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Submitted to:
Dr. Pranava Praksh Prof. Kriti Swarup

Submitted by:
Rahul Yadav (PGDM 20140109) Saroj kr. Shah (PGDM 20140080) Atul Tomar (PGDM 20140127) Rahul Chatterjee (PGDM 20140075) Bhupesh Bhardwaj (PGDM 20140097) Ankit Gupta (PGDM 20140024)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is done as a project, as a part of course titled "Consumer Behaviour." We are really thankful to Dr. Pranava Prakash and Prof. Kriti Swarup, for his valuable guidance and assistance, without which the accomplishment of this project would have never been possible. We also thank him for giving this opportunity to PROJECT ON STUDYING OF COUNSMER BEHAVIOUR- CLOTHES. This project is a success with your support and guidance.


OBJECTIVE The main objective of this project is to study the buying behavior of the consumer in Shirt and what are the various factors (external or internal) which influence a person to purchase shirts. METHODOLOGY All the data collected is from the primary source in which interview was conducted with individual by each group member) on respondent convenient time where we had asked several question in the form of questioner (attached) which consist of question on the demographic details (Age, Gender, Qualification etc) the culture and subculture and the various ritual and norms, about the family structure he belongs to and the factor on which he decide to purchase shirt. Some of the open ended question also asked abstract the information (i.e. who is the decision, initiator, influencer, payer, user the various source of information and finally the place of purchase) INTRODUCTION The field of consumer behavior is enormous, and highlights the importance of the customer at the centre of the marketer's universe. Each consumer is unique with different needs and wants and buying choices and habits are influenced by habit, and choice that are in turn tempered by psychological and social drivers that affect purchase decision processes. It is a complex multi dimensional variable. Knowledge of consumer behaviour is critical for influencing not only product purchase decisions but also important marketing decisions for commercial firms, nonprofit organizations, and regulatory agencies. Applications of consumer behavior decisions lie on marketing strategies, regulatory policies, social marketing, and informed individual. The general structure and concept of consumer behaviour is fragmented into four major categories External influence, Internal influence, Self concept and lifestyle, Decision making. External influences include culture, subculture, demographics, social status, reference group, marketing activities and family. Internal influences include perception, learning, memory, motives, personality emotions, and attitude. The self concept and lifestyle produce needs and desire, many of which consumption decision to specify. Culture plays the most pervasive influence on external factors of consumer behaviour. Culture varies in values and nonverbal communications. Sub culture is a segment of larger culture hose members share distinguishing values and patterns of behaviour. Affect of cultural factors on consumer behaviour and marketing strategy is shown below. Demographics consist of structure, size and distribution. Social status refers to ones position in relatives to others on one or more dimensions valued in society. House hold plays an important decision on most consumption decisions. Family house hold consists of a family and any unrelated people residing in the same housing unit. Effect of hose hold culture, values play an

important role in buying decisions. Utility in this context means the ability of a product to meet functional needs. Information perceived by consumers: In terms of purchasing a particular product, a consumer is aware of some risks such as finance, psychology, performance, and time. Social and physical risk in online commerce has less to do with consumer perceived risk. Offering optimal information, recalling brand information, and utilizing vivid word-of-mouth communication must reduce perceived risk and uncertainty and, ultimately, exert a positive effect on product purchase intentions. Accordingly, a large number of consumers participate in positive prepurchase information collection processing in order to reduce the risk.In our product the positive attributes would be helpful as this information will create the positive impact like color, material, design, look etc

Learning- Consumer learning is a process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience they apply to future related behavior. Some learning is intentional. Two types of learning is there behavioral and cognitive learning. Marketers are concerned with how individuals learn because they want to teach them, in their roles as consumers about products its attributes and potential consumer benefits and also want to learn them to how to buy, where to buy and how to use, maintain and how to dispose it. Consumers decision is not an individual decision but its a collective decision made by his friends, parents and tech expert people. They were keen towards the product attributes like jeans designs, color preferences, the type of dressing, brand image, influence of society, culture on their particular product etc. High involvement learning was seen in the individuals. Consumer Decisions: The term consumer decision produces an image of an individual carefully evaluating the attributes of a set of products, brands, services and rationally selecting the one that Solves a clearly recognized need for the least cost. Consumers make numerous decisions everyday; sometimes even when they are not consciously aware of how and why they have made a choice. The consumer as a decision maker is viewed in different ways by different groups of researchers. The economic view holds that consumers are rational decision makers, while some other researchers view the consumers as uninvolved passive decision makers.

