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Examine the relationship between protestant ethics and rise of Catholicism. Protestants The role of Bible is emphasized. Catholics Bible, traditions of Middle Ages, papal pronouncements is emphasized. "Priesthood of all believers" all Foundation of the church establishes individuals equal before God. Sought a special nature and role of the clergy. clergy that preached. Anglicans rejected papal authority. Church is hierarchical and Monarch was the Supreme Governor sacramental: of the church. Believers Priests Lutherans rejected authority of the Bishops pope but kept bishops. Pope Most Calvinists governed church by ministers and a group of elders, a system called Presbyterianism. Anabaptists rejected most forms of church governance in favour of congregational democracy. Rejected infant baptism Protestants teach that salvation is attained through faith alone.

Consubstantiation: Lutherans: bread and wine did not change but believer realizes presence of Christ is in the bread and

Catholic are the only ones to have the concept of the seven sacraments: Baptism Confirmation The Eucharist Penance Anointing of the sick Holy orders Matrimony Transubstantiation: Bread and wine retain outward appearances but are transformed into the body and blood of Christ.

wine. Zwingli saw the event of communion as only symbolic memorial to the actions of Christ, or thanksgiving for Gods grant of salvation Lutherans believed in Justification by faith salvation cannot be earned and a good life is the fruit of faith.

Salvation through living life according to Christian beliefs and participating in the practices of the church

Calvinists: predestination; a good life could provide some proof of predestined salvation "visible saints" or the "elect." Lutherans and Anglicans believed state Catholics and Calvinists believed church should control and absorb the controls the Church. state theocracy. Calvinists and Zwingli believed in a theorocracy. Anabaptists believed church ignores the state. Services emphasized the sermon Services emphasized the Eucharist Marriage was a sacrament and thus Marriage was a contract: divorce was could not be dissolved. rare but acceptable in cases of impotence, abandonment, or infidelity. Clergy allowed to marry
Clergy could not marry and had to remain celibate.