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Jinhua Jiang



Jinhua Jiang

Wireless communications has changed the wa we li!e" wor#" and learn" and the demand $or wireless communications with high s%eed and u&i'uitous connecti!it continues to increase ra%idl ( Currentl " a !ariet o$ wireless networ#s" e(g(" cellular networ#s and wireless local area networ#s" coe)ist and su%%ort a &road range o$ mo&ile ser!ices( Meanwhile" man new t %es o$ wireless networ#s are still &eing de!elo%ed to meet the needs o$ emerging a%%lications with new communication re'uirements" such as cogniti!e radio networ#s and wireless sensor networ#s( When designing these networ#s" not onl is it im%ortant to reali*e the desired $unctionalities $or new a%%lications" &ut also it is crucial to in!estigate how to achie!e the o%timum &andwidth and energ e+cienc " due to the scarcit o$ the res%ecti!e resources( This in!estigation re'uires an interdisci%linar e,ort that encom%asses areas o$ signal %rocessing" communication" control" and in$ormation theor (

Through in$ormation-theoretic research" we wish to $ind the $undamental limits o$ a networ#" and de!elo% new networ# designs that ultimatel achie!e these limits( This not onl will ha!e an im%act on the design o$ $uture wireless networ#s" &ut also can hel% to sol!e issues with current wireless networ#s( An e)am%le is the AT.T /0 wireless networ#1 as A%%le i2hone users &egan running &andwidth demanding a%%lications such as multi-media streaming" the networ# &ecame o!erloaded such that the users would e)%erience !er slow s%eed and $re'uent connection dro%s( The $irst natural 'uestion is whether the current design o$ the wireless networ# is o%timal( 3$ not" what is the $undamental limit on the %er$ormance im%ro!ement that can &e achie!ed4 And" how can this &e achie!ed at minimum cost4

M research has $ocused on networ# in$ormation theor " which %ro!ides %artial answers to the a&o!e 'uestions( S%eci$icall " 3 ha!e studied a num&er o$ $undamental &uilding &loc#s o$ a networ#" including rela channels" &roadcast channels" and inter$erence channels( Without a thorough understanding o$ these elementar networ# models" it is not %ossi&le to $ull understand a general communication networ#" which can &e large and ar&itrar ( The main o&5ecti!e o$ m research is to in!estigate how in$ormation can &e more e+cientl communicated o!er these networ# models and their !ariants in a set o$ di,erent networ# scenarios( 3n the $ollowing" 3 list se!eral o$ m #e contri&utions in these areas(

6 Cogniti!e Radio Networ#s

The entire a!aila&le wireless s%ectrum ranging $rom / 7H* to /88 0H* is currentl di!ided into man small non-o!erla%%ing &ands" which are licensed $or di,erent communication %ur%oses" such as mo&ile communication" T9 &roadcasting" satellite communication" maritime communication" etc( This lea!es little room to allocate new isolated &ands $or new communication s stems and a%%lications( Howe!er" measurements show that most o$ the allocated s%ectrum is !astl under-utili*ed at an %articular location and time" es%eciall o!er the T9 &ands( Cogniti!e radio has emerged as a new technolog that can su&stantiall increase s%ectrum utili*ation e+cienc & allowing secondar users :unlicensed users; to share the s%ectrum with %rimar users :licensed users; as long as the inter$erence caused is maintained &elow a certain %rescri&ed le!el(

An in$ormation-theoretic model has &een %ro%osed to stud the $undamental limits o$ cog-niti!e radios( 3n this model" one %rimar user is sending in$ormation to its recei!er" while a secondar user is allowed to communicate with its own recei!er simultaneousl o!er the same

1 Jinhua Jiang </4

&and o$ s%ectrum( M wor# on cogniti!e radio is mainl concerned with how a cogniti!e user can utili*e its #nowledge a&out the %rimar user to achie!e &etter transmission rates $or itsel$ as well as $or the %rimar user( 3 de!elo%ed a coding scheme that e,ecti!el integrates coo%erati!e communication techni'ues :su%er%osition coding; with inter$erence mitigation and e)%loitation :rate s%litting and dirt %a%er coding; to achie!e the &est transmission rates among all %rior techni'ues in the high inter$erence regime(

Recentl 3 ha!e success$ull addressed incor%orated &roadcasting techni'ues as well( S%eci$-icall " the new coding scheme stems $rom !iewing the cogniti!e radio channel as a !ariant o$ the &roadcast channel instead o$ the inter$erence channel( The new achie!a&le rate region is to date the largest among all e)isting wor# on the cogniti!e radio channel( 3n addition" 3 also wor#ed on causal cogniti!e radio channel" and %ro%osed a coding scheme com&ining rela ing techni'ues with inter$erence management to achie!e the &est transmission rates to date(

6 Wireless Sensor Networ#s

Wireless sensor networ#s ha!e drawn signi$icant research interest in the last decade" %rimaril due to their &road range o$ %otential a%%lications( =or e)am%le" a large num&er o$ sensors can &e de%lo ed o!er the &attle$ield to detect enem intrusion instead o$ using land-mines( A wireless sensor networ# usuall o%erates using &atteries" and thus a #e design issue is how to communicate e,ecti!el with minimum energ consum%tion( To see# the solution" m research

in!estigates e,ecti!e communication strategies to achie!e the &est communication rates gi!en limited %ower at each networ# node(

Consider a multi-ho% wireless sensor networ# that is de%lo ed o!er a &attle$ield to monitor the mo!ements o$ hea! wea%ons( Two neigh&oring sensors should ha!e a correlated o&ser!ation o$ the same e!ent( The ma con!e their indi!idual o&ser!ations inde%endentl to two neigh&oring sensors $or rela ing" &ut this a%%roach is not e+cient in terms o$ %ower consum%tion( 3n $act" m wor# shows that the correlation &etween o&ser!ation in%uts o,ers a great o%%ortunit to sa!e transmission %ower i$ the neigh&oring sensors coo%erati!el transmit the correlated in$ormation( S%eci$icall " 3 in!estigated the inter$erence channel with common in$ormation" where correlation &etween the two source in%uts is in the $orm o$ common in$ormation( 3 %ro%osed a coding scheme that consists o$ three la ers1 a coo%eration la er regarding the common in$ormation" a colla&oration la er regarding the crossl o&ser!a&le in$ormation" and a %ri!ate la er( The resulting achie!a&le rate region leads to strict im%ro!ements o!er the e)isting results in the 0aussian case" and demonstrates o%timalit in certain s%ecial cases(

>ue to the inherent &roadcasting nature o$ wireless transmissions" $eed&ac# can &e easil collected at sensor nodes that are ca%a&le o$ recei!ing( 3t has &een %ro!en that $eed&ac# does increase the ca%acit o$ multi-user channels :in contrast to the %oint-to-%oint channel case;( Howe!er" the ca%acit regions are un#nown $or most multi-user channels with $eed&ac#" e)ce%t $or a $ew s%ecial cases with noiseless $eed&ac#( With the o&5ecti!e to im%ro!e the transmission rates & e)%loiting $eed&ac# in wireless sensor networ#s" 3 ha!e studied inter$erence channels with noiseless $eed&ac#" and rela channels with generali*ed :nois ; $eed&ac#( The main idea is to e)tract common in$ormation $rom the $eed&ac#" which ena&les coo%eration &etween trans-mitting nodes to achie!e higher transmission rates( The &ene$its o$ $eed&ac# :e!en generali*ed $eed&ac#; can &e easil seen $rom our results & considering the as m%totics( Howe!er" the gen-eral o%timalit o$ our results is still un#nown( 3 &elie!e inducing common in$ormation to achie!e coo%eration &etween transmitting nodes is not a general solution to e)%loit $eed&ac#( A general

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$orm o$ coo%eration induci&le $rom the $eed&ac# ma e)ist" which 3 %lan to %ursue in m $uture research(

6 ?>2C Coded M3M@ @=>M S stems

Aesides in$ormation-theoretic wor# on wireless communication networ#s" 3 ha!e also had hands-on e)%erience in communication s stem design" %articularl the low-densit %arit -chec# :?>2C; coded multi%le-in%ut multi%le-out%ut :M3M@; orthogonal $re'uenc -di!ision multi%le)ing :@=>M; s stem( 3 %ro%osed a sim%le decoding techni'ue called & %ass decoding $or ?>2C coded M3M@ @=>M s stems( 3n the %ro%osed decoding techni'ue" a codeword is decoded in two ste%s &ased on the log-li#elihood ratios :??Rs; o$ the coded &its1 =irst" the hard decisions are made on the coded &its whose ??Rs ha!e magnitudes a&o!e a certain threshold( Ne)t" the rest o$ the coded &its are decoded & using an iterati!e recei!er that remains structurall the same as the con!entional recei!er" &ut ada%ts to the num&er and the locations o$ coded &its decoded in the $irst ste%( 3 im%lemented the ?>2C coded M3M@ @=>M s stem in so$tware to simulate the s s-tem with di,erent com&inations o$ s m&ol detection algorithms :MA2 or s%here decoding; and ?>2C decoding algorithms :$ull message %assing or the %ro%osed & %ass decoding;( @ur sim-ulation results con$irm that" com%ared with the con!entional decoding a%%roach" this decoding techni'ue not onl deli!ers a considera&le reduction in decoding com%le)it " &ut also maintains a com%ara&le %er$ormance as long as the threshold is %ro%erl chosen(

=uture >irections

3 %lan to $urther in!estigate communication networ#s $rom three di,erent %ers%ecti!es1 theor " %ractice" and a%%lication( 3 &elie!e %ractice and a%%lication not onl allow us to !eri$ theories" &ut also can hel% to disco!er limitations o$ e)isting theories and ins%ire de!elo%ment o$ new theories( Aelow 3 highlight three to%ics which 3 wish to wor# on in the near $uture(

6 E)%loiting =eed&ac# and Correlation

=irst" 3 would li#e to continue m current research in networ# in$ormation theor " with a s%eci$ic $ocus on understanding two inherent %ro%erties o$ most wireless networ#s1 $eed&ac# and corre-lation( 3 &elie!e that the grand %ro&lem o$ $inding the ca%acit o$ an ar&itrar wireless networ# cannot &e sol!ed without a thorough understanding o$ these two %ro%erties( E)isting wor# on these two is relati!el limited( 3n %articular" almost no ca%acit results ha!e &een re%orted $or multi-user channels with correlated sources" and !er $ew ca%acit results ha!e &een esta&lished $or multi-user channels with $eed&ac#( 3 %lan to %er$orm an in-de%th stud on the structure o$ correlation and $ind out what $orms o$ correlation are induci&le $rom $eed&ac#" & a%%l ing more so%histicated tools $rom statistics( The research out%ut is e)%ected to ha!e a &road range o$ %otential im%lications( =irstl " it ma hel% to de!elo% new coding schemes to con!e correlated sources in a networ#" and ma sol!e o%en %ro&lems associated with correlated sources" such as multi%le access channels with correlated sources" &roadcast channels with correlated sources" etc( Secondl " it ma answer the 'uestions on how to e,ecti!el use !arious $orms o$ $eed&ac#1 nois " 'uanti*ed" or %er$ect" and how to select the &est $orm o$ $eed&ac# i$ $inite rate o$ $eed-&ac# is allowed( These are crucial intermediate ste%s towards a com%lete in$ormation-theoretic understanding o$ communication networ#s(

Jinhua Jiang


6 2ractical Code >esigns $or Cogniti!e Radio S stems

3 %lan to a%%l the theoretical insights gained through m %ast wor# to %ractical design o$ cogniti!e radio s stems( As discussed earlier" cogniti!e radio is a %romising candidate $or $uture wireless technologies" &ut there are still man im%lementation issues to &e addressed( @ne #e issue is the code design $or the cogniti!e radios( 3n order to mitigate the #nown inter$erence" the cogniti!e user needs to a%%l a %articular coding techni'ue called dirt %a%er coding( So $ar" there e)ists no sim%le im%lementation o$ dirt %a%er coding to $ull ca%itali*e the %er$ormance gain o$ this coding techni'ue( @ne o$ the e)isting im%lementations is using lattice codes" e)%loiting the $act that lattice codes are &oth good channel codes and good source codes( The %er$ormance o$ this im%lementation is good" &ut the com%le)it is !er high( 3 %lan to in!estigate low-com%le)it alternati!es to lattice codes that %ro!ide a $le)i&le tradeo, &etween com%le)it and %er$ormance( Through this research" 3 e)%ect to gain a &etter understanding o$ the com%le)it issue in!ol!ed in cogniti!e radio s stems( 3 would also li#e to $ind out how much theoretic %er$ormance can &e actuall retained with a %ractical code design o$ moderate com%le)it (

6 Networ# >esign $or Smart 0rid

With &oth theoretical and %ractical e)%eriences in communication networ# design" 3 %lan to stud the smart grid"

which can &e regarded as a great $uture a%%lication o$ communication networ#s( The smart grid is an emerging %aradigm in the %ower industr ( 3t aims to re%lace the current hierarchical" centrall controlled" and &roadcasting grid structure with one that is more distri&uted" more ro&ust" and more e+cient( @ne interesting #e ca%a&ilit o$ the smart grid is that it can easil integrate distri&uted %ower generation with renewa&le sources such as solar and wind into the grid( =or e)am%le" a customer can not onl consume %ower $rom the grid" &ut also sell &ac# to the grid the %ower generated with his own solar %anel( The intelligence and the distri&uted control mechanisms $or these e)changes must &e &uilt u%on an in$rastructure that is e)tremel ro&ust and ena&les su+cient in$ormation e)change( To this end" there are man 'uestions to &e addressed( =or e)am%le" do we need to &uild a whole new communication net-wor# $or the entire grid4 Can we im%lement the associated communication networ# as a sensor networ#4 3$ so" how can we modi$ the e)isting sensor networ# design such that it can su%%ort real-time and low-rate communications with e)tremel high relia&ilit and securit 4 A%%arentl " all these issues cannot &e addressed without an interdisci%linar e,ort $rom areas li#e control" communications" and signal %rocessing( Hence" 3 would li#e to esta&lish a colla&oration with $uture colleagues $rom the res%ecti!e areas to e)%lore these %ro&lems( The research on smart grid is still in its earl stage" and 3 &elie!e the im%act would &e signi$icant(

3n the long run" 3 would li#e to $urther de!elo% m e)%ertise and e)tend m current research in in$ormation theor and wireless communications( The o&5ecti!e is to &uild a &etter understanding on how in$ormation can &e o%timall communicated o!er a networ# in terms o$ s%eed" e+cienc " and relia&ilit ( 3 would also li#e to e)%and m research &e ond the sco%e o$

communication networ#s" & a%%l ing m e)%ertise in in$ormation theor and wireless communications to new areas such as smart %ower grid design" &ioin$ormatics" etc(