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Upadhyay-1

Abstract: The objective of this experiment was to check the presence of fins if any in double pipe heat exchangers and to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for shell and tube exchanger with calculation showing the comparison with experimental values. For this purpose, two double pipes heat exchanger, one short and one long, was used to provide wide range of datas. The Overall heat transfer coefficient from steam to oil (light) was taken from literature value which was calculated was . Theory: Heat exchangers is a device in which there is heating or cooling of a liquid or gas flowing in one pipe by another flowing liquid or gas that is separated by the wall. It is a very important operational tool in factories as feeds, products, intermediates, and the wastes are to be heated or cooled considering the necessity of the process. In this lab, two types of heat exchangers are used: double pipe and shell and tube. In this experiment, cold oil enters the double pipe heat exchanger where it is heated by steam. The oil which now has absorbed heat loses it energy to water in shell and tube heat exchanger. We use one short and one long double pipe for this experiment and shell and tube with number of transfer units equal to 35. We calculated the area of heat exchanger and also accounted for the area of fins in the double pipe heat exchanger using log mean temperature difference method. Furthermore, the calculations for shell and type used NTU-effectiveness method. Calculations:
Measurements Double pipes Length of long tube (ft) Length of short tube (ft) Diameter of long tube (ft) Diameter of short tube (ft)

. The area of fin was reported 0.9m^2 and 1.9m^2 for short and long which is within the range of the literature value

double pipe exchangers respectively. For the shell and tube heat exchanger the value of U

20.417 10 0.1875 0.1875

Shell and tube Length of the tube (ft) diameter of the tube (ft)

9.333333 0.041667 Upadhyay-2

Trial - 1 Short double pipe Steam (F) Temp(in) Temp(out) Flow rate (Volumetric) (gal/s) 194(363.15K) Oil (F) 118(320.9K) Temp(out) Oil (F) 102(312.039K) 244(390.928K) 98(309.817K) Temp(in) Shell and tube Water (F) 96(308.7K) 118(320.9K) 86(303.15K)

Steam 0.005116

Oil 0.4057

Water 0.16

Trial - 2 Short double pipe Steam (F) Temp(in) Temp(out) Flow rate (Volumetric) (gal/s) 244(390.9K) 220(377.6K) Oil (F) 94(307.6K) Temp(in) 116(319.8K) Temp(out) Oil (F) 116(319.8K) 96(308.7K) Shell and tube Water (F) 86(303.15K) 92(306.5K)

Steam 0.005116

Oil 0.2602

Water 0.16

Trial 3 long double pipe Steam (F) Oil (F) 238(387.6K) 106(314.3K) Temp(in) 222(378.7K) 136(330.9K) Temp(out) Shell and tube Oil (F) Water (F) 118(320.9K) 86(303.1K) 102(312.1K) 96(308.7K)

Temp(in) Temp(out) Flow rate (Volumetric) (gal/s)

Steam 0.007355

Oil 0.4175

Water 0.1839

Trial - 4 long double pipe Steam (F) Temp(in) Oil (F) Oil (F) 135(330.4K) 241(389.3K) 102(312.04K) Temp(in) Shell and tube Water (F) 87(303.7K)

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Temp(out) Flow rate (Volumetric) (gal/s)

240(388.7K)

137(331.5K) Temp(out)

104(313.2K)

99(310.4K)

Steam 0.0067726

Oil 0.2787

Water 0.1805

Reference Density of Oil (kg/m^3) Density of Water(92F) Density of steam(240F) Density of water (240F) Latent Heat of vaporization(200F) 910 995.543 0.561 958.8 2274.05 kg/m^3 kg/m^3 kg/m^3 kg/m^3 kJ/kg (engineering) (engineering) (Welty) (Welty) (engineering)

Specific heat capacities Oil Water(92F) Steam(240F)

Citations: (engineering 1.8 4.19 2.0345

Toolbox) kj/kg*k kJ/kg*k kJ/kg*k

Now calculating mass flow rates for the first trial (trial-1) Mass flow rate of water, Mass flow rate of oil, Mass flow rate of steam, Similarly, the other 3 trials are calculate like above and the datas obtained are shown below.

Mass flow rate (kg/m^3) Trial (#) Steam Oil Water Trial1 0.018728 1.39752 0.602896 Trial2 0.018728 0.89622 0.602896 Trial3 0.026692 1.438016 0.665038 Trial4 0.024578 0.95994 0.68007

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Now calculating the heat loss and gain in double pipe heat exchanger (short) Calculation for trial-1

Similarly, calcualting for the shell and tube heat exchanger Heat lost by the oil, Heat gained by water, Thermodynamically, for the double pipe heat exchanger and for shell and tube. However, these values donot match to our calculation. It means some part of our heat is lost to the surrouding. So, calculating the percentage difference of heat lost to the surrounding Heat lost from double pipe system

Heat lost from shell and tube system We see that the steam loses 35.339% of its heat to the surrounding and that the shell and tube loses 37.032% of its heat to the surrounding. There are many factors that are accountable for this discrepancy of the energies. First, the jacketed steam pipe is not properly insulated properly so there may be some loss of energy from it. Also, the heat exchanger is not insulated at all so there is definitely some loss of energy from it. Furthermore, the pipe carrying hot oil and hot water are also not insulated and some heat might be lost in the form of radiation from the system. There is some oil dripping from the pipe as well but its hard to say if this factor can be made accountable as the dripping was too small to change any flow rate of the system or the overall heat transfer process. For all the four runs, the percentage of difference in heat gain and lost is shown below Trial (#) Double Pipe (kJ/s) Heat lost (Steam) 43.263 43.05 61.178 55.9218 Trial-1 Trial-2 Trial-3 Trial-4

