194 views

Uploaded by naveen5bolisetti

Hierarchical Control Scheme for Compensation of Voltage Harmonics and Unbalance in Islanded Microgrid

- 3 Renewable Powered Microgrid
- EnergyTechnologyPerspectives2016_ExecutiveSummary_EnglishVersion
- Impacts Distrib PV Ws 2011 Task14 Portugal Domingo[1]
- OR218
- Towards Smart Power En
- DER integration and microgrid
- 6412-9175-2-PB
- 10A 4 GIZ17 024 Paper Andreas Falk
- MicroGrid and Energy Storage System
- 1 (11)
- Modelling and Simulation of an Adaptive Differential Current Protection Scheme for a Solar PV Microgrid
- Corrective economic dispatch in a microgrid
- State of the Art in Research on Microgrids
- energies-09-00824
- 2016 FYP Proposals Callaghan (1)
- AVirtual-FluxDecouplingHysteresisCurrent
- 2015-Soares Et Al-Cost Allocation Model for Distribution Networks Considering High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources
- 2.BRP Flowchart
- Sverker900 Rocof an en v01
- Over Investment Causing Higher Electricity Bills-solar energy

You are on page 1of 78

A Thesis Report Submitted to the Andhra University in partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of

By BOLISETTI NAVEEN

(Regd.No:311275727002)

Under the esteemed guidance of

B.MOTHIRAM, M.Tech

Assistant Professor Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering

(AFFILIATED TO ANDHRA UNIVERSITY, VISAKHAPATNAM)(RECOGNISED BY A.I.C.T.E, NEWDELHI) (Accredited by N.B.A., A.I.C.T.E., NEWDELHI)

DECLARATION

This

thesis

entitled OF

HIERARCHICAL

CONTROL AND

SCHEME UNBALANCE

FOR IN

COMPENSATION

VOLTAGE

HARMONICS

ISLANDED MICROGRID has been carried out by me in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of M.E (Power systems & Automation), in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, S.R.K.R. Engineering College, affiliated to Andhra University. I hereby declare that this thesis has not been submitted to any other university/institute for the award of any other degree/diploma.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Words are inadequate to express the overwhelming sense of gratitude and humble regards to my supervisor B.Mothiram, Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering for his constant motivation, support, expert guidance, constant supervision and constructive suggestion for the submission of my progress report of thesis work HIERARCHICAL CONTROL SCHEME FOR COMPENSATION OF VOLTAGE HARMONICS AND UNBALANCE IN ISLANDED MICROGRID ". I highly indebted to Principal Dr. D Ranga Raju for the facilities provided to accomplish this thesis work. I express my gratitude to Prof. B R K Varma, Head of the Department, for his help and support during my study. I am thankful for the opportunity to be a member in S.R.K.R Engineering College of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department. I also thank all the teaching and non-teaching staff for their nice cooperation to the students. I would like to thank all whose direct and indirect support helped me completing my thesis in time. This report would have been impossible if not for the perpetual moral support from my family members, and my friends. I would like to thank them all.

---BOLISETTI NAVEEN

ABSTRACT

In recent years, distributed generators have proliferated in electrical systems. In this regard, the concept of microgrid has been newly proposed. A microgrid is a small local grid which comprises distributed resources and loads and is able to operate in grid-connected and islanded modes. Distributed generators are often interfaced to the electrical system by powerelectronic converters. The main role of the interface converter is to control power injection. In this thesis, the control of distributed generators interface converters in order to improve microgrid power quality is addressed. The proposed control structure is hierarchical control scheme. In the hierarchical scheme, the power quality enhancement is managed by a central controller which sends proper control signals to distributed generators. The control structure consists of primary and secondary levels. The primary control level comprises distributed generators (DGs) local controllers. Each of these controllers mainly consist of power, voltage and current controllers, and virtual impedance control loop. The Central secondary control level is designed to manage the compensation of Sensitive Load Bus voltage unbalance and harmonics by sending proper control signals to the primary level. Two cases of islanded microgrid design procedures are discussed in detail and simulated using Matlab/Simulink software package.

CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS v ix

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview 1.2 Literature Review 1.3 Objective of the thesis 1.4 Organization of the thesis 1 1 2 3

2. MICROGRIDS: STRUCTURE, OPERATION AND CONTROL 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Need for a Microgrid 2.3. Microgrid Structure and Components 2.3.1. Microsource 2.3.2. Power electronic converters 2.3.3. Microgrid Load 2.3.4. Storage Device 2.3.5. Control System 2.3.5.1. Microsource controller 2.3.5.2. Central Controller 2.3.6. Point of Common Coupling 2.4. Microgrid Operation 2.4.1. Grid Connection 2.4.2. Islanded Mode 2.4.3. Transition between Grid and Islanded Mode 2.5. Hierarchy of Microgrid Controls 2.5.1. Primary Control 2.5.2. Secondary Control 2.5.3. Tertiary Control 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 11 11 12 13 14

3. HIERARCHICAL CONTROL STRATEGIES IN MICROGRID 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Primary control 3.2.1 Active load sharing 3.2.2 Droop characteristics techniques 3.2.2.1 Frequency droop 3.2.2.2 Adaptive droop control 3.2.2.3 Virtual frame transformation method 3.2.2.4 Virtual impedance loop 3.2.2.5 Signal injection method 3.2.2.6 Non linear load sharing 3.3 Secondary control 3.4 Tertiary control 15 15 17 18 20 22 23 25 27 29 31 35

4. HIERARCHICAL SCHEME FOR VOLTAGE HARMONICS AND UNBALANCE COMPENSATION 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Primary control level 4.2.1. Voltage and current control loop 4.2.2. Virtual impedance loop 4.2.3. Real-reactive power controller loop 4.2.3. Compensation Effort Controller 4.3. Secondary control level 4.3.1. Voltage Unbalance Compensation 4.3.2. Voltage Harmonic Compensation 36 37 37 38 39 41 43 43 44

5. SIMULATION RESULTS 5.1. Case-1: Presence of linear unbalanced load 5.2. Case-2: Presence of non-linear unbalanced load 45 51

62 63 65 67

LIST OF FIGURES

FIG. No

TITLE

PAGE

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14

Microgrid Structure based on Renewable Energy source Transition b/w grid connection and islanded mode Hierarchical control levels in an microgrid Droop control characteristics Block Diagram of the Primary and Secondary Control Block diagram of tertiary control and synchronization loop PQ control mode with active and reactive power Reference voltage determination for voltage control mode Voltage and current control loops in voltage control mode Conventional droop method Simplified diagram of a converter connected to the microgird Frequency deviations with active power sharing Droop method with virtual power frame transformation. Block diagram of the virtual output impedance method Virtual output impedance with voltage unbalance compensator A typical two-DER system Block diagram of the signal injection method for reactive power sharing Block diagram of the updated signal injection method Control block diagram for the harmonic cancellation technique hth harmonic equivalent circuit of a DER

5 11 11 12 13 14 16 16 17 18 18 22 24 24 25 26 28 29 30 31

3.15 3.16 3.17 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5 5.1.6 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.1. 5.2 5.2.1

Block Diagram of the Secondary and Tertiary Control The potential function-based technique block diagram Voltage unbalance Compensation in the Secondary Control Block Diagram of Primary Controller Fundamental virtual impedance loop Selective Virtual impedance Block diagram of compensation effort controller Block diagram of Secondary Control level for unbalance compensation Block diagram of Secondary Control level for harmonic compensation Test System of Islanded Microgrid with Unbalanced load Matlab/Simulink Model for Islanded microgrid with linear unbalanced load Voltage Waveform of DG1 (Before compensation) Voltage Waveform of DG2 (Before compensation) Voltage Waveform of PCC (Before compensation) Voltage Waveform of DG1 (After compensation) Voltage Waveform of DG2 (After compensation) Voltage Waveform of PCC (After compensation) Phase-a Negative Sequence Voltage Waveform of PCC, DG1 at 0t<2.5 Phase-a Negative Sequence Voltage Waveform of PCC, DG1 at 2.5t<4.0 Voltage Unbalance factor (VUF) of PCC, DG1, DG2 Test System of Islanded Microgrid with Non linear unbalanced load Matlab/Simulink Model for Islanded microgrid with Non linear unbalanced load

32 33 34 37 38 39 42 43 44 45 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 49 49 49 50 51

5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6 5.2.7 5.2.8 5.2.9 5.2.10 5.2.11 5.2.12 5.2.13

Voltage Waveform of Source Bus_1 (SB1) at < 0.2 Voltage Waveform of Source Bus_2 (SB2) at < 0.2 Voltage Waveform of Sensitive Load Bus (SLB) at < 0.2 Harmonic Spectrum Analysis of Sensitive load bus voltage at < 0.2 Fundamental Negative Sequence Current of DG1, DG2 at 0 < 0.2 3rd Harmonic Sequence Currents of DG1, DG2 at 0 < 0.2 DG1 Output current at 0 < 0.2 DG2 Output current at 0 < 0.2 Voltage Waveform of Source Bus_1 (SB1) at . < 0. Voltage Waveform of Source Bus_2 (SB2) at . < 0. Voltage Waveform of Sensitive Load Bus (SLB) at . < 0. Harmonic Spectrum Analysis of Sensitive load bus voltage at . < 0.4

52 52 52 53 53 53 54 54 55 55 55 56

Fundamental Negative Sequence Current of DG1, DG2 at 0.2 < 0.4 3rd Harmonic Sequence Currents of DG1, DG2 at 0.2 < 0.4 DG1 Output current at 0.2 < 0.4 DG2 Output current at 0.2 < 0.4 Voltage Waveform of Source Bus_1 (SB1) at . < 0. Voltage Waveform of Source Bus_2(SB2) at . < 0. Voltage Waveform of Sensitive Load Bus (SLB) at . < 0. Harmonic Spectrum Analysis of Sensitive load bus voltage at . < 0.6

