You are on page 1of 92

Basics of Power Generation Plant

Electrical Department Internal Lectures (2nd SEPTEMBER 2010) Presented by: Rajat Roy & Selvi

CONTENTS

Contents
I I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII XIII. Purpose Definition Design Philosophy Design Consideration List of Major Equipment in Power Plant Types of Power Generation Plant Brief Detail of Thermal Energy Based Power Plant Brief Detail of Combustion Engine Based Power Plant Brief Detail of Diesel Engine Based Power Plant Brief Detail of Combined Cycle Power Plant Brief Detail of Cogeneration Power Plant Balance of Plant System El Electrical i l System S
Basics of Power Generation Plant

INTRODUCTION

I. PURPOSE

Basics of Power Generation Plant

PURPOSE

In Technip Technip, our main area of engineering design work is Oil & Gas projects wherein most of the projects (Offshore/ Onshore) engineering design scope includes a power generation facility i th in the range of f3 3- 10 MW MW. But there is an increasing trend of projects that include scope of large capacity captive power generation plant to support completely the power requirement of the process plant.

Basics of Power Generation Plant

PURPOSE

Recently we have worked in some industrial and process plant projects also, where the power plant size is very big- viz- in Dung Quat Refinerytotal p power is aprox. p 110MW( ( 4*27MW STG+ 1.6MW EDG) ) and in Koniambo Nickel Project total power is approx. 360MW (2*131MW STG+ 2*46MW CTG+ 2*3.5MW EDG). Purpose of this Lecture is to provide some basic idea and generalized view of large g capacity p yp power g generation Plant to all design g staffs in our department and create great interest among them about big size power generation plant.

Basics of Power Generation Plant

INTRODUCTION

II. DEFINITION

Basics of Power Generation Plant

DEFINITION

A power station (also referred to as a generating station, power plant, or powerhouse) is an industry facility for the generation of electric power.

Called as energy center

Basics of Power Generation Plant

DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

III. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY


General
i i. Categories ii. Classes

Reliability
i. Without failure ii Operate correctly ii.

Maintenance
i. Monitoring ii. Testing iii. Upgrading, Modifying, Repair
Basics of Power Generation Plant

DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

III DESIGN PHILOSOPHY III.


Safety y
i. Operation ii. Personal iii. Environmental

Basics of Power Generation Plant

DESIGN CONSIDERATION

IV DESIGN CONSIDERATION IV.


Electrical Load Capacity Configuration g Environmental Consideration Site Selection & Space limitation Plant Design Life Voltage Level

Basics of Power Generation Plant

10

DESIGN CONSIDERATION

Cost Cost-Maximum Maximum return from minimal expenditure for the working life of the station D Design i must t provide id cheap; h reliable li bl and d continuous service Future Growth

Basics of Power Generation Plant

11

MAJOR EQUIPMENT

V LIST OF MAJOR V. EQUIPMENT Q USED IN POWER PLANT

Basics of Power Generation Plant

12

1. BOILER

Basics of Power Generation Plant

13

OIL FIRED WATER BOILER

Basics of Power Generation Plant

14

COAL FIRED BOILER

Boiler
i Heat water/ fluid i.

Basics of Power Generation Plant

15

2. STEAM TURBINE

Basics of Power Generation Plant

16

STEAM TURBINE

Steam Turbine
i Mechanical device i. ii. Extract thermal energy to rotary motor

Basics of Power Generation Plant

17

3. GAS TURBINE

Basics of Power Generation Plant

18

GAS TURBINE

Gas Turbine
i. Rotary engine ii. Extract energy from flow of g combustion gas

Basics of Power Generation Plant

19

4. HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR

Basics of Power Generation Plant

20

HRSG

Heat Recovery Steam Generator


i. Energy recovery heat exchanger

ii Steam used in process/ drive ii. turbine

Basics of Power Generation Plant

21

5. DEAERATOR

Basics of Power Generation Plant

22

DEAERATOR

Deaerator
i. Removal of air + dissolved gases

ii. From feedwater to boiler iii 2 type iii.