EXTERNAL FACTORS External factors are the factors which are not under our control and which will create a impulse to consumer to behave in a particular way to make or change his/her decision. These factors are: Age Sex Occupation Education Income Class Subclass Brand loyalty Print media Social class Electronic Media Physiological influences include perception, learning, memory, motives, personality emotions, and attitude. The self concept and lifestyle produce needs and desire, many of which consumption decision to specify leads to a impulse generation with association with external factors. This factor makes the brand come under the consideration set and finally make into the decision .Our respondents were using the external factors as mention above to take their purchasing decision.

EXTERNAL INFLUENCES ON PRODUCT PURCHASE Price- Price is one of the external factors which influences purchase as everyone has different buying power Brand- People are also brand loving, there concept of branded is having good quality, this stereotypic effect is also affect the perception and attitude in purchasing. Peer Group- Peer group is that to with whom we always live like friends they also affect purchasing behavior, social class is also another factor. Brand Ambassador- Brand ambassador are role model of people. People are usually emotionally attached to the person who affects the purchasing behavior of the consumer.

Family values: It was also observed that they were high on fashion-opinion leadership. They were very close to the family and seek advice for their purchasing. Style was an independent factor and therefore all the respondents were independent when it came to purchasing decisions most of the time. Culture and subculture-Subculture: In a diversified country like India cultural factors exert the broadest and deepest influence on consumer behaviour; we will look at the role played by the buyers culture, subculture, and social class. Today, physical fitness, good health and smart Appearances are on premium. Slimming centres and beauty parlours are mushrooming in all major cities of the country. Cosmetics for both women and men are being sold in increasing numbers. Even exclusive shops are retailing designer clothes Cross-cultural marketing is defined as the effort to determine to what extent the consumers of two or more nations is similar or different. This will facilitate marketers to understand the psychological, social and cultural aspects of foreign consumers they wish to target, so as to design effective marketing strategies for each of the specific national markets involved. Social Class: The Extent of this mobility varies according to the rigidity of social stratification a given society. A consumers behaviour is also influenced by social factors, such as the consumers reference group, family, and social roles and statuses. Persons with in each social class tend to behave more alike than persons from two different social classes. Second, persons are perceived as occupying inferior or superior positions according to their social class. Reference Group Respondents belong to secondary group, which tend to be more formal and where there is less continuous interaction. They include religious organizations, professional associations; get together on the marriage or committee. Family Group: Family is also one of the main rolling part in buying decision of the consumer as different family have different norms, value ,tradition their own lifestyle so it affect the perception and attitude. The purchase and consumption of many products are driven by the household life cycle. The reason for this is that each stage in the family poses unique problems or opportunities to the family members; and the resolution of these problems often requires the consumption of products. The implication for the marketer is to decide which segment the product has to be focused i.e. on which house hold life cycle stage the product has to be marketed.

INTERNAL FACTORS Need Maslows need hierarchy is readily adaptable to market segmentation and the development of advertising appeals because there are consumer goods designed to satisfy each of the need levels and because most of the needs are shared by large segment of consumers. Emotion Emotions are strong, relative uncontrolled feelings that effect behavior. Emotions are generally triggered by environmental events .Anger, Joy, Sadness are most frequently response to a set of external events. Three dimensions of emotions are pleasure, arousal and dominance. Self-concept Self concept is defined as the totality of the individual thoughts and feelings towards himself as an object. Marketer should strive to develop a product image that is consistent with the self Concept of their target market like Independent self concept which is found common in our case. Personality Personality is an individuals characteristics response tendencies across similar situation. Personality is a useful concept because it enables us to categorize consumers into different group on the basis of Single trait and multiple traits. Single traits theories emphasize on one personality trait.

