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MPW 2143
Transplant Organ in Islam







Title Introduction Body / Contents : 1. Halal or Haram? 2. Human Donor 3. Animal Donor Conclusion Bi liogra!"y A!!endi# Page


T"e aut"ors o$ %Islam dan Peminda"an &rgan' are Dr. (a)i *orad (a"er+ Dr. *o"d ,ani . -uso"+ Dr. A dul *onir . .aaco *usta$$a+ Dr. Is"a) *as'ud+ Dr. A u Ba)ar

. *o"d . .

/it" *o"d 0au1i

. 2uleiman+ Ha3i A dulla" 0a"im

Ha3i A . ,a"man and Dr. *o"ammed Ali Al ar. All o$ t"em are e#!ert in t"eir res!ecti4e $ield and "ad in4ol4ed in many surgery o!eration. Dr. (a)i *orad . *o"d (a"er is a $amous )idney s!ecialist. He $re5uently . .aaco . He /or)s as

/rote a out trans!lant organ6current issue and related issue in maga1ines+ oo)s and 3ournal. T"e second aut"or is Dato' Dr. A dul *onir an assistance "ead o$ manager o$ I7I* /"ile *o"d 0au1i *usta$$ is a researc" o$$icer o$ I7I*. T"ey discuss a out t"e $undamental conce!t o$ trans!lant organ t"at "as een a!!ointed in Islam. Dr. Is"a) *as'ud /"o is a gastousus s!eciallist ela orates more a out medical et"ics $rom t"e islamic !oint o$ 4ie/. Tan 2ri Dr. A u Ba)ar . 2uleiman is also one o$ t"e )idney s!eciallist and in t"is oo)+ "e s!eci$ies t"e et"ical issues in trans!lant organ treatment /"ic" is more to/ards medical s!eciallist. 8astly+ Ha3i A dulla" 0a"im . Ha3i A d. ,a"man $rom -a atan 7ema3uan Islam *alaysia 9-A7I*: /rote a out t"e role o$ o$$icer in organ trans!lant and also $at/a organ trans!lant /"ic" "ad een !u lis"ed in *u1a)ara" -a/atan)uasa 0at/a 7e angsaan on 2362; -une 1<=>. ?e c"oose t"is issue ecause most o$ muslim t"emsel4es still do not

understand t"e la/ and t"e !rocedure in organ trans!lant. Besides t"at+ t"e a/areness o$ regarding t"is issue among our society is 4ery lo/ e4ent"oug" *alaysia is one o$ t"e $or/ard country /"o esta lis" t"e rules and regulation in organ trans!lant. ?e "o!e+ in t"e $uture t"ere are an increases o$ a/areness a out t"is issue amongst muslims in our country /"ic" /il contri ute to t"e ele4ation o$ organ donater as t"e num er o$ needy rises u! y years. As t"e summary o$ t"is oo)+ asically it com!ile t"e conce!t and et"ic o$

trans!lant organ in Islam. Besides t"at+ it clari$y t"e la/ o$ organ trans!lant $rom t"e Islamic !oint o$ 4ie/ /it" t"e e4idence $rom Al6@uran+ As62unna"+ I3ma' and @iyas. It ela orate t"e rules and regulation t"at used in trans!lant organ /"ic" is not really understand y t"e !eo!le.

1. Halal or Haram? &rgan trans!lant "a4e een carried out since t"ousands o$ years ago y ot"

/estern and eastern doctors. A4en t"oug" t"is is t"e $act it is still de ata le among a ma3ority *uslims /"et"er t"is act is "alal or "aram in t"eir religion. T"is issue "a4e een long discussed to a !oint t"at many *uslims are still /orrisome y t"e 2cienti$ic ,egistry o$ Trans!lant a out donating t"eir organ and carrying out organ trans!lant. T"is is !ro4en /"en a statistic t"at /as carried out ,eci!ients 92,T,: in colla oration /it" Ar or ,esearc" t"at s"o/s t"e num er o$ reci!ients t"at needs an organ trans!lant is a!!ro#imately 21+>>> com!ared to t"e num er o$ donors /"ic" is only around 1;+>>> in t"e year 2>><. ?"at ma)es it more s"oc)ing is t"e ratio o$ li4ing donor to deceased donors /"ic" is at a ratio o$ 3:;. Alt"oug" t"is is t"e case t"ere is a !ositi4e side /"ere statically it s"o/s a 3;B increase in t"e num er o$ donors in t"e !ast 1> years. I$ t"ere is dou t in *uslim minds t"ere must e reasons /"y t"e num er o$ donors "as increased in t"e !ast ten years. In order to ma)e t"e situation clear a out t"e status o$ t"is !rocedure many *uslim sc"olars and Clama "a4e s"o/n solid !ro4e $rom ot" t"e @uran and Hadit" a out its status. T"e $irst !oint t"at is touc"ed comes $rom a 4erse in t"e Al6@uran

