190 F 200 F 225 F 250 F 275 F 300 F 325 F 350 F 375 F 400 F 425 F 450 F 475 F 500 F

43.3 C 48.9 C 54.4 C 60 C 65.6 C 71.1 C 76.7 C 82.2 C 87.8 C 93.3 C 110 C 120 C 135 C 150 C 165 C 175 C 190 C 205 C 220 C 230 C 245 C 260 C

80 C 90 C 100 C 110 C 120 C 130 C 140 C 150 C 160 C 170 C 180 C 190 C 200 C 210 C 220 C 230 C 240 C 250 C 260 C 270 C 280 C 290 C

176 F 194 F 212 F 230 F 248 F 266 F 284 F 302 F 320 F 338 F 356 F 374 F 392 F 410 F 428 F 446 F 464 F 482 F 500 F 518 F 536 F 554 F

Summarizing and Tabulating All Raw Data Gathered Any set of information or data collected for study should be organized and analyzed systematically for easier and faster interpretation. To do this, collected data may be presented in any of the following forms: 1. The textual forms are used when data to be presented are few. 2. The tabular and graphical forms are used when more detailed information is to be presented. Using tables and graphs has the following advantages: a. Data is presented in a more practical and convenient way. Instead of writing text on the information gathered, items can be enumerated in tabular form or shown in graphical form. b. Data can be compared more easily. Recording tables and graphs can be done more easily because the needed information can be seen at a glance. 9

c. Data can be analyzed comparatively. Tables and graphs enable a thorough analysis of data because all needed information is clearly known. Example: (Textual Form) Marinated Boneless Milkfish Raw Materials: Fresh milkfish Vinegar Calamansi juice Soy sauce Salt Sugar Black pepper Garlic (minced) Steps: a. b. c. d. e. Weigh the fish. Split them and remove the viscera, backbone and dorsal fin. Wash the fish with freshwater. Wash again the deboned milkfish and drain for 15 minutes. Soak the deboned milkfish for 7 hours in marinated solutions composed of vinegar, salt, sugar, soy sauce and spices. f. Pack the boneless milkfish in plastic bags and sealed. g. Freeze them and ready for market. Recording Skills In recording we need the following skills: Accuracy The measurement of any physical quantity is always subject to some degree of uncertainty. There are several reasons for this: the limitation inherent in the construction of the measuring instrument or device, the conditions under which the measurement is made and the different ways in which the person uses or reads the instrument. One way to express the uncertainty of a measurement is in terms of accuracy. Accuracy refers to the closeness of a measurement to the accepted value for a specific physical quantity. It is expressed as either an absolute or a relative error. Absolute error is the actual difference between the measured value and the accepted value. 1 kilogram 1 cup cup cup 5 tablespoons 5 tablespoons 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon

10

Relative error is expressed as a percentage and is often called percentage error. It is calculated as: Er Ea X 100% A Er - relative error Ea absolute error A - accepted value Precision In common usage accuracy and precision are often used synonymously. But in science it is important to make a distinction between them. You should learn to use the two terms correctly and consistently. Precision is the agreement among several measurements that have been made in the same way. It tells how reproducible are the measurements used and whether they are expressed in terms of deviation. The precision of your laboratory measurements will be governed by the instruments at your disposal. In a measuring instrument, the degree of precision obtainable is called the tolerance of the device. Any figure listed for the tolerance of an instrument indicates the limitations of the instrument. The instrument maker assumes that the instrument is used properly and that human errors are held to a minimum. Data Gathering Skills When you want to know whether several boxes of preserving bottles are free from defects, it would be time consuming to examine all of them piece by piece. How can you facilitate the quality test? You can do this by examining a few samples from each box. This process is called sampling and the defined set of that is a sample is called population. Example: When a housewife buys a cavan of rice, she examines only a handful of rice from the cavan to find out whether it is of good quality or not.

The handful of rice is called samples. The cavan of rice from which samples here taken is called population.

11

B. Observation with Interview Show how to prepare, gather, tabulate and record the data you need following the format given. C. Test for Valuing Explain the importance of practicing accuracy in your activity. RESOURCES: Weights and measurements of ingredients and materials as well as finished/processed products: o o o o o Granimetric Volumetric Lengths, diameters and widths Hotness/coldness (temperature) pH of curing solutions/mixtures

REFERENCES: Elena C. Echija: Science and Technology I. Diwa LearningSystem, Legazpi Village, Makati City 2003 Sonia Y. de Leon: Dictionary of Food. Phoenix Publishing House, QC 1979 Corazon Leocadio: Essential in Meal management. UP College of Home Economics, Diliman QC,1986 Rosario P. Mercado Consumers Mathematics , Philippine Book Co., Manila 1977 Orlando A. Oronce & Marilyn O. Mendoza. E-Math Series Rex Bookstore,Inc.,2007 Ma. Cristina D. Padolina Ph.D: (Chemistry Modular Approach) Vibal Publishing House. 2004

13

LESSON 2.

14

4. What normally is the percentage of food cost? a. 20 to 60% c. 30 to 50% b. 10 to 40% d. 40 to 60% 5. What is the ratio needed in brine cooking when smoking fish? a. 150g to 700ml c. 200g to 750ml b. 250g to 800ml d. 300g to 850ml LET US STUDY Let us define Concentration of a solution - the amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent. Cost - the total amount spent for goods or services including money and time and labor Raw food cost - the cost of raw ingredients Production cost - combined costs of raw material and labor incurred in producing goods Semipermeable membrane - a material that allows molecules of one kind to pass through it but prevents the passage of other kinds of molecules. Solution - homogenous mixture of substances with variable composition. Formulations and Concentrations of Solutions According to Specifications and Standards of the Enterprise A solution is a homogenous mixture of substances with variable composition. The substance present in the major proportion is called the solvent whereas the substance present in the minor proportion is called the solute. It is possible to have solutions composed of several solutes. The process of a solute dissolving in a solute is called dissolution. Many common mixtures (like concrete) are heterogeneous which means that the components and properties of such mixtures are not distributed uniformly throughout their structures. Conversely, solutions are said to be homogeneous because they have uniform composition and properties. Solutions are intimate and random homogeneous mixtures of atomic-size chemical species, ions, or molecules.

15

In addition to their observed homogeneity, true solutions also have certain other characteristics. For example, components of a solution never separate spontaneously, even when a significant density difference exists between the components. Solutions also pass through the finest filters unchanged. Concentration The concentration of a solution is defined as the amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent. Very often scientists speak of concentrated solutions, dilute solutions, or very dilute solutions, but these designations give only a rough relative qualitative idea of concentration. For example, a "concentrated solution" contains a considerable quantity of solute as compared with a "dilute solution." Although such designations are only qualitatively useful, they are nevertheless widely used. The most common way to express concentration is on the basis of the weight of solute per unit weight of solvent. For example, a salt solution may be prepared by dissolving 1.64 grams of sodium chloride in 100 grams of water. The concentration of this solution could also be expressed as 0.0164 grams of NaCl per 1 gram of water, or as 16.4 grams of NaCl per 1,000 grams of water. Thus, a statement of the concentration of a solution does not imply anything concerning the amount of solute or the amount of solvent present, but rather gives the ratio of solute to solvent in terms of some convenient (and arbitrary) units. Because the weight of a sample of a liquid is usually more difficult to determine experimentally than its volume, a practical unit of concentration is the weight of solute in a given volume of the solution; for example, a sugar solution may contain 50 grams of sugar per 100 milliliters of solvent. Ingredients and Materials to be Checked According to Approved Specifications and Enterprise Requirements For curing fish/salting fish: Ingredients : Salt, Water Materials : fish For smoking: Ingredients : Materials : Salt, Water fish (bangus, galunggong, tilapia and herring family

For sugar concentrates Ingredients : Sugar, Calamansi or citric acid Materials : fruit (mango, guava, pineapple) For fermentation: Ingredients : Materials : Salt dilis and alamang 16

Various Formulations and Concentrations of Solutions Salting/Curing: The ratio of salt to fish depends on the method of salting to be applied to the fish. If kench salting is used, the ratio is 1:7 by weight wherein one part of salt is added to 7 parts of fish. If brine salting is used, the ratio is 1:4 by weight wherein one part of salt is added to 4 part of fish. In dry salting to make brine, you use the ratio 1:3 by weight or you add 1part of salt to 3 parts of fish. Sugar concentrate: The ratio of fruit juice or pulp to sugar depends on the degree of the pectin content of fruit. If the pectin is good, the ratio is 1:3/4 wherein one part of fruit juice or pulp is mixed to part of sugar. If the pectin is not good, the ratio is 1:1 wherein one part fruit juice or pulp is mixed with one part of sugar. Smoking: The ratio of salt to water for brining and brine cooking is 250 grams of salt to 800ml water. LET US REMEMBER: In this module, always check and countercheck the different ratio and proportion of raw materials and ingredients. HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test Multiple Choice Directions: Choose the correct answer from the optional given. Write the letter only of your answer in your test booklet. 1. Which solution has a uniform composition and property? a. heterogeneous c. concentration b. homogenous d. mixture 2. Which factor is NOT included when computing for the selling price? a. raw food cost c. overhead expenditure b. labor cost d. food cost percentage 3. In the food industry, what determines the sell price? a. raw food cost c. overhead expenditure b. labor cost d. food cost percentage 4. What normally is the percentage of food cost? a. 20 to 60% c. 30 to 50% b. 10 to 40% d. 40 to 60% 5. The ratio needed in brine cooking when smoking fish is a. 150g to 700ml c. 200g to 750ml b. 250g to 800ml d. 300g to 850ml

17

LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Practical Examination: Make a production cost of the following a. Pickled Mixed Vegetables b. Orange Wine RESOURCES The following resources are needed: Calculator Pen and papers Chalk and board White board and white pen

REFERENCES: Elena C. Echija: Science and Technology I. Diwa LearningSystem, Legazpi Village, Makati City 2003 Sonia Y. de Leon: Dictionary of Food. Phoenix Publishing House, QC 1979 Corazon Leocadio: Essential in Meal management. UP College of Home Economics, Diliman QC,1986 Rosario P. Mercado Consumers Mathematics , Philippine Book Co., Manila 1977 Orlando A. Oronce & Marilyn O. Mendoza. E-Math Series Rex Bookstore,Inc.,2007 Ma. Cristina D. Padolina Ph.D: (Chemistry Modular Approach) Vibal Publishing House. 2004

18

LESSON 3.
CALCULATE PRODUCTION INPUT AND OUTPUT WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? This lesson deals with the calculation of production input and output. This also includes percentage formulation, fraction, ratios and proportions, basic mathematical operations and skills, conversion factors, basic accounting skills, data gathering skills, and recording skills. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. calculate data on raw ingredients and materialsconsumption and corresponding percentage equivalent in line with the enterprise requirements; 2. calculate data on actual spoilage, rejects and corresponding percentage equivalents according to enterprise requirements; 3. calculate data on actual yields and recoveries and corresponding percentage equivalents according to enterprise requirements; 4. record all calculated data according to enterprise requirements; and 5. practice efficiently the different conversion. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Lets find out how much you know about the lesson. Answer the pre-test below. Pre-Test Multiple Choice Directions: Read carefully each of the questions. Choose the answer from the options given. Write the letter only in your answer sheet. 1. If you buy kilo of sugar to be used in pickling how much is this in grams? a. 250 g b. 270 g c. 260 g d. 280 g 2. What is the ratio by weight of salt to fish in fermentation? a. 1:4 b. 1:5 c. 1:6 d. 1:7 3. How many grams compose 1 cup of salt? a. 250 g b. 270 g c. 260 g d. 280 g 19

4. What proportion should you apply when preparing the mixture of mango jam? a. 1:1 and 1:3/4 b. 1:2 and 1:1/2 5. Using 1:3 ratio in salting fish, how many grams of salt is needed for the fish, which weighs 900 grams? a. 300 g b. 400 g c. 500 g d. 200 g LET US STUDY Calculating Data on Raw Materials or Ingredients Consumption and its Corresponding Percentage Equivalent in Line with Enterprise Requirement Data gathering on raw materials and ingredients is necessary in order to compute and calculate production input and output. The following are examples of data that are gathered based on the products to be made. Example: 1. Pickled Mixed Vegetables Data: Item Weight Sugar 250 g Vinegar 250 ml Salt 15 g Carrots 150 g Sayote 250 g Bell pepper 75 g Garlic 50 g Ginger 50 g Onion 75 g 2. Smoked Fish Data: Item Bangus Salt Water Weight 1 kg 250 g 800 ml

3. Mango Jam Data: Item Weight Mango pulp 1 cup Sugar 1 or c Calamansi juice 1 tsp 4. Fermented fish Data: Item Fish or alamang Salt Weight 4 kilos 1 kilo

20

5. Pickled Fish Data: Item Fresh milkfish Vinegar Calamansi juice Soy sauce Salt Sugar Black pepper Garlic (minced) Actual Spoilage/Rejects

Weight 1 kilogram 1 cup cup cup 5 tbsp 5 tbsp 1 tbsp 1 tbsp

Actual spoilage rejects and their corresponding percentage depends on the product to be made. For example in mango jam, spoilage refers to the peel of mango and seeds; for spoilage refers to which are not included or are left during packing. Another example is on pickled fish, spoilage is the skin of calamansi, garlic and the intestinal organ of fish. In smoked fish the reject is the intestinal organ. Lastly, in fermented fish and other fishery product, small seashell, small stone and seaweeds are the spoilage. Actual Yields and Recoveries Yield refers to the number of finished products after computing for the production output and input. Formula in getting the percentage yields % Yield production input production output Records Calculated Data Report/records based on the data gathered and computed on production output, input, actual spoilage, rejects, actual yields or recoveries are kept for documentation purposes. This will be the basis in determining the progress of whatever products to be done on process.
X 100%

21

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test Multiple Choice Directions: Read carefully each of the questions. Choose the answer from the options given. Write the letter only in your answer sheet. 1. If you buy kilo of sugar to be used in pickling how much is this in grams? a. 250 g b. 270 g c. 260 g d. 280 g 2. What is the ratio by weight of salt to fish in fermentation? a. 1:4 b. 1:5 c. 1:6 d. 1:7 3. How many grams compose 1 cup of salt? a. 250 g b. 270 g c. 260 g d. 280 g 4. What proportion should you apply when preparing the mixture of mango jam? a. 1:1 b. 1:2 c. 1:3/4 d. 1:1/2 5. Using 1:3 ratio in salting fish, how many grams of salt is needed for the fish, which weighs 900 grams? a. 300 g b. 400 g c. 500 g d. 200 g LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Practical Examination with Direct Observation Based on your various activity try to make a data of your own. Using your own skills in recording and gathering data, list down all the necessary conversion and calculation you made. RESOURCES The following resources are needed: Production records Supplies o o o o o o Ball pen/pencil Bond paper Index cards Folders Computer paper Clips

22

Tools and Equipment o Calculator o Computer with printer

REFERENCES: Elena C. Echija: Science and Technology I. Diwa LearningSystem, Legazpi Village, Makati City 2003 Sonia Y. de Leon: Dictionary of Food. Phoenix Publishing House, QC 1979 Corazon Leocadio: Essential in Meal management. UP College of Home Economics, Diliman QC,1986 Rosario P. Mercado Consumers Mathematics , Philippine Book Co., Manila 1977 Orlando A. Oronce & Marilyn O. Mendoza. E-Math Series Rex Bookstore,Inc.,2007 Ma. Cristina D. Padolina Ph.D: (Chemistry Modular Approach) Vibal Publishing House. 2004

23

Answer Key Lesson 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b c b a b Lets Apply: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 3 tsp 16 tbsp 1/8 tsp 2,500 g 39.26C 167F

Lesson 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. b a c a b

Lesson 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a a a a a

24

25

Department of the Education

PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: Process Food by Fermentation and Pickling (Fruits and Vegetables) Module No.: 2 Module Title: Processing Food by Fermentation and Pickling (Fruits and Vegetables)

MODULE 2 QUALIFICATION TITLE : UNIT OF COMPETENCY : FISH PROCESSING NC II PROCESS FOODS BY FERMENTATION AND PICKLING (FRUITS AND VEGETABLES) PROCESSING FOODS BY FERMENTATION AND PICKLING (FRUITS AND VEGETABLES) 214 HOURS NC II

MODULE TITLE

NOMINAL DURATION CERTIFICATE LEVEL

: :

WHAT IS THIS MODULE ABOUT? This module covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required in processing food by fermentation and pickling. It teaches the students on how to prepare equipment, tools, utensils and raw materials, and on how to perform alcoholic/acetic/acidic/lactic fermentation of fruits and vegetables. It also teaches the students on the preparation of production report. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? After completing this module, you should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. prepare equipment, tools and utensils; prepare raw materials; perform alcoholic fermentation of fruits and vegetables; perform acetic/lactic acid fermentation/pickling of vegetables; and 5. prepare production report.