Basics of Power Generation Plant

23

6. SURFACE CONDENSER

Basics of Power Generation Plant

24

SURFACE CONDENSER

S f Surface C d Condenser
i. Heat exchanger ii. Condense exhaust steam

Basics of Power Generation Plant

25

7. BOILER FEED WATER PUMP

Basics of Power Generation Plant

26

BOILER FEED WATER PUMP

Feed Water Pump


i. Pump feedwater into steam generating boiler

ii F ii. Fresh h water/ t / condense d steam

Basics of Power Generation Plant

27

8. FEED WATER HEATER

Basics of Power Generation Plant

28

FEED WATER HEATER

Feed Water Heater


i i. Pre heat water Pre-heat ii. Improve thermodynamic efficiency

Basics of Power Generation Plant

29

TYPE & CONFIGURATION

VI. TYPES OF POWER GENERATION PLANT & CONFIGURATION


1 Thermal 1. Th l Steam St t bi turbine 2. Gas Engine- Based 3. Diesel Engine- Based 4 Nuclear (Not common) 4. 5. Renewable Energy Based
*Type 1, 2 & 3 are the primary intent of this lecture
Basics of Power Generation Plant

30

THERMAL POWER PLANT

VII. BRIEF DETAIL of THERMAL ENERGY BASED POWER PLANT

Basics of Power Generation Plant

31

DESIGN

1. Definition: Fuel type (Coal/Oil/Agricultural Waste) 2. Steam Conditions: Pressure/ Temperature 3 Condensing/ Reheat Turbines 3. 4. Plant Function & Purpose 5. Steam Power Cycle Economy 6 Cogeneration Cycle 6.

Basics of Power Generation Plant

32

FEATURES

1. Steam/ thermal p power station- used heat energy 2. Used to produce large amount of Electrical energy 3 Slow to start 3. 4. Cannot be used to cater peak loads 5. Keep running very close to full efficiency for 24 hours

Basics of Power Generation Plant

33

MODEL FLOW

Basics of Power Generation Plant

34

PROCESS FLOW

1. STAGE 1: COAL & ASH PLANT


i. Entrance and exit of fuel (coal) ii. Handling treatment & storage of coal iii. Final handling & disposal of ash

2. STAGE 2: STEAM GENERATING PLANT


i. Energy loss stage i ii. Steam creation by heat

3. STAGE 3 & 4: STEAM TURBINE & ALTERNATOR


i. Energy conversion stage ii. Steam turbine covert steam to rotational mechanical energy iii Alternator/ generator convert mechanical to electrical energy iii.

Basics of Power Generation Plant

35

PROCESS FLOW

4. STAGE 5: FEED WATER & COOLING


i. Recycling stage ii. Steam used in boiler chamber is condensed back to water to re-use

Basics of Power Generation Plant

36

STEAM TURBINE

Basics of Power Generation Plant

37

STG LAYOUT

Basics of Power Generation Plant

38

ADVANDAGES VS DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES
1. Cheap p coal 2. Can be installed anywhere near fuel & water supply 3. Less construction space 4. Cost for generation less 5. Used for base power station

DISADVANTAGES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. More Layout y Space p Air pollution Cost more to run Low overall efficiency Very high start-up/ shutdown time

Basics of Power Generation Plant

39

COMBUSTION POWER PLANT

VIII. BRIEF DETAIL of COMBUSTION ENGINE BASED POWER PLANT

Basics of Power Generation Plant

40

DESIGN

1. Use prime mover to generate electrical energy 2. Generally used to produce limited amount of electrical energy 3. Used as p peaking g power p stations 4. Applications:
i. For large g p power requirementsq space p limitation ii. Peak shaving iii. Combined cycle or cogeneration power plant- waste heat iv. Emergency power- starting time

Basics of Power Generation Plant

41

OPERATION

Draw in air at front of the unit

Compress p

mechanical energy into electrical energy

Mix with fuel

Shaft turns

Ignite mixture at high pressure

Expand through turbine blades

Hot gas release


Basics of Power Generation Plant

42

ADVANDAGES VS DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES
1. Simple p design g & construction 2. Much smaller at same capacity 3. Lower operation cost 4. Less water (no condenser) 5. Maintenance cost low 6. Start quickly 7. No standby losses

