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IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF Mechanical Engineering B.

Tech (Batch 2010)


Six Months Industrial Training at Nestl India Ltd., Moga

Under the Guidance of: Mr. S.Swain Safety Manager Mr. H.S Makkar Safety Officer

Submitted by: Avinash Kumar 100661132226 Mech Engg.- 4th Year

Shaheed Bhagat Singh State Technical Campus, Ferozepur


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DECLARATION: I hereby declare that my project work entitled INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AT NESTLE is an authentic record of my own work carried at Nestle industry Moga as requirements of Six Month Industrial Training for the award of the degree of B.E (Mechanical Engineering) SBSSTC under the guidance of Mr. SATCHIDANANDA SWAIN and Mr. HARPAL SINGH MAKKAR during the training in June-November 2013.

AVINASH KUMAR 100661132226.

PREFACE

This training report reprints the opportunity that I got to be in professional environment for the Six Month Industrial Training program in the 7th semester of fourth year B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering. I am really thank full to the Dr. T.S Siddhu (Campus Director) & Mr. Tejeet Singh (H.O.D of Mechanical Department). This effort is made that this report gives a clear picture of the technical and commercial aspects of Nestl Moga which may be practical guide for Thermal engineering.

Experience, no doubt, is a great teacher and a valuable asset. However the supreme importance of sound working knowledge of principles should not be over locked with it mere experience cannot go a long way.

I have endeavored in this training report to explain basic principles can be applied in practical zone. it is with deepest sense gratitude that I wish acknowledge in valuable guidance rendered to me during training time.

Project Based on Study of Boiler

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Out standing achievements are not possible in vacuums. It needs a lot of help and assistance besides a healthy environment. With deep sense of gratitude and indebtness to these great institutions that provides me an opportunity to fullfill the most cherished desire of reaching my goal. I am highly obliged and express my gratitude to our teachers for their encouragement, feedback support and suggestions. With the help of his blessings and guidance I stand here today. With deep sense of gratitude, I would like to take this opportunity to thank my project guide Mr. SATCHIDANANDA SWAIN and Mr. HARPAL SINGH MAKKAR could not have asked for a more cooperative guide. Their involvement and unstinted support always gives me the confidence to do my work without their guidance. I would like to thank the people who took their time to help me to complete this project. My profound thanks to MR. UTTAM KUMAR and MR. HARI SINGH for guiding support all through my training at industry. I would like to acknowledge the warmth, affection and co-operation by the operators and workers of Nestle India Ltd. Last but not the least; I would like to thank my parents who were a source of support throughout the making of the report.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Declaration Preface Acknowledgement 2 3 4

CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION TO COMPANY Company Profile A Word About Nestle- The Nestl Nestle philosophy Nestle History Nestle Mission Statement Nestle Logo Nestle Today Nestle Factories In India Operations In India Nestle Moga
INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTS

10

11-12

13 14

15-17 17 18 19-22

Beverages Chocolates and Confectionary Nestle Dishes and cooking Ghee Products Aids Moga Factory Salient Features of Nestle Moga Factory Various Departments in the Nestle Moga Factory The Factory Consists of Four Production Plant 23-25 23

MILK OPERATIONS

25-31

Milk Operation Fresh Milk Reception Ghee Plant Egrons Powder Filling Plant Cereals Utility Service Department Boiler House Effluent Treatment Plant Culinary
CHAPTER 2- SAFETY 32

Why Safety Accident Main Reasons of Accidents Reason of Careful Work Accident sequence Unsafe Acts Unsafe Condition Accident Prevention Near Miss Important Note
CHAPTER 3- UTILITY SERVICE DEPARTMENT

33

34

35

36-37 38-39

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Refrigeration Plant Principle of Refrigeration Plant Component of Refrigeration System
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40

A Typical Vapour Compression Cycle Description of Vapour Compression Cycle Refrigerant Used Oil Separation Cooling Towers Introduction Types of Cooling Towers Natural Draft Cooling Tower Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower Forced Draft Cooling Tower Induced Draft Counter Flow Cooling Tower Induced Draft Cross Flow Cooling Tower Factors Affecting Cooling of Water in a Cooling Tower Heat Exchangers Types of Heat Exchangers Plate Heat Exchanger Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Selection of the Tube Material Heat Exchanger in Industry Air Handing Unit Air Handing Components Heating and Cooling Elements Filters Humidifiers Mixing Chamber Heat Recovery Device Controls
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41 42 43 44

45

46 47 48-49

50

51

52-53 54-59

Vibration Analysis

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CHAPTER 4- PROJECT BASED ON BOILER HOUSE

61

Boiler House Boiler Basic Shell Boiler Package Boiler Water Tube Boiler
SUGGESTION FOR IMPROVEMENT REFERENCES

62-63 64 65-66 67 68

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPANY

(HENRI NESTLE)

COMPANY PROFILE A WORD ABOUT NESTL - THE NEST


Nestle India is a multinational company with its worldwide operations in over 70 countries .The founder of Nestle was Henry Nestle who from a modest beginning founded the company in 1866 at Switzerland for manufacturing milk powders for babies. At that time Switzerland faced one of the highest infant mortality rates and the milk formula saved the lives of many infants whose mothers were unable to breast feed successfully. At present Nestle is the worlds largest food company with its international headquarters at Vevey, Switzerland, with almost 500 factories world wide it employs almost 2 30,000 people. Nestle is often quoted by most as multinational of multinationals. There is a good reason, as less than 2% of the turnover comes from the domestic market in Switzerland. Nestle is much decentralized in its operations and most of the markets are given considerable autonomy in its operation. It is more of a people and products oriented company rather than systems oriented company there are unwritten guidelines which are to be followed, based on common senses and a strong set of moral principals emphasizing a lot of respect for fellow beings. Nestle has always adapted to the local conditions and at the same time integrates its Swiss heritage. It has always taken a long-term view in the countries in which it operates. There is a great emphasis placed on training by the company. It believes in rewarding and promoting people from within. The Companys transparent business practices, pioneering environment policy and respect for the fundamental values of different cultures have earned it an enviable place in the countries it operates in. Nestls activities contribute to and nurture the sustainable economic development of people, communities and nations. Today its product brand name Nestl is associated with quality products in worldwide consumer market. Above all, Nestl is dedicated to bringing the joy of Good Food, Good Life to people throughout their lives, throughout the world.

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NESTLE PHILOSOPHY
When Henry Nestle introduced the first commercial infant formula in 1867, he also created a symbol of the Birds nest, graphic translation of his name, which personifies the companys business. The symbol, which is universally understood, evokes security, motherhood and affection, nature and nourishment, family and tradition. Today it is the central element of Nestle corporate identity and closely parallels the companys corporate values and culture.