56 56 57 57 58 58 58 59

5.2.22

59

3rd Harmonic Sequence Currents at DG1, DG2 at 0.4 < 0.6 DG1 Output current at 0.4 < 0.6 DG2 Output current at 0.4 < 0.6 Positive sequence real powers of DG1,DG2 Positive sequence reactive powers of DG1,DG2

60 60 60 61 61

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW The increase in power demand is stressing the transmission and generation system capabilities, leading to frequent power outages. The central plants are at best 35% efficient due to transmission and generation losses. The greenhouse gas emissions have risen owing to the less efficient power system. This led to increased research aiming to meet the growing energy demand without adding the transmission system capabilities. The use of distributed generation (wind turbines, CHP plants, PV arrays, etc.,) at the distribution system seems to be a viable solution. But unplanned application of these new distributed generation technologies can bring in more problems than solving them. Therefore, a new peer-to-peer network architecture for distribution system, namely micro-grid was proposed. A micro-grid has on-site power generation and operates as a single controllable unit in parallel to the main grid. Micro-grid can enable easy penetration of renewable energy sources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce the stress on the grid, lower the energy bill, create green jobs, and improve the critical reliability and security of the electric grid. It can also be a part of potential solution for greenhouse gas goals. Micro-grids are almost 85% efficient as they have very less transmission losses. During power outage or disturbance, micro-grids can island themselves and retain power availability, avoiding blackouts and lost productivity. With the power source located on-site, micro-grids are less vulnerable to cyber attacks on the grid since they do not rely on transmission lines and have the security of redundant systems. Micro-grids have the ability to address the worlds energy crisis by reducing the power load on our utility grid; reducing energy security risks and providing clean energy resources that are more reliable and economical. 1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW Many control approaches are proposed to control the DG interface converters aiming to compensate power quality problems. These approaches are designed to enhance voltage

quality at the DG terminal while the power quality at the Sensitive Load Bus (SLB) is an important concern in microgrids.

M. Cirrincione, M. Pucci, and G. Vitale [2] presented a single phase DG which injects harmonic current to compensate voltage harmonics. However, in the case of sever harmonic distortion, a large amount of the interface converter capacity is used for compensation and it may interfere with the power supply by the DG.

T. L. Lee and P. T. Cheng [3] Presented a method for compensation of voltage harmonics in an islanded microgrid. This method is also based on the resistance emulation and applies a harmonic power droop characteristic in order to share the compensation effort among DGs.

P. T. Cheng, C. Chen, T. L. Lee, and S. Y. Kuo [4] presented on controlling each DG unit of a microgrid as a negative sequence conductance to compensate voltage unbalance. The conductance reference is determined by applying a droop characteristic which uses negative sequence reactive power to provide the compensation effort sharing.

Y. Li, D. M. Vilathgamuwa, and P. C. Loh ,[5] presented a control method based on using a two inverter interface converter (one connected in shunt and other in series with the grid) in order to control power flow and also to compensate the voltage unbalance. This two-inverter structure can be unattractive considering the cost and volume of the DG interface converter.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE THESIS Due to the ever-increasing demand for high-quality and reliable electric power, the concept of distributed energy resources has attracted widespread attention in recent years. Distributed energy resources consist of relatively small-scale generation and energy storage devices that are interfaced with low- or medium-voltage distribution networks and can offset the local power consumption, or even export power to the upstream network if their generation surpasses the local consumption. An upcoming philosophy of operation which is

expected to enhance the utilization of distributed energy resources is known as the microgrid concept. A microgrid is referred to as a part of a distribution network embedding multiple distributed energy resources and regional loads, which can be disconnected from the upstream network under emergency conditions or as planned. The main benefits of microgrids are high energy efficiency through the application of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), high quality and reliability of the delivered electric energy, and environmental and economical benefits. The issue of the power quality in microgrids is an important issue due to the presence of an appreciable number of sensitive loads whose performance and life span can be adversely affected by voltage harmonics, and imbalances. In a microgrid, however, most distributed energy resources employ power-electronic converters which can rapidly correct voltage imbalances and harmonics, etc., even in the presence of nonlinear and/or unbalanced loads. In addition, the proximity between generation and consumption can improve the reliability of service to sensitive loads. Reliability is further enhanced by diversification and decentralization of the supply; thus, loss of one unit can be compensated for by the other units. It should be noted that the distributed energy resources of a microgrid must have plugand-play capabilities such that they can be connected to the microgrid with zero or minimum on-site engineering. 1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS

Chapter 1: includes the introduction , literature survey and brief analysis of thesis work. Chapter 2: explains about microgrid structure, operation and control levels Chapter 3: includes the explanation of hierarchical control strategies in microgrid Chapter 4: discusses the hierarchical control scheme of microgrid for compensating voltage harmonics and unbalance Chapter 5: explain all the simulation results and analysis of thesis. The parameters used for simulation are given in Appendix.

CHAPTER 2

2.1 INTRODUCTION A microgrid is a network consisting of distributed generator and storage devices used to supply loads. A distributed generator (DG) in a microgrid is usually a renewable source, such as combined heat and power (CHP), photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine, or small-scale diesel generator. DGs are usually located near the loads, so that line losses in a microgrid are relatively low. A microgrid can work with a host grid connection or in islanded mode. When grid connected, DGs supports the main grid during peak demand. However, if there is a disturbance in the main grid, a microgrid can supply the load without the support of the main grid. Moreover, a microgrid can be reconnected when the fault in the main grid is removed. Furthermore, as in any technology, microgrid technology faces many challenges. Many considerations should be taken into account, such as the control strategies based on of the voltage, current, frequency, power, and network protection.

2.2 NEED FOR A MICROGRID A microgrid is used for many reasons. It is a new paradigm that can meet the increase in the worlds electrical demand. It can also increase energy efficiency and reduce carbon emission, because the DGs commonly use renewable sources or a small-scale back-up diesel generator. By using a microgrid, the critical loads will be ensured to be supplied all the time. Economically, extending the main grid is expensive, so a microgrid can be used to supply the load instead. Moreover, the main grid is supported by DGs; therefore, overall power quality and reliability will improve. Also, by using a microgrid, the main grid generators will supply less power. Having a generator of the main grid that runs with less fossil fuels is beneficial. Another economic reason is that the DGs are located near the load, and thus line losses are kept to a minimum. A microgrid can be used to supply energy to remote areas or in places where the host grid is both inefficient and difficult to install. For example, in some areas, the load demand is so low that the load can be supplied entirely by small-scale DGs. Therefore, a microgrid is the suitable choice for supplying the load demand. Moreover, some areas have harsh geographic features, making the main grid difficult to connect. Using a microgrid is the

best solution to provide power to these areas. In summary, the most important issues that make the microgrid technology important are: Load demand has increased worldwide. Microgrids use renewable sources, so they have less impact on the environment. Extending the main grid is not only costly but also difficult. A microgrid can supply critical loads even if it is disconnected from the main grid.

2.3 MICROGRID STRUCTURE AND COMPONENTS Figure 2.1. shows the structure of a microgrid. The main grid is connected to the microgrid at the point of a common coupling. Each microgrid has a different structure (number of the DGs and types of DGs), depending on the load demand. A microgrid is designed to be able to supply its critical load. Therefore, DGs should insure to be enough to supply the load as if the main grid is disconnected. The microgrid consists of microsources, power electronic converters, distributied storage devices, local loads, and the point of common coupling (PCC). The grid voltage is reduced by using either a transformer or an electronic converter to a medium voltage that is similar to the voltage produced from the DG. The components of the microgrid are as follows.

2.3.1 MICROSOURCE A microsource is a small-scale energy source located near a load. It can be either a dispatchable or a non-dispatchable energy source in a microgrid network. The difference between the dispatchable and non- dispatchable unit is that the dispatchable unit is considered a voltage source because the amount of voltage output can be controlled. In contrast, the non- dispatchable unit is considered a current source, in which the output voltage level cannot be controlled. An example of a non- dispatchable unit is the PV panel. PV ceases to produce energy if there is no sun. However, in a voltage source, the voltage amount can be controlled (i.e., turned on/off) or increased/decreased depending on the voltage required for the microgrid load. The voltage from generators can be controlled by controlling the speed of the generators. Microsources are usually small scale, less than 50 MW. They can be present as renewable source in the device in the form of CHP, solar PV, wind turbine, or fuel cell. Furthermore, the voltage of microsources can be DC or AC, depending on the type of the microsource. For example, PV produces DC voltage, whereas wind produces AC voltage. Therefore, microsources are usually connected to a power electronics converter. One of the advantages of microsources is that line losses are reduced as microsources can be located near the load. In sum, a microsource is part of a microgrid. It can be a dispatchable or a non-dispatchable unit that can a produce DC or AC voltage. It is usually connected to inverters and is located close to the load.

2.3.2 POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS A power electronics converter is a device that is used to regulate and control the DG voltage and frequency. It can operate with power ranging from MW to GW. In a microgrid, power electronic converters are connected to the DGs to convert the voltage output from the DG from one form to another, depending on the type of voltage produced by the DG. For example, if the DG is a PV panel, the voltage produced is in DC form. Therefore, the voltage should be converted from DC to AC to match the voltage type of the microgrid load. Another example is that the voltage produced by wind turbine is AC, but it is not in the desired magnitude and phase. Thus, the voltage should be converted from AC to DC and from DC to AC with acceptable magnitude and phase. The terms inverter and converter should not be used interchangeably. The inverter changes the DC voltage to AC voltage, whereas the

converter changes the magnitude of the AC voltage. Converters can step up or step down the voltage produced by DGs. The power electronics converter also serves as a control device that can be used to control the voltage and frequency of DGs. Therefore, the amount of the voltage and frequency can be produced at a certain value by adjusting the converter.

2.3.3 MICROGRID LOAD The load of the microgrid can be houses, hospitals, banks and malls. This loads can be classified into two types. The first type is called critical load, examples of which are a hospital or a banks computer system. As indicated by the examples, critical load should be supplied with an uninterruptible energy source that has high power quality. The second type is called uncritical load, examples of which are park lights or air conditioners or streetlights. Uncritical loads can be disconnected when there is a shortage of power supply or if the main grid is disconnected. Uncritical loads are usually supplied by a current source, such as PV, or storage devices. Disconnecting the uncritical load is used in many microgrid applications when operating in islanded mode. The loads of a microgrid are usually supplied by both the grid and the microgrid. However, if the grid is disconnected, two issues arise related to microgrid load. The critical load should be ensured to have enough energy from the microsource, and the uncritical load may be disconnected. After the main grid is reconnected (after the disturbance has been removed), the uncritical load can be supplied by both the grid and microgrid, depending on the microgrid operation policy.

2.3.4 STORAGE DEVICES Storage energy devices store energy when there is excess energy. However, they work as generators when there is a power shortage in the network. Thus, they work as backup energy sources. Storage energy devices are commonly used when renewable energy sources are used in the microgrid, as some applications of renewable energy devices can stop producing energy in some circumstances ( for example, wind turbines require wind to produce electrical power). Furthermore, storage energy devices come in different types, such as battery, flywheel, and ultra capacitor. Each type of energy storage device is different from each other in its properties and its type of voltage output. For example, a battery produces a DC voltage, whereas a flywheel produces an AC voltage. The time response is different from

one type of storage device to another. For example, the response of a flywheel is faster than that of a battery. Therefore, including storage devices in the microgrid depends on how important the storage devices are to the microgrid. Some microgrids are designed to have storage devices that serve as a very important component in the microgrid. Another microgrids, may be is designed to disconnect uncritical load instead. In some applications, the storage devices are included in the microgrid if the load of the microgrid will increase in future. The disadvantages of the storage device are that storage energy devices are expensive, and they can only sometimes buck-up for short period of time (such as seconds or minutes, but not hours).

2.3.5 CONTROL SYSTEM The control system is an important component of the microgrid operation because it ensures that the system works correctly. For example, if it is working optimally, the carbon emission will be reduced as generators will run with less fossil fuels. Moreover, the transfer from one mode to other is conducted safely. A microgrid commonly requires a microsource controller (MC) and a central controller (CC). Each type of control system is discussed in the following subsections .

2.3.5.1 MICROSOURCE CONTROLLER (MC) Using the MC is considered the first step in microgrid control. The MC has the benefit of using the power electronics devices built into the DG sources. It uses local information about the microgrid status and functions depending on the microgrid status. The MC controls the voltage and frequency of the microgrid. This control enables the DGs to maintain their power output if the load changes or switches to the islanded mode or reconnect to the main grid. Therefore, DGs respond according to the system changes. One of the advantages of the MC is that it responds quickly to any disturbance or load change. Moreover, using this type of controller does not require communication between the DGs. The MC control strategy uses the P-F and Q-V control methods, which are the droop control methods. The MC usually acts as the primary control, which will be discussed in detail later.

2.3.5.2 CENTRAL CONTROLLER (CC) The CC is used in the microgrid to ensure its safe overall operation control. It requires communication between the DGs. It is used to reset the voltage and frequency set points for the entire MC. The new set points of the voltage and frequency are sent from the CC to the MCs to ensure that the operation of the microgrid is performed optimally. Moreover, the CC is used to update the set points of the voltage and frequency when the host grid is disconnected from the microgrid. It updates the new set points when the main grid is reconnected to the microgrid after the disturbance is removed. The CC acts as a secondary controller respond more slowly than the MCs. The key functions of the CC are to provide the individual power and voltage set points for each DG controller, to minimize emissions and system losses, to maximize the operational efficiency of the microsources, and to provide logic and control for islanding and reconnecting the MG during events.

2.3.6 POINT OF COMMON COUPLING PCC The PCC acts as a switch between the main grid and the microgrid. This component is important for the microgrid because it protects the microgrid from the main grid during a disturbance on the main grid. If there is a fault in the main grid, the switch opens to isolate the microgrid from the main grid. When the fault is cleared, the switch closes to reconnect the microgrid to the main grid. The PCC isolates the main grid from the microgrid if the main grid experiences disturbances, such as poor voltage quality, voltage sag, voltage or frequency of the main grid not being within the acceptable limits, and increases in current due to a fault.

2.4 MICROGRID OPERATION A microgrid being a plug and play power unit does have different operational modes. More specifically, a microgrid that is an integral part of a bulk grid system can only have the following modes of operation:

2.4.1 GRID CONNECTION MODE The grid connection mode is the normal operation status of the microgrid. In this mode, the load is supplied by both the grid and the microgrid. The voltage of the grid is determined by the PCC. The voltage of the grid should be in the same phase as the voltage

generated by the DG. Therefore, in the grid connection mode, the voltage and frequency of the DG are controlled by the grid voltage and frequency.

2.4.2 ISLANDED MODE When the grid experiences a fault or disturbance, the main grid is disconnected from the microgrid by the PCC switch. In this situation, the microgrid loads are supplied only by the DGs. Thus, the voltage amplitude and frequency are regulated by the DGs, and the DGs are responsible for the stability of the system by providing nominal voltage and frequency for the microgrid. In islanded mode, three important aspects should be dealt with care.

First, the voltage and frequency must operate within the acceptable limits. Voltage and frequency management: The primary purpose is to balance the system against losses and system disturbances so that the desired frequency and power interchange is maintained. that is why, voltage and frequency inner loops must be adjusted and regulated as reference within acceptable limits

Second, there must be a balance between the supply and demand, as the frequency will change at the islanded mode, which in turn will change the supply of real power. Supply and demand balancing: when the system is importing from the grid before islanding, the resulting frequency is smaller than the main frequency, been possible that one of the units reaches maximum power in autonomous operation. Besides, the droop characteristic slope tries to switch in vertical as soon as the maximum power limit has been reached and the operating point moves downward vertically as load increases. In the opposite case, when the unit is exporting and the new frequency is larger than nominal.

Third, DGs should provide excellent power quality. Power quality: power quality must synthesize quality of supply and quality of consumption using sustainable development as transporting of renewable energy, embedded generation, using high requirements on quality and reliability by industrial, commercial and domestic loads/costumers avoiding variations as harmonic distortion or sudden events as interruptions or even voltage dips.

After the primary control is applied in islanded mode, a small deviation in the voltage and frequency can be observed in the microgrid. This deviation must be removed to ensure the full and stable operation of the microgrid in islanded mode.

2.4.3 TRANSITION BETWEEN GRID CONNECTION AND ISLANDED MODE The third type of operation mode of a microgrid is the transition between grid connection and islanded mode. The transition operation of a microgrid is the time between the microgrid disconnection from the grid and the reconnection to the grid. In this situation, the voltage amplitude and frequency should be controlled to be within the acceptable limits to ensure the safe transition from one mode to another. At this stage, the static switch adjusts the power reference to the desired value. The voltage and frequency can be measured inside the microgrid. The maximum value allowed for the change in voltage and frequency is 2% for frequency and 5% of the voltage amplitude.

2.5. HIERARCHY OF MICROGRID CONTROLS Microgrids have three levels of control: primary control, secondary control, and tertiary control. Microgrids should operate with these controls to ensure stable operation. This section expounds on the primary and secondary controls for islanded mode only.

2.5.1 PRIMARY CONTROL Primary control is considered the first level of the microgrid control. This control strategy is implemented in each DG. This strategy is conducted using the P/Q control method. In the P/Q control strategy, real power is controlled by the frequency, and reactive power is controlled by the voltage. This strategy is expressed in the following equations:

( )sin ( ) cos 2

= =

(2.1) (2.2)

The droop method is used for primary control and for controlling the microsources themselves. Moreover, as previously mentioned, this type of control does not require intersource communication. The main aim of primary control is to control the voltage and frequency of the microsources. It ensures that each DG generates within the acceptable limit of the voltage and frequency by controlling the real and reactive power of the microsources.

As shown in Figure 2.4, when the frequency increases, real power decreases, and vice versa. Moreover, when the voltage increases, reactive power decreases, and vice versa. When islanded mode occurs, both frequency and voltage immediately decrease. Hence, the microsource should be adjusted to deliver enough real and reactive power to the critical loads. The following equation introduces the control equation for the droop method:

= + ( ) = ( )

(2.3) (2.4)

where and E are the amplitude frequency and voltage output, respectively, and *, E*, P*, and Q* are the frequency, voltage, real power, and reactive power references, respectively. m and n are the slopes of the equations. The reference of the real and reactive power is usually set to zero. The voltage magnitude and frequency delivered by DGs can be adjusted using these equations.