?"ic" means: DUnless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people. E [Surah al-Maidah, !"# T"ere is no dou t t"at organ trans!lant is in t"e same category as sa4ing a li$e. Ho/e4er+ t"e trans!lant cannot ring "arm to t"e donor. T"is is ased on an Islamic legal ma#im t"at states Da "arm cannot e remo4ed in a /ay t"at leads :

to anot"er ty!e o$ "arm.E T"is ma#im e#!lains t"at a "arm cannot or on any ot"er !ersons. &t"er t"an t"at it is stated in a $at/a gi4en o$ 3urists+ /"et"er t"e reci!ient donation is considered to t"e e o$

e remo4ed

y creating anot"er similar or /orse condition+ /"et"er on t"e same indi4idual+

y *u$ti o$ Agy!t+ Dr *u"ammad y consensus

2yed Tanta/i /"ic" states+ D8i4e organ donations are !ermissi le ene$it

e "is relati4e or a stranger+ as long as suc" a y a trusted doctor...Ta)ing organs $rom ased on

ody o$ a dead !erson to trans!lant to someone /"o needs it+ /"et"er to

sa4e "is li$e or to cure "im+ is !ermissi le+ and t"is ruling is also consensus o$ 3urists.E

To $urt"er strengt"en t"e stand stating t"at organ trans!lant is "alal and a must is gi4en y T"e Fational 0at/a Council o$ *alaysiaD Cada4eric trans!lant o$ t"e eye and "eart is !ermissi le i$ t"e $ollo/ing conditions are o ser4ed: In t"e case o$ e#treme need and e#igency+ in /"ic" t"e li$e o$ t"e recei4er de!ends on t"at organ+ and t"ere is su$$icient e4idence t"at t"e trans!lant !rocess /ill e success$ul. In t"e case o$ "eart trans!lantation+ t"e deat" o$ t"e donor must e determined e$ore t"e trans!lant can e !er$ormed. Pro!er action must e underta)en to ensure t"at t"ere is no )illing and trading o$ organs in4ol4ed.E A4en t"oug" t"e organs sanctioned in t"is $at/a are only t"e eye and "eart+ ot"er organs may also e included.

2. Human Donors Doctors are o$ t"e same o!inion t"at t"e est organs to e trans!lanted are t"ose /"ic" elong to "uman eings+ !articularly t"e matc"ed ones /"ic" usually come $rom si lings or $rom !arents to t"eir c"ildren and 4ice64ersa. But sience and tec"nology can o4ercome t"e !ro lems o$ tissue re3ection+ sources are also o!en to ot"er !eo!le not related to t"e !atient or t"e !atient's $amily. Islamic sc"olars are $acing a 4ery $undamental !ro lem regarding t"e issues o$ "uman organs to e gi4en to t"e !eo!le in need. T"e !ro lem is related to t"e 5uestion : Do "uman organs elong to "uman eings t"emsel4es or Alla" 2?T? In ans/ering t"is 5uestion t"e ulama $all into t"ree sc"ool. 0irst+ t"e sc"ool o$ Mil$u-ar-ra%abah /"ere men o/n eyond dou t+ t"eir /"ole ody including organs o$ t"e ody. T"is sc"ool regards man as "a4ing t"e rig"t to sell or to gi4e t"eir organ to ot"er !eo!le. 2econd+ t"e sc"ool o$ Mil$u-al-mafa&ah t"at regard man as only "a4ing t"e rig"t to use t"eir organs and t"ey in turn+ "a4e t"e rig"t to lend t"eir organs ut t"ey cannot sell t"em. T"ird+ t"e sc"ool o$ Mil$u-al-intifa t"at regard man "a4ing t"e rig"t to use t"eir organ only $or t"emsel4es. T"ey do not "a4e t"e rig"t to lend+ not to mention sell+ it to ot"er !eo!le. T"e ulama agree t"at t"ey totally su!!ort t"e sc"ool o$ Mil$u-al-intifa. T"at means t"at "uman eings "a4e t"e rig"t only to use t"eir organ ut t"eir ody elongs to Alla" 2?T. T"is 4ie/ is in line /it" /"at al6@uran says in 2ura" al6 Ba5ara" 4erse 1<G :

*eaning : 'nd spend in the way of 'llah and do not throw [yourselves# with your [own# hands into destruction [by refraining#. 'nd do good( indeed, 'llah loves the doers of good. and 2ura" an6Fisa' 4erse 2< :

*eaning : D) you who have believed, do not consume one another*s wealth un+ustly but only [in lawful# business by mutual consent. 'nd do not $ill yourselves [or one another#. ,ndeed, 'llah is to you ever Merciful.2ince "uman organs do not elong to "uman eings+ t"en /e do not need t"eir !ermission6/"ile t"ey are still li4ing or dead6to ma)e use o$ t"eir organs as long as suc" t"ings does not endanger t"eir li4es. 8i)e/ise+ !ermission $rom t"eir $amilies are not legally rig"t sim!ly ecause !ermission is necessary i$ t"e organs elong to "uman eings.

Al Ba5ara" 92::2< says: .,t is /e who created for you all that is in the earthT"is means+ t"at Alla"'s elongings "a4e een created $or t"e sa)e o$ "uman social interest. In t"is regard+ social interest s"ould e re!resented y t"e go4ernmen+ /"o "as t"e duty to ma)e sti!ulations to allo/ "uman eings to use "uman organs in com$ormity /it" t"e guidance o$ medical science and no le c"aracter. To a4oid misunderstanding among t"e $amily o$ t"e li4ing or dead donor+ t"e sti!ulations s"ould include o taining !ermission o$ t"e $amily concerned.

T"roug" sti!ulations issued t"e go4ernment can also determine t"e necessity to gi4e com!ensation to t"e donor. T"e sti!ulations s"ould also e accom!anied y strict regulation and "ea4y sanction against t"e transgressors.

3. AFI*A8 D&F&, T"ere are 3 legal status o$ animals /"ic" are halal animals+ du ious animals and haram animals. T"e use o$ organs $rom halal animals $or medical interest do not create !ro lems as long as t"e animals "a4e een slaug"tered in line /it" Islamic la/. Based on t"e Pro!"et's saying: ,$htilafu ummati rahmah 9t"e disagreement o$ o!inions among umma" is a lessing:+ t"e ulama agree t"at organ o$ du ious animals can e used y man $or trans!lantation !ur!oses. &rgans o$ "aram animals create !ro lems. Traditional inter!retation says haram animals is unla/$ul to consume. But in t"e !rocess o$ organ trans!lantation+ man ne4er consumes !ermissi le. But haram animals also $hilafiah. 2ome ulama !ro"i it !eo!le to treat /it" na+is t"ings+ ut ot"er ulama are in $a4our to use it $or medication. In t"is regard t"e ulama are in t"e same o!inion t"at i$ doctors are con4inced t"at t"e na+is t"ings are t"e only medication a4aila le to cure a disease t"en its use is !ermissi le. ut only uses it and t"is in turn creates elong to na+is t"ings /"ic" create anot"er

$hilafiah. T"e ulama are in t"e o!inion t"at using organs $rom haram animals is

Conclusion It is said y t"e Pro!"et 2.A.?.+ D'llah has not created a disease but also created its medicine to heal it e0cept one i.e. being aged .E 9H,. Bu)"ari:. T"ere$ore+ t"is is t"e main reason /"y t"e to!ic %Islam and &rgan Trans!lant' "as een t"e center o$ our discussion. It is to !ro4e t"at t"ere is no illness in t"is /orld t"at "as no treatment e#cluding deat"+ !ro4ing t"at Alla" is $air in e4ery /ay and to e4eryone. As a conclusion+ it is !ro4en in t"is case study t"at organ trans!lant is %Halal' and su!!orted y 4erses e#tracted $rom t"e @uran and 2unna". &t"er t"an t"at t"ere are also $at/a's gi4en not only y Clama in *alaysia ut also t"ose $rom ot"er countries suc" as Dr. *u"ammad 2ayyid Tanta/i and Dr. .uso$ al6@arada/i ot" $rom Agy!t. Anot"er !oint t"at "as een touc"ed in t"is case study is t"e o/ners"i! o$ organ are in t"e $rame o$ mil$u al-intifa /"ic" regard man as "a4ing t"e rig"ts to use t"eir organs only $or t"emsel4es /"ile t"eir ody elongs to Alla" 2?T. *an "as no rig"t to sell or to lend t"eir organs. 8astly+ t"e t"ird !oint t"at is discussed in t"is researc" is on animals as donors. T"e su 6!oint t"at is stress in t"is !oint is on t"e legal status o$ animal /"et"er it is "aram+ du ious or "alal as a donor. &t"er t"an t"at+ it is also stated a out t"e condition o$ ta)ing an animal as an organ donor. 0or e#am!le+ t"e doctors are con4inced t"at na+is t"ings are t"e only medication a4aila le to cure a disease t"en its use is !ermissi le. Based on t"e t"ree !oints a o4e+ /e can sum u! t"at organ donating and organ trans!lant is a must in order to sa4e t"e li4es o$ "uman eing as it is t"e most im!ortant t"ing t"at Alla" "as gi4en us. It is co"esi4e /it" t"e 4erse $rom t"e

@uran not throw [yourselves# with your [own# hands into destruction [by refraining#.- 92:1<G:+ meaning t"at Alla" "as gi4en us li$e and t"at /e s"ould do e4eryt"ing t"at /e can to !rotect it as long as /"at /e are doing does not go against any Islamic la/.