DISADVANTAGES
1. 2. 3. 4 4. Problem with starting- compressor need power to operate Not output low- greater power used to drive compressor Overall efficiency low- exhaust gases contain heat Temperature of combustion chamber high- lower life

Basics of Power Generation Plant

43

DIESEL POWER PLANT

IX. BRIEF DETAIL of DIESEL ENGINE BASED POWER PLANT

Basics of Power Generation Plant

44

DESIGN

1 Higher 1. Hi h th thermal l efficiency ffi i 2. Fuel Selection 3. Used as emergency power supply source 4 3 general categories: 4.
i. Class A- continuous at full nameplate kW rating ii. Class B- Standby basis for extended period of time iii. Class C- Emergency basis for short period of time

Basics of Power Generation Plant

45

ENGINE OPERATION

1. Starting system 2 Fuel Supply & Injection System 2. 3. Lubrication System & Oil Cooling 4. Primary Cooling System (Engine) 5. Speed Control System (Governor) 6. Instrumentation Requirement

Basics of Power Generation Plant

46

ADVANDAGES VS DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES
1. Simple p design g & layout y 2. Less space & is compact 3. Start-up fast & pick up load in short time 4. Less water for cooling 5. Better thermal efficiency 6. Overall cheaper cost 7 No 7. N standby t db losses l

DISADVANTAGES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. High g running g charges g due to diesel price Does not work efficiently under prolonged overload conditions Generates small amount of power Lubrication cost very high Maintenance charges high

Basics of Power Generation Plant

47

COMBINED CYCLE

X. BRIEF DETAIL of COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

Basics of Power Generation Plant

48

DEFINITION

A combined cycle is characteristic of a power producing engine or plant that employs more than one thermodynamic cycle. Combining two or more cycle such as the Brayton cycle and Rankine cycle results in improved overall efficiency. efficienc

Basics of Power Generation Plant

49

COMBINE CYCLE

1. Combination of- GTG (s)+ turbine exhaust waste heat+ STG 2. Maximum efficiency- hot exhausted gas from gas turbine raise steam

Basics of Power Generation Plant

50

DESIGN

1. Operating Differences: i. Turndown ii. Exhaust gas flows iii.Feedwater temperatures 2. Varying loads 3. Boiler Design 4. Combined Cycle Controls

Basics of Power Generation Plant

51

PROCESS FLOW

Basics of Power Generation Plant

52

THERMAL POWER PLANT

XI COGENERATION POWER XI. PLANT

Basics of Power Generation Plant

53

DEFINITION

Cogeneration (also combined heat & power, power CHP) is the use of power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat.

Basics of Power Generation Plant

54

TYPE

1. Steam Combined Generation


= Steam Boiler + Steam Turbine

2. Gas Combined Generation


= Gas Turbine + Heat Recovery Steam Generator

3. Steam Steam- Gas Combined Generation


= Gas Turbine + Steam +HRSG

Basics of Power Generation Plant

55

SIMPLE CYCLE

Basics of Power Generation Plant

56

BOP

XII BALANCE OF PLANT XII. SYSTEM

Basics of Power Generation Plant

57

1. COAL PREPARATION & HANDLING PLANT

Basics of Power Generation Plant

58

COAL HANDLING PLANT

Coal Preparation
i. Prepare coal to make it usable for furnace and necessary y handling/ g storage ii. Main component: Stacker Reclaimer Stacker, Reclaimer, Crusher, Screen, Conveyor, etc

Basics of Power Generation Plant

59

2. LIMESTONE PROCESSING PLANT

Basics of Power Generation Plant

60

LIMESTONE PLANT

Limestone
i. To make coal sulfur free ii. Reduce Sox iii. Main Component: Feeder, Crusher, Sizer, Conveyor, Rotary Feeder, Bucket Elevator, Cyclone, etc

Basics of Power Generation Plant

61

3. FUEL STORAGE & HANDLING

Basics of Power Generation Plant

62

FUEL STORAGE & HANDLING

Fuel Storage & Handling


i. Storage capacity at max load ii. Major Component: Storage tanks Unloading/ tanks, Forwarding Pumps