Attitude Attitude refers to what a person feels or believes about something. It may be reflected in how an individual acts based on his or her beliefs. Once formed, attitudes can be very difficult to change. Thus, if a consumer has a negative attitude toward a particular issue it will take considerable effort to change what they believe to be true. It is made up off three component. These components are Affective Cognitive Behavioral

Marketing Communication
Marketing communication is the unique tool that marketers use to persuade consumers to act in a desired way. It can be of two types verbal and visual or combination of both. Strategy must be communicated in such a way that the messages are consistent through time, and are targeted accurately at appropriate stakeholder audiences. Segmentation- We are targeting youth and mid aged group as these groups are more aware of trends and fashion they are moving parallel to the new culture as our country is globalized new lifestyle is followed by these groups. So the chances of creating positive perception in consumers towards our product will be more. Consumer Perception- Different consumers have different perceptions regarding our product. More precisely consumer perceives product appearance by identifying appearance attribute in order to distinguish it from durable products. However, the attributes would be in the form of modernity, simplicity and playfulness. So in case of our product the perception would be like taste preferences regarding color, price, comfort ability and brand, they need to take time for the purchase of the product i.e. high involvement is necessary in order to come up with the consumers own. Perception is also affected by references group. Peer group, family, culture so communication must have rational and positive approach so to convince the reference group as well. The one market communication we are going to use is mass communication as our product need high involvement so we will using central route to perceive them basically we will focus internet and TV add as these group are fond of internet and TV and social sites.
Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response

patterns of an individual. Different personality theorists present their own definitions of the word based on their theoretical positions. Psychologists such as Freud and Erickson have attempted to come up with personality theories. As per our category of product consumer will belong to high rational approach which comprises of group of thinking and extravert personality groups before making a purchase decisions. As per clothes is concern its most highly significant material to consume as it is part of basic needs which is to be fulfilled by every class of people. So marketing communication decision is very critical to make selection and position of the product in the best possible manner which should be accepted by consumer. Marketing Communication Styles: As we know that consumer personalities have to deal with different Marketing communication styles which is most appropriate and matches with their features so three preferable

communication styles for different personality types would be Specific, confident and supportive where specific inherent about precise, detailed, concrete and avoid vagueness. Confident talks about judgmental, assured of personal judgments and needs as well as supportive styles which talks about giving support, moral or emotional, assistance, caring, and encouraging. Modes of Marketing Communication This include television, internet, magazine, newspaper, social networking. These are some modes of effective marketing communication which can be used for health food. Most of these are currently in use and are quite successful too. Keeping in mind our segment consumers from different personalities, major preference should be given to Visual Aids i.e. television, internet or social networking sites. These are easily accessible modes and have a wide coverage and influence on consumers. Social networks are in trend and are extensively in use, newspapers and magazines are though in use and comparatively cheaper but cant create the appeal which visual aids can create. It should be taken into consideration that these communication modes when used should imply the use of components involved in marketing communication styles which influence our target groups. Influence of Reference Group Only focus on a specific consumer group will not work but a marketer has to take care of all the influencing factors like the reference groups, subculture or environmental factors. Each decision taken by an individual is not completely an independent decision rather it is an outcome of many other factors that tend to divert his mind towards a product category, here comes the role of reference groups. Our primary and secondary reference groups are the first and most prominent groups who influence us in making purchase decisions. Marketers understand this very well so they not only focus on their target group but also analyze the ambience, external factors and more specifically reference groups to display a positive impact and create a huge number of loyal supporters for their products. Culture diversity consideration- Our country is a diversified country many different religion, different cast and different language with different culture and tradition even culture changes from miles to mile tradition changes family to family so its much difficult for a marketers to communicate and so to pursue for the product. So markets should do communication which help consumer to understand the information. Local language can be used for the communicating about the product, avoiding the communication hampering religion instead of that we should present product which create positive perception in mind. Color is also one of the parts of the culture many people are not willing to buy specific color as per their own tradition and culture. Demographic is also consideration part we should design the different communication for rural and urban in our product category we are only focusing urban area.

Status People from upper, lower and middle class have different mode of communication, lifestyle, buying power so the communication should according to them so that product information should be reached to them. The best way to influence reference groups is to study their personality, perception and preexisting needs so as to further formulate strategies regarding marketing communication techniques to be used, product modifications to be done according to their demands and the culture already existing in the market to be positioned. Consumers decision is not an individual decision but its a collective decision made by his friends, parents and tech expert people. They are keen towards the product attributes like product designs, colour preferences, the type of dressing, brand image, influence of society, culture on their particular product etc. High involvement learning is seen in the individuals. Usually meeting these goals repetition of product information at right time in a right way to a right person is needed be insured. In this process of retention a learning process needs to be built which gives birth to a learning of a product. Consumer Buying Decision Process The flowchart depicts the process of buying decision process of consumers: