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The racialization of Basque: a result of language revitalization A well-known Basque poet once wrote Euskara da euskaldun egiten gaituena,

(it is Basque that makes us Basque). This link between language and identity is not uncommon in situations of language contact and ethnic struggle (Nelde 1987; Azurmendi et. al. 2008; Edwards 2009; Ammon 2010). The symbolic value la Bourdieu (1991) that has been attached to the Basque language and ethnic origin began with Sabino Aranas nationalistic ideology in the late 1800s, when ethnic origin was defined as the members racial ancestry. Following Bloommaerts (2005) work, i.e. understanding the linguistic power that has been carried out through time and space in the Basque region, I present evidence and argue that the Basque identity has been reshaped into a linguistic Basque identity (and not ethnic, nor racial), imbued with nationalistic ideological connotations, in reaction towards the creation and implementation of the Standard variety. After Francos dictatorship, Basque became a co-official, standardized variety that was implemented in administration, media, and education, and, which has resulted in one of the most successful revitalization processes of minority languages in Europe (Eusko Jaurlaritza 2008; Hualde & Zuazo 2007; Azkarate 2012). Consequently, knowledge of the language has increased in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC), although according to the European Charter for Regional Languages, the use still remains unguaranteed. The present paper seeks to explore the co-presence of these ideologies in the region as a way to understand why the use of Basque is still unstable, a topic that remains taboo in todays BAC. We further explore the consequences of this reshaped national identity, by a discourse analysis following Irvine & Gals Model of Semiotic Processes. The data comes from a metalinguistic discussion with 8 bilinguals (of diverse social origins) of a regional dialect, in which participants expressed attitudes toward (1) Basque identity, (2) polluted Basque linguistic variables, and (3) language choices that Basques make. A qualitative analysis shows that Erasure (of the Basque identity) occurs in the process of code-switches into Spanish to establish power, while, at the same time, personal pronouns we and they are used to refer to different members of the Basque society, leading to a fractal recursivity. This second process is more strongly emphasized when mocking the Spanish-accented Basque, i.e. iconizing Spanishthese words into unauthentic identity, adhering it to the speech of a denaturalized member of the Basque society. The present analysis builds upon theoretical and methodological implications. First, it argues that the recreation of ideologically driven linguistic power cannot be understood without considering its historiography. In BAC, the symbolic value of an ethnic past is being adhered to the home language variety, resulting into what I call racialization of regional dialects in response to the implementation of Batua (hegemonic variety of Basque). Second, by means of models of linguistic ideology and identity (cf. Irvine & Gal 2000; Bucholtz & Hall 2004), it is argued that minority language quantitative studies that gauge language-planning efforts can benefit from ideological studies that affect language use by adding a qualitative analysis to survey results. (500 words)

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