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techforum

ThyssenKrupp

Issue 2 I 2007

Cover The title picture shows a steam turbine for the high pressure (HP) stage of a nuclear power plant after the blade assembly. This turbine, installed in a new nuclear power plant off the west coast of Finland, on the island of Olkiluoto, was designed and manufactured by Siemens Power Generation. The turbine section has a tandem compound design and consists of a double-flow high-pressure turbine and a six-flow low-pressure (LP) turbine, solidly coupled to a three-phase synchronous power generator. The efforts to achieve superior steam conditions, larger turbines and advanced technology contributes to increase the efficiency and reduce the environmental emissions from large thermal power plants. The power generation plant of Olkiluoto outputs approximately 1,600 MW with a net efficiency of about 37%. For this project of the world largest steam turbine, the Italy based Societ delle Fucine, a company of ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni, has forged and delivered a mono-block forged high-pressure rotor shaft. Societ delle Fucine was recognized by Siemens Power Generation as a key supplier for this kind of components and in August 2007 was awarded the Supplier Prize Pioneer in Manufacturing of forged components for the world largest steam turbine.

PUBLISHER

ThyssenKrupp AG, Corporate Technology, August-Thyssen-Str. 1, 40211 Dsseldorf, Germany, Telephone: +49 (0)211/824-36291, Fax: +49 (0)211/824-36285

ThyssenKrupp techforum appears once or twice a year in German and English. Reprints with the permission of the publisher only. Photomechanical reproduction of individual papers is permitted. ThyssenKrupp techforum is distributed according to an address file maintained using an automated data processing system. ISSN 1612-2771

ThyssenKrupp techforum

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Foreword | 3

Dear Readers,

Energy is an indispensable part of our business and daily lives. We need primary energy sources, for example to provide heat and mobility. Today, most of our energy is generated from fossil fuels such as coal, oil, gas as well as uranium. But reserves are finite and resource conservation is an increasingly important issue. Global climate change is affecting all of us and means that we must rethink our energy policies and convert and use energy more efficiently. Industry is called upon to develop innovative solutions which reduce CO2 emissions and conserve dwindling resources in the interests of sustainable environmental protection. This issue of ThyssenKrupp techforum presents some of the many answers to these problems available within our Group. On the materials side we report about stainless steels with outstanding properties which are used in facilities to convert seawater into drinking water and for lightweight automotive construction. New nickel alloys and low-alloy steel grades are used in the steam turbines of high-performance power plants. The use of high-strength steels in innovative car cross members helps reduce weight and thus emissions. Emissions can also be lowered by suitable measures in the production of white cement, in waste incineration and in more energy-efficient continuous strip lines use in the production of steel sheet. In the area of transportation, energy-efficient magnetic levitation trains such as the Transrapid help reduce noise and pollutant emissions. Eco-friendly technologies and processes are also applied in open-pit mining and civil engineering projects. A knowledge database has been developed to analyze the relevance for the environment of products and waste materials. In the increasingly important area of renewable energy sources, one contribution from ThyssenKrupp comes in the form of slewing bearings, which are used in wind turbines. And by reference to a cupola furnace project, we show how companies can adapt their production processes to new environmental regulations. ThyssenKrupp is aware of its social responsibility for sustainable environmental protection through emissions reductions and energy efficiency and acts accordingly, as we hope will be made clear by the articles in this issue. I wish you an enjoyable read.

Yours,

Dr.-Ing. Ekkehard D. Schulz, Chairman of the Executive Board of ThyssenKrupp AG

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DFI Oxyfuel process for saving energy and improving the performance and quality of continuous strip lines
DR.-ING. HERBERT EICHELKRAUT Senior Vice President Bruckhausen site | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. HANS-JOACHIM HEILER Team Coordinator | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Finnentrop DIPL.-ING. HANS PETER DOMELS Team Leader Energy and Plant Management | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg WERNER HGNER Specialist Coordinator Energy and Plant Management | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg

The development of the Direct Flame Impingement (DFI)-Oxyfuel process in which an oxyfuel (oxygen-fuel) flame impinges directly on the material to be heated represents a further development of furnace technology for continuous strip lines. With assistance from the cooperation partner Linde, the process was used on a hot-dip galvanizing line for the first time at ThyssenKrupp Steels Finnentrop plant. Right from the start it produced outstanding results in terms of increased throughput, product quality, plant quality and energy efficiency and thus also a reduction in direct CO2 emissions. In the meantime, this technology also is being used at an additional strip galvanizing and aluminizing facility in the Duisburg-Bruckhausen plant. 16 |

Development of a knowledge database for assessing the environmental relevance of products, byproducts and waste materials
DR. RER. NAT. ALFONS ESSING Project Coordinator, Materials Center of Excellence | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DIPL.-INFORM. AXEL TEICHMANN Team Leader Information Technology, Materials Center of Excellence | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg

Many and various legislative requirements, combined with customer specifications that result from them, lead to increased demands on the environmentally compatible manufacture, use and disposal of ThyssenKrupp Steel products. In order to focus the large number of requirements and offer fast, unambiguous assistance with decisions, a knowledge database for the assessment of the environmental relevance of products, byproducts, and waste materials is being built up. All relevant product-specific information, including recycling capability, information on contents and the hazard potential of individual materials, is being collected and made available in a fast and informative manner. Logical coupling of the stored product data with the directives, standards and customer-specific requirements also stored makes rapid analysis for conformity possible.

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SLC the innovative, low-cost lightweight construction solution for passenger car subframes
DIPL.-ING. PETER SEYFRIED Head of Lightweight Construction & Innovation Center Auto (LIZA) | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund DIPL.-ING. ULF SUDOWE Head of R&D and Prototype Construction Chassis Operating Group | ThyssenKrupp Umformtechnik GmbH, Bielefeld

The innovative subframe is only half as expensive as the benchmark, an aluminum luxury class production solution and is just 5% heavier. The SLC is a result of close collaboration between ThyssenKrupp Steel, ThyssenKrupp Umformtechnik and ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems. The concepts main features are its optimal mixture of materials expertise, tooling and systems know-how. 24 |

Stainless steels for seawater desalination plants


DR.-ING. GEORG UHLIG Technical Product Manager | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld

Seawater desalination plants can be used to produce drinking water with low chloride concentrations. Stainless steels are an elementary component of the various process technologies in such plants. Due to growing demand for drinking water especially in the Arabian states, but also in southern Europe seawater desalination plants represent a very interesting area of application with increasing economic importance for stainless steels. 28 |

High-performance and environment-friendly advanced high-strength stainless steels in automotive applications


ING. ANDREA BRUNO Product Manager | ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni SpA, Terni/Italy

Although mainly known for their corrosion-resistance properties, stainless steels, especially the new class of austenitic N-Mn grades, also possess outstanding mechanical properties. In the transport industry, especially for the automotive sector, it has proved possible to exploit these features, especially in the design of vehicles that are not only environmentally friendly but also offer high performance and thus great market appeal.

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Large forged shafts for power generation


DIPL.-ING. STEFANO NERI Quality Management | Societ delle Fucine S.r.l., Terni/Italy DIPL.-ING. DANIELE MARSILI Metallurgy | Societ delle Fucine S.r.l., Terni/Italy DR. RER. OEC. GIOVANNI SANSONE Sales Management Power Generation | Societ delle Fucine S.r.l., Terni/Italy

Continuing efforts to increase efficiency and reduce emissions from large thermal power plants have seen a corresponding trend toward ever higher steam temperatures and pressures as well as advanced turbine technology. In this context the Italian-based Societ delle Fucine (SdF), a company of ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni, manufactured and supplied the high-pressure (HP) rotor shaft of the biggest steam turbine in the world to Siemens AG. The power plant, denominated Olkiluoto 3, is located in the heart of the countryside in Finland. To produce this HP rotor shaft, SdF used a special low-alloy steel ingot of approx. 230 metric tons. 40 |

Nickel alloys for tomorrows power plants


DR.-ING. JUTTA KLWER Senior Vice President Research and Development | ThyssenKrupp VDM, Werdohl DR. RER. NAT. BODO GEHRMANN Project Manager Super Alloys, Research & Development | ThyssenKrupp VDM, Werdohl

Increases in the efficiency of fossil fuel-fired power plants are increasingly leading to higher temperatures and pressures, thus making the use of nickel alloys essential. Nickel-based superalloys are already routinely used in gas turbines of combined cycle power plants. With the development of the 700 C technology for coal-fired power plants, nickel alloys are now also being used in boilers and steam turbines in the next generation of power plants. Together with power plant operators and manufacturers of boilers for power plants, ThyssenKrupp VDM has developed alloy variant Nicrofer 5520CoB - alloy 617B, a material that has already demonstrated its suitability for the 700 C power plant in a pilot facility.

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Energy-efficient, environmentally friendly white cement production using state-of-the-art technology


DIPL.-ING. LUIS LAGAR-GARCA Specialist Department R&D, Head of Heat and Environmental Technology | Polysius AG, Neubeckum DR.-ING. DIETMAR SCHULZ Head of Research and Development | Polysius AG, Neubeckum

The manufacture of cement is an energy-intensive process, as the raw materials used must be burned at a temperature of more than 1,400 C. The potential for lowering emissions is therefore large, particularly in the case of old plants. The example of a white cement plant demonstrates that the application of state-of-the-art technology can make significant reductions in emissions possible, without compromising the economic viability of the plant. 54 |

Emissions reduction by means of continuous open pit mining technology


DR.-ING. VIKTOR RAAZ Project Manager R&D, Business Development dept. | ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik GmbH, Essen DIPL.-ING. BERGBAU ULRICH MENTGES Senior Manager Mine Planning & Sales | ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik GmbH, Essen

A change of system in open pit mining worldwide to continuous open pit mining technology not only leads to a reduction in running operating costs, but in particular to potential savings in CO2 emissions as well. These savings are being studied in a current research project. In the growing market for raw materials, the combination of newly designed, fully mobile crushing plants with innovative belt conveyor system technology in particular can achieve reductions in CO2 emissions of the order of up to 150,000 tons per year and per installed system for raw materials extraction, compared to conventional truck transport. 60 |

Cupola project response to new MACT emission standard


WILLIAM POWELL (B.S. MET. E.) Director of Melting and Casting Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Inc., Waupaca, Wisconsin/USA JEFFREY LOEFFLER (B.S. CH. E.) Environmental Coordinator | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Inc., Waupaca, Wisconsin/USA

Plant 1 of ThyssenKrupp Waupaca began operation of a new cupola iron melting system in January 2007. This major project was undertaken in response to new environmental regulations directed at the United States foundry industry and offered an opportunity to concurrently increase production at the facility.

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CO2-free energy conversion thanks to Rothe Erde slewing bearings


DR.-ING. UWE BREUCKER Senior Manager Quality Management, Research and Development | Rothe Erde GmbH, Lippstadt

Wind technology, which converts the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy, is one form of CO2-free energy conversion. Rothe Erde has accompanied this technology since the early days of its development. The supply program for wind turbines incorporates important components such as pitch bearings, yaw bearings and rotor bearings. Technical solutions for requirements such as minimizing false brinelling, optimizing lubricants, sealing and providing a high degree of corrosion protection were developed in the Research and Development Center of Rothe Erde. The dimensioning of the slewing bearings is carried out using finite element method analysis software developed inhouse. Slewing bearings from Rothe Erde have also found application in other areas of CO2-free power generation such as tidal flow and solar technology. 74 |

Transrapid the transportation technology for environmentally friendly mobility


DR.-ING. FRIEDRICH LSER Management Board | ThyssenKrupp Transrapid GmbH | Mnchen DR. RER. NAT. QINGHUA ZHENG Head of Systems Technology | ThyssenKrupp Transrapid GmbH | Mnchen

The implementation agreement between the Free State of Bavaria, the German railroad company Deutsche Bahn AG and the consortium of the system and construction industries for the Transrapid project to link Munich Central Station to Munich Airport fulfils an essential precondition to allow the advantages of Transrapid technology to also be demonstrated in Germany. The essential factors determining the projects environmental friendliness sound and pollutant emissions and energy efficiency are explained and the new TR09 prototype vehicle is presented.

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Water-cooled moving grate for low-residue waste incineration


DIPL.-ING. WERNER AUEL Head of Combustion Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg PETER DIEKMANN Public Relations | ThyssenKrupp Services AG, Dsseldorf

The new firing concept from ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy guarantees more efficient combustion, lower emissions, and substantially lower operating and maintenance costs. The heart of the system is the moving grate with patented water cooling. It ensures a higher throughput and better burnout. Its main feature, however, is that it allows fuels with high calorific values to be burned. The energy turnover of the fuel determines the amount of cooling required by the grate layer. The water cooling is important for the service life and the variability of the combustion air distribution. The possibilities for integrating the heat flow that is decoupled by the grate layer into the energy process have an effect on the plant efficiency.indung des ber den Rostbelag ausgekoppelten Wrmestromes in den Energieprozess haben einen Einfluss auf den Anlagenwirkungsgrad. 90 |

Pioneering construction processes protect the environment


DR.-ING. BERND BERGSCHNEIDER Managing Director Sales and Technology | ThyssenKrupp Bauservice GmbH, Hckelhoven

Products and services from Emunds+Staudinger, a business unit of ThyssenKrupp Bauservice GmbH, contribute to rational, safe, and economically successful construction processes in many underground civil engineering projects both in Germany and abroad. The company offers made-to-measure solutions for its partners in the construction business. These include service appropriate to construction sites, consultation at a high level, comprehensive project management, and on-time delivery of the systems selected for the respective construction measures. Together with medium-sized and large companies, Emunds+Staudinger develops convincing concepts that pay off. The products and processes used are tailored to the respective construction measures and ensure smooth construction processes. The company also takes account of the stringent requirements of environmental protection for example, with the development and application of environmentally oriented technologies and processes such as the Terra-Star recycler for soil preparation, mobile site road systems, or so-called deep linear shoring.

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| Burner arrangement of DFI booster (top), DFI envelope flame (below)

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DFI Oxyfuel process for saving energy and improving the performance and quality of continuous strip lines
DR.-ING. HERBERT EICHELKRAUT Senior Vice President Bruckhausen site | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DIPL.-ING. HANS-JOACHIM HEILER Team Coordinator | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Finnentrop DIPL.-ING. HANS PETER DOMELS Team Leader Energy and Plant Management | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg WERNER HGNER Specialist Coordinator Energy and Plant Management | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg

The development of the Direct Flame Impingement (DFI)-Oxyfuel process in which an oxyfuel (oxygenfuel) flame impinges directly on the material to be heated represents a further development of furnace technology for continuous strip lines. With assistance from the cooperation partner Linde, the process was used on a hot-dip galvanizing line for the first time at ThyssenKrupp Steels Finnentrop plant. Right from the start it produced outstanding results in terms of increased throughput, product quality, plant quality and energy efficiency and thus also a reduction in direct CO2 emissions. In the meantime, this technology also is being used at an additional strip galvanizing and aluminizing facility in the DuisburgBruckhausen plant.

Performance improvements on continuous strip lines ThyssenKrupp Steel is increasingly supplying the market with coldand hot-rolled strip coated with metallic protective layers (zinc and aluminum). To this end, it currently operates nine of its own plants in various countries and an additional joint-venture plant with a Chinese partner. There are two different types of plant for the continuous galvanization of coils so-called horizontal and vertical plants with the corresponding type of furnace I Fig. 1 I. This type of continuous galvanizing line combines several process steps in a single unit. In the course of one passage through the line, the strip is cleaned, thermally annealed, galvanized, galvannealed if necessary, skin passed and finished.

In recent years, mostly vertical lines have been constructed at ThyssenKrupp Steel, although horizontal lines also have their special features, for example for galvanizing hot-rolled strip and special steel grades. The need to continually improve performance in the most economic way possible is common to all lines. This means it must be possible to integrate performance-improving changes to the existing line structure with existing shop lengths, without the need for substantial rebuilding and extension of furnaces. To accomplish this, a comprehensive systems analysis of the existing line is necessary in advance, in order to determine bottlenecks in the respective production sections. Until now, if the bottleneck for a major part of a continuous strip lines product range was found in the furnace section, it has been

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12 | DFI Oxyfuel process for saving energy and improving the performance and quality of continuous strip lines

necessary to undertake a very costly extension of the furnace length and to increase firing power. Alternatively, performance improvements were achieved at some plants by preheating the strip as necessary using an upstream, electrically operated induction booster. New possibilities for improving performance were opened up by the development of the Direct Flame Impingement Oxyfuel technology and its adaptation to the requirements of the strip coating line. Together with the company Linde, which has already acquired experience with this kind of heating technology at stainless steel annealing plants in Scandinavia, ThyssenKrupp Steel has further developed the process and applied it for the first time to the heating of flat carbon steel on an industrial scale on hot-dip galvanizing line FBA 3, without the need to change the overall furnace length.

as a high-efficient method to improve heat transfer. Compared with a conventional firing (in which heat transfer is mostly via radiation, and convection plays only a subsidiary role), the heat transfer coefficient as a measure of the transfer increases by a factor of about ten. As Oxyfuel burners only generate short, compact flames in comparison with gas-air combustion, application of the DFI Oxyfuel technology requires that a large number of small burners be assembled together in a single unit, the so-called burner ramp I Fig. 3 I. Multiple ramps on the upper and lower side of the material to be heated form a socalled booster unit. With its compact form and high power density, this unit is relatively simple to integrate at the end of the front section of existing continuous strip lines or alone as a complete furnace. Use of DFI Oxyfuel on existing furnaces

Energetic advantage of DFI Oxyfuel technology The firing of heating furnaces using Oxyfuel technology has long been known as a means of improving performance and saving energy at the highest process temperatures. As a simple introduction to utilizing the Oxyfuel technology, combustion air can be enriched with additional oxygen in special firings. The advantage of this measure lies in the reduction of the amount of nitrogen, which must also be raised to process temperature in the firing as ballast while contributing only minimally to the heating of the material being processed. The higher the degree of oxygen enrichment, the less noticeable is the disadvantageous effect of the inert nitrogen. The heat loss that occurs due to extraction of the hot combustion gases at the end of the heating process is thus further minimized. The so-called thermal efficiency a quantitative measurement for evaluating a furnace quality rises by the same amount. Enrichment of combustion air in firings can be extended to the use of pure oxygen as the oxidizing agent. In the past only special applications for using pure oxygen have reached an economic basis for the reason of high costs for this media mostly only in connection with performance improvements for example, on the ladle heaters in the meltshop. When natural gas is burned with pure oxygen, the resulting combustion gas is ideally composed solely of the components water vapor and carbon dioxide. Compared to nitrogen, both of these gases possess excellent radiation properties for the transfer of heat. The high flame temperatures that can be achieved have made it possible to realize significantly improved heat transfer to the materials being heated than would have been possible using conventional combustion with air I Fig. 2 I. New possibilities for the oxygen-natural gas flame are opened up when the technology is combined with that of Direct Flame Impingement, i.e. the direct application of a flame to the material to be heated