LESSON 1.
PREPARE EQUIPMENT, TOOLS AND UTENSILS WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? This lesson deals on how to prepare equipment, tools and utensils for the fermentation of fruits and vegetables. This includes preparation of the parts of equipment to be used and a study of the functions of equipment, tools and utensils. It also covers the operation of various equipment; and proper cleaning and stowing of equipment, tools and utensils. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. select equipment, tools and utensils for fermentation and pickling in accordance with BFAR specifications; 2. check and calibrate equipment, tools and utensils in accordance with standard specifications; and 3. ready and sanitize equipment and utensils in pickling and fermenting fruits and vegetables according to manufacturers specifications. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW Pre-Test Multiple Choice -Directions: Read carefully the questions and select the best answer. Write the letter only of your answer in your test booklet. ______ 1. Why is there a need to sanitize equipment, tools and utensils before using them for fermenting and pickling fruits and vegetables? a. for comfort and convenience b. to enhance the quality of the products c. to avoid heavy microbial contamination d. to hasten the process ______ 2. What will you do to maintain proper condition of equipment, tools and utensils? a. provide favorable storage b. apply lubricant c. disinfect d. all of the above

______ 3. Which is NOT included as cutting utensil? a. knife b. peeler c. extractor d. slicer ______ 4. Part of the refrigerator which maintains temperature. a. lighting b. thermostat c. ice maker d. freezer ______ 5. Which precautionary measure is correct in operating an equipment? a. never ask assistance in operating b. play with classmates while the equipment is in operation c. electrically operated must BE turned off and unplug from outlet when not in use LET US STUDY Let us define Calibrate to adjust precisely to a set of graduated marks desired for a process. Parts and Function of Equipment, Tools and Materials

Parts of a refrigerator

Parts of the Refrigerator and Their Functions Automatic defrost Defrost timer The timer is like a clock. It continually advances 24 hours a day. Every 6 to 8 hours, the timer turns off the cooling system of the refrigerator and turns on the defrost heater. Defrost heater The defrost heater is similar to the burners on an electric stove. It's located just beneath the cooling coils, which are concealed behind a panel in the freezer compartment. The heater gets hot. And, because it's close to the cooling coils, any ice or frost build-up melts. As the frost and ice melt, the resulting water drips into a trough. The trough is connected to a tube that drains the water into a shallow pan at the bottom of the refrigerator. The water is then evaporated by a fan that blows warm air from the compressor motor over the pan and out the front of the refrigerator. Defrost thermostat The process ends after either the amount of time specified on the timer or when the defrost thermostat near the cooling coils senses that the heat near the coils has reached a specific temperature. Cooling Compressor The compressor is the motor (or engine) of the cooling system. In built-in refrigerators the compressor is located on top of the refrigerator behind a grill or grate. In all other units it's normally at the bottom of the refrigerator in the back. It's almost always black and about the size of a football. If the refrigerator is self-defrosting, the compressor may be behind a thin panel. The compressor runs whenever the refrigerator thermostat calls for cooling (and the defrost timer is not in a defrost cycle, for self-defrosting units). It is normally very quiet. When running, it is compressing a refrigerant that is in a low-pressure gaseous state to a high-pressure gas.

Condenser The condenser is a series of tubes with fins attached to them, similar to a radiator. It's always somewhere on the outside of the refrigerator. It may be:

A large black grid mounted to the back of the refrigerator Folded and placed under the refrigerator Coiled up and placed near the compressor Integrated in the liner of the refrigerator

Metering Device (Capillary Tube) The metering device in most household refrigerators is a capillary tube, a tiny copper tube. The capillary tube is attached from the end of the condenser to the beginning of the evaporator. The capillary tube controls the pressure and flow of the refrigerant as it enters the evaporator. Once the liquid refrigerant has traveled the length of the condenser, it is forced through the capillary tube. Evaporator The evaporator is always located on the inside of the refrigerator, usually inside the freezer compartment. It also resembles a radiator. When the liquid refrigerant comes out of the small capillary tube, its injected into the larger tubes of the evaporator causing a pressure drop. This pressure drop allows the refrigerant to expand back into a gaseous state. This change of state from liquid to gas absorbs heat. The gaseous refrigerant travels through the evaporator tubes, back out of the refrigerator and down to the compressor to begin the circulation process again. Because the evaporator is absorbing heat, it is very cold to the touch. The coldness causes any humidity in the air to freeze on the evaporator as ice or frost. (See the Automatic defrost section). The fan inside the freezer compartment circulates the air of both the refrigerator and/or freezer to keep the temperature constant. Temperature control All refrigerators have a thermostat to maintain the proper temperature. These are usually very simple devices. When the refrigerator reaches the set temperature, the thermostat interrupts the electricity flow to the compressor which stops cooling.

Lighting Refrigerators with internal lighting normally have only one functional component--the switch--which is usually a white push-button mounted inside the refrigerator near the door. When the refrigerator door closes, the door pushes the switch to turn the light off. When the door opens, the button automatically pops back out to turn on the light. The light bulb itself is usually a standard appliance bulb. Ice Maker The ice maker is a small appliance within a freezer. It's usually independent of the other systems of the refrigerator. Ice maker systems have two basic functional components: the icemaker itself, and the water fill valve. Ice and Water Dispenser Ice Dispenser For a refrigerator to provide ice through the door, the ice maker first dumps the ice it produces into a large bin. To request ice at the door, a person presses a lever that activates a switch. The switch turns on a motor that rotates the auger. When the auger rotates, it pushes ice out of the bin, through a chute to the user. Water Dispenser The water dispenser works much like the ice dispenser. To request water at the door, a person presses a lever on the front of the refrigerator that activates a switch. The switch turns on an electric water valve at the back of the refrigerator. Water flows through the valve into a tube, then flows into a container in the refrigerator to be chilled. As new water enters the container, the water that is displaced flows through a separate tube to the user. Door Seals and Hinges All refrigerator/freezer doors have a seal--a rubber-like gasket attached to the door. Usually white, almond, black, or brown, the seal's job is to keep the cool air inside the refrigerator and the room air out. The seal is lined with a magnet that runs its length and width. The magnet helps to hold the door closed and create a tight seal. The screws that hold the seal to the door also hold the door liner in and help to "square" the door.

The hinges allow the door to swing open. Some hinges also assist the door in closing. For the door to close properly, the hinges must be correctly adjusted. Parts of Range/Cooktop

Weighing scale of various capacities and sensitivities used for measuring materials and ingredients

Plastic Sealer used for sealing plastic containers

Cutting Implement used for cutting, slicing and peeling off the skin of fruits and vegetables

Knives

masher

Peeler

Kitchen Shears slicer Cooking Utensils 1. Saucepan. It is a cooking pot with handle used at the top of the stove. 2. Saucepot It is cooking pot with two handles and a lid. 3. Steamer. It is used to steam foods/other raw materials. 4. Casseroles. It is used for cooking/ stews foods. 5. Kettle. It is used to boil water and to sterilize glass jars and other utensils 6. Double Boiler. It is used to simmer foods

Saucepan

Saucepot

Double Boiler

Steamer

Casseroles

Kettle

Other Utensils 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Tongs. It is used to handle or lift foods and other materials. Basin. It is used for washing of raw materials. Bowls. It is used for keeping/mixing food. Basting spoon. It is used for mixing and preparing food. Spatula. It is used for leveling off ingredients Colander. It is used to drain food. Strainer. It is used to separate liquid from solid food Wire Basket. It is used to hold food. Mortar and Pestle. It is used to ground food.

Tongs

Basin

Set of bowls

Basting Spoon

Spatula

Colander

Strainer

Aluminum Trays

10

Operation of Various Equipment Follow these safety / precautionary measures before operating various equipment: 1. Always ask for the assistance of the person who is knowledgeable in manipulating and operating the equipment if you want to use them. 2. Turn off and unplug electrically operated tools and equipment from outlet when not in use. Steps in Cleaning and Sanitizing Equipments, Tools Utensils Stove 1. Remove all burnt sediment and wipe grease from top of stove after each use. 2. Scrape grease from cracks, openings, and hinges. 3. Keep burners clean. Gas burners can be soaked and scrubbed with a stiff brush. 4. Wipe stove with cloth dipped in sanitizing solution. Refrigerator 1. Wipe up spilled food immediately. 2. Wash inside shelves and trays at least twice a week with baking soda. 3. Rinse and dry thoroughly. 4. Flush drains/ defrost weekly. Cooking Utensils 1. 2. 3. 4. Drain off fat, juice, sauces, and strain out sediment. Fill with water and detergent. Rinse, dip in sanitizing solution then dry. Wipe with damp cloth.

Cutting implements and other tools and utensils 1. 2. 3. 4. Clean immediately after using. Wash with detergent. Rinse. Dip in sanitizing solution. Wipe with damp cloth.

LET US REMEMBER 1. All equipment, tools and materials needed in processing fruits and vegetables must be properly checked, prepared, and sanitized. 2. Only standard and correct equipment must be used.

11

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post-Test Multiple Choice - Directions: letter of your choice Select the correct answer then write the in your test booklet.

______ 1. Why is there a need to sanitize equipment, tools and utensils before using for fermenting and pickling fruits and vegetables? a. for comfort and convenience b. to enhance the quality of the products c. to avoid heavy microbial contamination d. to hasten the process ______ 2. What will you do to maintain proper condition of equipment, tools and utensils? a. provide favorable storage b.apply lubricant c.disinfect d.all of the above ______ 3. Which is NOT included as cutting utensils? a. knife b. peeler c. extractor d. slicer ______ 4. Part of the refrigerator which maintain temperature a. lighting b. thermostat c. ice maker d. freezer ______ 5. Which precautionary measure is correct in operating equipment? a. Never ask assistance in operating the equipment. b. Play with classmates while the equipment is in operation. c. Electrically operated equipment must be turned off and unplug from outlet not in use. d. None of these LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Based on what you have learned on this lesson perform the following: 1. Identify the different parts of the refrigerator and a gas stove 2. Perform cleaning and sanitation of the different utensils and materials used in fermenting and pickling.

12

RESOURCES Cold storage equipment like chiller, refrigerator and freezer Weighing scale of various capacities and sensitivities Fermentation vats Plastic sealer Cutting implements such as knives, peeler, slicer, and cutters Kitchen utensils: stainless casserole, steamer, crusher, exhaust box, steam jacketed kettle, wire baskets, chopping board, vegetable cutter and osterizer

REFERENCES Fish Cookery by Jasmin Espejo and Alberta Tumonde Learning Element for Preparing Raw Materials by CDC, BTVE http://ardictionary.com.equipment/4380 http://thinkexist.com/dictionary/meaning/calibrate http://images.google.com.ph

13

LESSON 2. PREPARE RAW MATERIALS WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? This lesson deals on how to prepare raw materials. This include sorting and grading of raw materials, fruits and vegetables, sanitary food handling practices and cut out procedure and techniques. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. sort and grade raw materials according to approved criteria and enterprise requirements; and 2. weigh, wash, peel, cut and slice sorted and graded fresh fruit and vegetables according to required sizes and shapes in accordance with product specifications. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Pre-Test Identification Direction: Identify the different cutting techniques. Write your answers in your test booklet.

1. ___________

2. ________

3. _________

4. _________

14

5. _________ LET US STUDY Let us define Chop Cube

6. __________

cut into small, uneven pieces cut into pieces of uniform size and shapes, first, lengthwise then crosswise to make cubes Dice cut into small pieces of uniform size and shapes, first, lengthwise then crosswise to make cubes Julienne cut into thin, match-like strips Mince cut or chop into tiny pieces Slice cut across into flat pieces Sorting and Grading of Raw Materials Fruits are cleaned either by dipping the fruits in plain water or by wiping individual fruits by hands with a clean, soft cloth. Sorting and grading practices vary on the different areas. Classification is based on size and ripeness.

15

After harvest, the fruits and vegetables must be brought to a shaded area. Sort the fruits according to size, color, and rind quality. Discard fruits that are injured, bruised, and misshapen.

SANITARY FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES The purpose of food and cooking hygiene is to prevent food contamination, the transmission of disease, and to prevent food poisoning. Food and cooking hygiene protocols specify safe ways to handle and prepare food, and safe methods of serving and eating it. Such protocols include :

Cleaning of food-preparation areas and equipment (for example using designated cutting boards for preparing raw meats and vegetables). (Cleaning may involve use of chlorine bleach for sterilization.) Careful avoidance of meats contaminated by trichina worms, salmonella, and other pathogens; or thorough cooking of questionable meats. Extreme care in preparing raw foods, such as sushi and sashimi. Institutional dish sanitizing by washing with soap and clean water. Washing of hands after touching uncooked food when preparing meals. Not using the same utensils to prepare different foods. Not sharing cutlery when eating. Not licking fingers or hands while or after eating. Not reusing serving utensils that have been licked. Proper storage of food so as to prevent contamination by vermin. Refrigeration of foods (and avoidance of specific foods in environments where refrigeration is or was not feasible). Labeling food to indicate when it was produced (or, as food manufacturers prefer, to indicate its "best before" date). Proper disposal of uneaten food and packaging.

16

CUTTING TECHNIQUES OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

LET US REMEMBER Cutting of fruits and vegetables requires different techniques Sorting and grading of fruits and vegetables vary on its size and maturity

17

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test Identification Directions: Identify the different cutting techniques. Write your answers in your test booklet.

1. ___________

2. ________

3. _________

4. _________

5. _________

6. __________

18

LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Bring the different kinds of fruits and vegetables listed below. Then perform the following cutting techniques 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. RESOURCES REFERENCES Narvaez-Soriano, Nora. Food Selection, Preparation Preservation. Rex Bookstore. Quezon City, Philippines. 1994 www.usm.edu.ph/.../chicken/pomelo.png bicol.da.gov.ph/2qtr05/veggiefarminghtml davao.da.gov.ph/bpi/banana%20 production.html www.euroasia.food.com/Production_line.htm mettler-toledo.centralcarolinascale.com/Xp and Equipment, tools and kitchen utensils Cold storage equipment like chiller, refrigerator, chiller and freezer Weighing scale of various capacities and sensitivities Cutting implement such as knives, peelers, slicer, cutter Casserole, colanders, bowls, food tongs Chopping boards, vegetables cutter, osterizer Raw materials fresh fresh vegetables sayote carrots mango pineapple papaya

19

LESSON 3. PERFORM ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES WHAT IS THE LESSON ABOUT? The lesson focuses on how to perform alcoholic fermentation of fruits and vegetables. It covers the topics on fermentation techniques and fermentation of fruits and vegetables. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. mix prepared fruit with water according to product specifications; 2. boil the mixture to extract juice in accordance with specifications and enterprise requirements; 3. cool and mix extracted juice with other ingredients like sugar and yeast in accordance with specifications; 4. ferment juice for 1-2 weeks as required; 5. strain, filter, and heat fermented juice according to specifications; and 6. follow proper procedure in the actual performance of the process. Pre-Test Multiple Choice - Directions: Read and answer each of the items below. Write the letter of your answer in your test booklet. 1. What do you call the process of transformation of carbohydrates into alcohol or acid through the action of microorganisms? a. desiccation c. fermentation b. decomposition d. adulteration 2. Which of the following is the product of alcoholic fermentation? a. vinegar b. wine c. juices d. sauces 3. What product is made from sugary and starchy materials obtained by alcoholic and acetous fermentation? a. vinegar b. wine c. juice d. sauces 4. Which of the following types of fermentation is carried out in a sugary medium? a. lactic fermentation c. alcoholic fermentation b. acetous fermentation d. all of these

20

5. What type of fermentation occurs in a salt medium? a. alcoholic fermentation c. acetous fermentation b. lactic and fermentation d. a and c. 6. In fermentation, what is the first and foremost factor to consider? a. rate of fermentation c. kind of salt b. temperature d. scum formation 7. Why is proper temperature important in fermentation? a. for the activity of enzymes b. for the growth of lactic acid bacteria c. for the prevention of scum formation d. for the prevention of proper acid formation 8. How will you intensify the color and crispness of pickled product? a. use high concentration of vinegar b. add alum and turmeric in the final was water c. prolong soaking in the brine d. storing in high temperature 9. Which does not prevent scum formation? a. keeping material in a dark area b. storing in the open sunlight c. pouring a thin layer of neutral mineral oil on the surface of the brine circulation. 10. To control alcoholic fermentation, what must be used? a. lactic acid c. true wine yeast b. Acetic bacteria LET US STUDY Let us define Alcoholic fermentation is the decomposition of simple sugar into alcohol and Carbon dioxide by means of enzymes and yeasts. Cold Stabilization is a process used in wine making to reduce tartrate crystals (potassium bitartrate) in wine. Fermentation is the transformation of carbohydrates into alcohol or acids through the action of microorganisms in anaerobic or partially anaerobic condition Free-run juice is a considerable amount of juice immediately liberated that can be used for verification which is typically of a higher quality than the pressed juice.

21

Gelatin has been used in wine making for centuries and is recognized as traditional method for wine fining or clarifying. Heat stabilization is the process or removing unstable proteins by absorption unto bentonite, preventing them from precipitating into the bottled wine. Lactic acid fermentation is a process brought about by certain bacteria which ferments the sugar present in fruits and vegetables producing lactic acid. Oenology is a science of wine and winemaking. Unsoaked wine is a wine fermented in a barrel made of stainless steel or other material having no influence in the final taste of the wine. Vintage signifies a single seasons wine production, usually referring to the specific location in which a particular wine is produced. Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of fruit juice. Winemaking or vinification is the process of wine production from the selection of raw materials (fruits and vegetables) to the bottling of finished wine. Zymology is the science of fermentation.

Fermentation Fermentation in food processing typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast under anaerobic conditions. A more general definition of fermentation is the chemical conversion of carbohydrates into alcohols or acids. When fermentation stops prior to complete conversion of sugar to alcohol, a stuck fermentation is said to have occurred. The science of fermentation is known as zymology. Fermentation usually implies that action of the microorganisms is desirable, and the process is used to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine, beer, and cider. Fermentation is also employed in preservation to create lactic acid in sour foods such as pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurt. It can be utilized in the preservation of either fruits or vegetable which are in season. The processed products are good appetizers.

22

There are three types of fermentation 1. Alcoholic fermentation 2. Acetic acid fermentation 3. Lactic acid fermentation Alcoholic fermentation is the decomposition of simple sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide by means of enzymes and yeasts. Fruit juices may be fermented directly into wine by alcohol producing yeasts. Following is a list of native fruits from which quality wines can be produced. 1. kasoy 2. duhat 3. pineapple 4. guava 5. banana 6. bignay

Other sources of good wine Roselle. A low-growing shrub, belonging to the gumamela family. Its red petals are used for making a fine sparkling red wine. Lipote. The fruit resembles the duhat except for its round shape. It has black skin with white flesh which is sweet when ripe. It is sometimes called duhat matsing. Balubat. Like sineguelas, it is green when unripe and reddish orange when ripe. Its flesh is white and its seeds are like that of prunes. It is very sour when ripe. Katurai. It is similar to tiesa, green when unripe and yellow when ripe. Each fruit variety has its own identifiable characteristics. However, it is the winemaker who creates the style and personality of the finished wines. There is no fixed recipe for making certain wines, only general guidelines. The winemaker guides the winemaking process using a variety of techniques to best express your style in each wine. These following stages depict the fundamentals of winemaking.

23

1. Selection and Preparation of Fruits You can use any fruit containing sufficient sugar for making wine. If sugar is lacking in the fruit, you can add sugar into it. The flavor which the wine acquires depends largely on the kind of fruit that you use. Fruits should be ripe and free from bruises and diseases. You should gather them at the right stage of maturity. Always wash them very well and have them packed if necessary. 2. Preparation and Pasteurization of Juice Crush or mash the fruits to extract their juice. You may use a press for doing this but you may hand-crush then strain them with a piece of strong cheese-cloth. Dilute the extracted juice with two parts of water to increase the amount of fermentable materials. Add sugar if necessary. The sweetened juices are then pasteurized to kill microorganisms which may cause spoilage. Cool the mixture. 3. Fermentation To insure an efficient fermentation process, add a small amount of bakers yeast or commercial yeast preparation (commonly sold in grocery stores) to the mixture. Place the whole mixture in an open glass or enameled container covered with a piece of cloth or fine mesh. Fermentation generally takes place within 48 hours after preparation. You will know that fermentation is well under way by the froth produced by the prepared mixture 4. Storing and Aging When the fermentation is well under way, transfer the mixture to a suitable wooden barrel (preferably oak) or a demijohn (Dama Juava) or other similar containers. Plug hole with cotton and keep the preparation undisturbed, preferably in a dark, quiet place for about three months or until no more gas is evolved. 5. Clearing of Wine Heat the aged wine in a steam both to a temperature of 50 to 60 degrees centigrade. Add 5% well beaten egg white (5 cubic centimeters of egg whites to one liter of wine). Stir to maintain the temperature for 15 to 20 minutes and cool, siphon and filter.

24

6. Pasteurization Filter the mixture, throw out residues and heat at 80 degrees centigrade for 20 minutes to kill microorganisms that may cause spoilage. 7. Bottling Bottle the aged and clear wine in clear and sterilized bottles. LABORATORY EXERCISES Direction for Wine-Making Directions for making some fermented products Alcoholic Fermentation
Ingredients:

Pineapple Wine

4 cups fresh pineapple juice 1 cup of sugar 1 tbsp dry yeast / 15-20 liters of juice (16 liters equiv. to 1 gal. approx.) 5 per cent egg white by volume of wine for clarification.

Extract the juice of ripe pineapples and measure. Add 1 cup of sugar per quart of extracted juice. Stir very well. Heat to 60 degrees C. Cool to lukewarm. Add 1 tbsp of active dry yeast per 15 -20 liters to heated juice placed in a clean narrow necked flask. (1 tsp per quart juice.) Plug the mouth of flask loosely with sterile cotton for fermentation. At the desired endpoint of fermentation which is shorter for sweet wines than for dry wines, heat wine to 50 degrees Centigrade. Decant clear liquid and age in demijohns for at least a year. After period of aging, clarify by heating wine in a steam bath to 60 degrees C. Add 5 percent beaten egg white, based on volume of wine. Stir and maintain temperature for 15 minutes. Cool and filter.

25

Ingredients:

Guava Wine

2 cups guavas, ripe 1 1/3 cups sugar active dry yeast 4 cups water

Choose only ripe and sound fruits. Cut into quarters and measure. Boil water and fruit together until fruit is soft. Strain and measure juice. To the juice, add the sugar. Heat to 70 degrees Centigrade and cool before adding yeast in the same proportion as for pineapple wine. Proceed as for pineapple wine up to clarification, if desired.
Ingredients:

Bignay Wine

4 cups bignay 4 cups water cups sugar tsp dry yeast

Choose only sound ripe berries. Wash. Boil with an equal amount of water to get the extract. Strain and measure. Add 1/5 sugar by volume of extracted juice. (In this case, about cup). Heat the mixture to boiling. Allow to cool. Add tsp active dry yeast and transfer to a flask. Plug with a piece of cotton and allow to ferment. Proceed as for pineapple wine up to clarification, if desired.
Ingredients:

Duhat Wine

1 cup duhat juice, freshly extracted 2 cups water 1 1/3 cups sugar tsp. dry yeast

Wash the duhat to remove dirt and sort out the pieces, Press out the juice with the aid of sinamay, taking care not to bruise the seeds. To the pressed residue, add 1 cup of water and heat to boiling. Strain. Combine this liquid with the 1 cup of juice extracted with sinamay cloth.

26

Add 1-1/3 cups sugar and heat to 70 degrees Centigrade until scum is formed on surface. Cool and add tsp active dry yeast. Transfer to demijohns and allow fermenting for at least a month. Heat to 50 degrees Centigrade and set to age in barrel for at least a year. Clarify if desired.

Kasuy Wine

Ingredients:

4 cups of kasuy fresh extract cup sugar tsp. dry yeast

Choose only sound and ripe kasuy. Wash and remove the nuts. Crush the fruits and extract the juice by pressing with the hands. Measure the juice. For every 5 parts juice, add 1 part sugar. (In this case, c sugar.) Heat the extract with the sugar to 70 degrees Centigrade. Cool to room temperature. Add tsp active dry yeast and transfer to flask. Plug loosely with cotton stopper. Allow to ferment for at least 2 weeks. Proceed as for pineapple wine. Clarify if desired.

27

LET US REMEMBER Alcoholic fermentation is the decomposition of simple sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide by means of enzymes and yeasts. Its main source is either fruits or vegetables. Its end product is called wine. HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test Directions: Read and answer each of the items below. Write the letter of your answer in you test booklet. 1. What do you call the process of transformation of carbohydrates into alcohol or acid through the action of microorganisms? a. desiccation c. fermentation b. decomposition d. adulteration 2. Which of the following is the product of alcoholic fermentation? a. vinegar b. wine c. juices d. sauces 3. What product is made from sugary and starchy materials obtain by alcoholic and acetous fermentation? a. vinegar b. wine c. juice d. sauces 4. Which of the following types of fermentation is carried out in a sugary medium? a. lactic fermentation c. alcoholic fermentation b. acetous fermentation d. all of these 5. What types of fermentation occurs in a salt medium? a. alcoholic fermentation c. acetous fermentation b. lactic and fermentation d. a and c. 6. In fermentation, what is the first and foremost factor to consider? a. rate of fermentation c. kind of salt b. temperature d. scum formation 7. Why is proper temperature important in fermentation? a. for the activity of enzymes b. for the growth of lactic acid bacteria c. for the prevention of scum formation d. for the prevention of proper acid formation 8. How will you intensify the color and crispness of pickled product? a. use high concentration of vinegar b. add alum and turmeric in the final wash water c. prolong soaking in the brine d. use low grain of vinegar

28

9. The following are the preventions of scum formation, except a. keeping a dark area b. store in the open sunlight c. pour a thin layer of neutral mineral oil on the surface of the brine circulation. 10. To control alcoholic fermentation, what must be used? a. lactic acid c. true wine yeast b. Aceti bacteria LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Perform alcoholic fermentation of fruits in season, following the correct procedure. Assessment will be based on the following criteria Accuracy 10 % Speed 10 % Workmanship Quality 40% 30% Work Habits 10 %

1.Performing alcohol fermentation of fruits 10 1.1 Accuracy * Selection of raw materials *Appropriate selection of equipment/ tools/utensils * Measurement of materials * Cooking/heating * Temperature requirement Total 1.2 Speed 10 * Accomplished before the specified time * Accomplished on specified time * Accomplished 5 mins. beyond specified time * Accomplish 15 mins. beyond specified time * Accomplish 30 mins. beyond specified time Total 1.3 Work Habits 10 * Carefulness in handling the materials

Total

Total

Total

29

* * * *

Conscious in doing task Neat and orderly working area Correct use of tools Wear proper outfit Total 10 8 6 4 2 Total

1.4 Workmanship * Follow exactly the procedure * Partially follow the procedure * Does not follow the procedure Total 1.5 Quality * Appearance * Taste/flavor * Color Total Rubrics Tools/Utensils Measuring cup Measuring spoon Boiler, strainer, basin Knives/puller Fermenting jars

10

Total

Materials: fruits sugar yeast

30

REFERENCES Burgess, Jeremy. Science Source. Photo Researchers, Inc,. Microsoft Encarta. Microsoft Corporation, 2006. Calmorin, Laurentina Paler. Post Harvest Fisheries. Mandaluyong City: National Book Store, 2006. Guzman, Matilde P. et al. Basic Foods for Filipinos. Manila Philippines: Merriam & Webster Bookstore, Inc.,1986. Lagua, Rosalinda T. et al. Food Preservation for Filipinos. Quizon City, Philippines: GMS Publishing Corporation, 1977.

31

Lesson 4-A - Perform Acetic Acid Fermentation WHAT IS THE LESSON ABOUT? The lesson deals how to perform acetic acid and lactic acid fermentation and pickling of fruits and vegetables. It includes the procedure on the preparation of pickling fruits and vegetables. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. mix alcoholic liquid with mother vinegar according to specifications; 2. allow the mixture to ferment for 2 to 4 weeks according to standard procedures; 3. strain/Filter then clarify the mixture according to specifications. 4. heat acetons liquid according to specifications; and 5. prepare pickled products according to specifications WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Lets find out how much you already know about acetic acid fermentation and on the preparation of pickled fruits and vegetables. PreTest Sequencing The following are the steps involved in acetic acid fermentation (vinegar making). Indicate the number of each step in sequential order. Write only the number of your answer in your test booklet. _____________ a. Transfer in sterilized glass jars, cool and add teaspoon dry yeast. _____________ b. Set aside for 1 month. _____________ c. Filter the vinegar and cool to 60 to 65 C before bottling _____________ d. Mix alcohol solution with vinegar starter and allow to ferment (acetic acid fermentation). _____________ e. Pasteurize by heating at 65 C for 10 to 15 mins. _____________ f. Allow the sugar solutioin to ferment for 4 to 7 days (alcoholic fermentation. _____________ g. Dissolve sugar in 4 cups coconut water. _____________ h. Cover the container with a clean cheese cloth or paper.

32

_____________ i. Strain freshly collected coconut water with a cheesecloth. _____________ j. Decant the alcoholic solution to remove the yeast and other solid materials. LET US STUDY Let us define The following are important terms that you need to understand for you to facilitate learning: Acetic acid a chemical substance with an inhibiting effect on the growth of microorganisms and which is present in vinegar Acetic acid fermentation chemical reaction caused by an acetobacter aceti to produce vinegar Mother vinegar - a white gummy mass that usually forms in vinegar Acetic Acid Fermentation Fermentation preserves food through the metabolic activities of selected groups of microorganisms. During the process, compounds such as lactic acid, acetic acid and alcohol are developed and result in a more or less stable food form. It makes food more nutritious as dietary source of proteins, vitamins and minerals. Weak fermented liquors become sour on exposure to the air. This is owing to the conversion of the alcohol to acetic acid. Acetic acid is produced by fermenting various substrates (starchy solution, sugar solutions or alcoholic foodstuffs such as wine or cider with acetobacter bacteria. Vinegar is an example of the product of acetic acid fermentation which also undergoes alcoholic fermentation to complete the process. Basic of Acetic Acid Fermentation 1. Alcohol fermentation raw materials containing sugar is fermented to alcohol by the action of yeast. 2. Acetic Acid Fermentation alcoholic liquor is converted to dilute acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria. What is vinegar? The native vinegar has gone a long way from being used for home consumption product to an export commodity. The acetobacter aceti, which is normally used to produce vinegar can make vinegar up to 14% acetic acid. When cider, wine or malt is used as starting material about 5% acetic acid will be produced.