2.5.2 SECONDARY CONTROL The secondary control is the second level of the hierarchy of microgrid controls. Its main aims are to provide high power quality to the microgrid and to reduce the long-term voltage and frequency deviations. As the primary control produces a voltage and frequency deviation, this deviation should be removed or reduced to ensure the stable operation of the microgrid. This deviation can be removed by readjusting the set points of the microgrid voltage and frequency. Thus, the secondary control ensures the safe operation of the microgrid by providing appropriate set points according to the microgrid status. The secondary control can be carried out by building a controller that compares the set point with the point produced by the DG. After the comparison, the controller sends the nominal value back to the DG to make sure that voltage and frequency produced have nominal values. Moreover, note that the secondary control is carried out after the primary control reaches its steady state. Otherwise, a coupling between the primary and secondary controls occurs.

2.5.3 TERTIARY CONTROL In the third control hierarchy, the adjustment of the inverters references connected to the Microgrid and even of the generators maximum power point trackers is performed, so that the energy flows are optimized. The set points of the Microgrid inverters can be adjusted, in order to control the power flow, in global (the Microgrid imports/exports energy) or local terms (hierarchy of spending energy). Normally, power flow depends on economic issues. Economic data must be processed and used to make decisions in the Microgrid. Each controller must respond autonomously to the system changes without requiring load data, the IBS or other sources. Thus, the controller uses a power and voltage feedback control based on the real-time measured values of both P, Q, frequency and ac voltage to generate the desired voltage amplitude and phase angle by means of the droop control.

CHAPTER 3

3.1 INTRODUCTION Conventional electric power systems are facing continuous and rapid changes to alleviate environmental concerns, address governmental incentives, and respond to the consumer demands. The notion of the smart grid has recently emerged to introduce an intelligent electric network. Improved reliability and sustainability are among desired characteristics of smart grid affecting the distribution level. These attributes are mainly realized through microgrids which facilitate the effective integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Microgrids can operate in both grid-connected and islanded operating modes. Proper control of microgrid is a prerequisite for stable and economically efficient operation. The principal roles of the microgrid control structure are: Voltage and frequency regulation for both operating modes; Proper load sharing and DER coordination; Microgrid resynchronization with the main grid; Power flow control between the microgrid and the main grid; Optimizing the microgrid operating cost . These requirements are different significances and time scales, thus requiring a hierarchical control structure to address each requirement at a different control hierarchy.

3.2 PRIMARY CONTROL The primary control is designed to satisfy the following requirements To stabilize the voltage and frequency. Subsequent to an islanding event, the microgrid may lose its voltage and frequency stability due to the mismatch between the power generated and consumed. To offer plug and play capability for DERs and properly share the active and reactive power among them, preferably, without any communication links. To mitigate circulating currents that can cause over-current phenomenon in the power electronic devices and damage the DC-link capacitor.

The primary control provides the reference points for the voltage and current control loops of DERs. These inner control loops are commonly referred to as zero-level control. The zero level control is generally implemented in either PQ or voltage control modes

In the PQ control mode, the DER active and reactive power delivery is regulated on the pre-determined reference points, as shown in Fig.3.1. The control strategy is implemented with a current- controlled voltage source converter (VSC). In Fig.3.1, 1 controller regulates the DC-link voltage and the active power through adjusting the magnitude of the output active current of the converter . 2 controller regulates the output reactive power by adjusting the magnitude of the output reactive current, i.e,.

In the voltage control mode, the DER operates as a voltage controlled VSC where the

reference voltage, 0 , is determined by the primary control, conventionally via droop

characteristics as shown in Fig. 3.2. The nested voltage and frequency control loops in the voltage control mode are shown in Fig. 3.3. This controller feeds the current signal as a feedforward term via a transfer function (e.g., virtual impedance). To fine-tune the transient response, proportional-integral-derivative (PID), adaptive, and proportional resonant controllers are proposed for the voltage controller.

Power quality of small-scale islanded systems is of particular importance due to the presence of nonlinear and single-phase loads and the low inertia of the microgrid. To improve the power quality for a set of energy sources connected to a common bus, the control structure shown in Fig. 3.4 is used. In this figure, () denotes the transfer function of a low-pass filter. Each converter has an independent current control loop, and a central voltage control loop that is adopted to distribute the fundamental component of the active and reactive powers among different sources. The reference point for the voltage control loop is determined by the primary control. The individual current controllers ensure power quality by controlling the harmonic contents of the supplied currents to the common AC bus The DERs control modes are usually implemented using the active load sharing and droop characteristic techniques

3.2.1 ACTIVE LOAD SHARING The active load sharing is a communication-based method used in parallel configuration of converters. Current or active/ reactive power reference point is determined through different approaches such as centralized, master-slave, average load sharing and

circular chain control methods. In a centralized control method, the overall load current is evenly distributed among the sources by assigning the same current set points for all converters. In the master-slave control, the master converter operates as a VSC and regulates the output voltage while the slave converters behave as individual current source converters that follow the current pattern of the master converter. In the average load sharing control, the current reference for individual converters is continuously updated as the weighted average current of all converters (but not the load current). In the circular chain control, converter modules are considered to be connected like links of a chain, and the current reference for each converter is determined by that of the previous converter. The active load sharing method requires communication links and high bandwidth control loops. However, it offers precise current sharing and high power quality.

3.2.2. DROOP CHARACTERISTIC TECHNIQUES The droop control method has been referred to as the independent, autonomous, and wireless control due to elimination of intercommunication links between the converters. The conventional active power control (frequency droop characteristic) and reactive power control (voltage droop characteristic), those illustrated in Fig. 3.4, are used for voltage mode control.

Principles of the conventional droop methods can be explained by considering an equivalent circuit of a VSC connected to an AC bus, as shown in Fig. 3.5. If switching ripples and high frequency harmonics are neglected, the VSC can be modeled as an AC source, with the voltage of . In addition, assume that the common AC bus voltage 0 is and the converter output impedance and the line impedance are lumped as a single effective line impedance of . The complex power delivered to the common AC bus is calculated as S = P + jQ = VI Where,

(3.1)

= (( ) )

Putting (2) in (1),

(3.2)

( )

(3.3)

Applying Eulers formula on equation (3.3) and equating it to (3.1), results in the following equations for active and reactive power:

2 2 sin

= =

cos ( ) sin ( )

(3.4) (3.5)

Where Z=R+jX and = 90. Considering small line length the phase angle separation is taken as a small value. Hence, sin = and cos = 1. With X>>R, (3.4) and (3.5) can be written as

sin X X 2

= =

(3.6)

cos

(3.7)

Therefore, from (3.6) and (3.7) it can be concluded that active power (P) can be varied by changing the angle and the reactive power can be controlled by changing the voltage E. This results in the decoupling of the active and reactive power and hence they can be controlled separately. In an islanded microgrid due to the lack of communication channel each of the DGs are not aware of the phase angle information of other DGs. Therefore, frequency droop is used as the conventional method for load sharing.

3.2.2.1Frequency droop: As frequency can be represented as change of the angle (d /dt), the active power (P) can be controlled by controlling the frequency and the reactive power (Q) by varying the voltage (E) as per (3.6) and (3.7) Therefore the conventional frequency voltage droop characteristics can be expressed as:

= 0 = 0

(3.8) (3.9)

where P and Q are the average values calculated from instantaneous active and reactive power. 0 and E0 are the rated frequency and voltage output of the DG unit, with m and n as the frequency droop co-efficient and voltage droop co-efficient respectively. The average active and reactive powers are calculated by deploying a low pass filter (LPF). The LPF with a reduced bandwidth results in a slow dynamic response of the system. Also, the droop control is limited by the maximum allowed limit of the deviation of the frequency (2%) and the voltage (5%). Therefore, the conventional droop method is modified in order to improve the dynamic response and also to maintain the frequency within its safe limits. In case of reactive power, the average value is obtained by delaying the output current and voltage by 90 before passing through the LPF. PD control is applied over the output of the LPF, which improves the dynamics of the system . The modified voltage amplitude can be expressed as:

= 0

PID controller on the output of the LPF. The modified expression can be rewritten as:

(3.11)

In both the equation (3.10) and (3.11) m and n are used to fix the steady state droop characteristics, whereas nd (derivative coefficient for reactive power), mp and md (proportional and derivative coefficients respectively for active power) takes care of the stability and the transient response of the system. Control of the steady state frequency deviation can also be achieved by only applying a PD control action on the non-dc component of the active power , which is obtained by passing the average active power (obtained using LPF) through a high pass filter (HPF). As per the modified frequency droop can be expressed as:

=

load transients.

(3.12)

This method can guarantee the steady state frequency regulation along with power balance at

Now, considering a system having multiple DGs , the conventional equation in (3.8) is equated in order to establish a condition of constant frequency throughout the system:

0 = 0

where, i and j represents the ith and jth DG unit.

(3.13)

The slope m is increased to m = m+m, which will lead to the increase of or decrease of P. This can be further explained by Figure

In Figure 3.6 mi,j>mi,j which results in p< p Therefore it can be concluded that on increasing the droop coefficients increases the accuracy of load sharing, i.e. the difference in the power shared (p) by the DGs decreases (similarly for voltage droop). But it comes at the cost of increase in the frequency (w< w ), which makes it difficult to keep the frequency within its allowed limits; hence it results in system instability.

3.2.2.2 Adaptive Droop Control: In this approach an Adaptive droop control has been implemented, which is capable of changing the gain value with the change in load demand and the DG supply. This control action is based on equation (3.17), which deals with the change in power supplied by the DG and the change in load demand, with the objective to keep the system frequency () within its safe limit. Therefore, a high value of droop coefficient is selected when the power supplied by DG goes below the rated power (P0), whereas a low droop gain results in faster steady state where the load power demand is high. This method uses a threshold active (Pithres) and reactive power (Qithres), which are load dependent, in order to compare with the active (Pi) and reactive (Qi) power outputs of the ith DG unit to set the value of the droop coefficient. The logic can be stated as follows: When And

This method damps oscillations and helps to reach steady state faster. However, this method degrades the accuracy of load sharing among the DGs.