The fundamentals for use of DFI Oxyfuel technology on a heating furnace line for strip were determined from laboratory experiments at a test facility in Sweden belonging to the company Linde. The result was the concept for a DFI Oxyfuel booster unit only two meters long and consisting of four burner ramps with a total of 120 Oxyfuel flames, representing a maximum burner power of 5,000 kW. Uniform surface treatment was achieved by broadening the individual flames to form an envelope flame completely covering the material. Space was also planned for two further burner ramps that could provide an additional 2,500 kW of heating power. This compact design made it possible to integrate the booster as the first stage of heating directly at the furnace entry, without extending the furnace. As a result, major rebuilding measures on the overall line were avoided. Were the DFI Oxyfuel booster not used, it would have been necessary to extend the existing furnace of FBA 3 in Finnentrop by approximately 10 m in the preheater section in order to achieve the same performance increase. Planning showed that to install this booster on FBA 3, downtimes could be limited to 12 days. The conventional rebuilding with extension of the preheater furnace and the concomitant repositioning of the intake rollers at the start of the furnace would have required considerably longer downtimes. Effects on furnace operation The operating results achieved that it has been possible to increase furnace line capacity by 30%. This was possible because the thermal efficiency of the booster is about 85% and thus significantly higher than the efficiency of conventional heating technology and inductive booster lines. The rated capacity of galvanizing line FBA 3 prior to the rebuilding was 82 t/h. This capacity was boosted to a maximum of 109 t/h by the DFI Oxyfuel booster. The initial measurements and

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DFI Oxyfuel process for saving energy and improving the performance and quality of continuous strip lines | 13

Cooling section Reduction furnace

Preheater furnace convective

Vertical furnace

Booster Strip entry

Zinc bath

Cooling section

Reduction furnace

Preheater heated Preheater furnace convective Booster

Horizontal furnace

Strip entry Zinc bath

Fig. 1 | Types of furnace for continuous strip lines

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14 | DFI Oxyfuel process for saving energy and improving the performance and quality of continuous strip lines

1,200 1,100 1,000 Relative heat flux density [%] 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Air-Fuel
Fig. 2 | Improved heat transfer due to DFI Oxyfuel flames

Oxyfuel

DFI-Oxyfuel

observations indicate that the targeted adjustment of the Oxyfuel burners operated to the respective current strip widths resulted in more uniform heating across the width of the strip, which led to improved annealing properties. The technology also represents a simple way of achieving controlled pre-oxidation of the strip. This is required to an increasing extent in the manufacture of specific grades in strip galvanizing plants. Advantages for strip cleaning Preliminary laboratory tests produced a surprising result: the DFI Oxyfuel technology demonstrated an additional substantial advantage when used on strip galvanizing lines. The direct contact of the flame with the strip material purges the strip surface of unwanted foreign materials such as emulsions, oils, lubricants and particles from the cold-rolling process. Expectations raised by the preliminary experiments have meanwhile been borne out in operation of FBA 3, which means the requirements for a high-quality metal coating will be reliably met. In addition to the improved performance, this made it possible to eliminate conventional mechanical and electrolytic strip cleaning

from the manufacturing process and to clean the strip simply using the DFI Oxyfuel booster. Due to the higher efficiency, this measure for improving performance simultaneously contributed to a reduction in specific fuel gas consumption by the line. The results of operations to date (over a period of several months) have shown that application of the DFI Oxyfuel booster has made it possible to reduce specific fuel gas consumption by 5.2%. This adds up to almost 450,000 m3 of natural gas saved per year on a typical galvanizing line producing 36,000 t/month. This quantity would be sufficient to heat approximately 500 modern single-family houses for an entire year. The reduced gas consumption also lowers carbon dioxide emissions by approximately 95 t/month. Burning natural gas with pure oxygen means that despite the high process temperatures, almost no nitrous oxides are formed due to the absence of nitrogen. Thanks to the booster component, the remaining NOX emissions of the overall line (the largest share of these originate from the gas of the unchanged section of the furnace which still uses natural gas-air combustion) were reduced by 20% relative to the total heat output.

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DFI Oxyfuel process for saving energy and improving the performance and quality of continuous strip lines | 15

Outlook In the meantime, as a result of the successful application of the Oxyfuel booster with DFI technology, the horizontal line FBA 1 in the Duisburg-Bruckhausen plant has also been equipped with this technology. This new system went into operation in September 2007. The feasibility of this kind of furnace extension is currently being determined for further continuous strip lines. Application of a DFI Oxyfuel booster on vertical galvanizing lines, which have a different technical layout, is also currently under consideration. Here, however, integration into existing lines is more difficult for technological reasons.

Discussions with plant engineers regarding construction of four modern vertical galvanizing lines for the new plant to be built in Alabama, USA, have already begun. The more compact plant structure made possible by using DFI Oxyfuel boosters and the resulting saving of up to 40 jet tubes and a strip cleaning unit also could offer advantages for this project. Further potential areas of application for the DFI Oxyfuel booster are continuous strip annealing and heating plants, CSP (Compact Strip Production) and continuous furnaces for heavy plate. Technical and economic studies on these areas are also being carried out at present.

Fig. 3 | Installation of the DFI Oxyfuel booster on FBA 3

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| Representation of the result in the knowledge database, with reference to steel mill slag

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Development of a knowledge database for assessing the environmental relevance of products, byproducts and waste materials
DR. RER. NAT. ALFONS ESSING Project Coordinator, Materials Center of Excellence | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg DIPL.-INFORM. AXEL TEICHMANN Team Leader Information Technology, Materials Center of Excellence | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg

Many and various legislative requirements, combined with customer specifications that result from them, lead to increased demands on the environmentally compatible manufacture, use and disposal of ThyssenKrupp Steel products. In order to focus the large number of requirements and offer fast, unambiguous assistance with decisions, a knowledge database for the assessment of the environmental relevance of products, byproducts, and waste materials is being built up. All relevant product-specific information, including recycling capability, information on contents and the hazard potential of individual materials, is being collected and made available in a fast and informative manner. Logical coupling of the stored product data with the directives, standards and customer-specific requirements also stored makes rapid analysis for conformity possible.

Requirements for the knowledge database The requirements that products must satisfy in terms of environmentally compatible production, use and disposal are constantly growing, not least due to environmental legislation. Customers have reacted with corresponding conformity inquiries and their own, spe-cific requirements, and they will continue to do so in the future. A very wide range of information is relevant, depending on the products intended uses. The creation of a knowledge database offers a method of focusing the available comprehensive knowledge on this topic, which is, however, spread among many employees. To this end, the following user profile has been defined:

The knowledge database is understood as a collection of knowledge and facts, connected with a clear structuring of all information. The implementation of user-friendly search and evaluation functionalities should represent a comfortable and, most important, effective way of making the stored knowledge available to many authorized persons. Logical linking of the stored product data to the directives, standards, and customer-specific requirements also stored enables fast conformity analysis. The focus is on the needs and requirements of customers.

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18 | Development of a knowledge database for assessing the environmental relevance of products, byproducts and waste materials

To guarantee a high degree of practical relevance, all potential users in areas ranging from distribution of main products and sale of byproducts to disposal operations were integrated in a project team from the start. Acquired as external partners were the Institut fr Energie- und Umwelttechnik IUTA e.V., Duisburg, and for the programming of the database structure, science + computing ag, Tbingen. From idea to prototype In the first project phase, the initial, abstract idea was developed into a concrete software application. The fundamental structure of the knowledge database was developed on the basis of the following typical products from ThyssenKrupp Steel: soft-alloyed steel, electrolytically galvanized, thin-film coated, mill scale, oil-bearing and steel mill slag. This selection of very different products, which was agreed on by the team, required a broad design for the database structure as early as the initial project phase. Soft-alloyed steel sheet is manufactured to customer order for the automotive industry. It is a steel according to EN 10152, electrolytically galvanized and subsequently receiving an organic thin-film coating. Mill scale sludge is produced as a byproduct of the hot rolling process. Mill scale consists of more than 60% iron oxide, and the major share of it is recycled within the plant; i.e. it is used for steel production in the shaft furnace. Steel mill slag is a byproduct of steel production and consists of a mixture of various calcium silicates with a substantial component of free lime and further metal oxides. Depending on the grain size classification, different recycling paths are relevant for slag: fertilizer, road and waterway construction. The entire project team was involved in compiling the required characteristics on the basis of customer-specific and legislative requirements. This ensured that the essential specialist knowledge and the requirements of the potential users were incorporated into the database profile. I Fig. 1 I shows the fundamental procedure in developing the profile. Starting with the material under consideration, the knowledge database requires development of a profile defining the area of application

and the legislative and customer-specific requirements. In addition, the database contains the available company-internal safety data sheets, chemical analyses on the selected products and external information on individual materials from various toxicology and ecology data-bases. After preparation in the knowledge database, the comparison of this data follows, with the focus on the assessment output corresponding to the products area of application takes priority, from a legal perspective and, in particular, from the customers specific point of view. The results of the data comparison are summarized in short and clear form so that all essential information on the hazard potential of the product is included and is rapidly available to the user I see title picture of the report I. A traffic light representation has been selected: Green The product corresponds to all requirements and directives. Yellow Parameter contents must be declared, or the assessment cannot be conducted due to missing product data. Red Limit values exceeded, thus resulting in exclusion of the selected area of application for the product. The safety data sheets and the chemical analyses for individual products can also be output from the knowledge database in tabular form, and supplier and conformity declarations can be created. In addition to application-related assessment of the individual products, a directivedependent assessment of the products is also possible I Fig. 2 I. Outlook In order to promote in-house application of the knowledge database and to allow its cross-segment use, the second project phase, which is currently starting, will involve the transfer of the existing prototype knowledge database into a web-based productive system. At the same time, the knowledge database will be completed with respect to the materials and directives. Special attention will be paid here to an open system architecture which, over time, will make it possible to easily adapt to new legislative, operational, and customeroriented requirements.

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Development of a knowledge database for assessing the environmental relevance of products, byproducts and waste materials | 19

Material Product Byproduct Waste material

Profile development Application areas

Legislative requirements Customer-specific specifications

Internal data research Safety data sheet Analysis data Physical data Database Comparison Assessment Evaluation

External data resarch Toxicological/ ecological data Safety relevant data

User query

Representation of the results

Fig. 1 | Profile development for the knowledge database

Legislative regulations and customer-specific requirements Federal soil protection and inherited liability law incl. information sheets for the execution of the LABO (Federal/State soil protection working group) TLW Technical conditions for armor stone LAGA Federal/State waste working group (explanatory note 20/Slags Z1, Z2) Fertilizer ordinance TA (technical instruction) Waste, TA Municipal waste Landfill ordinance End-of-life vehicle ordinance GADSL Global Automotive Declarable Substance List (2007) Analytical values of the three materials

Fig. 2 | Legislative regulations and customer-specific requirements in the knowledge database (selection)

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| Virtually developed prototype

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SLC the innovative, low-cost lightweight construction solution for passenger car subframes
DIPL.-ING. PETER SEYFRIED Head of Lightweight Construction & Innovation Center Auto (LIZA) | ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Dortmund DIPL.-ING. ULF SUDOWE Head of R&D and Prototype Construction Chassis Operating Group | ThyssenKrupp Umformtechnik GmbH, Bielefeld

The innovative subframe is only half as expensive as the benchmark, an aluminum luxury class production solution and is just 5% heavier. The SLC is a result of close collaboration between ThyssenKrupp Steel, ThyssenKrupp Umformtechnik and ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems. The concepts main features are its optimal mixture of materials expertise, tooling and systems know-how.

SLC a collaborative project In previous years the steel industry has successfully developed new steel grades with improved mechanical properties and, on this basis, lightweight construction solutions for automotive bodies. The highstrength steel grades used here are also suitable for use in other vehicle areas. The SLC illustrates the potential of the new steel materials, of engineering designs making intensive use of profiles and of innovative joining technologies, for example in chassis applications. The rear subframe was developed by ThyssenKrupp Steel, ThyssenKrupp Umformtechnik and ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems in a collaborative cross-segment project. The benchmark for the innovative steel solution is a modern subframe structure of aluminum which is currently used in a premium-segment production vehicle. The newly developed steel rear subframe I Fig. 1 I is around 40% more economical than the benchmark assembly and offers the same performance in terms of rigidity and durability with only a small weight increase. Ambitious benchmark competitive steel solution The series-production rear subframe selected as the reference structure may be viewed as an exceptionally demanding benchmark. The assembly incorporates a series of cast aluminum parts whose implementation in stamped steel components places extremely high demands on component design and forming technology. At the same time, the steel structure must demonstrate equivalent corrosion pro-

tection to that of aluminum. The use of thinner sheets of high-strength steel represents a special challenge here. In order to fulfill the complex connection requirements to the control arms, supports etc. without negatively impacting the weight of the assembly, new manufacturing methods had to be applied both in the production of the components and in their assembly. Due to the projects requirement that the result be suitable for production use, the virtually developed model was tested in practice by means of a small series of prototypes I Fig. 2 I, which were finally subjected to a dynamic component test.

Fig. 1 | Tailor-made solution for a complex installation situation: SLC

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The hot-rolled complex-phase steel CP-W 800 is one of the materials used in the lightweight construction steel chassis. It has a yield strength of 680 MPa, making it significantly stronger than the steels currently used for most chassis production, which have yield strengths between 355 and 420 MPa. It thus makes it possible to realize designs with correspondingly thinner walls while, however, also presenting higher demands on the forming technology capabilities of its processors. Corresponding experience is required, particularly in the design of the tooling methods and selection of the correct coating
Fig. 2 | Reliable weldability was demonstrated with real prototype components.

for the tools. CP-W 800 offers advantages with respect to corrosion protection, in particular du to its microstructure and resulting insensitivity to heat input. For example, it is possible to achieve the corrosion resistance required by means of batch galvanizing. Depending on the stresses (stone impacts and corrosion) to which the beam is subjected, the high-strength complex-phase steels can be coated prior to use or post-treated by means of the commonly used processes with no significant loss of strength. Technical highlights With the SLC, the project team has succeeded in extending the area of application of high-strength steel grades to more complex geometries that require greater forming technology capabilities. The CP-W 800 is used for the side members I Fig. 3 I and the rear

Fig. 3 | Flangeless lightweight construction profiles for half-shell technology: Even the most complex geometries can be reliably produced with the high-strength complex-phase steel CP-W 800.

cross member of the rear subframe, which are manufactured from sheets of less than 2 mm thickness I Fig. 4 I. The materials previously used for this application would require a sheet thickness of approximately 2.5 mm. Additional weight saving is achieved by using ThyssenKrupp tailored blanks, made from individual CP-W 800 blanks of different thicknesses. Furthermore, the joining technology used also has an effect on the component weight, which consists of two half shells welded together using a square butt joint. The process does not require the conventional welding flanges which can account for up

Holistic development The interdisciplinary composition of the project team provided an optimal combination of materials, product and process know-how throughout the entire project. The aim of the project was to offer automakers a solution suitable for production use. During the validation of the SLC concept, the finished rear subframes are tested for operational stability according to industry standards on a multiaxis simulation test rig. Strain gauges on the components to be tested ensure that the actual measured strains on the component under test are fed back into the component simulation. This makes further optimization possible and allows knowledge to be derived for future development.

to 5% of the component weight. Moreover, components welded without a flange make much more effective use of the available packaging space. Design flexibility with respect to costs and weight Thanks to the flexible use of tailored blanks, it has also been possible to represent a modular solution within the specified geometry. This made it possible to create stress-matched variants by replacing the side members or cross members designed as tailored blanks with stamped components featuring the same geometry but with constant sheet thickness. This approach also makes it possible to minimize weight or to achieve a balanced mixture of cost and weight advan-

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SLC the innovative, low-cost lightweight construction solution for passenger car subframes | 23

tages, depending on customer preference. Expressed in numbers, this means cost can be reduced by approximately 40% relative to the benchmark with only a minimal weight increase of 5%. For a costdriven variant, a design with a cost reduction of approximately 50% can be achieved for an acceptable increase in weight of 10%. CO2 balance According to a current study carried out on behalf of the IISI (International Iron and Steel Institute) by the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), which is recognized in the field of international environmental protection, the following conclusions can be drawn: Based on a comparative life cycle assessment and taking into account the currently known fundamental data, it was determined that compared with body concepts using high-strength steels such as ULSAB-AVC, aluminum body concepts do not make any overall savings in greenhouse gas emissions. Considered over the complete product lifecycle within the normal vehicle service life, the greenhouse gas emissions are on a roughly comparable level. This is mainly due to the production phase of the aluminum material, which causes comparatively high greenhouse gas emissions prior to the metals use phase. It is almost impossible to offset these production-related

emissions by means of savings from supposed weight advantages of the aluminum solution during its use phase. Taking this into account in the chassis scenario means that the slight weight advantage of the aluminum structure is offset by the increased CO2 emissions during aluminum production. Outlook ThyssenKrupp Steel is currently developing innovative zinc-magnesium coatings that can be used to specifically improve the corrosion protection concept for the SLC. This can, for example, lead to further, significant cost advantages through the use of ZMg precoated sheet in combination with a post-treatment of the welding seams and subsequent coating by means of cathodic dip painting. A further element in the reduction of weight and costs is provided by high-strength steel grades with high formability, which allow more complex geometries and an associated increase in functional integration. The integrated approach to future developments also incorporates further development of the joining processes. Cold joining processes (e.g. riveting, adhesive bonding) and hot joining processes alike offer significant potential in this area.

Fig. 4 | Low weight thanks to the use of thickness-optimized tailored blanks and the high-strength complex-phase steel CP-W 800

PAS 460 t = 2.15 mm

PAS 460 t = 1.5 mm

PAS 460 t = 2.15 mm

CP-W 800 t = 1.5 mm CP-W 800 t = 1.8 mm CP-W 800 t = 1.5 mm CP-W 800 t = 1.5 mm

CP-K t = 1.3 mm

24 |

| Heat exchanger tube bundle for seawater desalination plants

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Stainless steels for seawater desalination plants


DR.-ING. GEORG UHLIG Technical Product Manager | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld

Seawater desalination plants can be used to produce drinking water with low chloride concentrations. Stainless steels are an elementary component of the various process technologies in such plants. Due to growing demand for drinking water especially in the Arabian states, but also in southern Europe seawater desalination plants represent a very interesting area of application with increasing economic importance for stainless steels.

Global drinking water requirements In many countries in the Middle East, in North Africa and in certain regions of southern Europe, supplying drinking water to the populations represents one of the most important tasks. There is increased demand, especially in countries with strong population growth, where natural sources of drinking water are no longer always adequate. Furthermore, available drinking water reserves may shrink due to climatic changes, causing the water table to fall or surface water used to date, for example in coastal regions, to become brackish. The limited availability of natural drinking water reserves therefore makes it necessary in many countries to produce additional quantities. Seawater desalination is one possible process that can be used.