33

What are the common raw materials for vinegar making? Sugar can juice Coconut water, nipa sap Fruits such as pineapples, bananas, oranges Potatoes and sweet potatoes Waste peels and fruit cores

How to make vinegar? Follow the following step: 1. Grind or crash the fruit, then boil in water of the same amount as the ground flesh, peels and cores. Boil until soft, and then strain the juice through a cheesecloth. 2. Add (one-fourth) pound of sugar for every liter of juice extracted from fruit peels and cores. Do not add sugar when using ripe fruit. 3. Add of a cake of fresh yeast that has been well-broken up, for every liter of juice. Stir very well, and then place in glass jars. Cover with a clean cloth and let the mixture stand for about two weeks 4. After two weeks, separate the clear liquid from the sediment. Prepare fresh, unpasteurized vinegar also called mother vinegar which is the white gummy mass that usually forms in vinegar. Add this to the liquid and mix very well. Over the container with cloth, then allow to stand in a warm place until it has acquired a flavor strong enough to use. 5. Filter the clear liquids, then pour in a bottle and cover tightly. Fruit Vinegar Procedure Raw Materials Fruit juice, fruit peels or cores Dispersed in water or coconut water Water (1 liter or about 1 quart) Dry active yeast 1. Prepare the juice: a. Pass fruit through food grinder. In case of soft fruit, crush by hand. b. Mix peels and cores with equal volume of water and boil until soft. c. Press the crushed fruit or boiled peels and cores through double layered cheesecloth. d. Add cup of sugar per liter of diluted fruit juice. There is no need to further sweeten sugar cane juice, molasses, or other sweet fruit juices. The sweetness of undiluted fruit juice or that of ripe mangoes averages 15 %. 34

2. Ferment the juice for alcoholic fermentation a. Add 1/8 to teaspoon of dry active yeast or an equivalent amount of compressed yeast to every liter of the tested fruit juice. Hydrate the yeast in a small amount of the juice before adding to the whole quantity to be used. b. Mix thoroughly with the juice. c. Transfer into a well-covered clean clay pot or glass jar. Cover it with cloth to protect it from contaminants. d. Let stand for 1 to 2 weeks or until the gas formation has ceased. This can be determined by a saccharometer. In taste, the alcoholic product is faintly sweet or not sweet at all. When the Brix reading is zero which means that all the sugar has turned to alcohol, fermentation is complete. Another method is to actually weigh the sample. When the quantity of juice to be fermented is small enough to be easily weighed accurately this may be weighed from day to day, thereby determining the weight loss due to the escaping carbon dioxice. When weight loss has practically ceased, the fermentation may be regarded as complete. 3. Ferment into vinegar or acetic acid: a. When alcoholic fermentation is complete, decant or separate the clear liquid from the sediment. b. To every 4 parts by volume of the clear liquid, add 1 part of good unpasteurized vinegar (mother vinegar). The term mother vinegar applies to Acetobacter aceti (vinegar bacteria) that is found in vinegar, or use spent nata culture after harvesting the nata growth. c. Mix thoroughly. d. Cover the container with cloth to keep out insects. e. Allow to ferment until the vinegar is strong enough to use. f. Decant or separate the vinegar from the sediments and mother of vinegar by filtration. 4. Filter: a. Fold filter paper or cotton flannelette into a cone-shaped form. Line this on a funnel (glass funnel is preferred; metal funnels can be readily attacked by acetic acid) and put over a convenient receptacle such as a bottle or jar. b. Filter vinegar several times to make it clear or bright. Juices high in tannin like casuy of guava juice are not too easy to clarify.

35

5. Pasteurize: a. Transfer vinegar to final containers. Seal tightly and pasteurize at 60to 72 C (140-160 F) for 20 minutes. Use a thermometer to determine accurately the temperature of the water. Place jars or bottles on a rack in a sterilizer. Seal tightly and invert to further heat the lids. b. Cool containers completely before applying label. Optional: Test the sugar content of the fruit juice to be used with the aid of a sugar hydrometer before fermentation begins if accuracy is desired. (A Brix or Balling hydrometer is well adapted to this purpose.) Helpful Hints: Avoid stuck fermentation. Never add vinegar to the fresh juice of fruit because it interferes with the yeast fermentation and will result in a weak vinegar. If a higher alcohol in the wine and subsequently higher acetic acid is desired, measured amounts of sugar are added in the course of the alcoholic fermentation. The sugar concentration should not be more than 20%. The fermentation will proceed and increase the alcohol content. Coconut Water Vinegar Materials: Coconut water Sugar Yeast Vinegar starter Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Strain freshly collected coconut water through a cheesecloth. Dissolve cups sugar in 4 cups coconut water. Pasteurize by heating at 65C for 10 to 15 minutes. Transfer in sterilized glass jars, half filled. Cool and add tsp dry yeast. Cover the container with a clean cheese cloth or paper. Allow the sugar solution to ferment for 4 to 7 days or until there are no more bubbles of carbon dioxide formed. This is alcoholic fermentation. Decant the alcoholic solution to remove the yeast and other solid materials. Pasteurize the alcoholic solution to 60-65 degrees Celsius and cool immediately. To 4 cups alcoholic solution, add 1 cup vinegar starter. Cover with clean cheesecloth. This starts acetic acid fermentation. 4 cups cups tsp 1cup

36

9. Set aside for 1 month or until maximum sourness is obtained. For the development of desirable aroma and flavor, allow the vinegar to age in glass container which are filled to full capacity. 10.Filter the vinegar and then pasteurize at 60 to 65 degrees Celsius to kill the micro organisms before bottling the product. To clear the vinegar, stir it with well beaten eggwhite and heat until eggwhite coagulates (optional). Filter vinegar. 11.Bottle, label and store. What factors affect the rate of conversion of alcoholic product to acetic acid? You should take note of the following: Activity of the organism The amount of alcohol present in solution The prevalent temperature during the process The amount of surface exposed.

LET US REMEMBER Acetic acid fermentation is important aspect in the process of vinegar making. Alcoholic liquor is converted to dilute acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria. Vinegar makes food more nutritious and preserves it for a considerable time.

37

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test Sequencing The following are the steps involved in acetic acid fermentation (vinegar making). Indicate the number of each step in sequential order. Write only the number in your test booklet. _____________ a. Transfer in sterilized glass jars, cool and add teaspoon dry yeast. _____________ b. Set aside for 1 month. _____________ c. Filter the vinegar and cool to 60 to 65 C before bottling _____________ d. Mix alcohol solution with vinegar starter and allow to ferment (acetic acid fermentation). _____________ e. Pasteurize by heating at 65 C for 10 to 15 mins. _____________ f. Allow the sugar solutioin to ferment for 4 to 7 days (alcoholic fermentation. _____________ g. Dissolve sugar in 4 cups coconut water. _____________ h. Cover the container with a clean cheese cloth or paper. _____________ i. Strain freshly collected coconut water with a cheesecloth. _____________ j. Decant the alcoholic solution to remove the yeast and other solid materials. LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED? 1. Perform Acetic Acid fermentation out of coconut water based on procedure from the previous lesson. Valuing Test: Always be guided by the following: 1. Follow the proper procedure for fermenting fruits or vegetables. 2. Observe orderliness, cleanliness and sanitation during the process. 3. Observe precautionary measures and safety.

38

Rubrics

1.Perform alcohol fermentation of fruits 1.1 Accuracy * Selection of raw materials * Appropriate selection equipment/tools/utensils * Measurement of materials * Cooking/heating * Temperature requirement Total

10

Total

of

1.2 Speed 10 * Accomplish before the specified time * Accomplish on specified time * Accomplish 5 mins. Beyond specified time * Accomplish 15 mins. Beyond specified time * Accomplish 30 mins. Beyond specified time Total 1.3 Work Habits 10 * Carefulness in handling the materials * Consciousness in doing task * Neatness and orderliness in working area * Correctness of using tools * Wearing proper outfit Total 1.4 Workmanship * Follow exactly the procedure * Partially follow the procedure Does not follow the procedure Total 10 10

Total

Total

Total

Total

39

1.5 Quality * Appearance * Taste/flavor * Color Total RESOURCES Supplies and Materials coconut water sugar mother vinegar yeast cheesecloth fruits suitable for fermentation

Tools and Equipment stove casserole thermometer measuring cup measuring spoon fermenting jars empty bottles with caps

REFERENCES TESDA handouts De Leon, Sonia Y. and Guzman, Matilde P. Preservation of Philippine Foods, A Manual Procedures Phoenix Publishing House Inc. 1982

of

Principles

40

LESSON 4 B. PERFORM LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION/PICKLING OF VEGETABLES WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? This lesson deals on how to perform lactic acid fermentation. It includes the preparation of vegetables involving lactic acid fermentation and pickling. The manner of preparing pickling solutions and their proportions are also discussed here. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. ferment prepared vegetables according to standard procedure; 2. prepare and heat pickling solution according to specifications; 3. prepare pickled products according to specifications; and 4. share knowledge and techniques in performing lactic fermentation/pickling. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Pre-Test A. Check Marking Direction put a check before each number of those materials and utensils commonly used for the process lactic fermentation and pickling. Write your answers on your answer sheet. A. Materials 1. vinegar 2. salt 3. soy sauce 4. fish 5. pepper 6. chicken 7. pork 8. small shrimp 9. carrots 10.onion 11.garlic 12.ginger 13.seasoning 14.sugar 15.sayote

acid

41

B. Check Marking Directions: Direction put a check before each number of those materials and utensils commonly used for the process lactic fermentation and pickling. Utensils/Tools/Equipment 1. cup 2. spoon 3. bowl 4. tray 5. frying pan 6. casserole 7. knife 8. chopping board 9. ladle 10.tongs 11.grinder 12.strainer 13.stove 14.ball jar 15.refrigerator LET US STUDY Let us define Brine - a mixture of salt and water Fermentation - anaerobic oxidation of carbohydrates by Microbial enzymes. Lactic acid fermentation - caused by some fungi and bacteria. The most important lactic acid producing bacteria is Lactobacillus. Pasteurization - a process in which unfermented liquid is heated below the boiling point so as to avoid changing its molecular structure. Pickling - a process of preserving food by anaerobic fermentation in brine or vinegar. Yeast - a unicellular microorganism which is irregular oval in shape, 0.004-0.1 mm in diameter, multiply by budding, and multiply by vegetative reproduction very fast.

42

Fermentation is one of the common methods of food preservation. It makes food more nutritious as dietary source of proteins, vitamins and minerals. Common fermentation methods are pickling and buro making. A. Lactic Acid Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation is brought about by certain bacteria which ferment sugar present in vegetables producing lactic acid. These bacteria are called lactic bacteria. Examples of these are Leuconostoc mesentroides, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis. Examples of vegetables that have undergone lactic acid fermentation are burong mangga, onions, cabbage and cucumber. The goal of fermentation is to convert the fermentable carbohydrates or sugars that are found in vegetables into acid of 0.8 to 1.5% expressed as lactic acid. Salt is needed in order for fermentation to occur. Role of Salt in Fermentation a) It sorts out organisms that are allowed to grow in a medium. Brines containing 5% to 10% salt enable the lactic acid type bacteria to grow at the same time inhibits the growth of other organisms. b) It draws out the juices and other soluble substances in the product through osmosis. The length of fermentation varies from one day (24-hour cure) to several days (short time cure) to one month (long time cure). Salt concentration of 10% should be maintained throughout the fermentation period. This is done by adding salt to the brine during fermentation. The role at which fermentation takes place is influenced by the salt concentration. The weaker the brine, the faster the fermentation takes place. Scum Formation Scum is a whitish film found on the surface of the brine. This must be carefully spooned out because the organisms use the lactic found during fermentation and allows the growth of putrefactive organisms which causes softening and spoilage of the pickles. Scum formation can be avoided by: 1. exposing the fermenting vegetables in the open sunlight. 2. pouring a thin layer of neutral mineral oil on the brine surface.

43

Manifestations of Fermentation Fermentation is completed when the following are observed: 1. Brine becomes cloudy and milky white 2. The color of cucumber changes from bright green to olive or yellowish green. 3. The tissue becomes translucent compared to the chalky white and opaque appearance of the unfermented product The fermented cucumbers are known as salt stock. Salt is removed from the product by soaking the cucumbers several times in warm water maintained at 110 135 F for 1-2 hours. Alum and turmeric (dilao) are often added in the final washwater to make the product crisp and to intensify its color. SALOMETER READING Salometer Reading and Salt Concentration A salometer is an instrument which measures the exact salt content of brine solutions at a given temperature. This instrument is allowed to float in a cylinder containing the brine and the reading is taken at the surface of the liquid. The salometer reading divided by 4 approximates the salt concentration in percent. Table 7.2 shows the salometer degree of brines, the corresponding salt concentration in per cent, and the amount of salt dissolve in one quart of water. Actually, brine of any desired salometer degree can be obtained by diluting saturated brine with water. Multiply the amount of brine needed by the salometer degree desired. The product is the amount of saturated brine to prepare (step 1). Subtract this from the total amount of brine needed and the difference is the amount of water to add to the saturated brine solution to dilute it to the salometer degree desired (step 2). For example, you need 1000 cc of 55 salometer degree brine.

44

Table 7.2 SALOMETER DEGRESS AND PER CENT SALT CONCENTRATION Salometer Degree 5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Per Cent Salt 1.32 2.65 3.97 5.30 7.95 10.60 13.25 15.90 18.55 21.20 23.85 26.50 1000 cc x 0.55 sal -----------550 cc 1000 cc - 550 cc -----------450 cc 550 cc 450 cc -----------1000 cc Salt Per Quart Water Weight Measure (Gms) (Tbsp) 13 25 37 51 76 102 127 153 178 204 229 254 1 2 3 4 (1/4 cup) 6 8 (1/2 cup) 10 12 (3/4 cup) 14 16 (1 cup) 18 20 (1-1/4 cup)

Step 1

Amount of brine needed Salometer degree desired Amount saturated brine to prepare Amount of brine needed Amount saturated brine Amount water to add Amount of saturated brine Amount water to add Amount brine, 55 salometer

Step 2

Thus,

Steps involved in lactic acid fermentation 1. Select suitable fruits and/or vegetables 2. Wash, clean and cut according to required sizes 3. Prepare brine. This is done by dissolving salt to water following a specific ratio or concentration 4. Cool and strain to remove impurities 5. Pack the cleaned cut fruits/vegetables in a fermenting container. 6. Pour solution to the filled jars until totally immersed. 7. Cover the container and storing at room temperature. 8. Allow the product to ferment until ready for use or depending upon the length of cure.

45

BURONG MUSTASA Burong Mustasa is one of the locally known fermented vegetable that is easily prepared at home because it requires very simple procedure. This is consumed as an appetizer which adds to the palatability of the meal. Raw Materials: 1 kilo mustasa leaves 2 to 3 cups rice water cup coarse salt Procedure: Wash mustasa leaves very well in running water. Remove all old leaves and cut the roots crosswise (about 2 inches long). Sprinkle half the amount of salt to clean leaves and press out salt from the leaves with the hands with repeated squeezing motion. Squeeze out the sap and place liquidless mustasa leaves in a clean jar. Boil rice water with the remaining salt and allow to cool to body temperature. Pour this rice water over the mustasa leaves until totally immersed. Cover the jar and store at room temperature. This is ready for use in about 2 days.

BURONG MANGGA Materials: Green mango 5% brine Procedure: Select fresh, mature green mangoes. Wash pure and slice (the peel maybe kept, if desired) Pack in wide mouthed jar Prepare enough 5% brine (1/4 cup salt per quart warm water) to submerge pieces of mango. Cool brine, strain and pour over mango. Weigh mangoes down with inverted saucer over wax paper. Cover mouth of jar with wax paper or cheesecloth Ferment for 2 days, more or less This may be eaten at this stage and will keep well. For longer periods, pasteurize in canning jars for 10 minutes.

46

PICKLING Pickle generally applies to any food that is preserved in a brine or vinegar. Pickles may be prepared with or without fermentation. The product generally has an acidic taste with a characteristic aroma, texture and with a definite keeping quality. Bacterial growth in natural fermentation is controlled by certain environmental factors as follows: a. b. c. d. salt and acid concentrations temperature duration of salting nutritional requirements of the lactic acid bacteria

The salting procedure to follow depends on the type of fruit to be treated. In general, 10-18% salt content induces good lactic acid production and controls many proteolytic and spoilage organisms. The fermenting temperature influences the predominating microorganisms in the brine. At low temperatures (25-27C), lactic acid bacteria are encouraged to multiply. High temperature induces multiplication of microorganisms that are not beneficial to the pickling process. Fruits that are suitable for pickling are mango, siniguelas, kamias, papaya and santol. Equipment Needed Before you start doing some pickling activities, make sure that you have the necessary equipment assembled and readied. Essential equipment includes a large kettle and utensils made up of aluminum, stainless steel, enamel or glass. Utensils made up of things other than these materials may turn pickles into an unappetizing taste and poisonous substance will develop. Always use regular canning jars that are free from nicks and sharp edges. Essential Ingredients 1. Vegetables

vegetables you select for pickling must be firm, fresh, free from blemishes and well-washed.