NESTLE HISTORY
The Nestl Company was Henri Nestl's search for a healthy, economical alternative to breastfeeding for mothers who could not feed their infants at the breast. The Company formed by the 1905 merger was called the Nestl and Anglo- Swiss Milk Company. The close of World War II marked the beginning of the most dynamic phase of Nestl's history. In 1947, Nestl merged with Alimentana S.A., the manufacturer of Maggi seasonings and soups, becoming Nestl Alimentana Company. After the agreement with LOreal in 1974, Nestl's overall position changed rapidly. Between 1975 and 1977, the price of coffee beans quadrupled, and the price of cocoa tripled. Nestl approached the 1980s with a renewed flexibility and determination to evolve. Thus, between 1980 and 1984, the Company divested a number of non-strategic or unprofitable businesses. Nestl managed to put an end to a serious controversy over its marketing of infant formula. Nestl opened the 20th century by merging with the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company to broaden its product range and widen its geographical scope. In the new millennium, Nestl is the undisputed leader in the food industry, with more than 470 factories around the world. Nestl's existing products will grow through innovation and renovation.

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S.No 1 2

Year 1866 1905 Company's foundation

Achievements

Merger between Nestl and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1929 1947 1971 1985 1988 1988 1992 1995

Merger with Peter-Cailler-Kohler Chocolates Suisses S.A. Merger with Alimentana S.A. (Maggi) Merger with Ursina-Franck (Switzerland) Acquisition of Carnation (USA) Acquisition of Buitoni-Perugina (Italy) Acquisition of Rowntree (GB) Acquisition of Perrier (France) Nestl acquires Victor Schmidt & Shne, Austria's oldest producer of confectionery, including the famous 'Mozartkugeln'.

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1997

Nestl, through the Perrier Vittel Group, expands its mineral water activities with the outright acquisition of San Pellegrino.

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1998

Nestl acquires Spillers Pet foods of the UK and strengthens position in the pet food business which began in 1985 with the acquisition of the Carnation Friskies brand.

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1999

Divestiture of Findus brand (except in Switzerland and Italy) and parts of Nestl's frozen food business in Europe.

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1999

Divestiture of Hills Bros, MJB and Chase & Sanborn roast and ground coffee brands (USA).

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2000 2001

Acquisition of Power Bar. Nestl acquires Ralston Purina - Nestl Purina Pet Care Company established.

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2002 2006 2008

Perrier Vittel Group re-named as Nestl Waters. Pantnagar plant starts manufacturing noodles. Cup noodle starts at Moga plant

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NESTLE MISSION STATEMENT


At Nestle, we believe that research can help us make better food so that people live a better life. Good Food is the primary source of Good Health throughout life. We strive to bring consumers foods that are safe, of high quality and provide optimal nutrition to meet physiological needs. In addition to nutrition, health and wellness, Nestle products bring consumers the vital ingredients of taste and pleasure. As consumers continue to make choices regarding foods and beverages they consume, Nestle helps provide selections for all individual taste and lifestyle preferences. Research is a key part of our heritage at Nestl and an essential element our future. We know there is still much to discover about health, wellness and the role of food in our lives, and we continue to search for answers to bring consumers Good Food for Good Life.

NESTLE LOGO
The Nestl logo was launched by Henri Nestl in 1868 on the basis of the meaning of his name in German, i.e. little nest, and of his family emblem (that you can see here).

Henri obtained

15-year

French

patent

for

his

logo in

1868.

After he retired, it was registered in Vevey in 1875 by the new owners of his company.

In 1938, the traditional nest design was combined with the "Nestl" name to form what is called the combined mark.

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In 1966 the design was simplified.

In 1988, the worm in the mother bird's beak was removed and the fledglings became two instead of three. It is said that it was meant to better illustrate the activities of the company, no longer active only in utrition, and to reflect the average modern family of two children.

The logo we know now has just been simplified.

NESTL -TODAY Some names seem to belong to legend and Nestl now synonymous with a prestigious trademark and worlds foremost food group originally consisted of two companies Henry Nestle of Vevey Switzerland & Anglo Swiss Condensed Milk Company in Cham. Both companies competed vigorously from 1866- 1905. These groups merged in 1905 and become the starting point of the recent food group. Nestl is now the No. 1 Food Company. It is present on all five continents has an annual turnover of nearly 89.2 Billion Swiss Francs is present on all five continents. At present there are around 508 factories spread over 80 countries with around 260 operating companies One basic research center and 17 technological development groups and has in excess of 2,30,000 employees. Nestl operations worldwide are divides into 3 zones:ZONE EUR : Europe ZONE AOA : Asia and Oceanic ZONE AMS : Americas

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India comes under zone AOA which includes South- East Asian trading giants of the likes of Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, China etc. besides Australia. Mr. Nandu Nandkishorecurrently heads ZONE AOA. Currently Mr. Peter Brabeck heads the Nestle group worldwide and Mr. Paul Bulcke is COE NESTLE S.A.
28%

6%

Beverages

Pharmaceuticals 14% Chocolate Confectionery Biscuits 25%

27%

Milk Products Nutrition Ice Cream

Cooking Aids Prepared dishes Pet Care

Nestle India have 8 Factories in Our Country: %


MOGA Factory:- Moga factory started production
in1962. Today, Moga contributing almost 75% of Nestle Indias total production volume and manufacturing 109671 tons of food products. It employs around 1600 people. Dairy creamers, IMF, SCM, Cereals, Vending Mixes, Noodles, Ketchups, Bouillon are manufactured in Moga

Choladi Factory:The factory ion Choladi started production in 1967, Situated in South Asia, about 275 kilometers from Bangalore. The factory today

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has around 80 employees. It processes about 725 tons of soluble tea, which is all exported.

Nanjangud Factory :- Production


in Nanjangud Factory started in 1989 with the manufacturing of Nescafe and Sunrise Milo manufacture at Nanjangud begun in 1996. It situated 160 kilometers south of Bangalore; the factory has around 245 employees. It manufactures 15500 tons of Nescafe mixes, Milo.

Bicholim Factory:-A satellite factory of


Ponda at Bicholim for manufacturing of Noodles and Cold Sauces, It started their operational activity in 1997.

Ponda Factory:-Ponds Factory started


production of KitKat in 1995. It is located 40 kilometers from Panji the capital of Goa. It manufactures Chocolates. Ponda currently employed around 250 people.

Samalkha factory:-Samalkha Factory started


production in 1993 situated 70 kilometers from Delhi.

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It has 260 employees and manufactures about 35000 tons of food products

Pant Nagar Factory:-This is the one of the


newly situated and the 7th factory of the Nestle in the India. Pantnagar Factory began production of Noodles in 2006

Tahliwal Factory:- The 8th Factory was

set

up at Tahliwal, Himachal Pradesh, in 2012. It will manufacture confectionery and chocolates.

OPERATIONS IN INDIA:
Nestl set up its operations in India, as a trading company in 1912 and began manufacturing at the Moga factory in 1962. The production started with the manufacture of Milkmaid and other product was gradually brought into the fold. Nestl India Limited was formally incorporated in 1978 prior to which the manufacturing license was issued in the name of the Food Specialties Limited. The corporate office is located at Gurgaon and the registered office at M-5A, Connaught Circus, and New Delhi At present Nestl have 7 manufacturing units countrywide which are successfully engaged in meeting the domestic as well as the exports demand. In addition there are several co packing units.

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NestlMoga

MOGA PLANT In the Malwa region of Punjab State, there is a small town, which is popularly known among the famous grain markets of the world. However the credit of bringing this town on the industrial map of the world goes to Nestle a Swiss Multinational company engaged in the largest food processing operation in the world. When in 1959 Nestl took decision to establish a milk processing factory, a very little could the people of Moga town and the farmers in the surrounding villages realize that the company now as Nestl India Ltd would play such an important role in economic & social development of the area .Company started milk collection in Moga area on 15 Nov 1961 and on the first day 510 kg of milk was collected from four villages. The total procurement in 1962 was 2,054 million kg from 4,660 milk suppliers of 66 villages and in 1962 fresh milk reception are 102, 33 Million kg from 46,308 farmers delivering milk at 650 collection centers in 574 villages and 10 milk chilling centers. By 1998 the milk chilling centers had increased from 10 to 186.

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INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTS:Beverages:
NESCAFE CLASSIC is a 100% pure coffee and is made from carefully selected coffee beans picked from the finest plantations, blended and roasted to perfection to create the unique rich and smooth NESCAFE taste.

NESCAFE SUNRISE is an Instant Coffee-Chicory blend, popular for its robust body and a flavor akin to fresh roast-and-ground coffee. The secret lies in the right blend of flavorful coffee and roasted chicory to give you an incomparable experience.

NESTEA Tea Bags are made from the finest blend of Assam Teas, which give a refreshing cup of bright, colour tea of fair strength and superior taste. They are available both in individually enveloped and non-enveloped formats.

The improved new NESTL MILO gives children the energy they need to enjoy their active lifestyle. Packed with Actigen - E, a unique mix of Bvitamins and other key micro nutrients which help optimize energy release effectively. In addition its extra cocoa and rich malt makes it so chocolaty and irresistible that they will always be asking for more. A wide range of premixes for the vending machines. The basket of products include NESCAF Classic, NESCAF Frappe, Tea Premix (Plain, Cardamom), Hot Chocolate, Iced Tea (Lemon, Peach, Apple), and Badam (Almond) Milk vending mixes.

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We manufacture high quality Hot & Cold Water Soluble Black and Green Tea Powders at our state-of-the-art factory in Choladi, located in the midst of tea plantations which ensure availability of fresh green leaves

Chocolates and Confectionary:NESTL KIT KAT is delicious crisp wafer fingers covered with Choc layer. Our special tropical zed recipe ensures that NESTL KIT KAT is preserved even in warmer climates.

NESTL MILKY BAR is a delicious milky treat which kids love. With its Calcium Rich recipe, NESTL MILKY BAR is a favorite with parents to treat their kids with. Extremely popular in India, NESTL MUNCH is wafer layer covered with delicious Choc layer. A crispy light irresistible snack!

NESTL Milk Chocolate is a milk chocolate with a delicious taste for you to savors.

NESTL BAR-ONE is a luscious nougat and caramel core covered with a delicious Choc layer.

NESTL offers a bouquet of three exciting clair variants: NESTL clairs are rich milky caramel clairs with a soft center. NESTL Chocolate clairs are a delicious delight with luscious creamy chocolate inside.

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NESTL MILKY BAR, clairs are delightful clairs with a creamy milky chocolate center.

POLO is a mint roll popularly described as The Mint with the hole. Now also in the new extra strong singles format as POLO Power mint.

Nestle Dishes & Cooking Aids:MAGGI 2-MINUTE Noodles is one of the most popular brand of instant noodles in India. Available for export in 5 authentic Indian flavors (spicy Masala, tangy Chatpata, Chicken, Tomato and Curry), it is a delicious anytime snack thats ready in just 2 minutes.

MAGGI Vegetable Atta Noodles is a unique innovative product with the goodness of whole wheat and real vegetables. Available in the popular Masala flavor.

MAGGI Chinese Noodles makes it so simple to prepare delicious Indian Style Chinese Noodles at home in a jiffy! Offered in two exciting flavors, Veg Chowmein and Lemon Chicken. These packs are for export

In addition to the nutrition from whole wheat, MAGGI Dal Atta Noodles offers the goodness of Dal (lentils) in the deliciously ethnic Samber Tastemaker.

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MAGGI offers a wide range of specialty Indian Sauces which are relished for their unique taste. Available in the following delightful variants: Tomato Ketchup, Tomato Sauce, Tomato Chilly, Masala Chilly, Chilly Garlic, Tamarina, Tomato Chatpata, Tomato Pudina and the all-time-favorite MAGGI Hot & Sweet Sauce.

MAGGI Taste of India Pastes are a delicate blend of traditional spices and freshly ground pastes, offering the convenience of preparing authentic Indian recipes at home, in no time at all! The range includes Biryani Paste, Curry Paste, Korma Paste, Tandoori Paste and Tikka Masala Paste.

New MAGGI Healthy Soups are even more delicious, quick to prepare, convenient and healthy. They contain real vegetables, are low fat and cholesterol free. They also do not have added MSG, preservatives or artificial colours.

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GHEE PRODUCTS

NESTL EVERYDAY Ghee is 100% pure Clarified Butter hygienically packed to preserve its rich aroma and granular texture. As a cooking medium, NESTL EVERYDAY Ghee helps you add that authentic ethnic aroma and flavor to Indian preparations every time, everyday.

A Partly Skimmed Sweetened Condensed Milk, NESTL MILKMAID is a versatile product and excellent as a dessert ingredient. With MILKMAID, you can whip up lip-smacking desserts for your family the shortest possible time. NESTL EVERYDAY Dairy Whitener is a creamy Dairy Whitener specially made to add a rich, smooth taste to your tea. Every time, every day.

MOGA FACTORY SALIENT FEATURE OF NESTLE MOGA FACTORY In the Malwa region of Punjab State, there is a small town, which is popularly known among the famous grain markets of the world. However the credit of bringing this town on the industrial map of the world goes to Nestle a Swiss Multinational company engaged in the largest food now

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Moga Factory
Processing operation in the world. When in 1959, Nestle took decision to stablish a milk processing factory, a very little could the people of Moga town and the farmers in the surrounding villages realize that the company now as Nestl India Ltd. would play such an important role in economic and social development of the area. The company is not only an industrial and a commercial house but has make sustained efforts to improve economic and social environment of the people in the area of its operation be it farmers or residents of Moga. In the initial stages company faced many problems including procurements of milk sales of which was considered a sin at that time. But the team that surveyed that area found that it is quite suitable for development of milk and it has been proved to be right decision.

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The company started its operation in 1962 with a capacity of 40,000 Kgs of milk per day kept on expanding on regular intervals and at present handling capacity of 11,00,000 Kg of milk per day. Many more products are being developed. Company started milk collection in Moga area on 15 Nov, 1961 and on first day 510 Kgs of milk was collected from four villages. From that day onwards company is collecting milk continuously both morning and evening without break. The total procurement in 1962 was to 2054 million Kgs from 46308 farmers delivering milk at 650 collection centers in 574 villages and 10 milk chilling centers. In 1998 the milk chilling centers have increased from 10 to 186. Nestle India Ltd. Moga factory is the oldest factory in India with the layout spread 57 Acres and have 3 plants within the factory and it is also largest factory in India

Various departments in the Nestle Moga factory Supply Chain NQAC IP( Industrial performance) FMR Cereals PFP Culinary QA Engineering FMPDD
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HR

The factory consists of four production plants:


MILK OPERATIONS CEREALS CULINARY POWDER FILLING AND PACKAGING

MILK OPERATIONS
This plant as the name suggests is engaged in the processing of milk and all the related activities that take place in Moga Factory. This plant can be categorized into a number of sub- plants, which are discussed below in brief:

MILK RECEPTION AND PROCESSING


MILK-TANKER Packo-cooler
FRESH MILK RECEPTION

TEMP. 40C - 80c Milk -churn Temp. 30 - 400c

LP
MILK EGRON PFP CEREALS EVAPORATOR MILK SILO -STD TEMP. 40C

HUMAN RESOURCE DEPTT. , MOGA FACTORY

Milk Reception This plant as name suggested is engaged in the processing of milk and all related activities that take place in Moga factory. This plant can be categorized in to number of subplants:

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Fresh Milk Reception


The fresh milk, which is fundamental constituent of various products, which are manufactured in this factory, is received in this area in tankers and churns. The fresh milk is received in two ways namely churn milk and tanker milk. There are two reception lines both for churn and tanker milk. There are 1100 agencies, which supply fresh milk in churns. The fresh milk is supplied by various chilling centers. Nestle has four own milk chilling centers. Testing of fresh milk is done in fresh milk lab churn is tested for flat and SNF only. The supplier are paid only for fat according to %age. In buffalo and cow milk fat varies from 4.5% to 5.5% and upto 4% respectively. While a number of tests are performed on tanker milk. If any one of the test is found to be positive then the tanker is rejected. The received milk is received in silos after passing through PHEs. The pasteurized milk is stored in 6 namely A, B, C, D, E & F. The pasteurized milk is packed in 15,000 polypacks per day. The fat and SNF in it is 4.6% and 8.6%. The milk stores in silos used in production of various products in Ghee plant and Liquid plant.

Ghee Plant
The milk stored in silo D, E & F is used for manufacturing Ghee, which is marked under the brand name Everyday. In this plant milk is passed through two separators. A phase inversion from 40-50% cream in the first and 70-80% fat in the second is obtained. The final concentration become 97% crude fat.

LIQUID PLANT
This plant is engaged in the processing of milk in the liquid form, prior to the drying operations done in the Egron that converts it into milk powder. However

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various products such as SCM & Desert Mixes are produced in the plant, besides the base liquid for drying in Egrons The general process-taking place in the plant can be summarized as follows: The fresh milk received from the silos is first standardized. I.e. the ingredients are added on the basis of the report send by FM lab and the product they are going to manufacture. This is needed, as there are always variations in the conditions at each different batch of milk. After this the milk is boiled with steam under vacuum in evaporators in order to manufacture SCM. No other industry has been able to make this product in all over India. A part of the milk is sent to Egrons in order to get the milk powder. This milk powder is then blended with certain ingredients in order to manufacture the recently launched products namely dessert mixes.

EGRONS
Egron is a spray drier used to dry the milk, coffee liquid into powder form by using hot air. While drying, the skimmed milk at lesspressureand the hot air at the higher pressure are passed to the cone through the nozzles. The high pressure hot air breaks the milk into the very tiny particles. Because of the vertical length of the cone these particles gets converted into the dry milk. The dry milk falls over the shaker which does not allow the hot particles to collaborate with each other again.

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After this the dry milk is collected in the tote bins in the bin room. The bins are then tilted over the hopers and from which they are subsequently sent to powder filling and packing machines. For all this, there are four Egrons in Moga factory Egrons 2, 3, 4, are used for drying milk powder and No.1 is used for drying coffee which is closed right now.

POWDER FILLING PLANT


The filling and the packing of milk like Everyday, Lactogen and Nestogen is done in this plant. There are four filling and packing lines for this purpose. Two of these are used in filling of tins & the other two are used for filling polypacks or bag n-boxes required by the production program.

CEREALS
This plant is engaged in the production of cereal-based baby foods and infant formula. The production process consists of the addition of various Enzymes, Vitamins, Minerals & fruit extracts to the cereal base. There are two filling and packing lines in the cereal plant. One is for filling of 400 gm. sachets and oth er for filling of 400gm tins. Now a 5gm every day creamer filling line machinery is also installed in the filling section. The manufacturing of products is a continuous three shift operation. The Tin filling line is generally run for the export packing an d accounts for the manufactured products. The major product of the Cereal plant is Cerelac. (Wheat, Apple, Orange)

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UTILITY SERVICES DEPARTMENT BOILER HOUSE


Boiler House provides the Steam to whole factory. And it also looks after water generation, de-alkanization of water to feed to boiler, soft water generation, power generators and air heaters.

EFFLUENT TREATEMNT PLANT:


This department looks after the waste water treatemnt before draining out of plant. In this plant, the polluted water from the factory is passed through the sieves and collected in the aerator tank. In this tank the fan which is having the four blades at right angle to the water is allowed to rotate . The rotation of the vertical blades or vanes splashes the effulent. This process of splashing continous until the water gets oxidised. Basically the effluent water lacks in the oxygen so it is aerated in the open air and again gets oxidised in the open air. By this stirring operation the sludge comes towrds the corners of the aerator water tank and gets collected by the sludge collector and gets collected in the sludge tank through the pipes. This sludge is allowed to dry in the sludge bath in the open air and which is further used as the manure after the drying. The submersible pumps are used to maintain the level of the aerator tank. After this the water is passed to the clarifier where the further clarification of the water is done by moving the pan containing the sieves.And after this the water is passed to the mixing tank, from this tank the water is pumped to the chimney. The chimney is provided to maintain the

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head. The water from this chimney is used for gardening in the factory and the rest of the water is dumped in to the MC pipe.

CULINARY
This plant is engaged in the production of Noodles, Taste markers, Soups sauces & the like. The plant is divided into three sections: NOODLES SEASONING COLD SAUCES The Operation of the seasoning is inter- related with both the noodle and cold sauce section as the spice mix base for both is manufactured in the seasoning section.

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CHAPTER 2 SAFETY
Safety is the freedom from risk of injuries or the prevention of the accidents. Safety is a thought which makes us proactive and helps us to prevent the accidents.

Why safety
It is a basic human need Concerns all of us Safety has to be on our mind always At home, at work and in our community Accidents happen when we dont pay attention

Accident
It is a sudden and unforeseen occurrence which results in damage to material,building,environment and above all to human beings. Status of accidents. Unsafe actions --------------88% Unsafe conditions------------10% Natural calamities-----------02%

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98%accidents are caused by human errors.


I.E. unsafe acts or conditions.

2%accidents are beyond humans control.


I.E. Earthquake etc.

Main reasons of the accidents:


I did not see. I did not ask. I did not listen.

Reasons to be careful at the work


Responsibility to ourself. Responsibility to co-worker & company. Do not work at time if you are not feel good. If any unsafe placed you are seen than ask your supervisor.

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Accident sequence
Lack of knowledge, skill, mental condition Fault of person Unsafe act/condition Accident Injury

Unsafe acts
Operating without authority. Operating at unsafe speed. Making safety devices inoperative. Unsafe position or posture. Distracting,teasing,abusing & startling.

Unsafe condition
Defective condition,rough,Sharp,slippery,cracked,corroded etc. Unsafe illumination,ventilation,dress. Unsafe method,process planning etc. Hazardous arrangement, process layout.

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Accident prevention
Illuminate the hazard Control the hazard Train personnel Prescribe personnel protective equipments. Motivate people and safety participations. Behavioral safety Enforcement of safety rules.

Near miss:
When any miss happening occurs suddenly to a person and does not get any injury due to that miss occurrence is called as the near miss.

While handling the chemicals, the following PPE must be used:


1. Apron 2. Face shield or safety goggles 3. Rubber gloves 4. Safety Gum Boot 5. Nose mask

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Important note:
Always use safety belt while working at height above 1.8m height. Also use the helmet tight with chin strip while working at the height. Always wear the helmet if any work in progress above your working place or at construction sight. Always use the nose mask where the danger of the chemicals fumes,toxic gases is present. It avoids the inhalation of these toxic and harmful fumes. Always wear the goggles & gloves while cutting,grinding,drilling, hammering and chiseling. Always wear the safety shoes while working in the factory premises. Always use the rubber gloves while handling the chemicals. Always use the leather gloves while handling the glass. Always use the both side handrailing while moving over the stairs. In case of the leakage of the harmful gases in the plant always follow the opposite direction of the wind socks and move across the direction of wind. Always wear the ear plug or ear muff where the noise level above 85dB (A). Never use the mobile phone while working in factory premises. Always walk in a walk way. Always wear high reflective apron while driving. Move the hand lift in proper body posture not play horse riding.

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Personal protective equipments

ABOUT SAFETY
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CHAPTER 3 Utility Services Department

1. Refrigeration and air-conditioning 2. Effluent Treatment plant 3. Boiler house 4. Compressor room

Refrigeration and air-conditioning


This department looks after the Chiller Water Plants which supply the chilled water to factory and the AHUs of factory, Air Conditioners of factory and the Air Compressor of the factory.

Refrigeration plant
A Refrigeration plant uses gas,liquid and mechanical energy to move heat from one place to another.A liquid,such as ammonia,which has a low boiling temperature, is allowed to pass into a space via tubing.As the pressure in the ammonia drops,the liquid begins to boil and enter a phase change from liquid to gas.In doing so, there is a great absorption of heat energy by the liquid in the tubing to create this phase change.

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REFRIGERATION PLANT

The heat energy is absorber from the space and as the liquid boils off, it forms a gas. The gas is pulled through the tubing in the space into a suction header outside the space to the suction of a compressor. The compressor depressurizes the gas and discharge the liquid through cold water heat exchanges or cooling fans, exhausting the heat exchangers or cooling fans, exhausting the heat absorbed from the space, into the outside atmosphere. By pressurizing and cooling the gas, the gas returns to a liquid stage, where it is stored and reintroduced to the space to be cooled.

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Principle of refrigeration system


It is based on vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The vapor-compression uses a circulating liquid refrigerant as the medium which absorbs and removes heat from the space to be cooled and subsequently rejects that heat elsewhere. Figure depicts a typical, singlestage vapor-compression system.

Components of a refrigeration System


1. Compressor 2. Condenser 3. Expansion valve 4. Evaporator

A Typical vapour compression cycle

SINGLE STAGE VAPOUR COMP. CYCLE

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Description of vapour compression cycle


The vapor-compression uses a circulating liquid refrigerant as the medium which absorbs and removes heat from the space to be cooled and subsequently rejects that heat elsewhere. Depicts a typical ,single-stage vapour-compression system. All such systems have four components: A compressor, a condenser, a thermal expansion valve (also called a throttle valve), and an evaporator .Circulating refrigerant enters the compressor in the thermodynamic state known as a saturated vapour and is compressed to a higher pressure, resulting in a higher temperature as well. The hot, compressed vapor and it is at a temperature and pressure at which it can be condensed with typically available cooling water or cooling air. That hot vapor is routed through a condenser where it is cooled and condensed into a liquid by flowing through a coil or tubes with cool water or cool air flowing across the coil or tubes. this is where the circulating refrigerant rejects heat from the system and the rejected heat is carried away by either the water or the air(whichever may be the case). The condensed liquid refrigerant, in the thermodynamics state known as a saturated liquid, is next routed through an expansion valve where it undergoes an abrupt reduction in pressure. That pressure reduction results in the adiabatic flash evaporation of a part of the liquid refrigerant. The auto refrigerant of the liquid and vapor refrigerant mixture to where it is colder than the temperature of the enclosed space to be refrigerated. The cold mixture is then routed through the coil or tubes in the evaporator. A fan circulates the warm air in the enclosed space across the coil or tubes carrying the cold refrigerant liquid and vapor mixture. That warm air evaporates the liquid part of the cold refrigerant mixture. At the same time, the circulating air is cooled and thus lowers the temperature of the enclosed space to the desired temperature. The evaporator is where the circulating refrigerant absorbs and removes heat
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which is subsequently rejected in the condenser and transferred elsewhere by the water or air used in the condenser. To complete the refrigeration cycle, the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator is again a saturated vapor and is routed back into the compressor.

Refrigerant used: Ammonia is the main refrigerant used in the refrigeration cycle.
Ammonia(NH3) is the most widely used refrigerant .It is a chemical compound of Nitrogen and Hydrogen. Properties of Ammonia Refrigerant Name No. Molecular Specific Vapour Boiling mass gravity density point at Freezing point at Auto ignition

atmospheric atmospheric point pressure R-717 Ammonia 17.02 .61 0.6 -33.3o C pressure -76.6 o C 650 oC

TABLE 3.1 PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA

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Advantages of using Ammonia (NH3)


1. Power consumption is less than CFC. 2. Less operational problem of oil return. 3. Better heat transfer. 4. Due to low power consumption high heat transfer capacity. 5. NH3 has no effect on Ozone layer.

Oil Separation
Refrigeration compressors are lubricated by refrigeration oil that circulates from the compressor crankcase or housing. As refrigerant gas is discharged by the compressor, it will leave with a fine oil mist that will be circulated throughout the entire system. Small amounts of oil circulating through the system will not affect the system performance. Too much refrigeration oil circulating in the system will have adverse effects on the components in the system. Circulating oil reduces the ability of the system to effectively remove the heat. Condensers, evaporators and other heat exchangers loose the efficiency when coated internally with an oil film. Refrigeration oil not returning to the compressor causes improper lubrication and eventual compressor failure. At low temperature application, refrigeration oil thickness becomes difficult to move, causing oil to be trapped in the system. Refrigerant gas leaving the compressor through the discharge lines contains refrigeration oil in a vapour ousmist. As this mixture enters the oil separator, the velocity is reduced to allow oil separation to begin. This refrigerant gas and oil mixture enters the oil separator and passes

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through an inlet screen, causing the fine particles to combine. Larger oil particles are formed and drop to the bottom of the oil separator. The refrigerant gas then passes through an outlet screen to remove residual oil particles. The oil gathers in the bottom of the oil separator until a float operated needle valve opens to allow the return of the oil to the compressor. Oil returns quickly to the compressor, because of the higher pressure in the oil separator than in the compressor crankcase. When the oil level has lowered, the needle valve closes to prevent refrigerant gas from returning back to the compressor. The refrigerant gas leaves through the outlet of the oil separator and goes to the condenser

Cooling Towers
In the plants, the hot water from the condenser is cooled in the cooling tower, so that it can be reused in the condenser for the condensation of the steam. In a cooling tower water is made to trickle down drop by drop so that it comes in contact with air moving in the opposite direction. As a result of this some water is evaporated and is taken away with air. In evaporation, the heat is taken away from bulk of water, which is thus cooled.

Introduction
A cooling tower is equipment used to reduce the temperature of a water stream by extracting heat from water and emitting it to the atmosphere.

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Cooling towers

Types of cooling towers:


1. Natural draft 2. Mechanical draft

FORCED DRAFT

INDUCED DRAFT COUNTER FLOW

INDUCED DRAFT CROSS FLOW

Natural Draft cooling tower The natural draft or hyperbolic cooling tower makes use of the difference in temperature between the ambient air and hotter air inside the tower.it works as follows

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Hot air moves upwards through the tower(because hot air rises). Fresh cool air is drawn into the tower through an air inlet at the bottom.

COOLING TOWER

Mechanical draft cooling tower


Mechanical draft towers have large fan to force or draw air through circulated water. The water falls down words over fill surfaces.

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Cooling rates of mechanical draft towers depend upon various parameters such as fan diameter and speed of operation, fills for system resistance etc.

Forced draft cooling tower:


Air is blown through tower by centrifugal fan at air inlet

Forced draft cooling tower Advantages: suited for high air resistance & fans are relatively quiet Disadvantages: recirculation due to high air entry and low air exit velocities.

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Induced draft counter flow cooling tower:


In a counter flow design the air flow is directly opposite to the water flow. Air flow first enters an open area beneath the fill media and is then drawn up vertically. The water is sprayed through pressurized nozzles and flows downward through the fill, opposite to the air flow.

Induced draft counter flow cooling tower

Induced draft cross flow cooling tower:


Cross flow is a design in which the air flow is directed to perpendicular to the water flow. Air flow enters one or more vertical faces of the cooling tower to meet the fill material. Water flows (perpendicular to the air) through the fill by gravity. The air continuous through the fill and thus past the water flow into an open plenum area. A distribution or hot water basin

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consisting of a deep pan with holes or nozzles in the bottom is utilized in a cross flow tower. Gravity distributes the water through the nozzles uniformly across the fill material.

Induced draft cross flow cooling tower

Factors affecting cooling of water on a cooling tower are:


1. Temperature of air 2. Humidity of air. 3. Temperature of hot air 4. Size and height of tower 5. Velocity of air entering tower 6. Degree of uniformity in descending water Arrangement of plants in tower

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Heat exchangers
A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another, whether the media are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the media are in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning ,power plants, chemical plants, electrochemical plants, petroleum refineries and natural gas processing. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in the car, in which a hot engine-cooling fluid, like antifreeze transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator.

Types of heat exchangers:


Acc. To flow arrangement the heat exchangers may be classified into three types. 1. Cross-flow In a cross-flow heat exchanger, the fluids travel roughly perpendicular to one another through exchanger. 2. Counter-flow In a counter flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from the opposite end. The counter current design is most efficient, in that it can transfer the most heat. 3. Parallel-flow In parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side.

Plate heat exchanger


A plate heat exchanger is a type of heat exchanger that uses metal plate to transfer heat between two fluids. This has a major advantage over a conventional heat exchanger in that the

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fluids are exposed to a much large surface area because the fluids spread out over the plates. This facilities the transfer of heat, and greatly increases the speed of the temperature change. The concept behind a heat exchanger is the use of pipes or other containment vessels to heat or cool one fluid by transferring heat between it and another fluid. In most cases, the exchanger consists of a coiled pipe containing one fluid that passes through a chamber containing another fluid. The walls of the pipe are usually made of metal or another substance with a high thermal conductivity, to facilitate the interchange, whereas the outer casing of the large chamber is made of a plastic or coated with thermal insulation, to discourage heat from escaping from the exchanger.

Plate type heat exchanger

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER


A shell and tube that heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical process, and is
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suited for higher-pressure applications. As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes insides it. One fluid runs though the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle, and may be composed by several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc.

Shell and tube heat exchanger

Selection of the tube material:


To be able to transfer heat well, the tube material should have good thermal conductivity. Because heat from a hot to a cold side through the tubes, there is a temperature difference through the width of the tubes. Because of the tendency of the tube material to thermal expand differently at various temperatures, thermal stresses occur during operation. This is in addition to any stress from high pressure from the fluids themselves. The tube material also should be compatible with both the shell and tube side fluids for long periods under the operating conditions (temperature,
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pressure, pH, etc.) to minimize deterioration such as corrosion. All of these requirements call for careful selection of strong, thermally-conductive, corrosionresistant, high quality tube materials, typically metals, including copper alloy, stainless steel, and carb steel. Non-ferrous copper alloy, in conel, nickel, hastelloy and titanium..Poor choice of tube material could result in a leak through a tube between the shell and tube sides causing fluid cross-contamination and loss of pressure.

HEAT EXCHANGER IN INDUSTRY


Heat exchangers are widely used in industry both for cooling and heating large scale industrial processes. The type and size of heat exchanger used can be tailored to suit a process depending on type of fluid, its phase, temperature, density, viscosity, pressures, chemical composition and various other thermodynamic properties. In much industrial process there is waste of energy or a heat stream that is being exhausted, heat exchangers can be used to recover this heat and put it to use by heating a different stream in the process. This practice saves a lot of money in industry as the heat supplied to other streams from the heat exchangers would otherwise come from an external source which is more expensive and more harmful to the environment. Heat exchangers are used in many industries, some of which include: Waste water treatment Refrigeration systems Wine bravery industry Petroleum industry

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In this waste water treatment industry, heat exchangers play a vital role in maintaining optimal temperature within anaerobic digesters so as to promote the growth of microbes which remove pollutants from the waste water. The common types of heat exchangers used in these applications are the double pipe heat exchangers as well as the plate and frame heat exchanger.

Effluent treatment plant

AIR HANDLING UNIT


Air handling unit (often abbreviated to AHU), is a device used to condition and circulate air part of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. An air handler is usually a large metal box containing a bowler, heating or cooling elements, filter racks or chambers, sounds attenuators, and dampers. Air handlers usually connect to duck work that distributes the conditioned air through the building and returns it to the AHU. Sometimes AHUs discharge (supply) and admit (return) air directly to and from the space served without duck work.

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Some AHU components shown are:


1) Supply duck 2) Fan compartment 3) Vibration isolator (flex joint 4) Heating and/or cooling coil 5) Filter compartment 6) Mixed (recalculated + outside) air duct

AHU SYSTEM

Air handling components:


Air handlers typically employ a large squirrel cage blower divan by an AC induction electric motor to move the air. The blower may operate at a single speed, offer a variety of set speeds, or be driven by a Variable frequency drive to allow a wide range of air flow rates. Flow rate may also be controlled by inlet vanes or outlet dam person on the fan. Some residential air

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handlers (central furnaces or air conditioners) use a brushless DC electric motor that has variable speed capabilities. Multiple blowers may be ore sent in large commercial air handling units, typically placed at the end of the AHU and the beginning of the supply ductwork (therefore also called supply fans). They are often augmented by fans in the return air duct (return fans) pushi ng the air into the AHU.

Heating and/or cooling elements


Air handlers may need to provide heating, cooling, or both to change the supply air temperature depending on the location and the application. Smaller air handlers may contain a fuel-burning heater or a refrigeration evaporator, placed directly in the air stream. Electric resistance and heat pumps can be used as well. Evaporative cooling is possible in dry climates. Large commercial air handling units contain coils that circulate hot water or steam for heating, and chilled water for cooling. Coils are typically manufactured from copper for the tubes, with copper or aluminum fins to aid heat transfer. Cooling coils will also employ delimiters plates to remove and drain condensate. The hot water or stream is provided by a central boiler, and the chilled water is provided by a central chiller. Downstream temperature sensors are typically used to monitor and control off coil temperatures, in conjunction with an appropriate motorized control valve prior to the coil.

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Filters
Air filtration is almost always present in order to provide clean dust-free air to the building occupants. It may be via simple low-MERV pleated media, HEPA, electrostatics, or a combination of techniques. Gas-phase and ultraviolet air treatments may be employed as well. It is typically placed first in the AHU in order to keep all its components clean. Depending upon the grade of filtration required, typically filters will be arranged in two (or more) banks with a coarse-grade panel filter provided in front of a fine-grade bag filter, or other final filtration medium. The panel filter is cheaper to replace and maintain, and thus protects the more expensive bag filters. The life of a filter may be assessed by monitoring the pressure drop through the filter medium at design air volume flow rate. This may be done by means of a visual display, using a pressuregauge, or by a pressure switch linked to an alarm point on the building control system. Failure to replace a filter may overcome its inherent strength, resulting in collapse and thus contamination of the air handler and downstream ductwork.

Humidifier
Humidification is often necessary in colder climates where continuous heating will make the air drier, resulting in uncomfortable air quality and increased static electricity. Various types of humidification may be used: Evaporative: dry air blown over a reservoir will evaporative some of the water. The rate of evaporation can be increased by spraying the water onto baffles in the air stream. Vaporizer: scream or vapor from a boiler is blown directly into the air stream.

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Spray mist: water is diffused either by a nozzle or other mechanical means into fine droplets and carried by the air.

Ultrasonic: A tray of fresh water in the airstream is excited by an ultrasonic device forming a fog or water mist.

Wetted medium: A fine fibrous medium in the airstream is kept moist with fresh water from a header pipe with a series of small outlets. As the air passes through the medium it entrains the water in fine droplets. This type of humidifier can quickly clog if the primary air filtration is not maintained in good order.

Mixing chamber
In order to maintain indoor air quality, air handlers commonly have provisions to allow the introduction of outside air into, and the exhausting of air from the building. In temperature climates, mixing the right amount of cooler outside air with warmer return air can be used to approach the desired supply air temperature. A mixing chamber is therefore used which has dampers controlling the ratio between the return, outside, and exhaust air.

Heat recovery device


Heat recovery device heat exchangers of many types, may be fitted to the air handler between supply and extract airstreams for energy savings and increasing capacity. These types more commonly include for: Recuperate, or plate heat exchanger: A sandwich of plastic or metal plates with interlaced air paths. Heat is transferred between airstreams from one side of the plate to the other.

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The plates are typically spaced at 4 to 6mm apart. Can also be used to recover colt. Heat recovery efficiency up to 70%. Thermal Wheel or Rotary heat exchangers: A slowly rotating matrix of finely corrugated motel, operating in both opposing airstreams. When the air handling unit is in heating mode, heat is absorbed as air passes through the matrix in the exhaust airstream, during one half rotations, and released during the second half rotation into the supply airstream in a continuous process. When the air handling units is in cooling mode, heat is released as air passes through the matrix in the exhaust airstream, during one half rotations, and absorbed during the second half rotation into the supply airstream. Heat recovery efficiency up to 85%. Wheels are also available with a hydroscope coating to provide latent heat transfer and also the drying or humidification of airstream. Run around coil: Two airs to liquid heat coils, in opposing airstream, piped together with a circulating pump and using water or a brine as the heat transfer medium. This device, although not very efficient, allows heat recovery between remote and sometimes multiple supply and exhaust airstream. Heat recovery efficient up to 50%. Heat pipe: Operating in both opposing air paths, using a confined refrigerant as a heat transfer medium. The pipe is multiple sealed pipes mounted in a coil configuration with fins to increase heat transfer. Heat is absorbed on one side of pipe, by evaporation of the refrigerant, and released flows by gravity to the first side of the pipe to repeat the process. Heat recovery efficiency up to 65%.