Basics of Power Generation Plant

63

4. COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

Basics of Power Generation Plant

64

COMPRESSOR

Compressed Air System


i. Service Air ii. Boiler Soot Blowing iii. Instrument Air

Basics of Power Generation Plant

65

5. COOLING TOWER

Basics of Power Generation Plant

66

COOLING TOWER

Basics of Power Generation Plant

67

COOLING PROCESS

Steam pass through heat exchanger

Heat up of water

wind blow (constant) ( )

Cooling process by spaying water

Water drip down

Basics of Power Generation Plant

68

SYSTEM

6. Combustion Air Intake & Exhaust System


i. ii. Deliver clean combustion air to engine Min loss of performance

7. Heating, Ventilation & Air Condition System


i. ii. Removal of heat from Buildings/ Area & Cooling/ Heating Major Component: Air Condition, Supply Air Fan, Exhaust Fan, Filters, etc

8. Ash Removal & Handling System

Basics of Power Generation Plant

69

THERMAL POWER PLANT

XIII. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Basics of Power Generation Plant

70

SYSTEM

1. Rating & System 2. Generator 3. Circuit Breaker 4. Power Transformer/ Distribution Transformer 5. MV/LV SWG, MCC, Fixed Panel 6 AC/ DC UPS S 6. System t 7. Earthing System 8. Raceway System 9 Lighting System 9.
Basics of Power Generation Plant

71

SYSTEM

9. Electrical Control, Protection & Metering System 10 Instrumentation & Control System 10.Instrumentation

Basics of Power Generation Plant

72

1. RATING & SYSTEM

Basics of Power Generation Plant

73

FREQUENCY
i.

RATING & SYSTEM

Operation Condition - Steady-state - Sustained - Harmonics

ii.

Frequency
- Ranges % - Duration Stability Study - Load shedding - Over-speed trip Limit Frequency Variation - Point of Common Coupling p g - Within the plant system

iii.

iv.

Basics of Power Generation Plant

74

FREQUENCY CONTROL

Objective:
i. To control electrical output of generators ii. To control power balance between generators iii. To control export & import of electrical power iv To maintain frequency within certain bandwidth iv. v. To maintain balance in active power output

Basics of Power Generation Plant

75

RATING & SYSTEM

VOLTAGE
i. Operation Condition - Steady-state Stead state - Sustained - Harmonics ii. Voltage
- Ranges %

- Duration iii. Limit voltage variation - Point of Common Coupling - Transient T i t Voltage V lt

Basics of Power Generation Plant

76

VOLTAGE CONTROL

Objective:
i. To maintain the voltage g constant within certain bandwidth

ii. Under normal operation conditions, the supply voltage range should not differ from the nominal voltage system (10% or define by utilities)

Basics of Power Generation Plant

77

2. GENERATOR

Basics of Power Generation Plant

78

GENERATOR

Basics of Power Generation Plant

79

3. CIRCUIT BREAKER

Basics of Power Generation Plant

80

CIRCUIT BREAKER

Basics of Power Generation Plant

81

PLANT LAYOUT

Basics of Power Generation Plant

82

4. POWER TRANSFORMER

Basics of Power Generation Plant

83

POWER TRANSFORMER

Basics of Power Generation Plant

84

5. MV/ LV SWG, MCC, FIXED TYPE

Basics of Power Generation Plant

85

SWITCHGEAR

Basics of Power Generation Plant

86

6. AC/ DC UPS SYSTEM

Basics of Power Generation Plant

87

UPS

Basics of Power Generation Plant

88

CONTROLS

7. Electrical Control 7 Control, Protection & Metering g System y


i. Electrical Control panels ii. Protection Panel iii.Metering iv.Electrical SCADA

Basics of Power Generation Plant

89

CONTROLS

8. Instrument & Control 8 System y


i. Control panels ii. Automatic control system, DCS, etc iii.Monitoring instruments iv.Alarm system v. Auxiliary system (Blower, heater, filter, air fan, fire fighting,
etc) )

Basics of Power Generation Plant

90

9. 9 10. 11.

Earthing System Raceway y System y Lighting System

Basics of Power Generation Plant

91

THE END
Thank You!!!

Basics of Power Generation Plant

92