In terms of process technology, there are three different possibilities available in principle for the desalination of seawater: the MSF (Multi Stage Flash) process, the MED (Multiple Effect Distillation) process and the RO (Reverse Osmosis) process The first two processes are based on the evaporation of seawater and extraction of the desalinated condensate, while the reverse osmosis process involves using high pressure to force the seawater through a semi-permeable membrane I Fig. 2 I. This membrane is permeable to the water but retains the salt component.

Salt contents of seawater

Processes for seawater desalination Using seawater desalination plants, it is possible to reduce the chloride content of seawater I Fig. 1 I to a low concentration corresponding to

normal: locally from: up to:

35,000 ppm 7,000 ppm (Baltic Sea) 50,000 ppm (Persian Gulf) 1,000 -10,000 ppm

the respective national regulations and guidelines for drinking water.


Brackish water:

In Germany, for example, the maximum permitted chloride concentration in drinking water is 250 mg/l. In practice, the normal chloride concentrations in tap water are usually well under 100 mg/l.
Fig. 1 | Salt contents of seawater

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26 | Stainless steels for seawater desalination plants

Thermal process Water vapor

Membrane process

Evaporator chamber

Cooling Sea water Condensate

Flow direction

Heat exchanger tube bundle

Water vapor Desalinated water

Sea water

Desalinated condensate Sea water

Heating

Membrane

Fig. 2 | Principles of seawater desalination

Fig. 3 | Principle of the MSF process

Due to the growing demand for drinking water, a great deal of new capacity has been created within the last ten years. Worldwide, around 25 new plants using the thermal processes MSF and MED alone are being built per year. At the same time, plant capacity is continually being increased. About 68% of the seawater desalination plants in operation today function using the MSF process, with approximately 14% using the MED technology. The remaining 18% work on the reverse osmosis principle (RO process). The MED and RO processes in particular have been showing disproportionately high growth rates recently. Corrosion-resistant materials are elementary components of the plants, particularly of those using the thermal processes. The factors determining selection of materials for such plants are the local chloride load and the effective temperatures. The MSF process essentially consists of a number of evaporation chambers arranged one behind the other, in which the seawater is evaporated at successively lower temperatures and pressures. The evaporated seawater subsequently condenses on bundles of tubes arranged in the steam space of the chambers. The tubes are cooled from inside by seawater that is heated in the process and subsequently fed to the evaporation chambers I Fig. 3 I. In principle, various materials are suitable for the evaporation chambers. In practice, carbon steel lined with the material 1.4404

or epoxy coated is normally used. Recently, the use of stainless duplex steels (1.4462) for this purpose has been increasing. The tube bundles in the evaporation chambers are subject to extreme corrosive loads, especially in the first evaporation stages I see title picture of the report I. The temperature in the first stage can be as high as 120 C at pressures of around 1.3 bar. Copper-based and titanium alloys are mostly used for these tube bundles. The base plates of the tube bundles, in contrast, consist mostly of the material 1.4404. Stainless steels such as 1.4404 and 1.4539 are also used for additional plant components including pumps, containers and pipework. The corrosion requirements presented by the MED process are generally lower than those of the MSF process, due to the different process control. In this process, which takes place in several stages, the seawater is sprayed onto bundles of tubes and vaporized. The vapor is then led into the tubes, where it condenses as desalinated water. In this process technology, the evaporation chambers and tanks for the distillate are usually made from the stainless steels 1.4404 or 1.4462. At a maximum of 70 C, the thermal stress to which the tube bundles are subjected is lower in the MED process than in the MSF process. For this reason, highly alloyed stainless steels of type 1.4565 are among the materials suitable for manufacturing bundles of tubes with minimal wall thicknesses I Fig. 4 I. Alternative materials for these plant components would be titanium or copper-based alloys.

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Stainless steels for seawater desalination plants | 27

Fig. 4 | Heat exchanger tube bundle made of NIROSTA 4565

Furthermore, stainless steels of the types 1.4404 and 1.4462 are also used in the MED process for other applications, including transportation and storage of the raw water and the distillate. Modern plants using the MED process have capacities of approximately 250,000 m3/d. This type of plant requires several thousand

Summary In line with the forecast for future demand for drinking water, seawater desalination plants offer a very interesting area of application for stainless steels, one that will continue to grow in importance during the coming years.

tons of stainless steel in the form of hot and cold rolled sheet, strip and tubes I Figs 5 and 6 I.

Fig. 5 | Demi Water Plant for desalination of brackish water in Rotterdam, Netherlands

Fig. 6 | Seawater desalination plant, Al Hidd, Bahrain

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| Spaceframe body of the Nido (Nest) prototype from Pininfarina a lightweight structure of austenitic stainless steel

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High-performance and environment-friendly advanced high-strength stainless steels in automotive applications


ING. ANDREA BRUNO Product Manager | ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni SpA, Terni/Italy

Although mainly known for their corrosion-resistance properties, stainless steels, especially the new class of austenitic N-Mn grades, also possess outstanding mechanical properties. In the transport industry, especially for the automotive sector, it has proved possible to exploit these features, especially in the design of vehicles that are not only environmentally friendly but also offer high performance and thus great market appeal.

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30 | High-performance and environment-friendly advanced high-strength stainless steels in automotive applications

Stainless steels Since their invention, stainless steels defined as any Fe-Cr alloy containing at least 10.5% chromium have been well known for their specific properties of resistance to oxidation and high temperatures. Chromium forms a compact protective oxide layer (Cr2O3) which adheres firmly to the metal surface and prevents further oxidation of the metal substrate (similarly to what happens naturally with titanium and, to a lesser extent, aluminum alloys), thus protecting the steel. The aforementioned properties make this class of steels suitable for applications in a wide range of aggressive environments. What is not so widely known, however, is that stainless steel possesses outstanding mechanical properties and good workability. All in all, these properties make stainless steel a valid alternative to structural carbon steel and in some cases also to aluminum alloys. Though the initial material costs are higher, they allow significant cost savings in terms of overall lifecycle cost and environmental benefits, for example lower fuel consumption. Within the framework described here, a new class of structural stainless steels, namely austenitic N-Mn grades, is attracting more and more interest due to their combined properties of corrosion resistance and high strength. Italian-based ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni is without doubt a leader with regard to research, development and industrialization of this class of materials, which opens up new perspectives in terms of efficiency and performance.

General properties of advanced high-strength stainless steels Austenitic N-Mn stainless steels display a unique combination of mechanical strength, ductility I Fig. 1 I and, of course, corrosion resistance. STR18, recently launched by ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni, represents the worlds latest development in this class of steel. It is a fully austenitic N-Mn stainless steel with 18% Cr content. This steel is characterized by high mechanical strength levels as well as excellent formability/workability thanks to the exploitation of TWIP/TRIP (Twinning Induced Plasticity/Transformation Induced Plasticity) effects. Generally speaking, its typical properties are: high strength: Rp > 420 MPa; Rm > 750 MPa; outstanding formability, especially given the mechanical strength levels: A% > 45% good weldability and corrosion resistance (substantially equivalent to AISI 304 / EN 1.4301). Moreover, austenitic microstructures in general and grades with high N-Mn content in particular display a higher strain hardening coefficient. As a consequence, mechanical characteristics are improved dramatically by cold deformation, although this also results in de-creased formability I Figs 2 and 3 I. This gives material designers the freedom to customize material properties by cold rolling in line with the intended application.

60 50 Elongation A80 [%] 40 30 20 FB-W 10 0 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 STR18

Conventional steels DP

FB-W: Ferrite-bainite-phase steels (hot rolled) DP: Dual-phase-steels Retained-austenite steels (TRIP) RA: CP: Complex-phase steels MS-W: Martensitic-phase steel (hot rolled)

RA

CP MS-W

1,000 1,100 1,200 1,300 1,400 1,500

Tensile strength Rm [MPa]


Fig. 1 | Characteristics of STR18 in comparison with main classes of high-strength steel

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1,500 AISI 304 3/4H

STR 18

AISI 304 1/2H AISI 304 1/4H AISI 301 1/4H AISI 304 ann

DP 1000 1,000 True strain [MPa] DP 800 DP 600 380TM

AISI 420 ann

500

DP 500 220 BH FePO4

0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 True stress 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4

Fig. 2 | Stress-strain curves of STR18, at various pre-strain levels, compared with stress-strain curves of typical carbon and stainless steel grades

1,600 1,500 1,400


Stress, Rp0,2, Rm [MPa]

48 44 Rm Rp0,2 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8
A Elongation A [%]

1,300 1,200 1,100 1,000 900 800 700 600 500 400 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65

4 0

Cold reduction ratio [%]

Fig. 3 | Variation of mechanical properties of STR18 as a function of pre-strain (cold rolling)

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32 | High-performance and environment-friendly advanced high-strength stainless steels in automotive applications

Mechanical characteristics also depend on the strain rate value; the higher the load application rate, the greater the material resistance. Stainless steels, especially austenitic grades, have a substantial advantage over light alloys or carbon steels in terms of their greater sensitivity to strain rate. This property is particularly beneficial when it comes to passive safety (crash safety): it allows the realization of components with equivalent performance but much lower weight than conventional components. Advanced high-strength stainless steel in automotive applications The properties described provide designers with a wide range of options for weight reduction. Their effects are particularly noticeable in the automotive sector where they lead to both improved vehicle handling and reduced fuel consumption. The automotive sector holds an important strategic position both due to its high sales volumes and because it exerts a greater influence on research and development strategies than other sectors. Examples include the development of new technologies, products, production processes, quality assurance methods and partnerships as well as new concepts for distribution, organization and logistics. Car makers have repeatedly pointed out the importance of using steels of ever higher perforance to meet the following needs: higher structural stiffness while at the same time saving weight in order to improve vehicle handling. higher performance in terms of passive safety (crashworthiness); this issue is also important in terms of the quality perceived by end users, weight saving in order to reduce fuel consumption and thus meet emissions standards. The latter point is particularly important in relation to environmental aspects, as lower weight is a key factor in lowering fuel consumption. Extensive studies carried out by carmakers show that weight and tire rolling resistance are surpassed only by aerodynamics in terms of their influence on fuel consumption. Hence it is clear that choosing the right material, such as special steel, is a very effective means of improving vehicle fuel efficiency. On the other hand, the intro-

duction of more and more optional accessories such as multimedia devices, parking sensors, driving assistance devices (e.g. automatic gearbox) requested by customers even in entry level cars is increasing vehicle mass and thus fuel consumption. The use of high-strength stainless steel can therefore be an effective way of reducing fuel consumption. An extensive analysis recently carried out by Ford came to the conclusion that by using stainless steel it is possible to save up to 25% in weight compared with the use of conventional structural steels. Values observed in this respect closely match those determined in recent years by several internal workgroups assigned by ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni to Italys largest commercial vehicle company. The aim of these studies was the application of advanced materials for parts involved in passive safety. In this study different materials were compared with a reference solution of carbon steel. The findings have been validated by the research center of the aforementioned company. The STR18 solution was the one with the highest weight saving with respect to the reference solution and also proved to be slightly better than aluminum. Although the specific density of aluminum is only about one third of that of steel, its modulus of elasticity and yield strength are also only about a third as high as those of highstrength steels I Fig. 4 I. Another important advantage of stainless steel is its corrosion resistance, allowing end users to avoid expensive and potentially harmful anti-corrosion treatments. This is especially beneficial for safety-relevant parts, as they can be installed without the need for treatment which helps save costs. Very interesting results have been achieved in this area, as passive safety elements are usually manufactured separately from the car body and installed later, allowing the anti-corrosion properties to be exploited in full. Another very positive aspect is the fact that stainless steel can be recycled, given that every year, end-of-life vehicles in the European Union generate between 8 and 9 million tons of scrap. In order to make the dismantling and recycling of this scrap mountain more environmentally friendly, in 1997 the European Commission adopted the so-called End of Life Vehicle Directive10. This regulation imposes

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Material

Duplex Stainless Steel Annealed

STR18 Structural Austenitic Stainless Steel CR 6 (2) CR 9 (3) CR 12 (4) CR 15 (5)

6061 Aluminium Alloy T4 (6) T6 (7)

Carbon High Strength Steel (HSLA)

State

(1)

Density [g/cm3] Density relative to steel Yield strength Rp0,2 [N/mm ]


2

7.80 1.00 640 850


2 3

7.90 1.00 450 750 57.0 1.09 45.00 2.05 200 25

7.90 1.00 533 762 67.5 1.29 39.00 1.77 200 25

7.90 1.00 647 833 81.9 1.56 33.00 1.50 200 25

7.90 1.00 690 861 87.3 1.67 29.4 1.34 200 25

7.90 1.00 813 944 102.9 1.97 20 0.91 200 25

2.70 0.35 145 240 53.7 1.03 15.00 0.68 70 26

2.70 0.35 275 310 101.9 1.95 8.00 0.36 70 26

7.83 1.00 410 480 52.4 1.00 22.00 1.00 200 26

Tensile strength Rm [N/mm ]


2

Specific strength Rp/ [N/mm /g/cm ) Specific strength rel. to HSLA Steel Elongation [%] Elongation with respect to HSS Youngs modulus E [kN/mm ]
2

82.1 1.57 35.00 1.59 200 26

Spezific stiffness E/

(1): in the solution annealed condition (2): in the cold worked condition with a 6% cold reduction ratio (3): in the cold worked condition with a 9% cold reduction ratio (4): in the cold worked condition with a 12% cold reduction ratio (5): in the cold worked condition with a 15% cold reduction ratio (6): the T4 temper is solution heat treated at 503 C and then water quenched (7): the T6 temper is precipitation heat treated at 160 C for 18 hours, or is heated at 180 C for 8 hours and then air cooled

Fig. 4 | Comparison of mechanical properties of high-strength steels and aluminum alloys

minimum requirements on auto manufacturers for the use of recyclable materials from 75% in 2006 to 95% in 2015. Unlike many other engineering materials such as polymers/plastics, stainless steels properties make it 100% recyclable without any degradation. Currently, stainless steel parts comprise 60% recycled material (25% originating from other end-of-life products and 35% from relatively new products of the same type). The main reason why recycled material input is not higher is that stainless steel demand is continuously growing.

Conclusion The use of advanced high-strength stainless steels in modern vehicles can make a significant contribution to reducing weight and thus to lowering fuel consumption. At the same time, the outstanding mechanical properties of these materials contribute to an improvement in passive safety (crash performance). As a result, stainless steel serves to protect both the environment and vehicle occupants.

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| Forged shaft produced by Societ delle Fucine at the Siemens Power Generation (PG) plant

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Large forged shafts for power generation


DIPL.-ING. STEFANO NERI Quality Management | Societ delle Fucine S.r.l., Terni/Italy DIPL.-ING. DANIELE MARSILI Metallurgy | Societ delle Fucine S.r.l., Terni/Italy DR. RER. OEC. GIOVANNI SANSONE Sales Management Power Generation | Societ delle Fucine S.r.l., Terni/Italy

Continuing efforts to increase efficiency and reduce emissions from large thermal power plants have seen a corresponding trend toward ever higher steam temperatures and pressures as well as advanced turbine technology. In this context the Italian-based Societ delle Fucine (SdF), a company of ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni, manufactured and supplied the high-pressure (HP) rotor shaft of the biggest steam turbine in the world to Siemens AG. The power plant, denominated Olkiluoto 3, is located in the heart of the countryside in Finland. To produce this HP rotor shaft, SdF used a special low-alloy steel ingot of approx. 230 metric tons.

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36 | Large forged shafts for power generation

Steam turbine for a nuclear power plant in Finland The nuclear power plant near the west coast of Finland on the island of Olkiluoto (municipality of Eurajoki) is being built for the economical generation of base-load power. Environmental conditions in Olkiluoto are monitored in compliance with approved programs. The extensive measurement and observation system had already been set up before the first plant unit started operation. The environmental impact of the nuclear power plant is reduced by following the principle of prevention and continuous improvement. The conventional steam turbine for Olkiluoto 3 was manufactured by Siemens Power Generation (PG). The turbine section also includes the HP stage which is of the double-flow type and features a doubleshell design with horizontally split outer and inner casings. The rotor of the HP turbine consists of a forged, mono-block shaft with forgedon coupling flanges; the moving blades are held in slots. The rigid HP rotor has operational advantages over flexible rotors in that it

maintains relatively small clearances, suffers no instability due to resonance zones during start-up, has no power limitation due to steam turbulence, and finally no self-created oil film vibration can occur. The blading is of a variable reaction type. All the moving and stationary blades are integrally shrouded and tightly locked together I see title picture of the report and Fig. 1 I. The steam turbine for the new nuclear plant in Finland was designed to have a net output of approximately 1,600 MW and a net efficiency of about 37%. The turbine section is of a tandem compound design and consists of a double-flow high-pressure (HP) turbine and a six-flow low-pressure (LP) turbine solidly coupled to a three-phase synchronous generator with a directly connected exciter. Societ delle Fucine, supplied the mono-block forged shaft for the HP stage of the steam turbine on the basis of drawings from Siemens Power Generation (PG).

Fig. 1 | Steam turbine shaft with blades

Large forged shafts for power generation | 37

Temperature [C] 293.6

200

150

100

50

Fig. 2 | FE (finite element) analysis with the carbon macrosegregation map at the end of solidification

Fig. 3 | Ingot hot top insulation checked by Thermovision

Manufacturing the steam turbine Ingot making The steelmaking process for the Olkiluoto rotor was as follows: Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) treatment Melting of selected scrap, dephosphorization phase, deslagging and renewal of slag, heating to reach tapping temperature; tapping into the ladle and steel killing by silicon addition. Refining treatment The refining treatment of the liquid steel was performed in the plant from Asea Brown Boveri Ltd., following deslagging and addition of new slag formers, short vacuum treatment to obtain steel-slag deoxidation, heating and alloying, vacuum degassing, argon rinsing. Ingot pouring A vacuum process was used to pour the 230 t ingot. Prior to this, the ingot solidification model and carbon macrosegregation were studied by the use of FE modeling I Fig. 2 I. Accurate analyses were performed by means of thermovision I Fig. 3 I to optimize the ingot weight and hot top insulation.

from a temperature of 1,200 C. During this process the workpiece was forged several times close to the minimum temperature allowed and then reheated in the furnace so as to ensure the correct deformation of the steel. The forging operation continued for several hours until the pre-defined shape was obtained; the final weight at this stage was 138 t. Such forging operations have to be extremely accurate, even for ingots as heavy as 230 tons and even using a press as powerful as 12,600 t I Fig. 4 I. This forging operation is without doubt the most critical step in the production process, as it is here that the desired microstructure (uniform tempered bainite) and fine grain size are obtained.

Quality heat treatment After the completion of the forging work a series of preliminary heat treatments (normalizing, tempering) and quality heat treatments (hardening, tempering) were performed in accordance with a specific profile with the purpose of realizing and obtaining the desired mechanical properties. The hardening treatment consists of a liquid quenching to produce uniform characteristics. The shaft is then quenched until the temperature in the center of the rotor body is less than 100 C. The tempering temperature is selected to achieve the prescribed

Shaft forging After stripping, the ingot was forged in the 12,600 ton forging press. In this phase, the ingot was hot deformed in several steps starting

0.2% yield strength and the best possible toughness. The duration of tempering as well as the controlled cooling rate are chosen to obtain minimum residual stresses and are measured by a specially

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Fig. 4 | Forging operations on the 12,600 ton forging press

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Large forged shafts for power generation | 39

developed and qualified method (e.g. the ring core method of Kraftwerkunion KWU). It was specified that the residual compressive stresses should not exceed 60 MPa.

Final machining and magnetic particle inspection Following the positive result of the ultrasonic test examination, final machining was performed on a horizontal lathe to obtain the final shape as per client drawing I Fig. 5 I. The delivery weight was 96 t

Mechanical testing A series of mechanical tests, such as tensile and Charpy V-notch testing, were performed upon completion of the heat treatment to verify the obtained mechanical properties. Sampling was executed according to Siemens specifications. The tensile and impact specimens were removed at a distance of 40 mm from the heat-treated surfaces. The mechanical characteristics achieved at room temperature were: 0.2% yield strength: 580-680 MPa Tensile strength: Elongation: Reduction of area: Impact strength: <820 MPa >16% >50% >100 J

with a diameter of 1,830 mm and a total length of 7,698 mm. Only after completion of machining was the outside surface of the rotor shaft tested by means of magnetic particle inspection. Conclusions The realization of such an important forging is in line with the highest quality levels required in the power generation sector. Societ delle Fucine has been recognized by Siemens Power Generation (PG) as a key supplier of such components and in August 2007 was awarded with the supplier prize Pioneer in manufacturing of forged components for the worlds largest steam turbine. On the basis of this success, Societ delle Fucine will continue to develop such components and equipment which are subject to top quality standards.

Skin cut and ultrasonic examination Having obtained and verified the mechanical properties, the piece was machined to provide it with a surface shape and quality allowing ultrasonic testing (UT) to be performed according to the Siemens procedure. The soundness of all parts of the rotor shaft was checked to very stringent requirements; the maximum acceptable axial defect was 3 mm equivalent diameter.

Fig. 5 | Final machining of the rotor shaft

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| Tubes of Nicrofer 5520CoB - alloy 617B in the component test facility in the Scholven power plant, COMTES 700

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Nickel alloys for tomorrows power plants


DR.-ING. JUTTA KLWER Senior Vice President Research and Development | ThyssenKrupp VDM, Werdohl DR. RER. NAT. BODO GEHRMANN Project Manager Super Alloys, R&D | ThyssenKrupp VDM, Werdohl

Increases in the efficiency of fossil fuel-fired power plants are increasingly leading to higher temperatures and pressures, thus making the use of nickel alloys essential. Nickel-based superalloys are already routinely used in gas turbines of combined cycle power plants. With the development of the 700 C technology for coal-fired power plants, nickel alloys are now also being used in boilers and steam turbines in the next generation of power plants. Together with power plant operators and manufacturers of boilers for power plants, ThyssenKrupp VDM has developed alloy variant Nicrofer 5520CoB - alloy 617B, a material that has already demonstrated its suitability for the 700 C power plant in a pilot facility.

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42 | Nickel alloys for tomorrows power plants

Efficiency in power plant technology Due to the increasing global demand for energy, highly efficient coalfired power plants will have to ensure supplies of electricity for the foreseeable future, despite all the progress being made in the area of renewable energy sources. Worldwide, demand for electrical energy is expected to double by the year 2030 I Fig. 1 I. In the EU 15 countries alone, an additional energy requirement of 100,000 MW and a replacement energy requirement of 200,000 MW exist, which together correspond to new construction of 300 power plants, each with an output of 1,000 MW. Against this background, technological innovations in the context of fossil fuel-fired power plants will be a decisive factor in efficient climate protection and the sustainable use of resources. Today, modern coal-fired power plants achieve efficiencies of 43%. This places them significantly above the worldwide average of 31%. As CO2 emissions are inversely proportional to efficiency, the replacement of ageing power plants on the basis of new technologies can considerably reduce emissions of this greenhouse gas. Combined cycle power plants, in which the waste heat from the natural gas-fired gas turbine is used to generate steam for the steam turbine, represent one already established technological development. I Fig. 2 I schematically represents the function of a combined cycle plant. Such plants already reach efficiencies of close to 60%. Further developments of combined cycle technology are aimed at replacing natural gas with other fuels such as gas produced by the gasification of coal.

The latest technological developments are intended to further increase the efficiency of coal-fired power plants. As the efficiency of any power plant is, in the first instance, a function of temperature, most measures for increasing efficiency are aimed at increasing the live steam temperature. Like in a pressure cooker, however, higher temperatures in a power plant boiler can only be achieved through an increase in pressure. Today, temperatures of approximately 620 C at pressures of 270 bar represent the current state of the art, with power plants with temperatures of 700 C at pressures of 350 bar on the drawing boards. The increasing temperatures at higher pressures and the increasing use of corrosive fuel gases place high demands on the materials used and make the application of nickel alloys essential. Future applications of nickel alloys in power plant technology Nickel alloys in the gas turbine The application of nickel alloys in industrial gas turbines I Fig. 3 I already represents the current state of the art. As has long been standard in aero engines, nickel alloys are also today being used in industrial gas turbines. Specific applications include sheets for the combustion chambers and hot gas lines; forged parts for disks, rings, and blades or for cast single crystals in the case of blades which are subject to especially high thermal stresses. The requirements are demanding: in addition to an adequate creep rupture strength of more than 100,000 hours at temperatures exceeding 1,000 C, the materials must also be resistant to fatigue due to thermal cyclic

40,000 Generated electrical energy [TWh] 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1990 Coal, New technologies Coal Others Nuclear Alternative Water 2000 2010 2020 2030 Gas

Fig. 1 | Estimate of global energy requirements until 2030

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Nickel alloys for tomorrows power plants | 43

Exhaustgas Hydrogen-rich gas Gas/Oil Combustion Chamber Head recovery steam generator Gas turbine generator Air Gas turbine Condensator Steam turbine generator Electricity Steam turbine Electricity

Cooling water

Fig. 2 | Combined cycle technology flowchart

loading, to high temperature corrosion and to high temperature creep. Good formability and good weldability are important for the manufacture of complicated combustion chamber components. There are few materials that fulfill these requirements. I Fig. 4 I shows the composition of typical gas turbine materials from ThyssenKrupp VDMs portfolio. Nickel in combination with molybdenum, cobalt and tungsten ensures the required creep rupture, creep and fatigue strength. A chromium component of the order of approximately 20% ensures the resistance to high temperature corrosion. Aluminum and titanium also increase the creep rupture strength by precipitating strength-increasing intermetallic NiX(Al,Ti)y phases at the operating temperature. These elements must, however, be extremely carefully dosed, as too high a concentration of intermetallic phases leads to a brittle, no longer formable and non-weldable material. ThyssenKrupp VDM possesses know-how in this area that has been acquired over many years.

Further developments of materials primarily affect the working properties of the sheet materials used. High precision analyses and the use of modern remelting technologies ensure that the structure of the sheet materials is free of oxidic inclusions. This is a precondition which must be fulfilled if the material is to be workable using modern forming processes and capable of being welded using highperformance welding processes.

Nickel alloys in the boilers of 700 C power plants Until now, high temperature structural steels or martensitic steels of type P91 or P92 have been used in the boilers of coal-fired power plants. These boiler steels demonstrate good strengths at steam temperatures of up to 600 C. At boiler temperatures of 700 C and steam pressures of 350 bar, conventional boiler steels are, however, no longer suitable. This is because they demonstrate almost no remaining thermal stability at these temperatures as I Fig. 5 I shows

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Fig. 3 | Gas turbine

using the example of the 100,000 hours creep rupture strength for the martensitic boiler steel P91. Standard stainless steels can be used at up to higher temperatures, the required minimum creep rupture strength of 100 MPa at 700 C is, however, currently not achieved by any stainless steel. Because of this, the gas turbine material Nicrofer 5520Co alloy 617 mat. no. 24663 was selected for the boiler of the first coalfired power plant in 700 C technology, following extensive testing. The selection was made by a team consisting of power plant operators and boiler, component, pipe and materials manufacturers. Many years of experience with this material in gas turbine manufacture, the materials creep rupture strength of more than 100 MPa at 700 C and the good working properties and weldability led to the selection of this material. Furthermore, Nicrofer 5520Co is approved for pressure tank construction for working temperatures of up to 1,050 C. In order to realize designs with the thinnest possible walls, the special variant Nicrofer 5520CoB alloy 617B was manufactured for use in power plant boilers. A further increase of 20% in the special variants permissible mechanical loads was achieved by alloying with boron and the use of exactly measured additives of the strengthenhancing elements aluminum, titanium, cobalt and carbon. I Fig. 6 I

shows the chemical composition of the special variant in comparison with the standard variant. I Fig. 7 I shows the 100,000 hours creep rupture strength of the modified variant in comparison with the standard variant, according to individual expert opinions from the TV Rheinland technical inspectorate. The suitability of the material for application at 700 C has already been successfully demonstrated. Pilgered and forged tubes and components of Nicrofer 5520CoB are already in use in the test facility COMTES (COMponent TESt Facility) at an E.ON power plant location in Scholven, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany I see title picture of the report I. The thin-walled tubes were manufactured in the cold pilger process and the thick-walled reheater tubes (up to 60 mm) were bored from solid blanks. The start of construction for the first 700 C power plant from E.ON in Wilhelmshaven is scheduled for the year 2010. The process is now entering the second phase for the materials and component manufacturers. Here, the focus will be on economic standard production of tubes and components from nickel alloys, taking into account the extremely high quality requirements of the energy supply utilities with respect to boiler materials.

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Nickel alloys for tomorrows power plants | 45

Materials for the next-but-one generation of coal-fired power plants The COORETEC (CO2 REduction TEChnologies) initiative was launched by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labor in the year 2005. Alongside the development of a zero-emission power plant by means of CO2 sequestration, the initiative also has the objective of achieving further increases in the efficiency of fossil fuel-fired power plants to between 60% and 65% in the medium term. The focus of the efforts is on the further development and characterization of materials and the further development of processes and components. Materials play an important role in two respects during the entire development period. On the one hand, cost optimization plays an important role in the application of materials and component manu-

facture, as the material and manufacturing costs of the tubes in the boiler are decisive factors in the investment costs. Higher tensile strength makes thinner wall designs possible, in addition to simplifying manufacture of the tubes. The questions of safety are even more important than the economic aspects. In the event of a crack in a high-pressure tube, steam will escape at the speed of sound which would endanger the lives of power plant employees. The projects objective also encompasses extending knowledge concerning interactions between process conditions and materials, in order to be able to reliably estimate technical and commercial risks involved should improved or new power plant concepts be introduced. Every new material and every new material concept must undergo comprehensive qualification measures in the course of the project.

Material Nicrofer 4722Co Nicrofer 5520Co Nicrofer 5120CoTi Nicrofer 6020hMo

Alloy Ni X 617 C-263 625 48 54 51 62

Typical composition in mass % Cr 22 22 20 22 Co 1 11.5 20 Mo 9 9 6 9 Fe 18 <2 0.5 2.5 1 Al 2.2 Ti, 0.5 Al 3.5 Nb Other

Fig. 4 | Composition of materials used in gas turbines

Nicrofer 5520Co alloy 617 (VdTV 485) Nickel 300 Creep rupture strength Rm [MPa] Nicrofer 5520CoB - alloy 617B 250 200 150 Boiler steel P 91 100 50 0 500 Cr Fe Mo Co Al Ti B C Si N 550 600 650 700 750 Mn S P Cu < 0.7 < 0.008 < 0.012 Temperature [C] 0.05 - 0.10 < 0.7 REST 20 - 23 <2 8 - 10 10 - 13 0.6 - 1.5 0.2 - 0.5

Nicrofer 5520CoB alloy 617B REST 21 - 23 < 1.5 8 - 10 11 - 13 0.8 - 1.3 0.3 - 0.5 0.002 - 0.005 0.05 - 0.08 < 0.3 < 0.05 < 0.3 < 0.008 < 0.012 < 0.05

Fig. 5 | Strength of boiler steel P91 in comparison to the nickel alloy Nicrofer 5520CoB alloy 617B

Fig. 6 | Creep rupture strength of boiler steel in comparison with Nicrofer 5520CoB alloy 617B

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Nicrofer 5520Co - alloy 617 (2.46630)

Nicrofer 5520CoB - alloy 617B

300

Creep rupture strength Rm [105 MPa]

200

100

600

620

640

660

680

700

720

740

Temperature [C]

Fig. 7 | Strength comparison of the materials Nicrofer 5520Co and Nicrofer 5520CoB

The current state of knowledge gives Nicrofer 5120CoTi alloy C-263 the best chances for application in the next-but-one generation of 700 C power plants. This material demonstrates a creep rupture strength approximately 100% higher than that of Nicrofer 5520Co alloy 617 at 700 C. The higher aluminum and titanium contents, which have the effect of producing a higher proportion of extremely fine precipitates of intermetallic -phases on the basis of NiX(Al,Ti)y, are primarily responsible for the higher tensile strength. The high cobalt content ensures that aluminum and titanium are dissolved in the structure during the manufacturing and welding phases and that the -phases, which increase strength but have a negative effect on weldability and working properties, are first created by targeted heat treatment of the finished component. While the material Nicrofer 5520CoB alloy 617B has already demonstrated its suitability for the 700 C technology and undergone a comprehensive program of studies and qualification, these steps still have to be carried out as part of the COORETEC project for the alloy Nicrofer 5120CoTi alloy C-263.

Conclusion No matter how the power plant of the future will look, sheets, strips, tubes, wires and forged parts of nickel alloys will play a role I Fig. 8 I . Nickel alloys are already regularly used in the gas turbine. With the development of 700 C technology in coal-fired power plants, nickel alloys will now also find uses in such power plants. And Nicrofer 5520CoB alloy 617B is a material that has already proven its suitability for 700 C power plant technology. The next phase is now beginning the economical manufacture of components. ThyssenKrupp VDM is already well equipped for the next generation of higher-efficiency power plants. And while the engineers continue their efforts in the manufacture of longitudinally welded thick-walled tubes and large-format forging using the highly heat resistant nickel alloy, the researchers in the laboratories of ThyssenKrupp Stainless are moving forward with development of materials for the next-butone generation of coal-fired power plants.

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Nickel alloys for tomorrows power plants | 47

Fig. 8 | Semi-finished products of nickel alloys

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| New calciner at the white cement plant in El Alto, Spain

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Energy-efficient, environmentally friendly white cement production using state-of-the-art technology


DIPL.-ING. LUIS LAGAR-GARCA Specialist Department R&D, Head of Heat and Environmental Technology | Polysius AG, Neubeckum DR.-ING. DIETMAR SCHULZ Head of Research and Development | Polysius AG, Neubeckum

The manufacture of cement is an energy-intensive process, as the raw materials used must be burned at a temperature of more than 1,400 C. The potential for lowering emissions is therefore large, particularly in the case of old plants. The example of a white cement plant demonstrates that the application of stateof-the-art technology can make significant reductions in emissions possible, without compromising the economic viability of the plant.

Introduction After water, concrete is the most-used consumer good in the world, and thus an important element of our society. Worldwide, 2.6 billion tons of cement are consumed per year. The manufacture of cement is an energy intensive process, as the raw materials used are burned at a temperature of 1,400 C in order to produce clinker. Once the clinker has been cooled, it is ground together with various additives such as gypsum to produce cement. The cement industry faces strict legal requirements and the social responsibility to reduce emissions associated with the process of cement manufacture. At the same time, the industry must guarantee the best product quality in an increasingly competitive market and minimize production costs. These demanding objectives can be achieved only by means of state-of-the-art technologies. Clinker production and emissions Different types of emissions result from production of clinker. Some of these emissions are due to the energy-intensive burning process, and some to process-related chemical reactions.

CO2 emissions The CO2 emissions from production of pure portland cement (without the use of refuse derived fuel or additives such as granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash etc.) arise from three different sources | Fig. 1 |: CO2 emissions due to raw materials: The limestone (CaCO3) used as a raw material decomposes into CaO and CO2 during the burning process (about 61% of the total specific CO2 emissions per ton of clinker). CO2 emissions due to fuel: Approximately 32% of the specific CO2 emissions during the production of clinker are due to the energy-intensive burning process. CO2 from electrical energy: The smallest component of the CO2 emissions from cement manufacture is that due to the consumption of electrical energy (approx. 7% of the total CO2 emissions from cement manufacture).

NOX emissions Oxides of nitrogen are produced during combustion of fuels at high temperatures (>1,300 C) by the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen (thermal NO) and in the presence of sufficient oxygen, by the oxidation of the nitrogen contained in the fuel (fuel NO).

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50 | Energy-efficient, environmentally friendly white cement production using state-of-the-art technology

Raw material 61%


Fig. 1 | CO2 generated by the manufacture of pure portland cement

Elektrical power 7%

Fuel 32%

SO2 emissions SO2 is produced by the oxidation of sulfur compounds. The causes for the production of SO2 emissions during cement manufacture are the use of raw materials containing sulfur and, in the case of older plants, the use of fuels containing sulfur. In modern plants, the SO2 released by the burning is re-absorbed thanks to the use of a calciner and discharged from the system along with the clinker, so that only the raw material contributes to the SO2 emissions. Energy-efficient, environmentally friendly cement manufacture using state-of-the-art technology Energy-efficient and environmentally friendly production of cement is possible only if state-of-the-art technology is used. As the leading supplier of high-technology machines and plants for the manufacture of cement, Polysius continually works to improve the efficiency and environmental friendliness of its plants. One example of the results of these efforts is presented in the form of the modernization of the white cement plant in El Alto, Spain. Modernization of the white cement plant in El Alto, Spain Project targets The white cement plant in El Alto near Madrid belongs to Cementos Portland Valderrivas, Spains largest cement manufacturer, with plants in Spain, the U.S., Argentina, Uruguay, and Tunisia. The total annual production of the group is approximately 15 million tons of cement. The line in El Alto was built in 1998 by a Danish plant engineering company and commissioned in 1999. The plant had a capacity of approximately 750 tons of clinker per day and was characterized by a high heat consumption and very high SO2 and NOX emissions. Reduction of the high emissions was the main objective of th plant modernization carried out by Polysius. Further objectives were to increase the plants production, reduce energy consumption, minimize water consumption, and in general optimize the plant operation

in order to increase the plants availability. Another goal was to ensure top-quality product, which has a direct effect on the price of white cement. An additional important requirement of the project was minimization of plant downtime during the modernization. Polysius concept for modernizing the kiln line In order to achieve the extremely ambitious targets mentioned above, Polysius developed an innovative and integrated made-to-measure concept for the modernization of the plant in El Alto. Prior to modernization, the white cement plant consisted of a simple production line according to the classic concept: a 2-stage cyclone preheater, an airair heat exchanger for pre-heating the combustion air, a very long rotary kiln and a large cooling drum for the final cooling of the clinker, using water | Fig. 2 |. Polysius concept for the rebuilding of the kiln line contained the following modifications | Fig. 3 |: Installation of a calciner with two special calciner burners. The calciner was specially developed for the use of 100% petroleum coke. It proved possible to meet the following objectives: - Reduction of between 25% and 30% in the thermal sinter zone loading: This made it possible to achieve the increase in throughput. - Realization of the sulfur absorption in the calciner due to the excess of CaO, which serves as a sulfur trap and thus drastically lowers SO2 emissions, - Distribution of the fuel to two burner locations (calciner and sinter zone) and thus a significant reduction in the NOX emissions; Further modifications affected the rebuilding of the lowest cyclone stage to suit the new plant conditions, the installation of a new kiln inlet housing and of a new exhaust gas fan. In addition, the bag filter, which is responsible for maintaining the particulate emissions, was converted from overpressure to negative pressure operation. Finally, it was necessary to install a new kiln main drive, in order to guarantee the new production performance by increasing the rotation speed of the kiln.

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The Polflame VN sinter zone burner represents a key component in the white cement concept from Polysius. It is needed in order to achieve the ambitious reduction in emissions. Thanks to its special design, the flame formation can be matched to the burning process over a very wide area. A new kiln hood used to lead the combustion air into the rotary kiln was installed. The heart of the manufacturing process for white cement is, nonetheless, the cooler. Polysius innovative twin cooler concept

permits rapid cooling of the hot clinker under inert conditions from a temperature of 1,450 C and the largest possible recycling of the residual clinker heat for use in the burning process. The complete original cooler area in El Alto was replaced by the twin cooler, consisting of: - a rotary cooler for quenching the clinker with water - a roller crusher for comminuting lumps of material from the rotary kiln

Preaheated combustion air , T = 230 C Air-air heat exchanger

2-stages preheater Steam filter Fresh air

Raw meal feed

Rotary kiln (95 x 4.35 m) Rotary cooler (11.3 x 3.95 m)

Clinker transport

Fig. 2 | White cement plant in El Alto prior to the modernization

Twin-Cooler 1 Rotary cooler 2 Roller crusher Meal chutes and cyclone 1 roof Polflame main burner Kiln hood 4 Calcinator Filter fan Tertiary air duct ID fan Kiln inlet Kiln drive Kiln outlet sealing 1 2 3 3 Polytrack cooler 4 Hot gas generator

Fig. 3 | White cement plant in El Alto after the modernization, the new elements are shown in red

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Fig. 4 | Assembly in the cooler area during uninterrupted production operation

- a Polytrack cooler a third generation grate cooler that feeds back the residual heat of the clinker downstream from the water cooling. The heat is recycled to the burning process by cooling with air. In this process step, the clinker is cooled from 600 C to almost ambient temperature. - a combustion chamber which further heats the already preheated combustion air in order to provide ideal burning conditions in the rotary kiln. Assembly, commissioning and operation Minimizing plant downtimes during the refurbishment was an essential requirement of the modernization of the El Alto plant. An ambitious concept for meeting this requirement was developed and implemented, with the result that the plant was able to resume production operation after just two months of downtime. This was achieved by constructing a major part of the new plant on site while production operations continued. This was the case for the calciner and the cooler area, for example. | Fig. 4 | shows several phases during the assembly of the cooler. The different levels of the cooler building, the gas lines, the dust precipitation cyclone and the combustion chamber

were pre-assembled at the works and then lifted into the correct position using large cranes, while the plant continued production operation. This high degree of pre-assembly during uninterrupted production operations made it possible to carry out the remaining connection work within the shortest possible period of time. | Fig. 5 | shows a general overview of the newly installed cooler section. The kiln line resumed production in October 2006 and was able to achieve all guaranteed values within a short period of operation. | Fig. 6 | shows the improvements achieved: Clinker production was increased to more than 950 tons per day. This corresponds to an increase of more than 25%. At the same time, heat consumption was considerably reduced, so that a total of approximately 10% of the CO2 emissions due to fuel could be saved. Due to the changed fuel distribution and installation of the new burners in the sinter zone and the calciner, NOX emissions were reduced by more than 75%. This significant reduction in NOX emissions meant that further measures, such as spraying with solutions containing ammonia, are not required, with the result that specific production costs could be further cut.

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Energy-efficient, environmentally friendly white cement production using state-of-the-art technology | 53

Fig. 5 | Twin cooler after commissioning

The high SO2 emissions prevalent before refurbishment were drastically reduced by the installation of the calciner. As this functions as a sulfur trap, the emissions decreased by around 95%. Water consumption for cooling the white cement clinker under

% 30 20 10

inert conditions is an additional important environmental factor.


NO2

The twin cooler concept enabled a reduction in water consumption


-10

Production

of around 10% while maintaining the highest quality requirements regarding the white of the clinker. Summary The modernization of the white cement line in El Alto and the improvements achieved in process technology and production show how it is possible to satisfy demanding economic and legislative conditions in Europe. The application of state-of-the-art technology as
-100 -80 -90 -20 -30 -40

the result of wide-ranging experience, know-how as well as research and development offers a way to guarantee the highest product quality in cement production while simultaneously reducing energy consumption and emissions.
Fig. 6 | Values achieved after successful refurbishment (all values prior to refurbishment = 0 %)

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Heat consumption

SO2

CO2

54 |

| Example simulation of a fully mobile crushing plant in an open pit coal mine

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Emissions reduction by means of continuous open pit mining technology


DR.-ING. VIKTOR RAAZ Project Manager R&D, Business Development dept. | ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik GmbH, Essen DIPL.-ING. BERGBAU ULRICH MENTGES Senior Manager Mine Planning & Sales | ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik GmbH, Essen

A change of system in open pit mining worldwide to continuous open pit mining technology not only leads to a reduction in running operating costs, but in particular to potential savings in CO 2 emissions as well. These savings are being studied in a current research project. In the growing market for raw materials, the combination of newly designed, fully mobile crushing plants with innovative belt conveyor system technology in particular can achieve reductions in CO2 emissions of the order of up to 150,000 tons per year and per installed system for raw materials extraction, compared to conventional truck transport.

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Background The technology from ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik also contributes to reducing gases that are harmful to the climate. Continuous production processes have been optimized in order to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. This objective is pursued by the ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik product line, for example with its large-scale continuous systems and mining machinery. Within the framework of a research project, engineers from the company are currently studying the positive effects of the use of continuous extraction technology in particular by comparing fully mobile crushing plants with heavy duty trucks, which operate discontinuously. Open pit mining technologies Due to the companys specific product line, the focus of the study is on international continuous open pit mining technology. This mainly encompasses extraction, transportation and dumping equipment such as bucket wheel excavators, semi-mobile or mobile crushing plants, belt conveyor systems and spreaders. In principle, open pits can be exploited using various extraction technologies. The system actually used has a corresponding effect on the selection of machinery and thus on the specific CO2 emissions.

up the material into coarse pieces, thus preparing it for further transportation via a belt conveyor system. The discontinuous use of trucks is thus considerably reduced and only takes place in so-called shuttle operation.

Continuous systems Open pit mining of unconsolidated rock Here, the tasks of loosening and loading can be directly carried out in-situ by a bucket wheel excavator. This is because the extraction does not require the blasting and the materials compressive strength is low. Further transportation of the material follows partly by means of intermediate mobile belt conveyor modules via belt conveyor systems and in the case of overburden systems directly to the dumping point using spreaders. Open pit mining of solid rock Here, the material is mostly broken loose from the rock formation by means of preliminary blasting operations. Hydraulic or rope shovel excavators then handle the task of loading the blasted broken rock and load directly into the feeding hopper of a fully mobile crushing plant. This breaks up the very coarse material in the first crushing stage directly at the point of extraction, thus preparing it for subsequent belt conveyor transportation and for further down-

Discontinuous systems These are mostly hydraulic and rope shovel excavators for extracting the raw materials. Transportation is carried out by large trucks with payloads of up to 400 tons, which sometimes cover the entire transport distance from the extraction site in an open pit to an outside dump for overburden material located kilometres away or to processing and preparation plants for the valuable mineral.

stream processing. The major differences with respect to CO2 relevance of the abovementioned open pit mining technologies are in the energy requirement and the energy supply. Continuous open pit mining equipment is almost exclusively electrically powered, while most discontinuous open pit mining equipment is powered by diesel engines. The deposit characteristics of open pit mines in unconsolidated and solid rock also has a substantial impact on transport distances

Combination of discontinuous systems with semi-mobile crushing plants and continuous belt conveyor systems (in-pit crushing) | Fig. 1 | Here, the loosening and loading of the material is also handled by hydraulic and rope shovel excavators. Further transportation within the open pit is also carried out by trucks, however only to a semimobile crushing plant located in the immediate vicinity. This breaks

for the extracted raw material or the overburden and is thus also a major factor determining energy use and resulting CO2 emissions. Flat deposits in unconsolidated rock usually require transport routes over long distances but with little difference in elevation. Ore deposits, in contrast, extend to greater depths, and their extraction therefore requires extreme elevation differences. In this case, the energy required for transportation by truck increases substantially.

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Today, application of innovative techniques such as the use of fully mobile crushing plants makes it possible to carry out loading and crushing directly at the point of extraction and this can be considered a way to save resources by utilizing belt conveyor systems for further transportation. Conceptual method for determining CO2 emissions ThyssenKrupp Frdertechniks general concept for determining CO2 emissions permits estimation of CO2 emissions for typical open pit and extraction technologies in the comparison between the continuous and discontinuous use of machinery. For this purpose, the complete extraction process is broken down into n partial processes, each containing one crushing and/or transport process.
Fig. 1 | Course of an in-pit crushing belt conveyor system in an open pit mine

A generally valid formula for determining CO2 emissions takes the form:

E CO2 = Mi (Ai fAi fMi qi + zi) fCO2,i


i =1

Mi Ai fAi

total mass of material to be transported in a partial process i shortest distance between the center of gravity of the mass and the end point of the transport leg in three-dimensional space The transport distance factor expresses the ratio between the actual transport distance for each extraction technology and the shortest distance. The value is determined empirically and is normally significantly higher for the use of trucks than for the use of belt conveyor systems.

qi

distance and mass-specific energy or fuel consumption for materials transport; This is to be determined taking into account the gradient of transport legs, friction values or rolling resistances, efficiencies and load factors.

zi

mass-specific energy or fuel consumption for extraction and crushing in the partial process i

fCO2,i factor for the conversion of the energy or fuel consumption into the mass of CO2 produced; The country-specific values for the generation of electrical power and specific values for the combustion of fuel are used.

fMi

payload factor as the ratio of the total mass to be transported to the total material mass; The value is calculated and is approximately twice as high for the use of trucks as for the use of belt conveyor systems.

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To determine the reduction of CO2 emissions when using environmentally friendly technologies, the CO2 emissions are calculated and the difference obtained for the respective alternatives with regard to part or all of the extraction chain. Case studies for the application of fully mobile and semi-mobile crushing plants Case study 1: The opening up of a copper ore deposit has been planned in collaboration with a Kazakh copper producer over the last two years | Fig. 2 |. This will use a semi-mobile crushing plant option with a capacity of 8,000 tons per hour, requiring only a short truck shuttle service. This corresponds to an annual extraction capacity of around 40 million tons. With an average transport distance of 0.75 km and a depth of up to 600 m, the saving in CO2 emissions in comparison to truck-only transportation amounts to around 150,000 tons per year.

Case study 3: At present, Canadas large oil sands deposits mostly use semi-mobile crushing plants in combination with trucks in feeder shuttle operation. Use of fully mobile crushing plants, which would entirely eliminate the need to use trucks, offers an alternative for the future | Fig. 4 |. In October 2007, ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik signed a first contract to supply a fully mobile crusher as a replacement for an existing semimobile system. At a current average truck transport distance to the semi-mobile crusher of 2.5 km, a saving in CO2 emissions of around 95,700 tons per year can be calculated for this fully mobile crushing plant with a conveying capacity of 7,000 tons per hour (approximately 31 million tons per year). Summary Experience to date suggests a reduction in annual CO2 emissions of the order of magnitude of 50,000 -150,000 tons per year in largescale open pit mines when an alternative continuous or combined

Case study 2: A continuous extraction and transportation system for coal extraction was put into operation in the open pit coal mine at Yiminhe, China, in fall 2007 | Fig. 3 |. A fully mobile crushing plant with a capacity of 3,500 tons per hour is used here. This corresponds to an annual extraction capacity of approximately 16 million tons. At the current average transport distance for the extracted coal, which is 1.2 km, the saving in CO2 emissions amounts to about 50,000 tons per year.

in-pit crushing system is used. Major factors contributing to the CO2 reduction are shorter transportation distances, reductions in the total masses to be moved and rolling resistances, and the use of electrical power. ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik is currently studying further details of potential savings in CO2 emissions through the global application of continuous open pit mining technology.

Fig. 2 | 3D planning for the extraction of a copper ore deposit in Kazakhstan

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Fig. 3 | Fully mobile crushing plant for an open pit coal mine in China

Fig. 4 | 3D simulation of a fully mobile crushing plant in the Canadian oil sands

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| Aerial photo of ThyssenKrupp Waupaca Plant

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Cupola project response to new MACT emission standard


WILLIAM POWELL (B.S. MET. E.) Director of Melting and Casting Technologies | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Inc., Waupaca, Wisconsin/USA JEFFREY LOEFFLER (B.S. CH. E.) Environmental Coordinator | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca, Inc., Waupaca, Wisconsin/USA

Plant 1 of ThyssenKrupp Waupaca began operation of a new cupola iron melting system in January 2007. This major project was undertaken in response to new environmental regulations directed at the United States foundry industry and offered an opportunity to concurrently increase production at the facility.

Overview of Plant 1 ThyssenKrupp Waupaca Plant 1 is a gray iron foundry located in Waupaca, Wisconsin/USA. The facility employs 550 full time workers and is housed in buildings totaling 180,000 square feet (approx. 17,000 m2 ). It ships approximately 200,000 tons of castings to its customer base on an annual basis. The plant is considered a jobshop foundry with a diverse customer and casting base, serving the automotive, agriculture and construction industries to name just a few. The plant uses a cupola melting system to create the molten iron used in the casting operation. A cupola is a long refractory lined cylinder that is vertically oriented. At the beginning of an operating cycle, a bed of coke is ignited at the bottom of the cupola and after sustainable combustion of the coke is achieved, scrap materials are charged into the top of the cupola. The heat of the burning coke melts the scrap materials and the molten iron flows out from the cupola melt zone via a tap hole. Additional charges of scrap metal and coke are added to the top of the cupola continuously throughout the melting process.

To maintain combustion, blast air is injected into the cupola at the melt zone. The air is injected at high velocity through nozzles known as tuyeres. The blast air and combustion gases that are generated, rise upward in the cupola and are evacuated through a side take-off duct into the emission control system. The original emission control system consisted of a combustion chamber to destroy carbon-based gases, followed by a wet scrubber system and baghouse filter cloth system that were operated in a parallel arrangement. The use of the wet scrubber required the operation of a companion wastewater treatment system that discharged treated water to the Waupaca River. The original emission system had a tested emission rate of 0.012 gr/dscf (grains per dry standard cubic feet). Overview of the MACT Standard In April 2004 the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final rule to reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants from iron and steel foundries. The rule includes emission limits for manufacturing processes and pollution prevention-based require-

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62 | Cupola project response to new MACT emission standard

ments designed to reduce air toxins. Hazardous air pollutants or air toxins are known or are suspected to cause cancer or other health problems. The rule includes the requirement that existing cupolamelting systems discharge no more than 0.006 gr/dscf of particulate matter. The EPA chose to regulate particulate matter as a surrogate for metallic hazardous air pollutants. When developing the MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology) standard, the EPA looked at the level of emission control being achieved by the best-performing similar sources throughout the foundry industry. The newer cupola systems at ThyssenKrupp Waupaca Plant 5 in Tell City, Indiana and Plant 2/3 in Waupaca, Wisconsin were identified as best performers in the initial EPA bench marking activity. These emission levels set the baseline, referred to as the MACT floor. The MACT floor for existing cupola foundries led to the limitation of 0.006 gr/dscf. As of April 2007 all U.S. foundries were required to meet the MACT emission standards. Plant 1 would not be able to meet the new standard with its existing system and had to choose between replacing the existing cupola melt system with an upgraded system or turn to electric melting. Response to the MACT standard The decision to go forward and to replace and upgrade the existing cupola and emission system at Plant 1 was not a difficult one for ThyssenKrupp Waupaca. The ability to meet the new MACT standard had already been demonstrated in three separate systems within our foundry group. The basic technology and operating parameters had been established. The question of whether or not the new standard could be met with existing technology was clearly positively answered. Furthermore other factors were considered that assured project success. Early on it was determined that a majority of the existing system infrastructure could be reused. Major components such as railroad tracks, material-handling cranes, storage bins, scales and transportation buckets were in place and in relatively good working order, thus minimal disruption to ongoing production could be expected during the project. Also scrap iron and other raw material suppliers had long established working relations with ThyssenKrupp

Waupaca. The raw material supply chain was established and customized for use in a cupola melting operation. In many cases dedicated processing plants supplied the cupola melting facility, therefore no changes in material flow or quality training would be required with a new system. Finally, employees and management alike are well trained and acquainted with the cupola melting process, heat recovery systems and dry gas-cleaning systems. Based on these factors the decision to stay with cupola melting and install a bag-house emission control system with heat recovery was a comfortable decision. Project goals and system design The goal of the project was not to simply install another MACTcompliant gas cleaning system but to improve upon the previously installed systems. Safety is always first priority at ThyssenKrupp Waupaca and with this project it would remain the top priority. Cupola melting is already the safest form of melting but there is always room for improvement. Access around the cupola was widened and avenues of egress were expanded. Water-jacketed cooling zones were removed and replaced with water cascading shells. With the prior design of heat exchangers, the possibility of a fire is always present, due to the use of thermal oil as the heat transfer fluid. In the new design the slightly combustible thermal oil was replaced with an inert glycol-water system. Glycol has a lower heat capacity, a lower boiling point and lower thermal conductivity. The trade-off for a safer heat transfer system resulted in larger heat exchangers, increased pumping rates and increased fluid storage requirements. Controlling and monitoring of this system was an early design consideration. Todays faster computer systems have allowed for greater data acquisition and retention capabilities. Better data analysis leads to improved system understanding, improved operational control of the system and the potential for energy efficiencies with associated cost savings. I Fig. 1 I shows a computer rendering of the cupola system installed at Plant 1. The gas take off portion of the cupola is a multifunctional segment of the cupola stack, allowing scrap metal to pass through it into the cupola and to allow hot gases to be captured and directed to the gas cleaning system. The airflow needs to be of

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Exhaust stack

Recuperator

Cupola

Combustion chamber

Baghouses Coarse grain separator

Fig. 1 | Major components of new melt emissions system

sufficient velocity to remove dirt and gas volumes but not too fast as to pull out light pieces of metal from the charge material. Even more critical is having a design that will mix the combustible cupola gases with infiltrating air in a ratio that will prevent the buildup of an explosive mixture of oxygen and carbon monoxide gas. The cupola cooling water jackets were removed to prevent the migration of water into the cupola if a crack were to occur in the steel shell. Water exposed to these high temperatures will disassociate, forming the potentially explosive gas hydrogen. The second process component is the coarse grain separator. Its function is to remove larger and heavier particles from the gas stream.

The design is such that particle velocity is reduced without undue pressure drop in the system. The hopper portion is smooth and steeply sided to prevent bridging of the very hot granular particles that drop out, allowing them to easily exit the system via a rotary lock valve. The third major component is the most massive of the system, a low BTU gas combustion chamber. The function of the combustion chamber is to burn the high concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in the exhaust gas converting it to carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide is less harmfull to the environment than CO and in the combustion process large quantities of heat are released, which is suitable for recovery later in the system.

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Fig. 2 | Glycol cooling system for excess heat

The fourth major component is the heat recuperator and gascooling tower. The gas stream needs to be cooled from the combustion temperature of 800-850 C to a temperature suitable for baghouse operation in the range of 180-225 C. This lower temperature is required to prevent damage to the baghouse dust collector filter media. Excess heat from the cupola gas stream is transferred to a closed loop glycol system, which acts similarly to the radiator in an automobile. I Fig. 2 I shows the glycol cooling system located on the roof at Plant 1. The exhaust gas cooling is done with a primary air-to-air heat exchanger. This air is utilized to heat the combustion process air used within the cupola to melt the scrap iron. The second part of the heat content is transferred to the liquid glycol loop via air to liquid cooling tubes. This heated liquid contains energy in a form that can be recovered and used in a variety of ancillary processes such as building space heating or electric power generation as examples. The now cool exhaust air enters the final system component, the bag house dust collector. Still containing fine dust particles the gas stream needs to be filtered through a cloth filter media to remove the

particulate matter prior to discharge to atmosphere. A baghouse is simply a steel box with rows of filter cloths fitted around suspended steel cages that act as support for the filtration media. The final major system component is the exhaust fan and exhaust stack. The tall exhaust stack is designed to aid in the final dispersion of the last remaining minute particles that are contained in the filtered exhaust gases. I Fig. 3 I shows the base of the exhaust stack. Results The installation of the new cupola and emission control system was completed in January 2007. Emission testing was conducted in June 2007 to verify compliance with the MACT standard. I Fig. 4 I compares the test results from June to the MACT standard requirements and the performance of the previous control system. Testing shows that the new system is working well with a particulate emission rate of only 0.0021 gr/dscf, which is 65% under the MACT requirements. The new system also has emissions that are 5.7 times less than the original system, demonstrating a significant environmental improvement.

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Test results MACT standard Original system plant 1 New system plant 1 35% of MACT standard, 570% improvement

0.006 gr/dscf

0.012 gr/dscf

0.0021 gr/dscf

Fig. 3 | Exhaust stack

Fig. 4 | Test results

In addition, by converting the cupola emission control system to an entirely dry baghouse system, the wastewater treatment operation has become obsolete and the discharge to the Waupaca River was discontinued. The elimination of the river discharge removes a potential environmental liability from Plant 1 as well as reducing water consumption at the plant by more than 100,000 gallons (380,000 liters) per day. Elimination of the wastewater treatment operation also results in savings in terms of labor hours and maintenance costs. The entire system has the primary function of cleaning the combustion gases, neutralizing the captured dust and converting the CO rich air stream to harmless CO2. Energy recovery is the reward for doing it well. For many years available energy exceeded recoverable energy in cupola melting. The next step was to recover the very high temperature portion of the waste gas stream for process air-replacing gas-fired air heaters. The remaining lower temperature gases proved economically impractical for heat recovery. With the advent of better heat recovery towers and practical liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers, recovered heat is available for building heat in factories located in cold climates. Several ThyssenKrupp Waupaca plants utilize this tech-

nology today. Another option may be to convert the waste heat to electrical energy with low temperature, low pressure turbine systems that are now entering the marketplace. ThyssenKrupp Waupaca is presently conducting an engineering feasibility study to look at the viability of a waste heat to energy system. Conclusion ThyssenKrupp Waupaca is considered the technology leader in gas stream cleaning and heat recovery for the foundry industry. Early installations of these technologies have allowed the company to drive equipment design refinements and improvements in operating reliability. Heat recovery has lead to numerous cost reduction processes being installed to further minimize operating costs of the foundry. Successful installations, such as the project recently completed at Plant 1, will allow ThyssenKrupp Waupaca to grow in an environmentally sustainable fashion for decades to come.

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| Wind farm with slewing bearings from Rothe Erde

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CO2 -free energy conversion thanks to Rothe Erde slewing bearings


DR.-ING. UWE BREUCKER Senior Manager Quality Management, Research and Development | Rothe Erde GmbH, Lippstadt

Wind technology, which converts the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy, is one form of CO2free energy conversion. Rothe Erde has accompanied this technology since the early days of its development. The supply program for wind turbines incorporates important components such as pitch bearings, yaw bearings and rotor bearings. Technical solutions for requirements such as minimizing false brinelling, optimizing lubricants, sealing and providing a high degree of corrosion protection were developed in the Research and Development Center of Rothe Erde. The dimensioning of the slewing bearings is carried out using finite element method analysis software developed in-house. Slewing bearings from Rothe Erde have also found application in other areas of CO2-free power generation such as tidal flow and solar technology.

Introduction Imperceptible to human senses, the gas CO2 is a burden on our environment. This danger arises from the fact that an increased proportion of this gas in the atmosphere causes an increase in global temperatures which, in the opinion of experts, will lead to the melting of the polar ice caps and thus to the flooding of coastal areas. Furthermore, the continuous warming of the global climate is held responsible for the increasing frequency of hurricanes and storm tides. The Earths population has more than doubled in the period from 1960 to the present day. This increase in population requires a correspondingly greater amount of energy. Without sufficient access to energy, we cannot survive. Yet today we still remain largely dependent on the chemical conversion of energy in the form of the combustion of fossil fuels, which is known to increase CO2 production. Energy cannot be created or destroyed only converted. One form of energy conversion which does not involve chemical combustion reactions is the conversion of the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. The beginnings of wind energy technology reach back into the 1980s. The then state-supported wind power facility GROWIAN

(German acronym for Large Wind Power Plant) was, for a considerable period, the worlds largest such facility. Although this facility had its problems, it nonetheless incorporated many new developments. During the last 20 years, this technology has developed from the level of the garage-based company to a substantial branch of industry. Five percent of Germanys electricity is currently generated by wind power. Rothe Erde has accompanied the development of wind power with the companys products from the beginnings of the technology. The wind is variable, both in strength and in direction. A wind turbine must be able to adapt to these variations. That requires specific design measures: 1. Pitch bearings enable optimal flow over the rotor blades. 2. The entire rotor blade plane must be aligned to face the wind. This is where yaw bearings are used. 3. The rotor head, which drives the generator, must also be on bearings. Rotor bearings are used here. This means that a wind turbine has bearings in three applications, for which Rothe Erde slewing bearings are ideal | Fig. 1 |.

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Pitch bearing Slewing bearing as preloaded ball bearing with special seals Rotor bearing Rothe Erde slewing bearing as three-row cylinder roller bearing or as double-row taper roller bearing with special seals

Yaw bearing Slewing bearing as ball bearing with special seals

Fig. 1 | Application of Rothe Erde slewing bearings in wind turbines

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Gearing

Bolt joint holes

Outer ring Grease drain hole

Lubricant supply Through hole for bearing bolt connection Rolling element Cage Seal Inner ring
Fig. 2 | Cross-section of pitch bearing

Pitch bearings The majority of wind turbines have a rated capacity of between 1.5 MW and 2 MW and a three-bladed rotor. The total rotor diameter is approximately 70 m in this power range, i.e. a blade has an approximate length of 34 m (excluding the hub radius). Pitch bearings enable the blade profiles to take on another angle of attack. The blade profile itself experiences an incident flow made up of the vector sum of the windspeed and the circumferencial speed. The optimal nature of this incident flow is of key importance for the efficiency of the turbine. To achieve this, the blade profile has to be adjusted to the incident flow according to the wind speed. Pitch bearings also ensure that the blade section can be adjusted to a lift-free position (feathered) when the facility is stationary. This is vital in order to brake rotors of this size. The angle is approximately 90 relative to the operating setting. Design The pitch bearings used here are distinguished by their ability to transfer a combination of axial and radial force and a tilting moment. | Fig. 2 | shows that the two bearing rings are attached to the surrounding constructions by means of bolts. From the raceway system the

bearings are designed as so-called double row four-point ball bearings. Two raceways with a radius slightly larger than that of the ball exist for each ring and rolling element row. The raceways themselves have been inductively surface-hardened. The load transmission mechanism is clear when the bearing and the connected blade are viewed in the 9 oclock position | Fig. 3 |. The tilting moment resulting from the blades dead weight is transmitted in the form of a load on the bolted connection. The tilting moment resulting from the dead load of the blade in the lower half of the bearing is transmitted by the raceways A and D supporting; in the upper half of the bearing by the raceways B and C retaining. Retaining means the load is transmitted by the bolt connection. The pure dead weight of the blade is supported by rows C and D in the lower half. The load-transmitting contacts change over to the other row when the blade travels from the 9 oclock to the 3 oclock position. False brinelling In todays systems, the angle of attack is not adjusted during one rotation of the rotor. However, during this rotation, the direction of the load transmission changes from one pair of rows into the other, whereby the rolling element remains in position. This type of contact

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Brine supply

1% brine

Blade position 9 oclock Blade position 3 oclock

Fig. 3 | Load on pitch bearing in 3 oclock and 9 oclock position relative to the rotor hub

Fig. 4 | Test assembly for false brinelling test

position load causes false brinelling, a type of friction wear. False brinelling is fundamentally unavoidable, but it can be limited. The design engineering method of minimizing false brinelling is to fit bearings without play, i.e. preloaded. Lubrication The careful selection of a lubricant represents another measure to minimize false brinelling. As there is no rolling movement that would continually wet the ball with new lubricant, a grease should be chosen that possesses both a high oil dissipation from the soap and good corrosion protection properties. The relubrication with fresh grease is carried out via a large number of grease holes. Automatic metering units are usually employed for this purpose. Drain holes, through which the used and excess lubricant is led to specially fitted catch tanks, are located between the grease feed holes. The contents of the tanks are disposed of during the next scheduled service. Rothe Erde has developed its own false brinelling test. A standard test

bearing is packed with the lubricant to be tested and subjected to 106 load-release cycles in a pulsator. During this process, a specified volume flow of brine is led through the test bearing. After completion of the test, the corrosion state of the test bearing and the depth of the false brinelling are evaluated and compared with internal minimum specifications | Fig. 4 |. Sealing system A further requirement arises from the need for good lubrication of the rolling system: the sealing of the bearing interior with respect to the external environment. Two situations must be avoided: one is the escape of the grease through the seal to the outside and the other is the entry of dust and rainwater into the interior. Rothe Erde has developed a two-lip gap seal for this purpose | Fig. 2 |. The seal material is subject to high requirements. The gap between the inner and the outer rings breathes during a rotation due to the load alterations. This change in the gap width normally has

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Cage adjustment

Brine drain

to be elastically bridged by the seal material over a temperature range from 25 C to + 50 C. Resistance to the effects of ozone is also a requirement. The seals are tested for their long-term elastic properties in a specially developed seal pulser which has been designed to be capable of running through the widest variety of temperature ranges in a climate chamber | Fig. 5 |. Corrosion protection The roller bearing rings are manufactured from the heat treated material 42CrMo4. Under normal weathering conditions and in particular in coastal areas with salt-bearing air, the material tends to corrode. In order to protect the surfaces that are exposed to the effects of the environment, a zinc-based anticorrosion system is applied by flame spray coating. This involves melting a zinc electrode and spraying the molten zinc onto the ring surface at high velocity | Fig. 6 |. Blasting the surface is an essential pretreatment step prior to the flame spray coating. The surface treatment is carried

Fig. 5 | Sealing pulser

out after the mechanical finishing work on the rings has been completed. This means that surfaces that are not to be coated must be carefully protected against the ingress of spray. The layer thickness is between 100 and 200 m and, with an additional surface layer, it fulfills the requirements for heavy-duty corrosion protection according to EN ISO 12944 Part 6. Furthermore, the zinc layer also provides cathodic protection in the event of scratches to the layer due to the metals position in the electrochemical series. Dimensioning The dimensioning of the pitch bearing is of particular importance. The loads transferred into the roller system, mainly via the internal

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72 | CO2 -free energy conversion thanks to Rothe Erde slewing bearings

ring, are then transferred onward by the external ring into the hub. The stiffness of the connection flange of the hub varies greatly around its circumference due to its shaping. Together with the corresponding stiffness of the blade connection, this has the effect of determining the load transferred by each rolling element. The calculation of the
Open gap Connected construction (e.g. blade) M

load distribution in the rolling element rows from the specified rotor loads can only be accomplished to a very limited extent using analytical methods. The bolt connection forms a second, directly related dimensioning problem. In the case of a lifting load, the opening of a gap between the connection flange and the bearing ring is conceivable. | Fig. 7 | shows the relationships on the basis of a simple flange connection. The force acting on the rolling elements transferred by the ball has a component eccentric to the bolt axis. This results in a bending moment in the form of an operating load being transmitted into the bolted connection in addition to a centrally acting tensile force. Should an opening arise in the preloaded connection, a severe redistribution results due to the release of the stressed panels and additional loads in the bolt. This redistribution has a decisive effect on the durability
Fig. 7 | FE model of bearing-flange connection

Open gap Connected construction (e.g. hub) Bolts

of the connection. In order to be able to carry out this dimensioning task adequately, Rothe Erde has developed its own finite element (FE) program system for calculating the load distribution in a bearing and the stress on the bolted connection taking into account the stiffnesses of the connection.

The system demonstrates specific advantages, in that the three partial systems external bearing connection (here the rotor hub), pitch bearing and internal bearing connection (here the blade connection) can be created as separate FE models. The connection stiffnesses of blade and hub are overlaid on the wire-frame model of the rotating joint and supply the quantities referred to above as the result. | Fig. 8 | shows the FE model of a hub connection. Yaw bearings Yaw bearings ensure that the rotor blade plane is always aligned facing the wind. They bear the entire nacelle with the generator, auxiliary equipment and rotor. The nacelle is generally nose-heavy, and the sign of the torque load on the bearing does not change
Fg. 6 | Zinc flame spraying

during operation. As with pitch bearings, slewing motions tend to

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Fig. 8 | FE model of hub connection

Fig. 9 | Test rig for rotor bearing

occur infrequently. Due to the absence of load changes, plastic separators can be used instead of cages as separating elements between the rolling elements. The phenomenon of false brinelling is not observed in the yaw bearings either. The requirements with respect to sealing and corrosion protection are the same as for pitch bearings. Rotor bearings The situation for rotor bearings is completely different. Here, the issue involves rolling over surfaces. Roller bearings are used here, as they have a lower surface pressure than balls in the bearing due to their line contact and thus demonstrate a much greater service life in the calculations. Three-row roller-bearing slew rings, or alternatively taper roller bearings, are used here. Rothe Erde has had good experience of using the first of these bearing construction types in the shield bearing of heading and cutting machines for tunnels. The raceways are hardened without soft spot using an expensive hardening process. This is in contrast to the progressive hardening normally used, which leaves a narrow, unhardened gap (soft spot) that is constructed as a non-load-bearing area by relief grinding. A circulating oil lubrication is normally used. This is intended to achieve the formation of a hydrodynamic lubricating film between the parts which move relative to one another with the side effect of good heat dissipation from the bearing. Bronze is used as a material

in order to minimize wear on the cages. Oversized radial shaft oil seals are used for sealing. Rotor bearing diameters lie in a range from approx. 1.6 m to 2.5 m. In order to guarantee problem-free operation of these bearings in the field, Rothe Erde has devloped a test rig capable of testing full-sized bearings under real load conditions | Fig. 9 |. Outlook In addition to the kinetic energy of the wind, it is also possible to utilize the kinetic energy of water in marine and tidal flows. Due to the vastly higher density of the water, the blades of the rotors are smaller by an order of magnitude. Prototypes of this type of facility are currently operating at a depth of 20 m off the coast of Scotland equipped with Rothe Erde pitch bearings. The central task of the development work here appears to be sealing the running system. Solar technology has increased in importance over the past years as a further process of CO2 -free energy conversion. Here too, Rothe Erde slewing bearings have found application. They are used to mount large panels fitted with solar cells, which can be turned to follow the sun. As in the early days of wind technology, these bearings are currently of simple construction.

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| Transrapid in Munic (animation)

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Transrapid the transportation technology for environmentally friendly mobility


DR.-ING. FRIEDRICH LSER Management Board | ThyssenKrupp Transrapid GmbH | Mnchen DR. RER. NAT. QINGHUA ZHENG Head of Systems Technology | ThyssenKrupp Transrapid GmbH | Mnchen

The implementation agreement between the Free State of Bavaria, the German railroad company Deutsche Bahn AG and the consortium of the system and construction industries for the Transrapid project to link Munich Central Station to Munich Airport fulfils an essential precondition to allow the advantages of Transrapid technology to also be demonstrated in Germany. The essential factors determining the projects environmental friendliness sound and pollutant emissions and energy efficiency are explained and the new TR09 prototype vehicle is presented.

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Munich Transrapid project When it comes to environmental protection, more and more countries are turning to technology from Germany. For example, German solar and wind power technologies are international leaders and Germanmade plants are becoming an increasingly important factor in reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) worldwide. These exports also have created thousands of jobs in Germany. The Transrapid offers an innovative rail system that is attractive enough to convince even more car drivers to travel by rail, thus contributing to environmental protection. The Transrapid in Shanghai/ China, already in operation for a number of years, has shown that the maglev train, which reaches speeds of up to 500 km/h, is unbeatably quiet in operation and corresponds to the highest safety standards. On September 24, 2007, the signals were set to green

with the signing of the implementation agreement for the Munich Transrapid project by the Bavarian Minister-President, the Bavarian Minister of State, the Chairman of the Board of Deutsche Bahn AG, and the Managing Board of the manufacturer consortium. The participating industrial companies are convinced that realization of this project will also provide momentum for Germany as a location for high technology. The Munich Transrapid project will send an important signal regarding the abilities and competitiveness of German engineers. Mobility and the environment Almost all major industrial countries are faced with the same problem: The mobility of our society is continually increasing and people as well as the environment must not be left behind in our efforts to deal

Carbon dioxide (kg)

All passenger cars Taxi Airport bus Suburban rail system** Maglev train* 4.7 3.8 2.4

7.9 12.6

Nitrogen oxide (g)

All passenger cars Taxi Airport bus Suburban rail system** Maglev train* 3.3 2.6

7.5 31.4 47.5

Sulfur oxide (g)

All passenger cars Taxi Airport bus Suburban rail system** Maglev train* 2.0

4.5
5.3

Adjacent values refer to pollutant emissions resulting from generation of the operating power The maglev system does not emit any pollutants along the track. * Bavarian power mix: Low fossil fuel-component fuels used for power generation **National energy mix

2.5 3.2

Fig. 1 | The environmental balance in road traffic (Figures per person conveyed from Munich Central Station to Munich airport)

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Propulsion and braking

Guidance

Propulsion

Load bearing

Fig. 2 | Levitation and guidance system

with the continually increasing traffic flows. This also demands a lot of track-bound transportation systems, which must be more attractive, more economical and more environmentally friendly, in addition to offering higher performance. As a result, the Transrapid, which displays all of these properties to a high degree, is the transport system for the 21st century I Fig. 1 I. Non-contact technology The development and introduction of a new transport system like the maglev only makes sense if the system also offers advantages from an environmental point of view and leads overall to less strain placed on the environment by transport. The Transrapid utilizes noncontact levitation and a drive system that takes on the functions of wheel and rail load bearing, guidance, propulsion and braking I Fig. 2 I. It relies on the attractive forces between the electromagnets installed in the vehicle and the stator packs, which are installed beneath the guideway table. The support magnets draw the vehicle upward toward the guideway and the guidance magnets hold it laterally on course. Support and guidance magnets are arranged on both sides, along the entire length of the vehicle. A highly reliable electronic control system ensures that the vehicle is supported and guided at a constant distance of 10 mm from its guideway. A non-

contact system of linear generators in the support magnets supplies the levitation system and the on-board equipment with energy while the vehicle is in motion. When stopped at platforms, the vehicles on-board power supply is fed via a non-contact inductive energy transfer system (Inductive Power Supply IPS). This means the Transrapid requires neither overhead lines nor current collectors. The propulsion system operates by means of a synchronous long-stator motor located in the guideway. Its mode of operation is similar to that of a rotating electric motor, the stator of which has been cut open, stretched out and laid on both sides beneath the guideway. The current in the windings thus creates a traveling magnetic field instead of a rotating magnetic field. The vehicle is pulled along without physical contact by this field due to its support magnets, which function as excitation elements I Fig. 3 I. Sound emissions The non-contact technology of the Transrapid makes possible considerably lower sound emissions compared to those of other transport systems. At speeds of around 200 km/h, the perceived sound that is generated equivalent to that of a breeze is only characterized by the aerodynamics and is scarcely noticeable. Even at higher speeds, the noise level remains moderate. At 300 km/h, the Transrapid has

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78 | Transrapid the transportation technology for environmentally friendly mobility

Speed of traveling field (from three-phase power of the stationary long-stator winding) Long stator in guideway

Air gap

Support magnet in vehicle

Exitation field

Thrust

Vehicles speed (The exitation field is stationary in the vehicle.)

Fig. 3 | Propulsion system and braking principle of the synchronous motor: similar speed of traveling magnetic field and vehicle

only half the sound volume of a high-speed train and is no louder than a suburban railway train traveling at 80 km/h I Fig. 4 I. The aerodynamic noise mostly arises in the lower area between the nose and the guideway table I Fig. 5 I. As a result, conventional sound protection walls can significantly reduce propagation of the sound waves in the area I Figs 6 and 7 I. System advantages and energy efficiency With its high speeds and acceleration (400 - 500 km/h, 1-1.5 m/s2), the Transrapid can serve more stations along a route than a conventional railroad in a given period of travel time. Transrapid vehicles travel significantly faster than high-speed vehicles in wheel-on-rail technology, with the same energy input. This increases the Transrapids attractiveness as a means of transport I Figs 8 and 9 I. The transport units (vehicle sections) required for the Transrapid system to serve a given traffic volume are around half of those that would be required if a wheel-on-rail system were used. The reasons for this are the short journey times and turnaround times, the high

space utilization of the vehicle interiors, and the high vehicle availability. The results are reduced space requirement to accommodate stations, parking and maintenance facilities for the vehicles. Due to the advantageous routing parameters (steep gradients of up to ten percent, small curve radii), a Transrapid guideway can be more flexibly integrated in an existing infrastructure than a railroad line. These advantages are especially effective where there are no railroad lines or none that can be extended, where traffic space is extremely restricted, and where requirements in terms of environmental friendliness are very stringent. The new vehicle TR09 The TR09, the prototype for the Munich project, was realized on the basis of the operator requirements of Deutsche Bahn AG I Fig. 10 I. The TR09, which was produced in response to these requirements, is a highly innovative solution that for the first time satisfies the requirements of rapid regional transport and intercity traffic in a single vehicle. At the same time, the requirements specified by the

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80 73

82

85 80

90

92

88.5

Suburban rail system

Transrapid

80 km/h

200 km/h

300 km/h

400 km/h

Fig. 4 | Sound emissions in comparison, sound level 25 m from passing vehicle, figures in dB(A)

Transrapid

Transrapid

TGV

ICE

TGV

ICE

Fig. 5 | Major sound sources on the Transrapid

39

44

54 59

49

44 The Transrapid is quieter when traveling at a speed of 250 km/h than a truck traveling at 50 km/h.

34

Noise protection Measured distance to building approx. 46 m Measured distance to building approx. 60 m

39

Fig. 6 | Noise protection (figures in dB(A) according to maglev system noise protection regulations)

52 46

34 24 22 Transrapid Transrapid

not attainable by the ICE

ICE

200 km/h
Fig. 7 | Noise protection measures

300 km/h

ICE

Noise protection wall

Highway barrier

400 km/h

Fig. 8 | Specific energy requirements, figures in watt hours (Wh) per seat kilometer

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80 | Transrapid the transportation technology for environmentally friendly mobility

Acceleration distance to 300 km/h Transrapid

Maximum inclined capability Transrapid (Drive integrated in guideway)

Gradient (max. 10%)

0 Highspeed train

10

15

20 km High-speed train (Drive integrated in vehicle)

Gradient (max. 4%)

10

15

20 km

Comparative footprint [m2/m]

Curve radii

Highspeed train

14 High-speed train

Transrapid

Transrapid at ground level

12

3.2 km

300 km/h

Elevated Transrapid

1.4 km 2

200 km/h

1.6 km 0.7 km

Fig. 9 | System comparison Transrapid /HGV (superspeed intercity traffic, rail-bound)

latest European standards for fire protection have been fulfilled and new approaches to active and passive fire protection have been established. Consistently applied lightweight construction and decoupling of sound and vibration of the interior I Fig. 11 I contribute to passenger comfort and efficient utilization of the applied energy. Conclusion and outlook Given that global environmentally friendly solutions for relieving pressure on overcrowded roads, rail corridors and airspace are long overdue as shown by a glance at traffic in many large metropolitan areas the Transrapid represents an intelligent and necessary extension of the pre-existing infrastructure. The efficient system is very

quiet and designed for high train frequencies and high passenger densities, as can be seen from its several years of successful operation in Shanghai/China. Transrapids low emissions and high energy efficiency, which result from the principle of the system, represent decisive strategic advantages from the point of view of globally growing population densities and rising environmental requirements. The vehicle type TR09, which will first be used in Munich, by no means represents the limits of the Transrapids potential. The rapid advances in electronics and also particularly in the areas of new materials and processes for lightweight construction, are of immediate benefit to the Transrapid technology, as they can offer further improvements in terms of sound characteristics and energy efficiency.

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76 m

Operating requirements: wide entry doors, large entry area constant door spacing along length of vehicle, center entry ride comfort as in inter-city transport (interior noise level, pressure tightness, air conditioning)

Measures: entry doors with width of 1.3 m vehicle body 150 mm higher, double floor, air-conditioning air directed above and below door openings sound and vibration decoupling of interior minimization of sound reflections in interior

Fig. 10 | The new vehicle generation TR09

Fig. 11 | Interior of the TR09

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| A water-cooled moving grate conveys the fuel necessary for the waste incineration.

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Water-cooled moving grate for low-residue waste incineration


DIPL.-ING. WERNER AUEL Head of Combustion Technology | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy GmbH, Duisburg PETER DIEKMANN Public Relations | ThyssenKrupp Services AG, Dsseldorf

The new firing concept from ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy guarantees more efficient combustion, lower emissions, and substantially lower operating and maintenance costs. The heart of the system is the moving grate with patented water cooling. It ensures a higher throughput and better burnout. Its main feature, however, is that it allows fuels with high calorific values to be burned. The energy turnover of the fuel determines the amount of cooling required by the grate layer. The water cooling is important for the service life and the variability of the combustion air distribution. The possibilities for integrating the heat flow that is decoupled by the grate layer into the energy process have an effect on the plant efficiency.

Optimized waste incineration Many waste incineration plants are being made inefficient by increased requirements for environmental protection, a changed waste management industry and, as a result, a completely different waste composition. What ends up in the incinerator today is hardly reusable in any other way, and usually has a high calorific value. This leads not only to higher combustion temperatures, but also produces different, extremely corrosive exhaust gas components. As a result, it is necessary to protect the environment and the plant from these exhaust gas components. Optimizing existing plants with respect to the combustion process, the firing, and the steam boiler is one of the core competencies of ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy. The Duisburg-based company is a single source provider that offers all the necessary services from planning and detailed engineering through to commissioning. Modernization affects the entire boiler construction and all of the associated auxiliary units. Plant components that have to be adapted or even newly installed include the boiler pressure section, waste intake, firing grate, deslagger, combustion air system, hydraulic system, electrical measuring and open and closed-loop control/ automation systems, and the firing power control system. The heart of the opti-

mization concept for a modern waste incineration plant is the modularstructured, water-cooled moving grate. It conveys the fuel through the various combustion zones and brings the residues to the slag shaft. The primary air required for combustion is separately controlled for each grate module. It is fed into the individual combustion zones and also serves to cool the grate layer, which is subject to enormous thermal loads. Although most and especially older types of grate have to manage with this air cooling system, the moving grate firing system from ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy also has a water cooling system with a patented grate bar. Cooling tubes in which cooling water circulates are cast into the interior of every individual grate bar. The relatively low volume of cooling water is cooled by a heat exchanger in a closed cycle. This ensures controlled heat dissipation and feeds the reclaimed waste heat back into the overall process. ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy has been the exclusive licensee of the so-called Koch grate technology since March 2003. Since that time, the company has built the water-cooled moving grate into many waste incineration plants, including those in Bremen, Weener, Stavenhagen and Iserlohn. In 2006, all patents and rights related to the process were finally purchased from Koch AG. In addition, all

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84 | Water-cooled mooving grate for low-residue waste incineration

the process technology and design know-how, in the form of references, drawings, and design data, were also taken over. As a result of the acquisition, ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy is the sole supplier of this successful Koch grate technology. Requirements to be met by a modern firing concept Fuel characteristics Unprepared wastes from households, DSD (Duales System Deutschland) returns, sorting residues and substitute fuels give rise to differing combustion behavior in the firing. The characteristic fuel parameters lead to a short-term variability in energy release due to the composition of the fuel. The firing system then has to compensate for the uneven heat and fuel transports resulting from this variability.

Firing power control The primary objective of the firing power control is to implement a power- and emissions-optimized firing control while taking into account the process variability and design engineering factors.

Optimization of the combustion chamber Along with the secondary air feed, the geometry of the firing/afterburning chamber is vitally important. The rating of the combustion gases is oriented on the one hand to an emissions potential that is to be held low and it also determines the conditions for economic operation of the plant. The availibility of the steam generator, i.e. how long a boiler can be operated without the exhaust gas temperature at the end of the boiler or the exhaust gas-side pressure exceeding a specified value is, in the first instance, dependent on

Firing quality features Taking these circumstances into account, various conditions are set for optimal combustion I Fig. 1 I. The most important results are the quality of the combustion product and an economic mode of operation. The basic preconditions for such results lie in reconciling the individual process areas with one another while taking into account the firing systems engineering design.

a uniform combustion process. The high requirements on heat and material transport in the first boiler pass can be met by means of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) studies. The simulation takes into account the variables exhaust gas temperature, exhaust gas velocity and O2 and CO content in the course of the exhaust gas path and allows conclusions regarding operating behavior. I Fig. 3 I shows a typical simulation result in terms of temperature distribution by reference to an example. The course of the flow can be clearly

Firing systems The arrangement of the process areas relevant to the firing is shown in I Fig. 2 I. The guideline values for air distribution entered are adapted to the respective fuel conditions. The feed unit, the combustion grate, the air supply, the primary and secondary air distribution and their control elements form the essential functional areas. The control concept must adapt these functional areas to one another while taking into account the measured combustion parameters and load specifications. The grate-ash extraction system operates in a fixed mode in normal operation.

steered depending on the intensity of the secondary air feed in the front wall or rear wall area. Comparison network measurements confirm the findings of this computational model. Fundamental design considerations The design of a grate system is primarily influenced by the properties of the fuel, which determine the ignition behavior and burning characteristics of the solid material, and thus represent the input variables for determining the grate length and fuel layer height. Furthermore, the piece size of the fuel must also be taken into account with regard to the transport behavior and burnout quality.

Optimal combustion Positive impact on economic aspects of operation Long transit times High availability Low proportion of unburned material Low proportion of unburned material Minimization of lachability of the great ashes High burnout quality on the exhaust-gas side Minimization of CO-/Ctotal content Minimization of NOX content

Fig. 1 | Firing quality features

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Closed-loop control concept

Feeding device Afterburning chamber design

Secondary air distribution 30-50 %

Furnace geometry Combustion grate

Grate ash extraction Primary air distribution 70-50%

Fig. 2 | Grate firing systems

Proportion of the secondary air volume Case 1a 20% 30% F 30% 30% R Case 1b 25% 25% F 25% 25% R Case 1c 30% 30% F 20% 20% R Case 1d 30% 20% F 25% 25% R

F = Front wall, R = Rear wall Temperature [C] 1,500

1,000

500

Fig. 3 | Temperature profiles of a CFD study

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,m ax

Hu

Qmax 100% Normal operation range 2

Hu

CR ,M

Gross heat capacity

7 3
H u, m 6
in

8 60% Qmin 4 5

mmin
Waste mass flow 60% Normal operation range
Fig. 4 | Standardized firing power diagram

mmax

100% MCR= Maximum Continuous Rate

Advancing Grate Koch grate technology Calorific values from 6,000 - 30,000 kJ/kg Air-cooled

Hu 6,000 - 12,000 kJ/kg

Hu 8,000 - 15,000 kJ/kg

Partly water-cooled

Hu 12,000 - 30,000 kJ/kg

Water-cooled

Fig. 5 | Selection criteria for grate layer

In addition to these fuel-determined parameters, the grate area is defined by empirical values related to the mechanical and thermal grate area loading. The grate area required is calculated in connection with the design data from the firing power diagram determined by the gross heat capacity and the waste mass flow rate. Firing power diagram A generally valid representation of the firing power diagram with load levels 1 to 8 is shown in I Fig. 4 I. Depending on the calorific value, the hatched area indicates the area of application of a steam-heated air preheater and/or the auxiliary firing to maintain the combustion

conditions and the minimum exhaust gas temperature of 850 C, at a residence time greater than two seconds. Selection of the grate layer The selection of the grate layer depends on the specific energy potential of the fuel. I Fig. 5 I characterizes the type of grate bar cooling on the basis of the calorific value. In line with this, the aircooled grate layer is used for wastes with low calorific value and the water-cooled grate layer for wastes with a higher calorific value. The water-cooled grate layer is distinguished by a longer service life than that of the purely air-cooled version and permits higher thermal

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loads. The intensive water cooling of the grate bars makes possible process-optimized reduction in the primary air component, along with reduction of the excess air and thus also with respect to a more favorable effect on the formation of NOX. Design features of the combustion grate system Waste intake A crane normally picks up the waste from the bunker and transports it to the intake hopper of the firing system. The lower part of the intake shaft, which can be closed off by a flap, incorporates a double jacket with water cooling as protection against heat loading, for example during the run-up process. Single or multiple-part intake sliders feed controlled amounts of the waste onto the combustion grate.

Cooling water cycle The principle of the cooling cycle can be seen in I Fig. 7 I. Commencing with the water-cooled grate layer, the individual grate bar rows, the water-cooled expansion elements of the lateral grate ends and the center bar as heat absorbing components, a downstream heat exchanger system takes on the purposeful decoupling of the heat. Here, the return temperature of the grate system determines the load characteristic of the heat exchanger as a controlled variable. Circulation pumps pump the cooling water in a closed cycle and a pressure maintenance unit applies the necessary residual pressure. Safety equipment protects the cooling system against excess pressure. A re-feeding unit compensates for any losses of water.

Cooling system components Combustion grate The structure of the combustion grate, executed as an moving grate with an incline of ten degrees to the horizontal, is shown in I Fig. 6 I. Externally located hydraulic drives control the feed and reverse stroke movements of the movable grate bar rows, according to the requirements of the closed-loop control system. The stationary and mobile grate bar rows lie alternately one behind the other in a grate track and rest on separate grate frames. Uniform movements and the long feed stroke due to the grate bar design result in quiet fire guidance. The return stroke follows with the same speed. This movement sequence is distinguished from a short-stroke process by lower wear. The connection elements of the moveable grate bar rows, which compensate for the movement relative to the fixed, onward-leading pipe system, have a particularly important effect on the operating safety of the cooling system. Hose connections and components designed according to mechanical principles represent a method of compensating for movement. The possibilities for utilizing the components are, however, strongly dependent on the temperature of the cooling water. Connection hoses, designed as high-pressure steam hoses, are only suitable for the use of liquid media at temperatures of up to 100 C (cold water area) with limited possibilities for optimal decoupling of heat. Sealing elements in mechanical components currently limit the free choice of cooling temperature to the region Grate charging Depending on the fuel-side conditions, either air-cooled grate bars constructed as a turning rake or water-cooled grate bars are used. In the boundary region of the calorific value bands, both types of grate bar can be used. The third grate zone is then covered with conventional, air-cooled grate bars to support the burnout characteristics here. Concept of the water-cooled grate layer Decoupling of heat The effectiveness of the heat integration in the materials cycle, i.e. the economic dimensioning of the heat exchanger, is primarily dependent on the terminal temperature difference (the difference between the material flow that releases heat and that which absorbs heat). The efforts to maximize the cooling water temperature should be kept within limits here. On the one hand, rising cooling water temperatures reduce the cooling effect with reference to the grate bar surface, and on the other hand temperature-related fatigue effects could, for example, occur in the connection hoses. Grate layer The design principle of the water-cooled grate layer is shown in I Fig. 8 I. U-shaped tubes connect the individual grate bars with one another. The grate bar is characterized by the following features: The grate bar, which is manufactured from a heat-resistant casting, comprises a cast-in steel tube, which means that no leakage due to casting joins can occur. The engineering design of the grate bar takes into account the thermal loads from the combustion process and mechanical stresses from the relative movement. The cast-in steel tube guarantees a defined flow without dead areas due to turbulence in angular channels, which would give rise to the danger of overheating. The quality-assured manufacture of the grate bars ensures a material connection to the casting body in the near-surface regions of the steel tubes, so that there is no annular air gap to reduce the heat transfer. between 160 and 180 C.

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Grate bars movable Grate bars stationary

Grid car

Bearing

Hydraulic cylinder

Fig. 6 | Structure of the advancing grate

Pressure maintenance LS+

TICA LSA-

Heat exchanger

TI Circulating pump FISA PISA

Feeding pump M FISA = Flow Indication Switch Alarm PISA = Pressure Indication Switch Alarm TICA = Temperature Indication Control Alarm TI = Temperature Indication
Fig. 7 | Schematic of the cooling cycle principle

M = Motor LSA = Level Switch Alarm LS = Level Switch

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Fig. 8 | Schematic of the cooling cycle principle

Operating experience with water-cooled grate bars Concluding the trial phase The water-cooled grate bars based on the Koch technology have been in use on a large scale in a thermal waste treatment plant since 1999. The operational experience with the initially wide grate bars led to a further development utilizing a reduced grate bar width. This tried and tested design concept formed the foundation for further use.

water-cooled grate bars with an expected grate bar service life of more than 32,000 hours (with a phased rate of replacement) has been conclusively demonstrated. The service life of the air-cooled grate bars in the main combustion zone in a comparable application is approximately 75% less. The low wear of the water-cooled grate bar cover leads to a constant primary air distribution over the boiler running hours. This provides the basic preconditions for an optimized operation mode and long boiler running hours.

Operating characteristics In the past, faults occurred when hoses were used in connection with hot cooling systems at temperatures over 120 C. Under these operating conditions, the connection elements between the movable grate bar rows, which are in the form of high-pressure steam hoses, have not demonstrated adequate service lives. The use of mechanical connection elements, which are capable of withstanding greater thermal loads, helps to alleviate this problem. Summary Using water-cooled grate bars guarantees an uninterrupted area of application over the range of calorific values from Hu = 7 to 20 MJ/kg. The area of application for air-cooled grate bars lies around a middle to low average calorific value of just Hu = 12 MJ/kg. The current operating experience corresponds to the expected long-term wear characteristics, so the clear advantage of using the

Further advantages accrue thanks to the design engineering conditions: For example, welding work is not required on the cast grate bar; due to the water cooling and the long stroke there is practically no mechanical wear of the grate bars; and only a minimal number of flexible hose connections for movement compensation are necessary thanks to the patented mechanical connection elements. But it is not just the unusual cooling principle that ensures the systems high efficiency. In addition to the higher energy yield of the fuel fed in and the environmentally friendly disposal of the waste, using the ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy grate firing concept also leads to a reduction in ongoing maintenance costs, an extension of service intervals, and simultaneously to a smaller spare parts inventory. Operational experience to date demonstrates that the assured service life of the water-cooled grate covers, combined with the process advantages in the firing guidance, lead to optimal incineration plant operation.

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| A new dimension in shoring systems: Deep linear shoring uses two linear shoring units coupled together, each one complementing the other once they have been installed.

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Pioneering construction processes protect the environment


DR.-ING. BERND BERGSCHNEIDER Managing Director Sales and Technology | ThyssenKrupp Bauservice GmbH, Hckelhoven

Products and services from Emunds+Staudinger, a business unit of ThyssenKrupp Bauservice GmbH, contribute to rational, safe and economically successful construction processes in many underground civil engineering projects both in Germany and abroad. The company offers made-to-measure solutions for its partners in the construction business. These include service appropriate to construction sites, consultation at a high level, comprehensive project management and on-time delivery of the systems selected for the respective construction measures. Together with medium-sized and large companies, Emunds+Staudinger develops convincing concepts that pay off. The products and processes used are tailored to the respective construction measures and ensure smooth construction processes. The company also takes account of the stringent requirements of environmental protection for example, with the development and application of environmentally oriented technologies and processes such as the Terra-Star recycler for soil preparation, mobile site road systems or so-called deep linear shoring.

Introduction Today, the terms construction and environmental protection are inseparably linked. Construction means altering our living space and arranging it according to the requirements of society. Regardless of what kind of civil engineering project is being realized, whether a parking lot, a path or a new road surface is being laid, embankments or sound protection walls are being built, or work is being carried out in the area of a sewage system taking environmental protection issues into account is a high priority. This starts with the selection of the construction materials and the procurement and use of equipment. It continues with noise, water, and soil protection measures, and ends finally with the disposal of excavated earth, road construction waste, and construction site waste. Construction companies and manufacturers of construction products have tailored their operations and products to take account of this development and its associated requirements. New technologies, new working processes, and new construction products have successively changed the construction and work processes in the construction industry. Emunds+Staudinger, a business unit of ThyssenKrupp Bauservice GmbH, has taken account of this situation in, for example, the development and use of environmentally oriented technologies and processes. These processes include so-called deep linear shoring a new shoring process in

which two linear shoring units are coupled together, each one complementing the other once they have been installed I see title picture of the report I or the Terra-Star bucket separator for soil preparation I Fig.1 I. Using the Terra-Star bucket separator, the soil excavated on the construction site is prepared and recycled for direct refilling. This results in considerable economic advantages, as the removed soil does not need to be cost-intensively transported offsite and disposed of in a landfill site. At the same time, important environmental aspects are taken into consideration: spoil or waste products are recycled and reused whenever possible, instead of being taken to landfill. Safety and environmental protection at Emunds+Staudinger Emunds+Staudinger ensures safety and environmental protection in the course of many underground civil engineering projects worldwide. Almost 60% of the total business volume is earned on the European market outside Germany and on overseas markets. In Europe the company is represented in almost all countries. Furthermore, there are trading partners in the USA, in Central and South America, in the Middle East, and in Asia. In addition to trench shoring systems for securing trenches and building pits against collapse, modern machinery and equipment such as controlled and uncontrolled pipe drilling systems for trenchless pipe driving represent a

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Fig. 1 | Terra-Star bucket separator for soil preparation

Fig. 2 | Using the Terra-Star bucket separator, the soil excavated on the construction site is prepared and recycled for direct refilling. This results in considerable economic advantages, as the removed soil does not need to be cost-intensively transported offsite and dumped in a landfill.

logical extension to the product range. Further systems such as a recycler for soil preparation with reinstallation, a mobile site road system, a range of pipe grabs and pipe pullers, a hydraulic coupler for tool quick change systems and additional equipment make for economic processes and smoothly functioning operations on the construction site. Trench shoring systems, drilling systems, site roads, recyclers and additional equipment can be purchased or rented as desired. The key factor for the construction partner is that Emunds+Staudinger offers cost- and quality-oriented solutions, which give the highest priority to the ever-growing demands on safety technology, cost effectiveness, and environmental issues. Soil preparation Working in a manner that is both economical and environmentally friendly is one of the greatest challenges facing construction companies worldwide. With the Terra-Star recycler for soil preparation in sewage system and road construction work, Emunds+Staudinger offers underground civil engineering companies in particular a product for economical and environmentally friendly work on location and on site. In most cases worldwide, the soil removed during the course of constructing roads, trenches, and building pits is transported to landfill sites, often at a great distance. Unloaded trucks drive to the construction sites, which are often located in the innercities and unnecessarily transport excavated soil to landfill sites where the frequently unpolluted soil is disposed of at great cost. A sample calculation illustrates the enormous cost involved. Take a typical inner-city underground civil engineering project the trench for pipe laying is approximately 4 m deep, 3 m wide, and 100 m long. In the worst case, this requires that around 120 trucks with a transport volume of 10 m3 each drive empty to the construction site and

Using the Terra-Star recycler, the soil removed on the construction site can alternatively be processed on site and refilled in the same cubature I Fig. 2 I. To accomplish this, an environmentally friendly lime-cement binder is added successively to the removed soil in the recycler in a specific mixing ratio for a period of approximately 30 seconds. The quantity of lime-cement binder depends on the moisture content of the removed soil and on the desired strength of the prepared soil when it is refilled. Larger stones in the excavated material are comminuted during mixing in the recycler in a type of sieve so that the soil grain size specified for the replacement of the soil in the relevant DIN standard is maintained. The prepared soil is either directly refilled or first stored for later use. This form of soil preparation is not only pioneering from the environmental point of view, but also offers an economical alternative to the conventional process of excavation, transport and disposal in landfill followed by the refilling of new soil. The process complies with the recycling management and waste law (KrW/AbfG) in respect of the duty to avoid the production of waste and to reuse waste without environmental damage, with the proviso that excavated earth and wastes are to be recycled rather than disposed of in landfill sites. Flexible site road systems Mobile site road systems are an element of ThyssenKrupp Bauservices product portfolio designed not only to ease driving over rough, muddy or swampy ground, but primarily to protect the ground I Fig. 3 I. This product can also be purchased or rented. A site road system element is 2.34 m long, 3.80 m wide, 0.16 m high and weighs approx. 860 kg. It is designed for an axle load of 12 tons or more. The extremely robust steel plates are simple to transport, easy to handle and can be used flexibly, protecting ground and surfaces in forests and nature preserves from being directly driven over and thus destroyed, for example by excavators and other typical construction site vehicles.

fully loaded to the landfill site. The same number of trucks is required to deliver the new soil for filling in the excavation.

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Deep linear shoring Linear shoring a special form of slide rail shoring is used worldwide to economically shore up trenches or building pits down to depths of around 8 m. At greater depths, the ground friction associated with the installation and driving of the shoring is too great to be able to work in a time-saving and thus economical manner (see article Modified linear shoring system, ThyssenKrupp techforum, issue 2/2006). Today, the requirements in underground civil engineering worldwide are for ever deeper shafts and building pits, also frequently for the excavation of deep, contaminated areas of ground for example, under sites where demolished filling stations or obsolete industrial zones used to stand. In addition, contractors are also facing new requirements, particularly with respect to economical working. In order to also be able to economically utilize shoring systems at these greater depths, Emunds+Staudinger has developed so-called deep linear shoring. This is a new shoring process in which two linear shoring units are coupled together, each one complementing the other once they have been installed, with the objective of overcoming the friction of the soil during installation. The new process is based on conventional linear shoring. In the first step, a shoring system module consisting of rails, panels and mobile frames is installed. Following this step, a second module is then installed in the previously installed field by using new structures and system components to match the second module to the previously installed outer module as an internally running in contact module. This results in the inner shoring components taking over the loads arising when the components pass through the outer module. In the completely installed state, the two shoring modules complement each other, as their components are of the same length and resist the earth pressure completely independently of one another. The areas of application of this new shoring method encompass deeper building pits for sewage line construction, shafts and press pits at depths of as much as approx. 10 to 12 m, depending on the properties of the soil. Conclusion The examples show how underground civil engineering work can also be carried out economically while addressing the technical aspects of environmental protection. This presents a challenge, not least to the manufacturers and suppliers of processes and equipment. ThyssenKrupp Bauservice has therefore further developed its existing product range for practical use while taking account of economic and environmental factors and launched new, innovative products and specific solutions for special construction tasks, thus providing contractors with the equipment necessary for a smooth and successful execution of the construction measures. Another important element is the companys fundamental service orientation which is already evident in the companys name incorporating on-site discussions with the specialist consultants. All in all, it represents an outstanding opportunity for clients and the companies carrying out the work to develop construction-site related and technically mature solutions for the various different (sewer) construction tasks and thus pursue an extremely market and customer-oriented sales strategy. Internationally, the focus is on Europe, the USA and the Middle East, with the sales partners in the respective countries providing the same degree of customer service as in Germany.
Fig. 3 | The company carrying out the work fulfills the official requirements with respect to sensitive construction soils by using the site road system.

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Dual-phase steel with anticorrosion primer for exposed car panels DR. RER. NAT. JRG LEWANDOWSKI | ThyssenKrupp Steel DIPL.-ING. REINHILD HAUBRUCK | ThyssenKrupp Steel DR. RER. NAT. SILKE STRAU | ThyssenKrupp Steel ING. GRAD. HORST OEMKES | ThyssenKrupp Steel DR. ING. BERNHARD SCHINKINGER | DOC Dortmunder Oberflchencentrum DR. RER. NAT. JOSEF SCHNEIDER | ThyssenKrupp Steel T3 profiling technology a precondition for the increased use of hollow steel sections in motor vehicles DR.-ING. THOMAS FLEHMIG | ThyssenKrupp Steel DIPL.-ING. (FH) MICHAEL BRGGENBROCK | ThyssenKrupp Steel WLADIMIR RITUPER | ThyssenKrupp Steel LOTHAR HMIG | ThyssenKrupp Steel MOHAMMED TOHFA | ThyssenKrupp Steel OxyCup slag a new product for demanding markets DIPL.-ING. KLAUS KESSELER | ThyssenKrupp Steel DR. RER. NAT. RONALD ERDMANN | ThyssenKrupp Steel NIROSTA 4521 a stainless CrMo steel with impressive corrosion resistance DR.-ING. JRG-FRIEDRICH HOLZHAUSER | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta DIPL.-ING. HEINZ KOCH | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Rolling microscopically fine surface structures DIPL.-ING. MATHIAS BRWOLF | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband DIPL.-ING. MICHAEL ULLRICH | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband KAI MASCHMEIER | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta Przisionsband HPPO process for propylene oxide production with no co-products DIPL.-ING., DIPL.-WIRTSCH.-ING. NORBERT ULLRICH | Uhde DR.-ING. BRBEL KOLBE | Uhde DR. RER. NAT. NIELS BREDEMEYER | Uhde Error proofing verification methods for the production of automotive sand transportation cast components GENE JOHNSON | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca TIMOTHY OWENS | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca CODY RHODES (BS) | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca RONALD THURSTON | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca

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Slip free scan hardening a process for complete inductive surface hardening of slewing bearing raceways DR.-ING. JRG ROLLMANN | Rothe Erde DR.-ING. WILFRIED SPINTIG | Rothe Erde DIPL.-ING. BERND STAKEMEIER | Rothe Erde Presta Production and Logistics System PPLS paving the way for producing steering systems in five days DR.-ING. DIPL.-WI.-ING. DANIEL FITZEK, MSC | ThyssenKrupp Presta PETER SPALT, MBA | ThyssenKrupp Presta ANJA TISCHLER (MAG. FH) | ThyssenKrupp Presta DIPL.-ING. (FH) STEFAN OBERHAUSER, MSC | ThyssenKrupp Presta All-new support structure for independent suspensions in heavy-duty trucks DIPL.-ING. STEFFEN SCHMIDT | ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems DR.-ING. DIRK ZIESING | ThyssenKrupp Automotive Systems TurboTrack making long distances shorter DIPL.-ING. MIGUEL GONZLEZ ALEMANY I ThyssenKrupp Elevator (ES/PBB) DR. MONICA SOFFRITTI I ThyssenKrupp Elevator MARTINA BEHREND I ThyssenKrupp Elevator THIES EISELE I ThyssenKrupp Elevator Graduated model for the customer-specific combination of materials-related and industrial services JRGEN WESTPHAL | ThyssenKrupp Schulte DIPL.-ING. CHRISTIAN BTTGER | ThyssenKrupp Schulte DIPL.-ING. ANDREAS MITSCHKE | ThyssenKrupp Schulte MAIK WERNER | ThyssenKrupp Schulte Process for low-NOX combustion of hard coal in combination with a new type of melting cyclone DIPL.-ING. WERNER AUEL | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy

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DFI Oxyfuel process for saving energy and improving the performance and quality of continuous strip lines DR.-ING. HERBERT EICHELKRAUT | ThyssenKrupp Steel DIPL.-ING. HANS-JOACHIM HEILER | ThyssenKrupp Steel DIPL.-ING. HANS PETER DOMELS | ThyssenKrupp Steel WERNER HGNER | ThyssenKrupp Steel Development of a knowledge database for assessing the environmental relevance of products, byproducts and waste materials DR. RER. NAT. ALFONS ESSING | ThyssenKrupp Steel DIPL.-INFORM. AXEL TEICHMANN | ThyssenKrupp Steel SLC the innovative, low-cost lightweight construction solution for passenger car subframes DIPL.-ING. PETER SEYFRIED | ThyssenKrupp Steel DIPL.-ING. ULF SUDOWE | ThyssenKrupp Umformtechnik Stainless steels for seawater desalination plants DR.-ING. GEORG UHLIG | ThyssenKrupp Nirosta High-performance and environment-friendly advanced high-strength stainless steels in automotive applications ING. ANDREA BRUNO | ThyssenKrupp Acciai Speciali Terni Large forged shafts for power generation DIPL.-ING. STEFANO NERI | Societ delle Fucine DIPL.-ING. DANIELE MARSILI | Societ delle Fucine DR. RER. OEC. GIOVANNI SANSONE | Societ delle Fucine Nickel alloys for tomorrows power plants DR.-ING. JUTTA KLWER | ThyssenKrupp VDM DR. RER. NAT. BODO GEHRMANN | ThyssenKrupp VDM Energy-efficient, environmentally friendly white cement production using state-of-the-art technology DIPL.-ING. LUIS LAGAR-GARCA | Polysius DR.-ING. DIETMAR SCHULZ | Polysius

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Emissions reduction by means of continuous open pit mining technology DR.-ING. VIKTOR RAAZ | ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik DIPL.-ING. BERGBAU ULRICH MENTGES | ThyssenKrupp Frdertechnik Cupola project response to new MACT emission standard WILLIAM POWELL (B.S. MET. E.) | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca JEFFREY LOEFFLER (B.S. CH. E.) | ThyssenKrupp Waupaca CO2 -free energy conversion thanks to Rothe Erde slewing bearings DR.-ING. UWE BREUCKER | Rothe Erde Transrapid the transportation technology for environmentally friendly mobility DR.-ING. FRIEDRICH LSER | ThyssenKrupp Transrapid DR. RER. NAT. QINGHUA ZHENG | ThyssenKrupp Transrapid Water-cooled moving grate for low-residue waste incineration DIPL.-ING. WERNER AUEL | ThyssenKrupp Xervon Energy PETER DIEKMANN | ThyssenKrupp Services Pioneering construction processes protect the environment DR.-ING. BERND BERGSCHNEIDER | ThyssenKrupp Bauservice

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