Line characteristics: The droop characteristics discussed above greatly depends upon on the network characteristics and the load type. The conventional droop equations (3.8)-(3.9) are derived based on the equations (3.6) and (3.7), which assumed the network to be highly inductive i.e. a high X/R ratio. Now, considering resistive impedance (low X/R), Z in the

(3.4) and (3.5) is replaced by R and with zero. Therefore the modified (3.4) & (3.5) can be written as:

2 2

= =

co s sin

(3.14) (3.15)

Similar to (3.4) and (3.5): sin = and cos = 1 for small value of . Therefore the droop equations of (3.8) and (3.9) can be modified as

= 0 + = 0

(3.16) (3.17)

In a fully resistive microgrid it is not possible to decouple the active and reactive powers and hence making it difficult to implement a control strategy as both the active and reactive powers are affected by a change in frequency/phase angle or voltage. However, while applying the conventional droop method the output impedance of the inverters (also the line impedance) was considered predominantly inductive. But, the inverter output impedance also depends upon the control strategy implemented and its system parameters. This results in a mismatch of the output inductance of the different DGs used. This mismatch can result in the following two consequences: (i) Error in reactive power sharing. (ii) Circulating current due to the difference in voltages In a low voltage microgrid, having resistive line impedance, virtual inductance (Lv1, Lv2) can be used in order to decouple the active power from the reactive power.

3.2.2.3.Virtual Frame Transformation Method: An orthogonal linear transformation matrix, , is used to transfer the active/ reactive powers to a new reference frame where the powers are independent of the effective line impedance . For the system shown in Fig. 3.7, is defined as

1 = = 1

(3.18)

The transformed active and reactive powers, and 1 , 1 are then used in droop characteristics in (4). The block diagram of this technique is shown in Fig. 3.7 Similarly, a virtual frequency/voltage frame transformation is defined as

1 = = 1

(3.19)

Where and are calculated through the conventional droop equations in (4). The transformed voltage and frequency, 1 and 1 , are then used as reference values for the VSC voltage control loop

The virtual frame transformation method decouples the active and reactive power controls. However, the applied transformation requires a prior knowledge of the effective line impedance. Moreover, the control method does not consider possible negative impacts of nonlinear loads, does not ensure a regulated voltage, and comprises a basic tradeoff between the control loop time constant adjustment and voltage/frequency regulation.

3.2.2.4.Virtual Output Impedance: An intermediate control loop can be adopted to adjust the output impedance of the VSCs. In this control loop, as depicted in Fig. 3.8, the VSC output voltage reference, , is proportionally drooped with respect to the output current, 0 , i.e.,

= 0 ()0

(3.20)

Where () is the virtual output impedance, and 0 is the output voltage reference

that is obtained by the conventional droop techniques in (4). If = . is considered, a virtual output inductance is emulated for the VSC. In this case, the output voltage reference of the VSC is drooped proportional to the derivative of its output current. In the presence of nonlinear loads, the harmonic currents can be properly shared by modifying (3.20) as

= 0

(3.21)

Where is the hth current harmonic, and is the inductance associated with . values need to be precisely set to effectively share the current harmonics. Since the output impedance of the VSC is frequency dependent, in the presence of nonlinear loads, THD of the output voltage would be relatively high. This can be mitigated by using a highpass filter instead of in

= 0 + 0

(3.22)

If the virtual impedance, , is properly adjusted, it can prevent occurrence of current spikes when the DER is initially connected to the microgrid. This soft starting can be facilitated by considering a time-variant virtual output impedance as

= ( )

respectively. T is the time constant of the start up process

(3.23)

Where and are the initial and final values of the virtual output impedance,

Most recently, the virtual output impedance method has been modified for voltage unbalance compensation, caused by the presence of unbalanced loads in the microgrid. The block diagram of the modified virtual output impedance method is shown in Fig. 3.9. As can be seen, the measured DER output voltage and current are fed into the positive and negative

+ + sequence calculator (PNSC). Outputs of the PNSC 0 0 , 0 , and 0 , are used to find the

positive and negative sequence of the DER active and reactive power. The negative sequence

of the reactive power, , is multiplied by the 0 and then a constant gain, . The result is

then used to find the voltage reference. The constant gain needs to be fine-tuned to minimize the voltage unbalance without compromising the closed-loop stability.

The virtual output impedance method alleviates the dependency of the droop techniques on system parameters. Additionally, this control method properly operates in the presence of nonlinear loads. However, this method does not guarantee the voltage regulation, and, adjusting the closed loop time constant may result in an undesired deviation in the DER voltage and frequency.

3.2.5.Signal Injection Method: In this approach, each DER injects a small AC voltage signal to the microgrid. Frequency of this control signal, is determined by the output reactive power Q, of the corresponding DER as

= 0 +

(3.24)

where 0 is the nominal angular frequency of injected voltage signals and is the boost coefficient. The small real power transmitted through the signal injection is then calculated and the RMS value of the output voltage of the DER, E, is accordingly adjusted as

(3.25)

where is the RMS value of the no-load voltage of the DER, and is the droop coefficient. This procedure is repeated until all VSCs produce the same frequency for the control signal. Here, this technique is elaborated for a system of two DERs shown in Fig. 3.10. It is assumed that is the same for both DERs. Initially, first and second DERs inject low voltage signals to the system with the following frequencies

1 = 0 + 1 2 = 0 + 2 Assuming 1 > 2 = 1 2 = 1 2 =

(3.26) (3.27)

(3.28)

The phase difference between the two voltage signals can be obtained as

(3.29)

Due to the phase difference between the DERs, a small amount of active power flows from one to the other. Assuming inductive output impedances for DERs, the transmitted active power from DER1 to DER2, 1 , is

1 + 2 1 + 2 +1 +2

1 =

(3.30)

where 1 and 2 are the RMS values of the injected voltage signals. Moreover, the transmitted active power in reverse direction, from DER2 to DER1 2 , is

2 = 1

The DER voltages are adjusted as

= 1 = 2

(3.31) (3.32)

Herein, it is assumed that is the same for both DERs. The difference between the DERs output voltages is = 1 2 = 2 1 The block diagram of the proposed controller is shown in below

(3.33)

Figure.3.11. Block diagram of the signal injection method for reactive power sharing

In the presence of nonlinear loads, parallel DERs can be controlled to participate in supplying current harmonics by properly adjusting the voltage loop bandwidth. For that, first frequency of the injected voltage is drooped based on the total distortion power, D. = 0 = 2 2 2

(3.34) (3.35)

where 0 is the nominal angular frequency of the injected voltage signals, m is the droop coefficient, and S is DER apparent power. A procedure similar to (39) (42) is adopted to calculate the power transmitted by the injected signal, . The bandwidth of VSC voltage loop is adjusted as = 0 The block diagram of the signal injection method is shown in Fig. 3.12. (3.36)

Where 0 is the nominal bandwidth of the voltage loop and is the droop coefficient.

Signal injection method properly controls the reactive power sharing, and is not sensitive to variations in the line impedances. It also works for linear and nonlinear loads, and over various operating conditions. However, it does not guarantee the voltage regulation. 3.2.2.6.Nonlinear Load Sharing: Some have challenged the functionality of droop techniques in the presence of nonlinear loads. Two approaches for resolving this issue are discussed here. In the first approach, the DERs equally share the linear and nonlinear loads. For this purpose, each harmonic of the load current, , is sensed to calculate the corresponding voltage droop harmonic, , at the output terminal of the DER. The voltage harmonics are compensated by adding 90 leading signals, corresponding to each current harmonic, to the DER voltage reference. Therefore, the real and imaginary parts of the voltage droop associated with each current harmonic are = ( ) = ( ) (3.37) (3.38)

where is the droop coefficient for the hth harmonic. As a result, the output voltage THD is significantly improved.

In the second approach, the conventional droop method is modified to compensate for the harmonics of the DER output voltage. These voltage harmonics are caused by the distorted voltage drop across the VSC output impedance and are due to the distorted nature of the load current. As shown in Fig. 3.13, first, the DER output voltage and current are used to calculate the fundamental term and harmonics of the DER output active and reactive power (1 , 1 ) and ( , ) respectively. It is noteworthy that distorted voltage and current usually do not carry even harmonics, and thus, h is usually an odd number 1 and 1 , are fed

to the conventional droop characteristics to calculate the fundamental term, 0 , of the VSC

voltage reference, . As shown in Fig. 3.13, to cancel out the output voltage harmonics, a set of droop characteristics are considered for each individual harmonic. Each set of droop characteristics determines an additional term to be included in the VSC output voltage reference, , to cancel the corresponding voltage harmonic. Each current harmonic is considered as a constant current source, as shown in Fig.3.14. In this figure, h denotes a

phasor for the corresponding voltage signal that is included in the voltage reference . h represents the VSC output impedance associated with the h th current harmonic.

Figure.3.14. h th harmonic equivalent circuit of a DER. The active and reactive powers delivered to the harmonic current source, and are

= cos 2 = sin 2

(3.39) (3.40)

When is small enough (i.e., sin ( ) = and are roughly proportional to and

, respectively. Therefore, the following droop characteristics can be used to eliminate the

hth DER output voltage harmonic.

= =

(3.41) (3.42)

where is the rated fundamental frequency of the microgrid. and are the droop coefficients. As can be seen in Fig.3.13, the harmonic reference voltage , for eliminating

the hth output voltage harmonic, can be formed with and the phase angle generated from the integration of . 3.3 SECONDARY CONTROL Primary control, as discussed, may cause frequency deviation even in steady state. Although the storage devices can compensate for this deviation, they are unable to provide the power for load-frequency control in long terms due to their short energy capacity. The secondary control, as a centralized controller, restores the microgrid voltage and frequency and compensate for the deviations caused by the primary control. This control

hierarchy is designed to have slower dynamics response than that of the primary, which justifies the decoupled dynamics of the primary and the secondary control loops and facilitates their individual designs.

Figure.3.15. Block Diagram of the Secondary and Tertiary Control Figure 3.15 represents the block diagram of the secondary control. As seen in this figure, frequency of the microgrid and the terminal voltage of a given DER are compared with the corresponding reference values, and , respectively. Then, the error signals are processed by individual controllers as in (4.14); the resulting signals ( and ) are sent to the primary controller of the DER to compensate for the frequency and voltage deviations

= + ( ) + = + ( )

(3.43) (3.44)

Where , , ,and are the controllers parameters. An additional term, , is considered in frequency controller in (3.43&3.44) to facilitate synchronization of the microgird to the main gird. In the islanded operating mode, this additional term is zero.

However, during the synchronization, a PLL module is required to measure . During the grid-tied operation, voltage and frequency of the main grid are considered as the references in (3.43). Most recently, potential function-based optimization technique has been suggested for the secondary control. In this method, a potential function is considered for each DER. This function is a scalar cost function that carries all the information on the DER measurements, constraints, and control objectives as

=1

=1

+ ( )

(3.45)

Where is the potential function related to each DER, and comprises the measurements from the DER unit (e.g., voltage, current, real and reactive power). denotes the partial potential functions that reflect the measurement information of the DER. denotes the operation constraints that ensure the stable operation of microgrid. is used to mitigate the DER measurements from the pre-defined set points. , and are the weighted factors for the partial potential functions.

The block diagram of the potential function-based technique is shown in Fig.3.16. In this technique, when the potential functions approach their minimum values, the microgrid is about to operate at the desired states. Therefore, inside the optimizer in Fig.3.16, set points of the DER are determined such that to minimize the potential functions, and thus, to meet the microgrid control objectives.

The potential function-based technique requires bidirectional communication infrastructure to facilitate data exchange from the DER to the optimizer (measurements) and vice versa (calculated set points). The data transfer links add propagation delays to the control signals. This propagation delay is tolerable, since the secondary controllers are slower than the primary ones. The secondary control can also be designed to satisfy the power quality requirements, e.g., voltage balancing at critical buses. Block diagram of the voltage unbalance compensator is shown in Fig.3.17. First, the critical bus voltage is transformed to the dq reference frame. Once the positive and negative sequence voltages for both d and q axis are calculated, one can find the voltage unbalance factor (VUF) as

2 2

+ + +

2 2

(3.46)

+ where and are the positive and negative sequence voltages of the direct component, and + and are the positive and negative sequence voltages of the quadrature component,

respectively.

Figure.3.17. Voltage unbalance Compensation in the Secondary Control In Fig.3.17, the calculated VUF is compared with the reference value VUF *, and the difference is fed to a PI controller. The controller output is multiplied by the negative

sequence of the direct and quadrature voltage components, and , and the results are

added to the references of DER voltage controllers to compensate for the voltage unbalance.

3.4 TERTIARY CONTROL Tertiary control is the last (and the slowest) control level that considers the economical concerns in the optimal operation of the microgrid, and manages the power flow between microgrid and main grid . In the grid-tied mode, the power flow between microgrid and main grid can be managed by adjusting the amplitude and frequency of DERs voltages. The block diagram of this process is shown in Fig.3.15. First, active and reactive output powers of the microgrid, and , are measured. These quantities are then compared with the corresponding reference values, references, and based on

and

= =

+ (

) )

(3.47) (3.48)

+ (

Where , , and are the controllers parameters. and are further used as the reference values to the secondary control.

CHAPTER 4

4.1. INTRODUCTION Power Quality is a key issue in microgrids and common problems are voltage unbalance and harmonics. Unbalanced voltages can result in adverse effects on equipment and power system. Under unbalanced conditions, the power system will incur more losses and be less stable. In addition, voltage unbalance has some negative impacts on equipment such as induction motors, power electronic converters, and adjustable speed drives (ASDs). Thus, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) recommends the limit of 2% for voltage unbalance in electrical systems. One major cause of voltage unbalance is the connection of unbalanced loads (mainly, single-phase loads connection between two phases or between one phase and the neutral). Due to increasing of different non linear loads in electrical systems resulted in the voltage harmonic distortion. This distortion can cause variety of problems such as protective relays malfunction, overheating of motors and transformers and failure of power factor correction capacitors. To mitigate these problems, a hierarchical control scheme is proposed for enhancement of sensitive load bus voltage quality in microgrids. The control structure consists of primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The primary control level comprises distributed generators (DGs) local controllers. The local controllers mainly consist of power, voltage and current controllers, and a selective virtual impedance loop which is considered to improve sharing of fundamental and harmonic components of load current among the DG units. The sharing improvement is provided at the expense of increasing voltage unbalance and harmonic distortion. Thus, the secondary control level is applied to manage the compensation of SLB voltage unbalance and harmonics by sending proper control signals to the primary level. DGs compensation efforts are controlled locally at the primary level. The tertiary control manages the power flow between microgrid and main grid. In the grid-tied mode, the power flow between microgrid and main grid can be managed by adjusting the amplitude and frequency of DGs voltage.

4.2. PRIMARY CONTROL LEVEL The control of the DG inverter is based on three control loops : 1) the inner voltage and current control loops; 2) the intermediate virtual impedance loop; and 3) the outer active and reactive-power-sharing loops.

4.2.1. VOLTAGE AND CURRENT CONTROL LOOPS Due to the difficulties of using PI controllers to track non-dc variables, proportionalresonant (PR) controllers are usually preferred to control the voltage and current in the stationary reference frame

2 . . 2 2 +2 .+ 0 2 . . 2 2 +2 .+ 0

= + = +

(4.1) (4.2)

where, ( ) and ( ) are the proportional and resonant coefficients of the voltage (current) controller, respectively. Also, and represent the voltage and current controller cut-off frequencies, respectively.

2 . . =1,3,5,7 2 +2 . +( )2 0

= +

(4.3)

= +

2 . . =1,3,5,7 2 +2 .+( )2 0

(4.4)

where ( ) and ( ) are the proportional and Kth harmonic (including fundamental component as the first harmonic) resonant coefficients of the voltage (current) controller, respectively. and frequencies, respectively. represent voltage and current controllers cut-off

4.2.2. VIRTUAL IMPEDANCE LOOP The accuracy of the power sharing provided by the droop controllers is affected by the output impedance of the DG units and the line impedances. The virtual impedance is a fast control loop that can fix the phase and magnitude of the output impedance. Moreover, the effect of asymmetrical line impedances can be mitigated by proper design of the virtual impedance loop Addition of the virtual resistance makes the oscillations of the system more damped. In contrast with physical resistance, the virtual resistance has no power losses, and it is possible to implement it without decreasing the efficiency. Also, the virtual inductance is considered to ensure the decoupling of and . Thus, virtual impedance makes the droop controllers more stable. The virtual impedance can be achieved as shown in Fig. 4.2, where and are the virtual resistance and inductance, respectively. According to this figure, the following equations are extracted:

+ + = . 0 . . 0 + + = . 0 + . . 0

(4.5) (4.6)

Virtual impedance can improve the sharing of nonlinear (harmonic) load among parallel converters. Hence, the basic structure is extended by including virtual resistances for

1 the fundamental negative sequence and the main harmonic components ( ,h=3,5 and

7) of the DG output current in order to improve the sharing of these current components.

Figure.4.3.Selective Virtual impedance The sharing improvement is achieved at the expense of distorting DGs output voltage as a result of voltage drop on the virtual resistances. Thus, for selection of virtual resistance values, a trade-off should be considered between the amount of output voltage distortion and sharing accuracy.

4.2.3. REAL & REACTIVE POWER CONTROLLER LOOP Considering a DG connected to the grid through the impedance, the active and reactive powers injected to the grid by the DG can be expressed as follows

= =

cos cos

2 2

sin . sin .

(4.7) (4.8)

where is the magnitude of the inverter output voltage, is the grid voltage magnitude, is the load angle (the angle between E and V ), and Z and are the magnitude and the phase angle of the impedance, respectively. Considering phase angle of the grid voltage to be zero, will be equal to phase angle of the inverter voltage. Assuming mainly inductive electrical systems (Z and 90 ), the active and reactive powers can be expressed as the following equations:

sin cos 2

(4.8) (4.9)

In practical applications, is normally small; thus, a decoupling approximation ( = 1 and = ) can be considered as follows

2

(4.10) (4.11)

Thus, active and reactive powers can be controlled by the DG output voltage phase angle and amplitude, respectively. According to this, the following droop characteristics are applied for the positive sequence active and reactive power sharing among DGs in an islanded microgrid:

1

0 + +

(4.12) (4.13)

= 0 +

Where, S: Laplace variable; 0 : rated voltage amplitude; 0 : rated angular frequency; + : positive sequence active power;

+ : positive sequence reactive power; : active power proportional coefficient; : active power derivative coefficient; : reactive power proportional coefficient; : voltage amplitude reference; : voltage phase angle reference; : angular frequency reference. The derivative coefficient in , helps to improve the dynamic behavior of the power control. It is noteworthy that according to the (4.12) and (4.13), no integral term is considered for voltage frequency and amplitude control. If the microgrid operates in islanded mode (the case considered in this thesis) the use of pure integrators is not allowed; since, the total load will not coincide with the total injected power, and it leads to instability.

4.2.4. COMPENSATION EFFORT CONTROLLER The compensation effort controller manages the sharing of compensation workload among the microgrid DGs. The block diagram of effort controller is shown in Fig. 4.4.As seen, DG unit output current in frame ( 0 )is fed to this controller and positive and

1+ 1 negative sequences of its -axis fundamental component ( 0 and 0 ) and hth harmonic + 1+ 1 + component (0 and 0 ) are extracted. Then, 0 0 0 and 0 are applied to calculate

current unbalance factor UFI and harmonic distortion indices of hth harmonic positive and negative sequences ( + and , respectively). UFI , + calculated as the

1 + 1 + 1+ 1+ ratio of 0 0 and 0 rms values (0 , 0 and 0 , respectively) to rms value of 0 (0 ),

respectively. Note that using -components for calculation of unbalance and harmonic distortion indices leads to the same results because the magnitude of - and -components is equal for both positive and negative sequences of fundamental and harmonic components. Finally, the references for compensation of fundamental unbalance and hth harmonic

1 + positive and negative sequences by DGj ( and , respectively) are calculated as

shown in Fig. 4.4 where 0 is the rated capacity of DGj and subscript max represent the maximum value. By multiplying the ratio of DGj rated capacity (0 )to the total capacity of

=1 0 ,

Figure.4.4.Block diagram of compensation effort controller UFI, +and can be considered as the indices of compensation effort because as shown in the simulation results, compensation of SLB voltage unbalance and hth harmonic positive and negative sequences is achieved through injecting corresponding current

+ components by the DGs. Thus, the terms ( , ) (, + ) and + (, + ) in Fig. 4.4 contribute towards sharing of compensation effort. In fact,

+ + index. Consequently, ( , ), (, + ) or (, + ) decrease

and it leads to compensation effort decrease. So, inherent negative feedbacks exist in the effort controller. It is assumed that the maximum values of unbalance factor and harmonic distortion indices are unity. This assumption is valid for most of the practical cases; however, larger constants can be used as the maximum values.

4.3.1 VOLTAGE UNBALANCE COMPENSATION: The secondary controller manages the unbalance compensation of microgrid PCC voltage by sending proper control signals to the DGs local controllers. The secondary controller can be far from DGs and PCC. Thus, as shown in Fig.4.5, a low bandwidth communication link (LBCL) is considered to send the PCC voltage information to this controller. Also, the control signal for voltage unbalance compensation ( : Unbalance Compensation Reference) is transmitted by means of LBCL to the primary level. In order to ensure that low bandwidth is sufficient, the transmitted data should be approximately dc signals. Thus, the data are transmitted in dq reference frame. Afterwards, two 2nd order low-pass filters (LPF) are used to extract positive and negative sequences

+ ( and , respectively). 2nd order LPFs are applied, since, the 1st order ones cannot

2 2 2 +2 +

(4.16)

+ where and are the positive and negative sequence voltages of the direct + component, and and are the positive and negative sequence voltages of the quadrature

component, respectively. As depicted in Fig.4.5, the calculated VUF is compared with the reference value VUF*, and the difference is fed to a PI controller. The controller output is

multiplied by the negative sequence of the direct and quadrature voltage components, and , to generate which is transmitted to the primary level.

As shown in Fig.4.1, at first, is transformed to frame and then added as a reference for voltage controller. It is noteworthy that this transformation is performed over negative sequence values; thus, is used as the rotation angle. is the DG voltage reference phase angle which is generated by active power droop controller

4.3.2 VOLTAGE HARMONIC COMPENSATION: The above control technique increases voltage unbalance at the output of the interface inverter. It is vulnerable to suffer from more distortions with higher order harmonics, with non-linear loads in the network. In addition to that, virtual impedance loop increases the harmonic voltage distortion and increases the output voltage unbalance at the interface inverter. This is handled by implementing a selective harmonic compensation technique for different higher order harmonics (e.g. 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th).

The block diagram of the central secondary controller is shown in Fig. 4.6. As can be

1 5 7 seen in the Harmonics Compensation block, , , and are used to calculate 5th

and 7th order harmonic distortions (HD5 and HD7, respectively). Then, the calculated values

are compared with the reference ones ( 5 , 7 respectively). The errors are fed to the

proportional integral (PI) controllers. Afterwards, the outputs of these controllers are

5 7 5 7 multiplied by and to generate and , respectively. If any of the

harmonic distortions is less than the reference value, the respective deadband block prevents the increase of the distortion by the PI controller.

CHAPTER 5

SIMULATION RESULTS

In this chapter two cases results are presented. In case 1, the simulation results of voltage unbalance compensation considering a linear unbalanced load are presented. In case 2 the simulation results of sensitive load bus (SLB) voltage unbalance and harmonics compensation considering a non linear unbalanced load

The islanded microgrid of fig.5.1. is considered as the test system, This microgrid includes two DGs with power stage and control system. Switching frequency of the DGs inverters is set to 10 kHz. A single-phase load is connected between phases a and b which creates voltage unbalance. A balanced star-connected three-phase load is also connected to PCC. In this figure, ZL1 and ZL2 represent the distribution lines between DGs and PCC.

Figure.5.1.1 Matlab/Simulink Model for Islanded microgrid with linear unbalanced load

BEFORE COMPENSATION:Before activating the secondary controller at t=0.25 sec, DGs output voltages are approximately free of voltage unbalance but PCC voltage becomes unbalanced

AFTER COMPENSATION:After activating the secondary controller at t=0.25 sec, the result of compensation, PCC voltage unbalance is decreased, effectively while the DGs output voltage becomes unbalanced

Figure.5.1.8 Phase-a Negative Sequence Voltage Waveform of PCC, DG1 At 2.5t<4.0 (After Compensation):-

Fig.5.2.shows the simulation test system which is a two-DG islanded microgrid comprising two source buses, one sensitive load bus, and one non sensitive load bus. A diode rectifier and a star-connected linear load are connected to SLB. It is assumed that one phase of nonlinear load is disconnected to create unbalanced voltage distortion. Furthermore, a balanced nonlinear load is connected to NLB. Switching frequency of the DGs inverters is 10 kHz. The test system parameters are listed in Appendix. Note that in this parameters, the impedances of linear load and lines are presented in terms of resistance and inductance. Simulations are performed using MATLAB/Simulink. Three simulation steps are considered: Step1 (0 < 0.2) DGs operate only with fundamental positive sequence virtual impedance and secondary control is not acting. Step2 (0.2 < 0.4) Virtual resistances for fundamental negative sequence and harmonic components are added. Step3 (0.4 < 0.6) Secondary control is activated. The reference values of unbalance factor and harmonic distortion indices are 0.2%.

Figure.5.2. Test System of Islanded Microgrid with Non linear unbalanced load

Fig.5.2.1 Matlab/Simulink Model for Islanded microgrid with Non linear unbalanced load

Step-1( < 0.2) :Before activating the virtual resistances for fundamental negative sequence and harmonic components, DGs output voltages are approximately free of distortion. SLB voltage is distorted noticeably due to voltage drops on distribution lines.

Figure 5.2.5 Harmonic Spectrum Analysis of Sensitive load bus voltage at < 0.2

Fig.5.2.6 and Fig.5.2.7 shows negative sequence single-phase waveforms at fundamental and 3rd harmonic frequencies. considering double rating of DG1, it can be noticed from Fig.5.2.6 and Fig.5.2.7 that the load current is not properly shared in the first simulation step. In fact, all components of the load current except fundamental positive sequence one are shared according to the test system topology and before adding

1 3 5 7 ,DG2 will supply larger portions of the fundamental negative sequence

Step-2(. < 0. ) :Virtual resistances for fundamental negative sequence and harmonic components are added. The sharing improvement is achieved at the expense of voltage distortion increase at DGs terminals and consequently at SLB.

Figure 5.2.13 Harmonic Spectrum Analysis of Sensitive load bus voltage at . < 0.4 In this step i.e., 0.2 < 0.4, the current sharing is improved noticeably. however, it still is not in proportion to the DGs rated powers.

Fig.5.2.14 Fundamental Negative Sequence Current of DG1, DG2 at 0.2 < 0.4

Fig.5.2.15 3rd Harmonic Sequence Currents of DG1, DG2 at 0.2 < 0.4

Step-3 (. < 0. ) :In the last simulation step, selective compensation of SLB voltage main harmonics and fundamental negative sequence component is activated at t=0.4s. SLB voltage quality is significantly improved as seen in fig.5.2.18-fig.5.2.20 Furthermore, it can be observed in Fig.5.2.20 that the compensation is achieved by the increase of output DG1 voltage distortion.

Figure 5.2.21 Harmonic Spectrum Analysis of Sensitive load bus voltage at . < 0.6

Note that the impedance of the distribution line between and SLB is relatively high; also, the fundamental negative sequence and harmonic components of the load which are supplied by this DG are approximately twice of the amounts of DG2. Thus, in order to compensate the voltage drops on the lines and the virtual resistances and provide approximately sinusoidal voltage at SLB, DG1 output voltage becomes noticeably distorted. On the other hand, due to low value of the line impedance between SB2 and SLB and also lower load portion of DG2, the distortions of SLB and DG2 voltages change with a similar behavior

Fig.5.2.22 Fundamental Negative Sequence Current of DG1, DG2 at 0.4 < 0.6

Fig.5.2.23 3rd Harmonic Sequence Currents of DG1, DG2 at 0.4 < 0.6

CONCLUSION

In this thesis, the control of Distributed Generators interface converters are used in order to improve the microgrid power quality is discussed. A hierarchical control approach to compensate voltage unbalance and harmonics in an islanded microgrid is proposed. The control structure consists of primary and secondary control levels. The secondary controller manages voltage unbalance in microgrid by sending proper control signals to primary level. Harmonics in microgrids are reduced by selective compensation of Sensitive load bus voltage fundamental negative sequence, positive and negative sequences of main harmonics by sending proper control signals to the primary level. Selective harmonic compensation method is shown to ensure voltage balance even without disconnecting the unbalanced or non-linear loads.

FUTURE SCOPE

Power quality problem such as voltage sag compensation can also be implemented by using hierarchical scheme Synchronization of grid connected microgrid and utility grid can also be implemented by using hierarchical scheme

REFERENCES

[1] IEEE Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed Resource Island Systems With Electric Power Systems, IEEE Std. 1547.4- 2011, 2011. [2] M. Cirrincione, M. Pucci, and G. Vitale, A single -phase DG generation unit with shunt active power filter capability by adaptive neural filtering, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 20932110, May 2008. [3] T. L. Lee and P. T. Cheng, Design of a new cooperative harmonic filtering strategy for distributed generation interface converters in an islanding network, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 19191927, Sep. 2007. [4] P. T. Cheng, C. Chen, T. L. Lee, and S. Y. Kuo, A cooperative imbalance compensation method for distributed-generation interface converters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 805815, Mar./Apr. 2009. [5] Y. Li, D. M. Vilathgamuwa, and P. C. Loh, Microgrid power quality enhancement using a three-phase four-wire grid-interfacing compensator, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 17071719,Nov./Dec. 2005. [6] A. Mehrizi-Sani and R. Iravani, Potential-function based control of a microgrid in islanded and grid-connected modes, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1883 1891, Nov. 2010. [7] J. M. Guerrero, J. C. Vasquez, J. Matas, L. G. de Vicua, a nd M.Castilla, Hierarchical control of droop-controlled AC and DC microgrids a general approach toward standardization, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 158172, Jan. 2011.

[8] J. C. Vasquez, J. M. Guerrero, A. Luna, P. Rodriguez, , R. Teodorescu,Adaptive droop control applied to voltage-source inverters operating in grid-connected and islanded modes, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 4088 4096, Oct. 2009. [9] M. Savaghebi, A. Jalilian, J. C. Vasquez, and J. M. Guerrero, Autonomous voltage unbalance compensation in an islanded droop-controlled microgrid, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 04, April 2013. [10] J. M. Guerrero, J. C. Vsquez, J. Matas, M. Castilla, and L. G. D. Vicua, Control strategy for flexible microgrid based on parallel line-interactive UPS systems, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, pp. 726736, Mar. 2009. [11] J. M. Guerrero, J. Matas, L. G. de Vicua, M. Castilla, and J. Miret,Decentralized control for parallel operation of distributed generation inverters using resistive output impedance, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 9941004, Apr. 2007. [12] F. Katiraei and M. R. Iravani, Power management strategies for a microgrid with multiple distributed generation units, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1821 1831, Nov. 2006. [13] U. Borup, F. Blaabjerg, and P. N. Enjeti, Sharing of nonlinear load in parallelconnected three-phase converters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 18171823, Nov./Dec. 2001. [14] J. He and Y.W. Li, Analysis and design of interfacing inverter output virtual impedance in a low voltage microgrid, in Proc 2010 Energy Convers. Congr. Exp. (ECCE), pp. 2857 2864.

APPENDIX

PARAMETERS 1. DG parameters: 2. DC Link Voltage, Vdc (V) =650 LC Filter Inductance, L(mh)=1.8 LC Filter Capacitance, C()=25 Nonlinear Loads Tie Lines, Z(, )=0.1, 1.6 Distribution Lines Z1,Z2,Z3(, )=0.1, 1.8 Non Linear Loads CNL/RNL1,RNL2/LNL ( )/ ()/ (mh) =235/50, 200/0.084 Linear Load ZL(, )=50,20

Primary Controller Parameters:Power Controllers(DG1/DG2) (/)=0.6 105 /1.2 103 (/. s)=0.6 104 /1.2 104 ( /)=1.4 101 /2.8 101

1+ = 0.3/0.6

Virtual Impedance(DG1/DG2)

= 2.5/5

1 = 1.5/3.0 3 = 2/4 5 = 4/8 7 = 4/8

AUTHORS PUBLICATION

Naveen Bolisetti and Mothi Ram Bhukya, Hierarchical Control Scheme for Compensation of Voltage Harmonics and Unbalance in Microgrids proc. Advances and Applications of Power Systems, Power Electronics and Solar Energy (AAPPS13), on 24th-25th oct-2013, JNTUHCEJ, Karimnagar.

Naveen Bolisetti and Mothi Ram Bhukya, Secondary Control Scheme for Compensation of Voltage Harmonics and Unbalance in Microgrids International Journal of Engineering Research And Innovative Applications, ISSN: 2248-9278/SepOct13/Vol-1/Issue-3/Pg. 1041 1048.

- 3 Renewable Powered MicrogridUploaded byjameelahmad
- EnergyTechnologyPerspectives2016_ExecutiveSummary_EnglishVersionUploaded byvae2797
- Impacts Distrib PV Ws 2011 Task14 Portugal Domingo[1]Uploaded byJjjjpf
- OR218Uploaded byمعروف المحجري
- Towards Smart Power EnUploaded byAntonis Nestor
- DER integration and microgridUploaded bySherif
- 6412-9175-2-PBUploaded byyiğit_Öksüz
- 10A 4 GIZ17 024 Paper Andreas FalkUploaded byAntonio Solís Murillo
- MicroGrid and Energy Storage SystemUploaded byAbin Baby
- 1 (11)Uploaded byBilalSheikh
- Modelling and Simulation of an Adaptive Differential Current Protection Scheme for a Solar PV MicrogridUploaded byAnkita Arora
- Corrective economic dispatch in a microgridUploaded byAyan Tudu
- State of the Art in Research on MicrogridsUploaded byDulal Manna
- energies-09-00824Uploaded bykalokos
- 2016 FYP Proposals Callaghan (1)Uploaded byTamy Lorena de Souza
- AVirtual-FluxDecouplingHysteresisCurrentUploaded bysathish2103
- 2015-Soares Et Al-Cost Allocation Model for Distribution Networks Considering High Penetration of Distributed Energy ResourcesUploaded byFelipe Goncalves
- 2.BRP FlowchartUploaded byjaved shaikh chaand
- Sverker900 Rocof an en v01Uploaded byAntonio Solís Murillo
- Over Investment Causing Higher Electricity Bills-solar energyUploaded byTravis Mason
- Specification ManagementUploaded byTravis Wood
- IEEE ISGT 2012 - For1511 Project Advances - New Applications for Wide-Area Monitoring Protection and ControlUploaded byRamesh Kannan
- 70022Uploaded bybpchimera
- TSA LN Brochure Electrical Power EngineeringUploaded byVictor Caceres
- The Economic Times Dialogue on Transmission Distribution 2015.pdfUploaded byamitsh20072458
- MTech PE SyllabusUploaded byMohammad Haroon
- Td Brochure Us Web 2012Uploaded byTan Chee Ding
- PC_DER_4Uploaded byK Vijay Bhaskar Reddy
- Algebra Cheat SheetUploaded byRobert Joseph R. Patapat
- Interconnection of Power SystemsUploaded byRohan Sharma

- PNDMV008Uploaded byermusat
- 1 electric circuits questions aUploaded byapi-354541204
- Wind in Markets TableUploaded byDan Vrabie
- The Empirical Survey onthe Effect of Using Media in Explosive Forming of Tubular ShellsUploaded byPiyush Chauhan
- The Petrol EngineUploaded bymags2k9
- online_TS_3.02.04_i5Uploaded byakmezim
- AdzerCZDeutzFL1011.pdfUploaded bymnvijaybabu
- fc6 manualUploaded byAlex Mono
- BMH Manual V100 EnUploaded bysenaiadao
- Writing Topic SentencesUploaded byAditya Pranata
- Turbine Condensate System in Thermal Power PlantUploaded byAshwani Dogra
- hysys designUploaded byDhaliwal Ajay
- PERF2015-16_In_U-1Uploaded byAnonymous pKsr5v
- SAMP-NSB-MS-R11-T25-B25-50QAUploaded by1dulles
- Deutz BF4m1011F Engine Service Parts Manual 907763 Rev BUploaded bydim4erema
- Heat TransferUploaded byPraju_dahake1
- Air Velocity Anemometer LabUploaded byBrandon Falkenberg
- Measurement and Comparative Analysis of System Scintillation Camera Dead Time Using NEMA and AAPM ProtocolsUploaded byIjcemJournal
- A roadmap for rapid decarbonizationUploaded byfungedore
- PVPD Fall 2018 Newsletter FinalUploaded bycarlos alderetes
- rahil6Uploaded byrahil7860
- Directional Drilling SlidesUploaded byginozky
- Thermodynamic Equations - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byZaw Moe Khine
- US Internal Revenue Service: p4163Uploaded byIRS
- Static Failure TheoriesUploaded byGUNJAN MUDGAL
- Grundfosliterature-2568617.pdfUploaded bynawajha
- Bio 357 Exam 1A Spring 2014Uploaded byMelissa Sierra
- CRDiUploaded bybe_aeon
- SPESIFIKASI ALATUploaded byLisna Rohmawati
- Copy of Carburettion & InjectionUploaded byashigupta143