47

2. Vinegar Vinegar renders a characteristics flavor to pickles, preserves and makes the product crisp. It should be clear, free from sediment, with 45% acetic acid. Vinegar with low acid content causes the pickles to become soft. On the other hand, those that has high acidity will cause shriveling of the product. Never use vinegar that has a darkening effect. Avoid prolonged boiling for it depletes the acetic acid which is important in the preservation of pickles. 3. Sugar Sugar acts as a preservative. It increases the density of the pickling solution. It also add sweetness to the pickles. Granulated white or light brown sugar may be used. The amount of sugar depends on the kind of pickles you would like to make. There are three kinds of pickles you can choose from. These are: 1. Sour pickles cup sugar for every cup of vinegar 2. Sweet sour pickles 1 cup sugar for every cup of vinegar 3. Sweet pickles 1 cups sugar for every cup vinegar In sweet pickles, sugar must be added gradually at intervals of several days. This will allow the product to absorb sugar slowly in order to prevent shriveling. 4. Spices Whole cloves, whole spices, celery seeds, mustard seeds, cinnamon sticks, peppercorn, dill and garlic are some of the common spices added to pickled products. Spices give flavor to the product. Use fresh spices always. Old spices may give undesirable flavor. If preferred, spices may not be added to pickling solution directly. Tie the spices in a bag or cheesecloth. Immerse this in the warm pickling solution. Simmer. Remove when the desired flavor is achieved. Spices should be used moderately and it should not overwhelm the flavor of the fruit or vegetables. Other Preservatives in Pickling Alum (tawas) is added to improve the crispness of the pickles. Excessive use of alum is discouraged because a bitter after-taste is produced which causes the softening of pickles. Alum may be added in the wash water when washing salt from the fermented product (2 tbsp. alum for every 2 cups warm water) or it may be added to the pickling solution (1 tsp alum per pickling solution).

48

Calcium chloride also improved the crispness of pickles. It can be added in the same way alum is added (1/2 tsp for every 4 cups) of pickles). Pickles can be made more crisps through the use of a good vinegar (4-5% acidity); water free from mineral (soft water) and correct brewing procedure.

Problems in Pickle Making Problem 1. Soft pickles Causes a) use of very weak brine during Fermentation which causes the development of undesirable organism Bacillus vulgari. b) use of vinegar low in acid c) exposure of the fermenting product to air d) scum formation and utilization of acid by the organism 2. Slippery pickles 3. Slimy brine 4. Discoloration 5. Shriveled Pickles - decomposition of pectic substances during the initial stage of fermentation - development of bacteria during fermentation in brine that are low in salt and acid content - caused by the formation of iron sulfide as a result of using utensils made up of iron - a) pickles are placed immediately in heavy syrup b) too strong brine c) too strong vinegar concentration

It is always advisable to prepare pickles in progressively increasing concentration of salt, vinegar or sugar.

Procedure in Preparing Pickles, Relishes and Chutneys 1. Prepare jars. Place them in boiling water for 15 minute to sterilize. Keep them warm until ready to use. 2. Heat food to boiling in a large kettle as specified in the recipe.

49

3. Fill the hot jar at a time allowing a certain headspace specified in the recipe. Wipe the rims of the jar with a clean damp cloth. 4. Seal each jar with a lid and ringband filled just as tight as is comfortable. 5. Place jars of pickles in a canning kettle filled with enough water to cover jar lids by 1 inch. Process in simmering water for 15 minutes. Remove. 6. Allow the jars to cool out of a draft on a folded towel. Leave on ring bands until the jars are cool to the touch. 7. Press the lid with your finger to test for a good seal. If it stays down when pressed, the jar is sealed. If lid pops up when pressed, the jar is not properly sealed. Store unsealed jars in the refrigerator and eat contents immediately. Store sealed jars in a cool dry place. Refrigerate after opening. PICKLED MIXED VEGETABLES Materials: Sugar Vinegar Salt Carrots Sayote Bell pepper Garlic Ginger Onion Procedure: 1. Select good quality raw materials. 2. Wash, peel, and cut vegetables according to standard specifications. 3. Prepare pickling solution by heating vinegar until sugar dissolves . 4. Arrange the vegetables in the clean sterilized jar or bottles and pour in the pickling solution. Remove air bubbles. 5. Screw on caps snugly and pasteurize in boiling water for 5 minutes. Tighten screw caps. 6. Cool and label. Preparing the Pickling Solutions Pickling solution must be prepared in the right proportions. Vinegar, sugar and spices are the main ingredients in the pickling solution. Alum and turmeric are often added to improve the crispness and color of the finished product. 250 g 250 ml 15 g 150 g 250 g 75 g 50 g 50 g 75 g

50

Key Points: Vinegar is the chief preservative agent in pickling and it gives flavor to pickles. It also makes the product crisp. The ideal acid content for pickling is 4-5%. Sugar acts as a preservative mainly by increasing the density of the pickle solution. It should be granulated white or light brown in color. Spices like whole cloves, whole allspice, bell pepper and peppercorn can also be added to pickling solution. These spices give flavor to the product. Be sure that the spices used are fresh and not adulterated.

Proportion of Pickling Solution Item Water Vinegar Sugar Table salt Spice Onions Garlic Proportions to make about one gallon 3 pints 4 pints 2 cups 4 tbsps cup about 2 small bulbs tsp Proportions to make about two liter 250 ml 1000 ml 240 ml 30 ml 110 ml 1 small 1 ml

LET US REMEMBER Fermentation and pickling are two of the most ancient methods of preservation and preparation of foods. Some of the fermented vegetables are consumed as such, but there are those that are freshened in water to remove the excess salt and then finished in vinegar syrup or pickling solution.

51

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Now that you have finished the lesson, you may now answer the post test. Post Test Enumeration - Directions: From the items presented, make a list of the materials and utensils needed for pickling. Write your answers in your test booklet. A. Materials 1. vinegar 2. salt 3. soy sauce 4. fish 5. pepper 6. chicken 7. pork 8. small shrimp 9. carrots 10.onion 11.garlic 12.ginger 13.seasoning 14.sugar 15.sayote C. Utensils/Tools/Equipment 1. cup 2. spoon 3. bowl 4. tray 5. frying pan 6. casserole 7. knife 8. chopping board 9. ladle 10.tongs 11.grinder 12.strainer 13.stove 14.ball jar 15.refrigerator

52

LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Given the procedure and criteria of lactic acid fermentation and pickling, prepare the following food products: 1. Burong Mustasa 2. Mixed Papaya Pickles Criteria. Assessment will be based on the following criteria: Accuracy 10 Speed 10 % % Workmanship Quality 30% 40% Work Habits 10 %

Rubrics 1.Perform alcohol fermentation of fruits 1.1 Accuracy * Accurately Selected of raw materials * Appropriate selection of equipment/tools/utensils * Measurement of materials * Cooking/heating * Temperature requirement Total 1.2 Speed 10 * Accomplished before the specified time * Accomplished on specified time * Accomplished 5 mins. beyond specified time * Accomplished 15 mins. beyond specified time * Accomplished 30 mins. beyond specified time Total 1.3 Work Habits 10 * Carefulness in handling the materials * Consciousness in doing task * Neatness and orderliness in working 8 6 4 2 Total 8 6 4 2 Total 10 8 6 4 2 Total

53

area * Correctness of using tools * Wearing proper outfit Total 1.4 Workmanship * Followed exactly the procedure * Partially followed the procedure Did not follow the procedure Total 10 1.5 Quality of Finished Product * Appearance * Taste/flavor * Color Total RESOURCES Tools and Utensils knife chopping board cheesecloth ladle casserole gas stove Raw Materials Vegetables Coconut water Sugar Vinegar starter Yeast papaya spices funnel container measuring cups measuring spoons bottle for packaging or storage wide-mouthed glass jars 8 6 4 2 Total 10 8 6 4 2 Total

54

REFERENCES: TESDA HANDOUTS De Guzman, Ines A., A Module in Food Preservation, Technology and Home Economics, St. Bernadette Publications, Inc. De Leon, Sonia Y and Guzman, Matilde P, Preservation of Philippine Foods, A Manual of Principles and Procedures, Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. 1982.

55

LESSON 5 Prepare Production Report WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? This lesson deals with the preparation of production report. This includes preparation of daily production input report ; preparation of daily production output, recording and documentation of production data; basic accounting procedure and techniques; preparation of process flow charts /diagrams and computation of recovery yield. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able: 1. record daily production input accurately; and 2. document daily production output properly. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Pre Test Word hunt from jumbled letter Let us find out what you already know about preparing production report by arranging the jumbled words that are associated with the preparation of a production report. Write your answer in your test booklet. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. TEWHIG IIEENNGRDNTS UUTTOP AAEIMTRLS OUPDCTAENM OUIONPRDCTN EADT PRDCTNOUIONRPRTOE ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

56

LET US STUDY: Let us define: 1. Input something that enters a process from the outside and is acted upon and integrated to become an end product. 2. Output anything produced especially through a process 3. Production Report- a written record showing the input-output relationship in determining a yield from a certain procedure. 4. Reject to discard or throw out as worthless, useless 5. Spoilage damaged or injured in such a way as to make something useless or valueless. 6. Variance - changing or tendency to change. SAMPLE FORMAT OF PRODUCTION DATA SHEET Product Name: _______________________________ Production Date: _____________________________ Description of Materials: : : : : Other Ingredients: Weight Weight Weight Weight Output: Problem encountered: ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ of of of of _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

57

SAMPLE FORMAT OF PRODUCTION INPUT AND PRODUCTION OUTPUT Product Name: PICKLED MIXED VEGATABLES Production Date: May 14, 2008 Description of Materials: Item Sayote Carrots Bellpepper Other Ingredients: Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight of of of of of of sugar vinegar salt garlic ginger onion : : : : : : 250 g 250 ml 15 g 50 g 50 g 75 g ___________ 1115 g Weight 250 g 150 g 75 g

Scum and bubbling formation of pickling solution

58

PROCESS FLOW CHART OF MAKING MANGO JAM Selecting Good Quality Raw Material Washing/Peeling

Cutting

Pouring of Pickling Solution

Packing

Pasteurizing

Cooling

Labeling

59

Daily Production Input Production input refers to all the ingredients and raw materials used in a certain process. Sample Spoilage in Mixed Pickled Vegetable Skin of carrots Skin of sayote Seed and stem of bell pepper Skin of garlic Skin of onion Skin of ginger 20 g 30 g 10 g 2g 3g 5g

Sample Waste in Mixed Pickled Vegetable: Excess carrots Excess sayote Excess bell pepper Excess garlic Excess onion 10 g 15 g 5g 1g 2g

Daily Production Output Production output refers to the yield. It is computed using the following formula: OUTPUT X 100% PERCENTAGE OF YIELD INPUT For example: Given: Input Output Percentage of Yield 1115 g 800 g 1115 800 X 100% 1 1 .71748 X 100% 1 5 1 71.75% YIELD 1 8 1 0 5 0 8 0

60

LET US REMEMBER Important things to remember in daily production reports: 1. Do not forget to weigh accurately all the ingredients and materials. 2. Do not forget to record the data. 3. Follow correct format in documenting. 4. Have a complete file of the production report for reference. HOW MUCH HAVEYOU LEARNED: Based on the given data make your own production report of burong mustasa. Make sure you follow the correct format. Given: 1 kilo mustasa leaves 2 to 3 cups rice water c coarse salt LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED: Prepare a production report based on your Pineapple wine by using the data given below. Given: Pineapple Yeast Sugar RESOURCES: Computer with printer Office materials like bond paper, pencils, ballpens, index cards, clips, folders and reporting and recording form Chalk, white boards, green board and markers Production data 2 pcs 10 g 1 kilo

REFERENCE TESDA CENTREX,Handouts.Concepcion Vocational School, Concepcion, Tarlac.2006

61

Lesson 1. Pre-Test 1. c 2. d 3. c 4. b 5. c Lesson 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mincing chopping diagonal slicing slicing dicing Julienne strips Post Test 1. c 2. d 3. c 4. b 5. c

Lesson 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. c b a c b 6. b 7. b 8. b 9. d 10. c

Lesson 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. WEIGHT INGREDIENTS OUTPUT MATERIALS PRODUCT NAME PRODUCTION DATE PRODUCTION REPORT

62

Department of the Education

PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

Unit of Competency: Process Fish and Other Fishery Products by Fermentation and Pickling Module No.: 3 Module Title: Processing Fish and Other Fishery Products by Fermentation and Pickling

MODULE 3 QUALIFICATION TITLE UNIT OF COMPETENCY : FISH PROCESSING NC II : PROCESS FISH AND OTHER FISHERY PRODUCTS BY FERMENTATION AND PICKLING : PROCESSING FISH AND OTHER FISHERY PRODUCTS BY FERMENTATION AND PICKLING : 215 hours : NC II

MODULE TITLE

NOMINAL DURATION CERTIFICATE LEVEL

This module deals with the knowledge, skills and attitudes required in processing fish and other fishery products by fermentation and pickling. It includes the preparation of raw materials, equipment, tools and utensils; the fermentation and pickling of fish and other fishery products, and the preparation of production report. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? After completing this module, you should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. prepare equipment, tools and utensils; prepare raw materials; ferment fish and other fishery products; perform pickling of fish and other fishery products; and prepare production report.

LESSON 1.
PREPARE EQUIPMENT, TOOLS AND UTENSILS WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? This lesson deals with the prepare action of equipment, tools, materials and utensils needed in salting, fermentation and pickling. It also includes lessons on checking, sanitizing and calibrating the tools used in acquiring the said competencies. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. select equipment and tools for fermentation and pickling fish and other fishery products in accordance with manufacturers specification; 2. check, sanitize and calibrate equipment for fish processing methods in accordance with manufacturers specifications; 3. cake ready and sanitize kitchen utensils for fish curing methods in accordance with manufacturers specifications; and 4. observe cleanliness, sanitation and proper care of tools and equipment. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Lets find out how much you already know about preparing the equipment, tools and materials for fermentation and pickling. Pre- Test Multiple Choice - Directions: Read and understand the questions below. Select the correct answer from the options given. Write the letter of your choice on your answer sheet. Do not write anything on the module. 1. How do you select tools and utensils for fermentation and pickling? a. according to requirements b. according to Bureau of Fisheries and Resources (BFAR) Specification c. according to manufacturers specification d. A and B

2. What will you do so that equipment, tools and utensils are ready to use? a. lubricate the parts c. calibrate b. check the condition d. b and c 3. Why is there a need to sanitize equipment, tools and utensils before using for fermenting and pickling? a. to hasten the process b. to avoid heavy microbial contamination c. to enhance the quality of the products d. for comfort and convenience 4. When are you going to sanitize the equipment and utensils? a. during the performance b. after the performance c. before the performance d. during storage 5. What will you do to maintain proper condition of equipment, tools and utensils? a. provide favorable storage b. apply lubricant c. disinfect d. all of these B. Checklist Directions: Given below is a five item checklist. On your answer sheet, put a check mark (/) on each item that you can do competently and an X mark on each item that you cant. Can you ______ 1. classify items presented to you as equipment, tools and materials needed in fermentation and pickling? _______ 2. operate equipment and tools needed in fermentation and pickling? _______ 3. prepare a brine solution of a given concentration and test it using a salinometer? _______ 4. prepare a sanitizing solution for hand dip? _______ 5. calibrate a weighing scale? LET US STUDY Let us define Fermentation - the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast under anaerobic conditions to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine or beer. Pickling - treating the food with vinegar and spices. Sanitizing agents microorganisms. chemical substances used to eliminate

Equipment, Tools and Utensils for Fermentation and Pickling A. Kitchen Equipment The large equipment necessary for the proper preparation of food includes a range, a refrigerator, and a sink. Proper use and care of the equipment will not only make food preparation quicker and easier but also insure their lasting service. 1. Chiller, Freezer or Refrigerator

Every food preparation area should be equipped with a refrigerator so that perishable food maybe quickly cooled and spoilage prevented. A refrigerator must be well constructed and well insulated, if it is to perform efficiently. Many modern refrigerators are of the combination refrigerator-freezer type, but individual freezer cabinets are also available for home use. There are two types of individual freezer cabinets: the upright type and the chest type. The upright freezer is like the refrigerator in appearance and takes up minimum of floor space. Refrigerators and freezer are available in size from 4 cubic feet to 16 cubic feet. The size purchased for a particular food preparation unit depends on the number of persons to be serviced by it and the space available. Food which is used frequently should be placed in the refrigerator that it maybe easily reached. The coldest part of the refrigerator or the freezing unit is used for storing perishable foods such as meat, fish, and poultry. Milk, cream, butter, and eggs should be kept near the freezing unit. Cooked foods which contain milk and eggs should be placed near the freezing unit, too. Other foods should be kept in the center of the refrigerator. Fruits and vegetables are usually kept in the crisper, the lowest part of the refrigerator.

Care of the Refrigerator The refrigerator which has an automatic defroster should be thoroughly cleaned every week by wiping off containers of food and removing all foods that cannot be used. Refrigerators which do not have automatic defrosters should be defrosted whenever the frost on the frosting unit is over inch thick. Defrosting the Refrigerator 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Turn off the electric current. Remove all ice trays and frozen food from the freezing unit. Wrap frozen food in newspaper to keep them from thawing. Put the drip tray in the proper place to catch the melted ice. Place pans of hot water in the lower part of the freezing unit. Allow the ice to melt. Never use a sharp or pointed object to remove the ice. 6. Remove the food in the lower part of the refrigerator. 7. Wipe the inside portion of the freezing unit as well as the refrigerator with water to which 1 teaspoon baking soda has been added for each quart. 8. Turn on the current and return the food to the refrigerator. Proper Use of the Refrigerator 1. 2. 3. 4. Study the booklet which is supplied by the manufacturer. Keep the temperature between 35F and 45F. Allow the food to cool before putting it in the refrigerator. Open the door only when absolutely necessary and keep it open as short a time as possible. 5. Put leftovers in small dishes and use them as soon as possible to avoid overcrowding the refrigerator. 6. Remove food from paper bags before storing in the refrigerator. 7. Do not store unopened cans of food in the refrigerator unless they are to be chilled for the next meal. 8. Store foods in covered dishes or glass jars to prevent odors from spreading. 9. Avoid getting grease on the gasket around the door. 10. Decide on a definite place in which to keep each kind of food, and put the foods in the same places each time so that you will not waste time in looking for them.

2. Oven/Stove The range or stove provides the necessary heat in cooking food. The fuel used for a range may be electricity, gas, kerosene, gasoline, coal, or wood. Ranges differ in size, shape, and special features, but all of them are equipped with surface units for top of the range cooking, an oven for baking and roasting, and a broiler. Both surface burners and ovens have various temperature control features. On a gas range, the source of heat is the burner; on an electric range, it is the Unit or a coil. The heat of either gas or electric range should be regulated according to the food being cooked and the size of the utensil. Ranges can provide low heat for simmering, medium heat for gentle cooking, and heat for rapid cooking. The low, medium, and high may each be adjusted to a higher or lower degree.

Use and Care of the Range When using the range, remember to: Use utensils that are large enough to prevent the boiling food from spilling over the range top or oven. Keep a dish on the range top for the spoon that you use in stirring food. Avoid putting anything hot on porcelain enameled surfaces or putting cooking utensils across them the heat may cause the surface to chip or crack. Arrange pans in the oven so that the air can circulate around them. Wipe the chromium trimming with a damp cloth and polish it with a dry cloth. Cleaning the Top of a Gas Range 1. Remove the burners and the rack and scrub them with warm, soapy water and scouring pad. 2. Clean the holes with a hair pin or wire. Do not use a toothpick. 3. Rinse with clear, hot water, and dry the rack; turn the burners of the oven upside down. 4. Return the burners and the rack to the range as soon as they are dry. 6

Cleaning the Units of an Electric Range 1. Turn on the high heat so that any food on the units will burn off. 2. Cool, and then brush each unit with a soft non-metallic brush. Never clean the unit with a metal brush, a fork, a knife, or a sharp metal tool. 3. Use steel wool or a cloth for units which are enclosed. Cleaning the Oven 1. Use a pancake turner to remove food immediately after it has spilled on the oven. 2. Clean the oven thoroughly with a special cleaner when it is cool. 3. Wipe the oven with soapy water. Rinse with clean water and dry. 4. Turn on the oven for a few minutes to dry all parts so that they will not rust. Cleaning the Broiler 1. Remove fat from the broiler pan. Then wipe the pan and the rack with paper. 2. Wash the broiler rack and the pan with hot soapy water using a scouring pad. 3. Rinse and dry thoroughly. 4. Wipe the walls of the broiler. Then return the broiler pan on the rack. 3. The Sink A great deal of food preparation is spent at the sink: cleaning, peeling, cutting food, removing waste, and dishwashing. It is central to all food operations which require water and therefore it should be placed where it will be easily accessible. The proper height of the sink is important too high a sink means stretching. All supplies and equipment that are used for scraping, washing, rinsing, and drying dishes should be near the sink. Sinks are available in various sizes and finish with a single, double, or triple bowl. They are usually either with a stainless finish or porcelain enamel, which comes in white or several colors. Care of the Sink 1. Fill the sink or the dishpan half full with water when washing the dishes. Put only a few dishes into the sink at one time. 2. Pour the dishwashing through a sink strainer to avoid clogging the sink. 3. Use soapy water to clean the sink, rubbing it hard. If the sink is very dirty, use a fine scouring powder and a bleach to remove the stains.

4. Equipment and Tools The use of proper equipment in top condition is of primary importance in the production of good food. Standardized equipment, a variety of knives, the right kitchen tools, utensils, and appliances all contribute to good quality food. Small Utensils for Food Processing For cooking sauce pan sauce pot kettle double boiler Dutch oven Pressure cooker For cutting and chopping Butcher knife French or chopping knife Bread knife Paring board Peeler For mixing and preparation Mixing bowls Sifter Wires whip Wooden spoon Mixing spoon Slotted spoon Basic Kitchen Utensils 1. Cutting implements knives for cutting fish and other ingredients. Blending fork Rubber scrapper Strainer Tongs Chopping board Scissors Meat grinders Cutting board Grater Can opener Mallet heavy skillet or carajay skillet or frying pan pressure cooker tea kettle coffee maker steamer

4. Kitchen Tongs turns or lifts food.

5. Soaking vats/containers receptacles for preparing brine solution and where fish are soaked for required period of time.

10

Knives: The Basic Cutting Tools

11

5. Measuring Devices a. Salinometer an instrument used to test the strength (salt content) of brine.

b. Weighing scales of varying capacities devices used to measure the weight of fish/raw materials and ingredients needed in fish/food processing.

c. Measuring tools like cups and spoons for measuring large and small quantities of solids and liquids.

d. Graduated cylinders/beaker for measuring liquid ingredients.

12

6. Raw Materials What are the raw materials needed in fermentation and pickling? Raw materials needed in fermentation and pickling include sugar, salt, yeast, vinegar and other spices which are commercially important. Cleaning and disinfecting Cleaning is very important as it ensures the removal of dirt or debris by physical and/or mechanical means. Sanitizing or disinfecting, on the other hand, rids or reduces the number of microorganisms on surfaces where food comes to. It cannot be accomplished until surfaces where foods being processed are clean. Moreover, it cannot be effective without a good pest control program. Benefits of proper cleaning and disinfecting 1. 2. 3. 4. Minimizes product rejection, return and complaints Lengthens product shelf life Reduces risk of involvement in food poisoning Facilitates preventive maintenance

In preparing a sanitizing agent, chlorinated water from 5.25% sodium hypochloride, consider the following:
Area to be sanitized with recommended chlorine concentration Hand dip (30 ppm) Footbath ( 350 ppm ) Floor ( 350 ppm) Equipment (150 ppm) (200 ppm) water for food processing (75 ppm) for washing vegetables, dressed chicken, etc.) volume of desired solution 1liter (1000ml) 1 gallon 5 gallons volume of sodium hypochloride 0.57 ml 216 ml 108 ml 6.67 ml 25 ml 125 ml 6.67 ml 25 ml 125 ml 2.86 ml 3.81 ml 1.43 ml 10.8 ml 14.4 ml 5.40 ml 54 ml 72 ml 27 ml

Remarks Dilute the amount of sodium hypochloride required up to the volume of desired solution as indicated in each corresponding column to obtain the needed concentrated on of chlorinated water

LET US REMEMBER To have a good quality finished products: All equipment, tools and materials needed in fish curing must be properly checked, prepared, sanitized and sterilized. The primary reason of this is to get rid of bacteria or other microorganisms that may contaminate food. Always use fresh raw materials to produce good finished product. 13

Valuing: Always observe orderliness, care and cleanliness and sanitary practices inside the laboratory Observe accuracy and safety precautions in doing work and in using tools and equipments HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test A. Multiple Choice Directions: Read and understand the questions below. Select the correct answer from the options given. Write the letter of your choice on your answer sheet. NOTE: Do not write anything on the module. 1. How do you select tools and utensils for fermentation and pickling? a. according to requirements b. according to BFAR Specification c. according to manufacturers specification d. A and B 2. What use? a. b. c. d. will you do so that equipment, tools and utensils are ready to lubricate the parts calibrate check the condition b and c

3. Why is there a need to sanitize equipment, tools and utensils before using for fermenting and pickling? a. to hasten the process b. to avoid heavy microbial contamination c. to enhance the quality of the products d. for comfort and convenience 4. When are you going to sanitize the equipment and utensils? a. during the performance b. after the performance c. before the performance d. during storage 5. What will you do to maintain proper condition of equipment, tools and utensils? a. provide favorable storage b. apply lubricant c. disinfect d. all of these

14

B. Checklist Directions: Given below is a five item checklist. On your answer sheet, put a check (/) mark in each item that you can do competently and an (X) mark for each item that you cant. Can you _______1. classify items presented to you as equipment, tools and materials needed in fermentation and pickling? _______2. operate equipment and tools needed in fermentation and pickling? _______3. prepare a brine solution of a given concentration and test it using a salinometer? _______4. prepare a sanitizing solution for hand dip? _______5. calibrate a weighing scale? LET US APPLY WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED Demonstration with Direct Observation 1. Gather the equipment and utensil that you need for fermenting fish. 2. Prepare a sanitizing agent for utensils, tools, equipment, laboratory tables and laboratory floor. RESOURCES: The following resources are needed: Equipment, Tools and Utensils o o o o o o o o o Salting vat Earthen jars Basins Wooden stirrer/mixer Salinometer Weighing scales of varying capacities and sensitiveness Cutting implements like knives, slicers and peelers Measuring tools like measuring cups and spoons Fuel for smoking like wood, wood shavings, saw dust, sugar cane bagasse, peanut shells

Learning guides o Module o Activity sheets o Manual on Occupational Health and Safety Requirements in Preparing Equipment, Tools and Utensils

15

REFERENCES: Calmorin, Laurentina P., Calmorin, Melchor A., Tinaypan, Alfredo S.. (1990). Introduction to Fishery Technology, Manila, Philippines. National Bookstore Inc. Cortez, Lourdes A.,(1990). Processing and Preservation of Freshwater Fish., Manila, Philippines ., National Bookstore Inc, Dagoon, Jesse D. (1985). Exploratory Fishery Arts. Manila, Philippines: Rex Bookstore Guzman, Matilde P., Claudio, Virginia S., De Leon,Sonia Y (1986). Basic Foods for Filipinos. Manila, Philippines: Merriam & Webster Bookstore, Inc. Hermes-Espejo, Jasmin,. (1998). Fish Processing Technology in the Tropics,. Quezon City, Philippines, Tawid Publications Lagua, Rosalinda T., Cruel, Carmelita P., Claudio, Virginia S., (1977). Food Preservation for Filipinos. Quezon City Philippines,. GMS Publishing Corporation Photo Researchers, Inc./Dr. Jeremy Burgess/Science Source. Microsoft Encarta 2006. 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. Fish Processing Handbook of the Phils. Hand-outs Other Sources: http://www.saltinstitute.org/ http://www.salttraders.com/StoreFront.bok http://www.slate.com/id/2117243 http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/saltguide.htm

16

LESSON 2.

17

LET US STUDY Let us define Beat make the mixture smooth and lightly by lifting it over and over. Blend mix two or more ingredients until one ingredient cannot be distinguished from the other. Break divide into pieces. Brining - soaking the washed and cleaned raw materials in certain strength of salt solution for a definite period of time. Chilling - the process whereby the product is cooled to the temperature of melting of ice at O degree C [32]. Cleaning - removing undesirable parts of the fish and washes it in potable water. Chop cut into small, uneven pieces. Cream rub, mash or work shortening against the side of a bowl with the black of a spoon until it is smooth and creamy. Cut-in combine shortening and dry ingredients when making biscuits or pastry. Cube cut into pieces of uniform size and shapes, first, lengthwise then crosswise to make cubes. Dice cut into small pieces of uniform size and shapes, first, lengthwise them crosswise to make cubes. Dredge coat solid food with a dry ingredient such as flour, bread crumbs or sugar by sprinkling, dipping or rolling into one of these ingredients. Evisceration - opening of the abdominal region of the fish to remove the internal organs. Flake separates fish into small pieces. Fold add beaten egg whites or whipped cream to a mixture without losing what has been beaten into them. Fresh fish - newly caught fish exhibiting normal quality requirements and which has not undergone processing.

18

Grate cut into fine pieces by rubbing against a grater in circular or back and forth motion. Grading - sorting fish according to appearance, freshness, species, size and color. Gutted fish - the fish from which the guts or internal organs have been removed. Julienne cut into thin, match-like strips. Marinate let food stand in French dressing or an oil acid mixture to add flavor. Mash press food from small pieces into a pulp with an up and down or beating action of a fork. Mince cut or chop into tiny pieces. Pare Cut the outer skin or rind with a knife. Peel pull off the outer skin or rind. Precooking the partial cooking of raw materials by means of boiling, steaming, baking or smoking. Puree rub food through a sieve to make a smooth semi-liquid mixture for use in soups or sauces or as food for babies. Raw materials uncooked food Scrape remove the skin by rubbing it with the sharp edge of the knife. Slice cut across into flat pieces. Sorting a process of segregating suitable species for processing from unsuitable one. Stir mix the ingredients in a bowl by circular movement of a spoon. Sprinkle scatter sugar, flour, and salt over food. Toss mix lightly by lifting the ingredients for salad with a spoon and fork with two forks to avoid brazing the ingredients. Wedge cut into shape of a wedge, each piece thick at one and thin at the other end. Whip beat rapidly with a whisk beater to incorporate air and increase volume of egg white.

19

Why do we have to prepare raw materials properly? Food by nature is delicate and perishable. Many foods like fish, shellfish, as well as fruits and vegetables are thrown to waste due to the change of color, odor, flavor or taste, texture and appearance. A food should be properly prepared to conserve the nutrient present in them. The body should be getting the proper nutrients to make a strong and healthy. Food like fish, vegetables and fruits should be cleaned and wash first before cutting them into the desired size. Vegetables such as potatoes, upo, sayote, radish and others and fruits like guavas, apple should be pared thinly. These will save the vitamins and minerals of the food and avoid wasted. Food should not be soaked in water. For instance, eggplant and potatoes, change color when already cut. Cut them when it is the time for them to be added in the food you are cooking. Ampalaya fruit should not also be soaked in water with salt. Its bitterness will be removed as well as its iron content. Sorting and Grading Fresh fish may be identified by its bright bulging eyes, red gills, firm elastic flesh which holds no finger impressions when pressed and which must have fishy odor. Fish when taken out from the water requires considerate attention for different handling methods and practices will also change the quality of the product. If the fish is exposed to sunlight and high temperature, it deteriorates faster. Improper handling of the fish resulting in bruises becomes local points of spoilage. Therefore, you should take necessary precautions in handling and keeping fish to keep it fresh. Steps in Handling Fresh Fish 1. Minimize struggle of fish [be fresh or marine] while still alive. 2. Keep the fish in the shade to prevent it from spoiling. 3. Eviscerate the fish while still fresh to prevent autolytic changes from the feed they have eaten. 4. Cover it with wet burlaps like banana leaves, cracked or shaved ice, refrigerated water or brine, refrigerated containers. 5. Cool the fish immediately after they are caught. 6. Use containers made of slats, netting or screen set down in the water for constant water circulation if ever the fish are small.

20

Ways of Preparing Wet Fish Methods of preparing fish either for subsequent processing or icing and freezing vary according to the specific requirements of the retailer. Some of these methods of pre-treatment are described and illustrated below: Market Forms of Cuts and Fish 1. Live fish all whole or round Live fish are transported and marketed alive; fish which has not been gutted or the viscera removed. Fish which are usually sold in the round are of medium and small size. 2. Drawn fish Fish which has been eviscerated or with the entrails removed.

4. Dressed fish Fish with scales, viscera, fins, head and tail removed. This is already prepared for cooking or for special preparation to improve presentation. 4. Steaks A section of a fish removed by cutting approximately at right angles to the backbone. Large fish are occasionally in this form.

5. Fillets

The meaty section of the fish removed from the backbone and ribs of the fish. The fillet can either be a block fillet, butterfly fillet, cutlet, and double fillet.

21

Block fillets (butterfly fillet, cutlet, double fillet). These are the flesh from both sides of a single fish usually joined along the back.

Cross-cut fillets. These are fillets from flat fish. i.e. sole fish, the flesh from each side is removed as a single piece. Quarter-cut fillets. These are fillets from flat fish, the flesh from each side is taken off in two pieces.

Single fillets. This is the flesh from one side of the fish.

. Sticks

These are small elongated chunk of uniform size and thickness cut from the fleshy portion of the fish.

22

Characteristics of Fresh and Stale Fish to Consider When Grading The freshness of fish samples are generally evaluated subjectively based on the appearance, odor and texture. Below are given the characteristics of fresh fish as contrasted with stale fish. Features 1. Odor 2. Eyes 3. Gills 4. Color 5. Flesh 6. Belly walls 7.Mussle tissue 8.Vent Fresh Fish Fresh, fishy odor Bright, bulging pupil, velvet cornea, transparent Bright red, covered with slime, odor and under gill cover fresh Bright Firm, the body is stiff; impression made by fingers do not remain; slime is clear Intact White Pink, not protruding Stale Fish Sour or putrid Dull, wrinkled, sunken pupils, dull black cornea, opaque Dull brown or gray; slime cloudy; odor under gill cover sour and offensive. Faded Soft and flabby; finger impression made by fingers remain. Often ruptured, viscera protruding Pinkish, especially around backbone Brown, protruding

Preparing Fish for Cooking To Clean Fish To remove scales scrape fish beginning at the tail and working toward head. Use the back of a heavy knife or scaler and hold it nearly flat against the fish. The head and tail are usually left on small fish and on big fish to be served whole. Make a slit in the belly cavity from gills to vent, remove entrails and wash away any blood. Remove fins and gills. If head and tail are to be removed, cut off gills with head and followed by cutting the oval fin. To Skin Fish Remove fish along backbone and cut off a narrow strip of skin down the entire length of backbone. Loosen the skin from body part of gills on both sides. Draw the skin off toward the tail. If the fish is fresh the skin can be drowned off easily.

23

SHELLFISH Like fish, shellfish are very perishable and deteriorate rapidly after removal from water. Fish with shells as distinguished from fish with bones from two groups based on differences in the character of the shells. Oyster, clams, scallops, live in hinged shells. They have unsegmented bodies and the whole portion is eaten except in the case of the scallops. Market Form of Shellfish Shellfish are sold in the shell, shucked or remove from the shell, or cooked. All forms are quickly perishable and care is needed in selecting them. Live Shellfish Ideally crabs, clams, mussels, snails, oysters and shrimp should be marketed live. A live crab is indicated to be fat if its claws do not have sharp teeth and if it is heavy in weight. The female crab has a rounded apron and usually contains fat (aligi); the male crab has a narrow, more pointed apron. Filipino consumers generally prepare the female variety. Because of the proximity of most market to the sources of shellfish, live species can be sold to consumers. Whole Shellfish Whole shellfish are served in the form in which they are caught but are no longer alive, the head and thorax are intact. Filipinos are fond of eating the head and extremities of crabs and shrimps. Shucked Shellfish Oysters, clams, mollusk and scallops are removed from the shell and known as shucked shellfish. Freshly shucked shellfish have a translucent appearance but became opaque when no longer fresh. Headless Shellfish Shrimps, lobsters, and prawns for export are marketed in headless form; the head and thorax removed. Foreign consumers do not favor the consumption of these parts of the shellfish. Furthermore, the head is removed mainly because it is the main source of the bacterial espoilage.

24

Handling of Shellfish Whenever possible, shellfish should be alive until it is cooked or processed. There are few exceptions, however, as in the case of shrimps that could be iced immediately after catch. Following are various shellfishes with required characteristic upon delivery to fish landing and/or market: Shrimps (except for a species which can be kept alive for a certain number of hours) should be preserved in ice; they should have a mild characteristic shrimp odor. Lobster should be alive and active. If beheaded, tails should be washed and packed in ice. Oysters, clams and mussel should be alive. Crabs of all species should be alive and active. Crustaceans SHRIMPS Handling of Shrimps: As soon as the catch is aboard the vessel, shrimps should be separated from the fish caught and sorted according to kind and species. Shrimp should be washed in clean sea water to remove sediment and ice as soon as possible to prevent spoilage and deterioration. All shrimp on deck should be protected from the sun and drying effect of wind. If the catch is to be on deck for any length of time it should be protected by wet, clean canvass or burlap. If the boat has no deck, a clean container should be provided for the protection of the catch. Where boxes or suitable containers are used for packing, they should be properly iced and not overfilled.

Finely crushed ice should always be used. This gives close contact with the shrimp, reduces damage by crushing and gives rapid cooling. For efficient cooling, each container should contain a layer of ice on the bottom, then some shrimp and ice mixed together and lastly, a top layer of ice. 25

The shrimp, if adequately iced with a ratio 1:1 should remain undisturbed in the containers until it reaches the market; but whenever it is required, more ice can be added to the containers without disturbing the shrimp. CRABS Handling of Crabs (Alimango) For mud crabs (alimango), observe the following: live crabs should be handled as little as possible after capture. They should not be removed from the traps by their claws, since these are readily shed when a crab senses that a claw s trapped. crabs should be protected from the exposure to sun and wind for they will rapidly weaken and may die. crabs should packed closely together to reduce the chances of damage in transit prevent fighting. in packing, wet straws or shavings in the bottom of the box can help prolong the life of the crabs.

Live storage of crabs is difficult. When live storage is necessary the crabs should be tightly packed in the baskets held in aerated sea water. If they are loosely packed, fighting occurs and losses are increased. In the case of blue crabs (alimasag) you should practice the following: right after catch, they should be protected from exposure to sun and wind. they should be packed closely together to reduce the chances of damage in transit and prevent fighting. for big volumes of catch, they should be properly packed in ice.

26

MOLLUSKS Squid and cuttlefish Handling Squids and Cuttlefish: Remove all foreign materials and pack in suitable containers protecting them from the sun and the drying effect of the wind. Handling Oysters and Mussels For oyster and mussels, observe the following: oysters and mussels can be kept alive out of water for one or two days provided the harvest is protected against direct sunlight and high temperatures, but for mussels, it is recommended that they be delivered immediately after catch. they should be culled or separated individually from their clusters. they should be submerged in purified water or flowing clean seawater for a number of hours before marketing to cleanse them from harmful organisms. Shucking of Oysters: Oysters should be thoroughly cleansed by brushing their shell before they are shuckes. Shucking is usually done by inserting a thin bladed knife between the shells and the right hands side of the hinge and then the muscle is cut. After remove all containers should be disposed. shucking, wash the meat in cool running water to traces of sand and mud. Pack meat in suitable with chilled water. If possible, the packed oysters placed in a styropore box with ice until they are

Scallops and Clams Handling on Board: As soon as the catch comes aboard, scallops and clams should be sorted from stones, sea urchins, starfish and other undesirable materials. After sorting, the catch should be thoroughly washed and packed in sacks that have been soaked in seawater. The filled sacks are then stowed in the hold and kept cool and wet.

27

When stored at chilling temperature (0C to 5C), scallops and queens can survive out of water for several hours, and this period can be extended to a day or two if the storage sacks are kept well soaked or immersed in seawater. LET US REMEMBER Fish and other fishery products for fermentation and pickling must be properly prepared in order that they will conform with specifications required by BFAR by product requirement. HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post test Matching Type - Directions: Presented below are two columns on common methods and techniques in preparing raw materials for food processing. Write on the blank space provided at the left the letter which corresponds to the method/techniques used in food preparation. Use each letter only once. Be sure to write your answers in the answer sheet. Process of Preparation 1. Partial cooking of raw materials 2. Soaking of fish in salt solution 3. Classifying fish according to species, freshness and size. 4. Segregating suitable materials from the undesirable 5. Cooling the raw materials to temperature of melting ice at 0C. 6. Cutting across into flat pieces 7. Cutting into small, uneven pieces 8. Removing the scales, head, viscera, fins of fish 9. Cutting of the outer skin 10. Removing the internal organs Methods / Techniques L. Slicing M. Sorting N. Gutting O. Paring P. Chopping Q. Precooking R. Brining S. Dressing T. Grading U. Whipping V. Chilling

Practical Demonstration with Direct Observation and Questioning Demonstrate how to perform the following tasks: 1. Grading and Sorting Fish 2. Eviscerating, Scaling and Cutting Fish 3. Washing Fish

28

LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Demonstration Method: Prepare the following market forms and cuts of fish Valuing: Explain why you must follow proper preparation of raw material for fermentation and pickling methods. RESOURCES: The following resources are needed: Equipment, tools and utensils o Aluminum trays o Basins o Cutting implements like knives, slicers, peelers, scalers Learning guides o Module o Activity sheets o Manual on Safety Tips in the Workplace Personal Protective Equipment o o o o o Apron Rubberized hand gloves Hairnet/head band Working boots Mouth mask dressed fish drawn steaks sticks gutted fillet (butterfly, single fillet)

29

REFERENCES: Calmorin, Lauretina Paler. Post Harvest Fisheries. Mandaluyong City: National Book Store, 2006. Dionisio, Teresa and Castillo, Salvador. Fish Cultivation 3 and 4. Makati, Metro Manila: Basic Media Systems, Inc., 1993 Legaspi, Anselma S. et al. A Guide for Fish Handling, Marketing and Distribution. 2nd ed. Quezon City: Technology Packaging & Publication Section Fisheries Development Support, 1990. Soriano, Nora Narvaez. A Guide to Food Selection, Preparation and Preservation. Rev. ed. Manila, Philippines: National Book Store, 1994

30

LESSON 3. FERMENT FISH AND OTHER MARINE FISHERY PRODUCTS WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? This lesson deals with the fermentation of fish and other marine fishery products. Specifically, it involves methods of preparing fish and other fishery products, procedure in mixing fish and other fishery products and ingredients, equipment and tools, sanitary practices, methods and procedure and the method of straining, filtering and heating fermented fish and other marine fishery product. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. prepare fish according to approved BFAD specifications; 2. mix ingredients in accordance with BFAR and BFAD specifications and product requirements; 3. allow fish and other fishery products to ferment for 2 weeks to 6 months in accordance with BFAR specifications and product requirements; and 4. strain, filter, and heat fermented fish according to approved specifications. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Pre-Test Multiple choice - Directions: Read and understand the questions below. Select the correct answer by writing the letter of your choice on your answer sheet. Do not write anything on the module. 1. Which utensil is needed in mixing ferment fish and other fishery products? a. jar b. salinometer c. turner d. wooden ladle 2. How many days is needed to ferment fish and other fishery products? a. 3-4 days b. one weeks to 6 months c. one month to one year d. both b & c 3. Which utensil is NOT needed in fermentation process? a. knife b. chopping board c. measuring cup d. measuring spoon

31

4. Which species of fish can be fermented? a. dilis b. galunggong c. sapsap d. all of the above 5. Which process is not suitable in fermenting fish and other fishery products? a. washing b. sorting c. straining d. drying 6. Which of these is an ideal receptacle for fermented fish? a. earthen jars c. glass jars b. plastic containers d. plastic box 7. You were assigned to mix fish and salt. What sanitary practice will you do? a. Wear personal protective equipment. b. Sanitize all equipments and utensils. c. Maintain cleanliness and orderliness before and after the process. d. All of these 8. You are fermenting fish which will be sold after 6 months. Why will you mix papaine? a. to improve the taste b. to hasten the fermentation process c. to improve the color d. to improve the odor 9. Fermented fish undergo hydrolysis resulting to two by products, the fish sauce and fish paste. Which process will you do to separate them? a. Decant c. straining and filtering b. Precipitation d. none of these 10. Which of these is a BFAR standard for fermented fishery products? a. fish sauce must be clear with straw yellow or amber color b. cloudy and red in color c. clear and well hydrolyzed d. none of these

32

LET US STUDY Let us Define Brine mixture of salt and water Entrails internal organs of fish such as liver, intestine, stomach, gall bladder and gills Enzymes - any complex chemical produced by living cells that is a biochemical catalyst Fermentation an aerobic oxidation of carbohydrates by microbial enzymes Salinometer an instrument used for measuring the salt concentration of a brine Salt a white crystalline compound chemically known as sodium chloride occurring abundantly in nature both in solid form and in solution

Split fish fish that has been cut from the belly cavity all the way to the tail Equipment and Tools Used in Fermenting Fish and Other Fishery Products Wooden Spade used in mixing salt and fish and other marine products

Salting vat/wooden tank a rectangular wood or stainless steel vat receptacle for mixing fish and other marine products

33

Earthen jars receptacles where the mixture of fish and other marine products and salt are placed and then covered for fermentation

Basin enameled or stainless, also used in mixing and preparation of the mixture

Salinometer an instrument used for measuring the degree of saltiness of the brine solution

types

of

container

where

Gas Stove - used for cooking

34

Personal Protective Equipment protects the handler in holding, preparing and mixing of products

apron

disposable glove

pot holder

hand towel

hair net

Containers for Storing Fermented Fish and Other Fishery Products

earthen jar

plastic drum

35

wooden vat

Sanitary Practices in Mixing Fish and Salt 1. Wear personal protective equipment. 2. Wash and sanitize all the utensils and equipment used. 3. Maintain cleanliness and orderliness during and after the process. Method of Preparing Fish and other Fishery Products 1. Sort and grade species of fish and other fishery products. 2. Weigh the fish and other fishery products. 3. Wash the fish and other fishery products thoroughly in clean fresh water. 4. Drain for 30 minutes. Method and Procedure of Fermenting Fish and other Fishery Products 1. Mix salt thoroughly with the fish in a ratio of 1:4 (1 part salt to 4 parts fish) by weight or 20%. And if 25% is used, the ratio is 1:3 (1 part salt to 3 parts fish) by weight. 2. Add papain to shorten the fermentation period (optional). 3. Pack the fish in plastic drum or glass container. 4. Store the fermented fish for a month to a year for it to develop the aroma caused by the breakdown of fish proteins. Method of Straining, Filtering and Heating Fermented Fish and other Fishery Products 1. Separate the fish sauce from fish paste. Filter the sauce with strainer or a clean cloth. 2. Cook the extracted sauce. 3. Cool and then pack in bottles. 4. Label and store for marketing.

36

Patis

Bagoong

Flow Chart Showing the Manufacture of Fish Paste and Fish Sauce (bagoong and patis)

37

Some Existing Standards for Fermented Fish and Other Fishery Products Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD) has set standards for patis with emphasis on its chemical composition and physical aspect. The standards are stated as follows: 1. Standard of Identity Patis is a clear liquid sauce, straw yellow to amber in colour obtained from enzymatic fermentation of mixture of fish or shrimps and salt, having a strong salty taste and fishy odor. 2. Standard of quality Fish sauce should have the following composition: a. total solids not less than 32% b. salt content 20-25% c. protein content varies with grade levels c.1. For Domestic Trade Special no less than 8% Regular no less than 4.5% c.2. For Export Special no less than 8% Regular no less than 6% 3. Level of sub-standard quality Fish sauce of protein content not more than 4.5% and no less than 2.5%, shall be sold under the name patis flavor. 4. Mandatory label of information 4.1. The label statement of class or type shall be in accordance with the stated protein content 4.2. The name and address of manufacturer/producer should appear 4.3. Added preservative or coloring shall be limited to that approved as food grade and should be indicated in the label 4.4 Net content shall be no less than the amount stated in the label.

38

LET US REMEMBER The steps involved in fermenting fish and other fishery products are the following: Securing of fresh fish Washing and draining of raw material Mixing with salt using appropriate measurement Packing tightly in jars and storing Draining of liquid and grinding the solid part to be sold as bagoong (fish paste)

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test Multiple Choice - Directions: Read and understand the questions below. Select the correct answer by writing the letter of your choice on your answer sheet. NOTE: Do not write anything on the module. 1. Which utensil is needed in mixing ferment fish and other fishery products? a. jar b. salinometer c. turner d. wooden ladle 2. How many days is needed to ferment fish and other fishery products? a. 3-4 days b. one weeks to 6 months c. one month to one year d. both b & c 3. Which utensil is NOT needed in fermentation process? a. knife b. chopping board c. measuring cup d. measuring spoon 4. Which species of fish can be fermented? a. dilis b. galunggong c. sapsap d. all of the above 5. Which process is not suitable in fermenting fish and other fishery products? a. washing b. sorting c. straining d. drying 6. Which of these is an ideal receptacle for fermented fish? c. earthen jars c. glass jars d. plastic containers d. plastic box

39

7. What sanitary practice are you going to do when mixing fish and salt? a. Wear personal protective equipment. b. Sanitize all equipments and utensils. c. Maintain cleanliness and orderliness before and after the process. d. All of these 8. Why is there a need to mix papaine when fermenting fish which will be sold after 6 months? a. to improve the taste b. to hasten the fermentation process c. to improve the color d. to improve the odor 9. Which process is used to separate the two by products of fermented fish- the fish sauce and fish paste? b. Decant c. straining and filtering c. Precipitation d. none of these 10. Which of these is a BFAR standard for fermented fishery products? a. fish sauce must be clear with straw yellow or amber color b. cloudy and red in color c. clear and well hydrolyzed d. none of these LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Practical Demonstration/Performance Test Using available fish in your locality, perform the fermentation process for the following: 1. 5 kilograms anchovies 2. 5 kilograms roundscad 3. 5 kilograms shrimp (alamang)

40

RESOURCES: The following resources are needed: Learning guides o Module o Activity sheets o Manual on Occupational Health and Safety Requirements in Performing laboratory activities Equipment, Tools and Utensils o o o o o o o o o Salting vat Earthen jars Basins Wooden stirrer/mixer Salinometer Boilers Strainers Gas stove Timers

Personal Protective Equipment o o o o Apron Hairnet/head band Rubberized gloves Pot holders

REFERENCES: Segovia L, Godez R, Bonao T. et al. Agricultural and Fishery Technology, Bureau of Secondary Education. Quezon City 1993 Calmorin, Laurentina Paler. Post Harvest Philippine National Bookstore, 2006 Fisheries. QC,

Espejo-Hermes, J. Fish Processing in the Tropics,1998 Hernandez, Villoso & Mendoza, Fishery Arts. Quezon City 1980 Panggat, E, MD. A Manual in Product Analysis and Standardization, University of the Philippines in the Visayas, 1987

41

LESSON 4.
PERFORM PICKLING OF FISH AND OTHER FISHERY PRODUCTS WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? The lesson deals with ferment pickling of fish and other fishery products. This includes the composition of pickling solution, procedures in mixing pickling solution and prepared ingredients/ materials and the ideal conditions for storing pickled products. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. prepare and mix ingredients/materials in accordance with approved Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD) specifications; and 2. share knowledge and techniques in performing pickling of fish and other fishery products. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Before you go over this module, answer the succeeding pretest. Lets find out how much you already know about fermentation and pickling by answering the pre-test below. Pre-Test A. Matching Type - Directions: From the items listed below, copy those that you need for fermentation and pickling. Write your answer on a separate paper. A. Ingredients: _______ 1. vinegar _______ 2. salt _______ 3. soy sauce _______ 4. fish _______ 5. pepper _______ 6. chicken _______ 7. pork _______ 8. small shrimp _______ 9. carrots _______10. onion _______11. garlic _______12. ginger _______13. seasoning _______14. sugar _______15. sayote B. Utensils: _______ 1. cup _______ 2. spoon _______ 3. bowl _______ 4. tray _______ 5. frying pan _______ 6. casserole _______ 7. knife _______ 8. chopping board _______ 9. ladle _______10 tongs

42

Item Proportion to make one gallon Proportion to make two liters

Vinegar Salt Sugar Spice Water Garlic Onions LET US STUDY Do you know what pickles are? If you have seen them in your home, you might have noticed that they dont spoil easily even if they are not refrigerated. Let us define Brine - mixture of salt and water. Fermentation - anaerobic oxidation of carbohydrates by microbial enzymes. Measuring instrument - device for determining the value of some quantity in terms of a standard unit. Pickling - a process of preserving food through the action of vinegar and spices by anaerobic fermentation in brine. Sanitizing - a way of eliminating microorganisms by mixing a sanitizing agent with water and applying the mixture through appropriate method. Preparing the Pickling Solution:

The pickling solution is a mixture composed of vinegar, salt, sugar and spices used in curing pickled fish. Below are the ingredients to prepare and mix:

43

d. Vinegar is a chief preservative agent for pickling and gives flavor to pickles.

e. Sugar acts as a preservative mainly by increasing the density of the pickled solution.

f. Spices like whole cloves, whole allspice, celery seeds, mustard seeds, cinnamon sticks, and peppercorn can also be added to the pickling solution. These spices give flavor to the product.

whole cloves

Peppercorn

44

Proportion of Pickling Solution

Item Proportions to make about one gallon Proportions to make about two liter

750 ml 1000 ml 240 ml 30 ml 110 ml 1 small 1 ml

Procedure Involved in Mixing Fish and Other Fishery Products with Salt and Pickling Solution 1. Preparing the raw materials a. Clean the fish. Medium fish may be beheaded and eviscerated. Small fish may just be washed in clean water.

b. Remove backbone in large fish by cutting lengthwise. This is not necessary on small fish such as herring.

2. Curing the fish a. Dry salt for 5 to 8 days. (Please refer to the measurement below). Salted fish may be stored at 30F to 50F for 2 to 3 months before pickling. If kept refrigerated, it may be cured for 6 to 12 months. 45

Dry Salt Brine curing Place sides of fish into saturated brine (about 1 part fine salt to 3 parts water) and completely submerge them with a suitable weight. Use about equal volumes of fish and brine. Place top layer skin side up. Hold under refrigeration if possible. Do not store above 50oF (10oC). Cover bottom of large pan with about inch (0.5 to 1cm ) of fine salt. Lay down fish and salt in alternate layers. Place top layer skin side up. Hold under refrigeration if possible. Do not store above 50oF (10oC).

3. Pickling the fish a. Remove surface brine by rinsing fish in fresh water. Soaking not longer than one day in 300F to 500F, fresh water (to reduce salt content) may be desirable but is not necessary. The actual length of freshening depends on the salting methods, size of pieces, and amount of salt desired in the finished product. b. Remove the skin if desired. (Some fish can be skinned easily prior to salting, but storage life maybe reduced if this is done.) c. Cut into bite-size pieces or strips, as desired. d. Place loosely into glass jars (not cans!); cover with pickling solution; put on lids; and cure under refrigeration until bones soften (1to 2 weeks). Important: Do not use less than one part vinegar to one part water. Do not pack fish tightly into jars. Procedure in Mixing Fish with Pickling Solution 1. Weigh the fish.

46

2. Split them at the back and remove the internal organs. Fillet the fish.

3. Wash the fish fillets with fresh clean water.

4. Soak the fish in a 10% brine solution for twenty (20) minutes to leach out the blood and slime.

5. Drain the fish for fifteen minutes.

47

6. Marinate them for two hours in a solution composed of: a. b. c. d. e. f. 1 cup vinegar 5 tbsp salt 5 tbsp sugar c soy sauce c calamansi juice spices f.1. 1 tbsp black pepper f.2. 1 tbsp minced garlic

7. The final stage is STORING Ideal Conditions For Storing Pickled Products If you follow the basic recipe, you should produce a good quality and a safe product; however, the fish must be stored under refrigeration (38oF, 3oC, or less) as an added measure of safety. This will insure that food-poisoning bacteria will not grow. It will also retard bacterial spoilage, enzymatic softening, and discoloration. Containers for Storing Pickled Products

Preserving Glass Jar

48

LET US REMEMBER 1. Clean, sanitize an calibrate all equipment, tools and utensils. 2. Select good quality materials and ingredients to ensure good quality products. 3. Use and follow standard steps involved to produce good products. 4. Accuracy in measuring quantity is a key to satisfactory result. HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test A. Matching Type - Directions: From the items listed below, copy those that you need for fermentation and pickling. Write your answer on a separate paper. C. Ingredients: _______ 1. vinegar _______ 2. salt _______ 3. soy sauce _______ 4. fish _______ 5. pepper _______ 6. chicken _______ 7. pork _______ 8. small shrimp _______ 9. carrots _______10. onion _______11. garlic _______12. ginger _______13. seasoning _______14. sugar _______15. sayote D. Utensils: _______ 1. cup _______ 2. spoon _______ 3. bowl _______ 4. tray _______ 5. frying pan _______ 6. casserole _______ 7. knife _______ 8. chopping board _______ 9. ladle _______10 tongs

Proportion to make one gallon Proportion to make two liters

Item

Vinegar Salt Sugar Spice Water Garlic 49

Onions LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Now that you have finished the module, you may now prepare a pickled product of your own. It is expected that you have known all the details in making pickled product. Try to ask the assistance of your teacher if you forgot some of the steps, materials or ingredients needed. Practical Demonstration with Direct Observation Perform pickling following the correct procedure for: a. Marinated milkfish b. Pickled anchovy c. Pickled Spanish mackerel d. Pickled shrimp e. Pickled squid f. Pickled gracilaria g. Fish escabeche h. Fish Paksiw You will be rated based on the prepared rubrics. CRITERIA (Rubrics)
I. HYGIENE AND SANITATION A. ATTIRE A.1 Clean, neat uniform A.2 Clean and trimmed fingernails A.3 No accessories and jewelries B. HANDWASHING B.1 Use correct hand washing technique B.2 At the start of preparation B.3 During preparation and food handling C. PREVENTION OF CONTAMINATION C.1 Food handling C.2 Use of both kitchen tools and materials C.3 Use of hand towels and rags II. SELECTION AND PREPARATION A. Perishable materials are prepared and stored properly B. Raw foods are washed thoroughly C. Ingredients are properly handled and stored after cooking D. Seasoning are properly placed in containers Rating 5 2 1.5 1.5 5 2 1.5 1.5 5 2 1.5 1.5 10 points 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 15 points

50

III. PROCESSING A. Selection of proper utensils B. Mixing and curing IV. SAFETY A. Food handling B. Use of both kitchen tools and materials C. Use of hand towels and rags D. Correct handling of utensils V. SPEED A. Ten (10) points if work is finished before specified time B. Nine (9) points if work is finished within the specified time. C. Eight (8) points if work is finished 10 minutes beyond specified time D. Six (6) points if work is finished 20 minutes beyond specified time E. Four (4) points if work is finished 30 minutes beyond specified time VI. PRESENTATION A. Blending of color B. Correct use of garnishing C. Sanitation is properly observed VII. FOOD ATTRIBUTES A. Aroma B. Taste C. Texture D. Appearance TOTAL

20 points 5 10 5 25 points 2.5 10 2.5 10 100 points

RESOURCES: The following resources are needed: Equipment, Tools and Utensils o o o o o o Stainless/enamel basin Preserving jars Wooden stirrer/mixer Measuring tools like measuring cups and spoons Stove Stainless sauce pan

51

Learning guides o Module o Activity sheets o Manual on Occupational Health and Safety Requirements in Doing Assigned Tasks

Personal protective equipment o Apron/cooking outfit o Hand gloves o Pot holder

REFERENCES: Dumo, Segovia, Godez, Bonao et al. Agricultural and Fishery Technology, Bureau of Secondary Education. Quezon City 1993 Calmorin, Laurentina Paler. Post Harvest Philippine National Bookstore, 2006 Fisheries. QC,

Espejo-Hermes, J. Fish Processing in the Tropics,1998 Hernandez, Villoso & Mendoza, Fishery Arts. Quezon City 1980 Panggat, E, MD. A Manual in Product Analysis and Standardization, University of the Philippines in the Visayas, 1987

52

LESSON 5.
PREPARE PRODUCTION REPORT WHAT IS THIS LESSON ABOUT? This lesson deals with the preparation of production report. It includes daily production input based on standard Basic Accounting procedures. It also includes recording and presenting all production data in accordance with Basic Accounting procedures. WHAT WILL YOU LEARN? At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: 1. note and document daily production input based on standard Basic Accounting procedures; and 2. record and present all production data according to prescribed format in accordance with Basic Accounting procedure. WHAT DO YOU ALREADY KNOW? Pre-Test A. Looping a word - Let us see what you already know about preparing production report by LOOPING a word or term that are associated with the preparation of a production report its either in ascending, descending, diagonal, vertical and horizontal alignment.
P A G E T A M I X O R P P A R B H K O W A B S O R P P E O C O L E M U L S I O N P G D D U M P X A E K P U P F A U E T Y Q I Z F L Q R Z G T C F P I R N A G M O V A H N T G U E S P B H X R W B I E N H T L T U C I N S X C J C A A I D U T H G I E W D K R M I J N V Y D J O T X E L E E T A D N O I T C U D O R P

53

B. Completion - Based on the given data below fill out the format of a production report of marinated milkfish. Given: Marinated Milkfish a. 6 pcs bangus b. vinegar c. calamansi juice d. soy sauce e. salt f. sugar g. black pepper h. garlic i. skin of garlic j. skin of calamansi k. internal organ 2000 g 500 g 250 g 250 g 150 g 150 g 30 g 30 g 4g 20 g 300 g

Format of a Production Report Product Name:_____________________________ Production Date:____________________________ Description of Materials: : ____________________ : ____________________ : ____________________ : ____________________ : ____________________ Other Ingredients: Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight Output: Problem Encountered: of of of of of ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ : : : : : _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

:______________________

54

LET US STUDY Documentation a systematic procedure of producing a record for reference. Input something that enters a process from the outside and is acted upon or integrated in the main body of data. Output anything produced especially through a process; a product; a yield. Production Report a written record showing the input-output relationship in determining the yield from a certain procedure. What is the importance of recording and documenting production input? This is important because: 1. It gives us a reference data on the materials used together with their correct magnitude. 2. It determines the economic viability of the product. 3. Records serve as basis for planning. 4. Records greatly help for right decisions The following is the procedure that you must follow in recording and documenting production input First, weigh all materials and ingredients needed. Second, make a necessary listing in your notebook of all the materials and ingredients used. It is important to note how much or how many. This is what we call recording or documentation. Third, follow the correct format in documenting and recording.

55

Sample of Production Report Product Name: Pickled/Marinated Milkfish Production Date: April 24, 2008 Description of Materials: Fresh Milkfish Other Ingredients: Distilled vinegar Calamansi juice Soy sauce Salt Sugar Black pepper Minced garlic Input: Output: (Marinated fish) Wastage Percentage yield Problem encountered: LET US REMEMBER We must put into consideration that production report needs accurate: Noting Documenting Recording Presenting 250 g 125 g 125 g 75 g 75 g 15 g 15 g 1680 g 1200 g 480 g 71% None

1000 g

56

HOW MUCH HAVE YOU LEARNED? Post Test A. Looping a word - Let us see what you already know about preparing production report by LOOPING a word or term that are associated with the preparation of a production report its either in ascending, descending, diagonal, vertical and horizontal alignment.
P A G E T A M I X O R P P A R B H K O W A B S O R P P E O C O L E M U L S I O N P G D D U M P X A E K P U P F A U E T Y Q I Z F L Q R Z G T C F P I R N A G M O V A H N T G U E S P B H X R W B I E N H T L T U C I N S X C J C A A I D U T H G I E W D K R M I J N V Y D J O T X E L E E T A D N O I T C U D O R P

B. Completion - Based on the given data below fill out the format of a production report of marinated milkfish. Given: Marinated Milkfish a. 6 pcs bangus b. vinegar c. calamansi juice d. soy sauce e. salt f. sugar g. black pepper h. garlic i. skin of garlic j. skin of calamansi k. internal organ 2000 g 500 g 250 g 250 g 150 g 150 g 30 g 30 g 4g 20 g 300 g

57

Format of a Production Report Product Name:_____________________________ Production Date:____________________________ Description of Materials: : ____________________ : ____________________ : ____________________ : ____________________ : ____________________ Other Ingredients: Weight Weight Weight Weight Weight Output: Problem Encountered: of of of of of ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ : : : : : _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

:______________________

58

LET US APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Prepare production report based on your fermented fish by using the given data below. Given: 3 kilos anchovies 1500 g salt

Note: Your output will be rated by your teacher using rubrics. Key Answer for Pre-Test 1. 2. 3. 4. RESOURCES: The following resources are needed: Learning guides o Module o Computer-based activity instructions o Sample production report Materials o o o o o o Ledgers Bond papers Rulers Pencil Ball pen Calculator Product name Production data Output Input

REFERENCES: Calmorin, Laurentina Paler. Post Harvest Philippine National Bookstore, 2006 Fisheries. QC,

59