Controls
Controls are necessary to regulate every aspect of an air handler, such as: flow rate of air, supply air temperature, mixed air temperature, humidity, air quality. They may be as
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simple as an off/on thermostat or as complex as a building automatic system using BAC net or Lon Works, for examples.

Vibration isolators
The blowers in air handlers can create substances vibration and the large area of the duct system would transmit this noise and vibration to the occupants of the building. To avoid this, vibration isolators (flexible sections) are normally inserted into the duct immediately before and after the air handler and often also between the fan compartment and the rest of the AHU. The rubberized canvas-like material of these sections allows the air handler to vibrate without transmitting much vibration to the attached ducts.

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CHAPTER 4 MY PROJECT BASED ON BOILER HOUSE BOILER HOUSE


Boiler House provides the steam to whole factory. And it also looks after water generation, de-alkalization of water to feed to boiler, soft water generation, power generators and air heaters. There are four boilers in the Nestle Moga factory. The two are coal fired and the two are the oil fired boilers. BOILER BASIC Boilers are the most important part of the steam circuit, after all, this is where the steam is initially created. A boiler can be defined as a vessel in which the heat energy from a fuel is transferred to a liquid. In the case of saturated steam, the boiler also provides heat energy to produce a phase change from liquid to vapour. Historically, steam boiler plant has always required a high level of manual supervision to provide the necessary degree of plant safety. Contemporary thinking demands such plant to be run efficiently, and this may often be attempted by matching supply to demand as much as possible. This can mean boilers running continuously in some instances, or being shutdown for long or short intervals in others. Either way, modern technology enables the plant engineer to confidently choose the boiler regime to best suit his application, with control systems able to provide the required degree of efficiency, integrity and safety. A boiler is often the largest piece of equipment to be found in a steam circuit. They can range In size depending upon the application on which they are used. Often several boilers may be used on a large site, where varying steam loads exist.
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A Typical Diagram of boiler

Shell boilers
Shell boilers operate by passing heat through tubes in the boiler, which in turn transfer heat to the surrounding boiler water. There are several different combinations of tube layout for shell boilers, involving the number of 'passes' the heat from the boiler furnace will usefully make before being discharged. A typical arrangement can be seen in Figure A which shows a two pass boiler configuration. Figure A and Figure B also shows the two methods where the heat from the furnace is reversed to flow along the second pass. Figure A shows a dry back boiler where the heat flow is reversed by a refractory lined chamber on the outer plating of the boiler. A more efficient method of reversing the heat flow is through a wet back boiler configuration as shown in Figure B. The reversal chamber is contained entirely within the boiler which allows for a greater heat transfer area, as well as allowing the boiler water to be heated at the point where the heat from the furnace will be hottest - on the end of the chamber wall.
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It is important to note that the combustion gases should be cooled to at least 420C for plain steel boilers and 470C for alloy steel boilers before the reversal chamber. Temperatures in excess of this will cause overheating and cracking of the tube end plates. These limitations will be observed by the boiler manufacturer within his design criteria. There are several different types of shell boilers that have been developed, which will now be looked at in more detail.

(a) Dry Back Boiler

(b) Wet Back Boiler

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Package boiler:
The improvement of materials and manufacturing processes meant that more tubes could be accommodated within the boiler. Early in its development the basic boiler was long and required a large boiler house area. By forcing the hot gases to go backwards and forwards through a series of tubes, the boilers were designed to be shorter, and heat transfer rates were improved. The modern multi-tubular packaged boiler is the present state of this evolutionary process. The packaged boiler is so called because it comes as a complete package. Once Delivered to site it requires only the steam, water and blow down pipework, fuel supply and electrical connections to be made for it to become operational. These boilers are classified by the number of passes - the number of times the hot combustion gases pass through the boiler. The combustion chamber is taken as the first pass. The most common boiler is a three pass unit as shown in Figure 6 with two sets of fire-tubes and the exhaust gases exiting from the back end of the boiler.

Package Boiler

A Typical Package Boiler


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Water Tube Boiler:


Water tube boilers differ from shell type boilers in that the water is circulated inside the tubes with the heat source surrounding them. This means that much higher pressures can be used because the tube diameter is significantly smaller than the shell on the fire tube boiler, and therefore the circumferential stress is also significantly less. Water tube boilers tend to be considered for large steam outputs, for high pressure, or for superheated steam. For most industrial and commercial applications, a multi-tubular shell boiler is often appropriate. Only if the requirement is for an individual output above 27 000 kg/h or at pressures above 27 bar, or steam temperatures above 340C is it necessary to use a water tube boiler. The reason for this is that water tube boilers cost more to build for a given output than multi-tubular shell boilers. However, throughout the world, water tube boilers compete with shell boilers size for size below 270 bar g. To give an idea of the diversity of water tube boilers on land, units start from about 2 000 kg/h and rise to power station sized units rated at 3 500 000 kg/h and above. The smaller sized units can be manufactured and then delivered to the site in one piece. The larger sized units are generally manufactured in sections, to be transported to site for final assembly. Water tube boilers operate on the principle of water circulation. This is a subject which is worth covering before looking at the different types of water tube boilers which are available. Use of the following diagram best helps to explain this theory.

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Riser Down comer configuration of water tube boiler Cold feed water is introduced into the steam drum where it falls in the down comer to the lower or mud drum, due to it having a greater density than that of hot water. Its density decreases as it passes up the riser, where it is heated, eventually creating steam bubbles. The hot water and steam bubbles pass into the steam drum once again, where the steam naturally separates from the water, and is then taken off. However, when the pressure in the water tube boiler is increased, the difference between the density of the water and saturated steam reduces, therefore less circulation occurs. To keep the same level of steam output as design pressure increases, the distance between the lower drum and the steam drum must be increased.

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SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT Safety is very important for all those who works in the industry even all those who works outside the industry. Because, accident happens only when the human being not take interest to perform the job. Some of employees follow the safety rules and regulations but most of employees not follow. Some of workers use the personal protective equipment. But most of workers not used. They fill the behavior based safety sheets only for formalities & only for completing the targets. My project report is based on boilers. So, I should give suggestion about to improvement of boiler. Water tube boiler give higher efficiency than the fire tube boiler or shell tube boiler. So, my suggestion is that most of time use water tube boiler than fire tube boiler. The water from soft water plant or RO plant used by boiler is only 25% and reject by boiler is 75%. So such type of these wastage of water will have to be stopped by reused this water in boiler.

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REFERENCES

1. Guidance from Mr. Sachidananda Swain(Manager Of Safety) and Mr. Harpal Singh Makkar (Sr. Executive). 2. Manuals of Every Plant. 3. WWW.NESTLE.IN 4. Actual Captured Snaps at site. 5. Google search engine. 6. http://www.bluegrasskesco.com/Boiler%20System.html 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Package_boiler

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