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Heat gain (Oil) % difference between heat lost and gain Shell and tube (kJ/s) Heat loss (oil) Heat gain (water) % difference between heat lost and gain

27.879 35.55925387

19.683 54.27874564

42.96744 29.76651738

33.625 66.31018587

22.289 14.035 37.03171968

17.90208 8.4624 52.72951523

22.779 15.604 31.49830985

29.7197 19.0916 35.76112814

Calculation of area of heat transfer for Double pipe heat exchanger using log mean temperature difference method : Now that the heat lost and heat gain is already calculated we can calculate the area of heat transfer for double pipe heat exchanger using the log mean temperature difference method. and
( )

Our double pipe heat exchanger is in counter flow so we have and The value of U is average we get Now, the calculation for trial-1 is shown below for the steam and oil system (heat exchangers, Welty). So, taking its

, we use the actual heat gain by the system for our calculation considering the heat loss to surrounding

Similarly, the area for 3 other trials are calculated as above which is shown below in the table.

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Trial (#) Trial-1 Trial-2 Trial-3 Trial-4

T1 (K) 70.028 70.8 56.7 57.8

T2 (K) 53.336 70 73.4 76.66

Tlm (K) 61.30372 70.39924 64.69114 66.78676

Q (gain) (kJ/s) 27.879 19.683 42.967 33.635

A(m^2) 1.801063 1.107291 2.630443 1.994526

Also, the area of the double pipe heat exchangers can be calculated using geometry as (area of short double pipe) (long double pipe ) Since the areas calculated above do not match each other, the difference is area is accounted for the presence of the fins in the heat exchanger. So, Area of fin Area of fin ( ( ) ) (short double pipe ) (long doube pipe)

Hence we see that the presence of fin is significant. It is because that the heat transfer is directly proportional to the area of contact surface. So, the addition of fins gives a significant increase in area like in our case and this gives a boost to the overall heat transfer. Shell and tube heat exchanger I realised that log mean temperature difference method is ineffective in explaining the heat transfer mechanism of the shell and tube heat exchanger. It is because fouling is significant in shell and tube that will reduce the value of U(the overall heat transfer), which in turn will decrease the overall heat transfer. Therefore, the outlet temperature will vary for both the flows. So, a more appropriate method (NTU method ) has to be applied for sizing a shell and tube heat exchager. Calculation and comparision (with literature value) of overall heat transfer coefficient (U) of Shell and tube heat exchanger for one tube and 2 pass system. In NTU method, first the heat capacity rates of both the hot and cold fluids is calculated and the smaller is identified.

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The maximum possible heat transfer is determined by

However, the actual heat transfer is determined by

Thus the effectiveness of the shell and tube heat exchanger is calculated as

NTU for shell and tube (One tube, two passes) is given by the formula,
{ }

Which lies in the range of literature value of U for oil to water is % Difference between literature and experimental value

(table 11.1, Cengel).

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Also, the literature value is the basis for calculation so It is in the denominator of the above equation. Similarly, calculations for other trials are shown in the table below. %difference in the value of U 147.6 34.4%

Trial(#)

2.5155 1.6128 2.5884 1.728 2.526 2.526 2.7864 2.852 44.65 26.853 46.0664 46.1376 8.462 8.462 15.504 19.109 .996 .6385 .928 .606

NTU .189 .235

Trial1 Trial2 Trial3 Trial4

0.315 0.434 0.339 0.525 0.414 0.655

175.2 22.133% 333.74 48.33% 282.67 25.631%

We see that our experimental value is deviated from the reported literature value. Many factors can be accounted for this error. First, the temperature readings may not be accurate as the thermometer was about 3ft far from the observers eye and any small change in the mercury level and the corresponding reading was difficult to obtain. Furthermore, the steam for this experiment was also the source of heat in evaporator experiment. So, this might have caused some error in thermodynamics. Likewise, the uninsulated shell and tube exchanger can also be accouted for some energy loss to the surrouding. Though our average value of U has deviations from the average literature value of U, we were successful in obtaining the value of overall heat transfer coefficient in the proper range.

Conclusion: The overall experiment was successful. Our team was able to calculate the area of fins present in the short double pipe heat exchanger (0.907m^2) and the long double pipe heat exchanger(1.1952m^2).

Upadhyay-9 The team concluded that the presence of the fin was to boost the overall heat transfer coefficient in double pipe heat exchanger. Also, our team was successful in calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient for oil water system within the range of literature value ie within the range of the literature value . which is

Citations :

Upadhyay-10 1. Welty, James R, Charles E. Wicks, and Robert E. Wilson. Fundamentals of Momentum,

Heat, and Mass Transfer. New York: Wiley, 1976. Print.


2. Cengel, and Ghajar. Heat and mass transfer (in SI units) Tata McGraw 2007. Print 3. "Engineering ToolBox." Engineering ToolBox. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2013. http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/