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JULY 10, 2009

Group of cells having a common origin and performing a specific function is called tissues.
PLANT TISSUE: In higher plants, the cells differ in their kind, form and origin. They are grouped
into two main groups.
1. Meristematic tissues: - Cells divide continuously and help in increasing the length and
girth of the plant. They show following characteristics: -
a) Cells have thin cell walls.
b) They may be spherical, oval, polygonal or rectangular in shape.
c) They are compactly arranged and do not contain any intercellular spaces.
d) They contain dense or abundant cytoplasm and a single large nucleus.
e) They contain few or no vacuoles at all
Occurrence: Found in those regions of the plant that grows. According to their position, they are
of following types
a) Apical Meristem: Present at tips of root & shoot. It increases the height of a plant.
b) Lateral Meristem: Placed along the sides of longitudinal axis of plant. It is of two types: -
(i) Vascular cambium: -
- Present between xylem and phloem.
- Increases the girth of the plant by producing secondary xylem & phloem outside the
primary xylem & phloem (first formed xylem & phloem).
(ii) Cork cambium:
- These divide to add cells towards outside, which form the cork and cells towards inside
form the secondary cortex. The cork cells are dead. Cell wall has suberin deposition,
waxes and extra cellulose.
- Due to suberin & wax deposition cell wall is impermeable to gases and water, is resistant
to acids and is used to make bottle stoppers.
Bark: - All the tissues outside vascular cambium forms bark. It includes phloem, cortex , cork
cambium & cork.
c) Intercalary meristem: It occurs at internodes of stem and leaves of monocots.

2. Permanent tissue - These tissues are derived from Meristematic tissues but their cells have
lost the power of division. They are classified into two types:
a) Simple Permanent tissue: - they are composed of cells which are structurally and
functionally similar.
b) Complex Permanent tissue: - They are composed of
more than one type of cells.


a) Parenchyma –It forms the bulk of the plant body.
- They are living cells and are rounded, oval, or polygonal
in shape.
- Cell wall is thin.
- Contains dense cytoplasm and a small nucleus and a
large central vacuole.
- Intercellular spaces are present.
Occurrence: - Widely distributed in plant body such as in stem, roots, leaves etc. they are found in
soft parts of plant such as cortex of roots & stems and mesophyll of leaves.
Function: -
1. Serves as packing tissue and fill spaces between other
2. Due to turgidity, it forms the main means of support
to the herbaceous plants.
3. Storage of food - It serves as food storage tissue.
4. They even store waste products of plants such as
tannin gum etc.
5. If chloroplast is present the parenchyma it is called as
Chlorenchyma and it performs photosynthesis e.g.,
mesophyll of leaves.
6. Aerenchyma: Parenchyma with well development
intercellular spaces. E.g. In submerged hydrophytes it
provides buoyancy.
b) Collenchyma: -
- It consists of living cells.
- Cells are polygonal, spherical or elongated.
- Cell wall is unevenly thickened. Thick at corners due to
deposition of cellulose.
- Intercellular spaces are generally absent.
Occurrence: - Collenchyma cells are located below epidermis of
stems, in leaf stalks (Petiole).
- It is a mechanical tissue and it mainly provides mechanical
support and flexibility.
- Chloroplast containing collenchyma does perform
c) Sclerenchyma: -
- These are dead cell and are devoid of protoplasm.
- The walls of cells are greatly thickened with deposition of
Lignin (lignified cells).
- Lumen of the cell is narrow.
- The cells are closely packed without intercellular spaces.
Sclerenchyma cells are of two types:
1. Fibres: are long, narrow thick walled and usually pointed at
both ends.
2. Sclereids: (are called as grit or stone cells) are irregular
shaped and short. They develop in various parts of the plants
such as seed coat, leaves, stem, roots, pulp of fruits (e.g. apple,
pear etc.)

Function: It mainly provides mechanical support.

(b) Complex permanent tissue: -

It is of two types: - 1. Xylem 2. Phloem
1. Xylem – It is a vascular or conducting tissue. Xylem is composed of four
types of cells (called elements) a) Tracheids b) Vessels or tracheae
c) Xylem parenchyma d) Xylem sclerenchyma.
Except xylem parenchyma, all other xylem elements are dead and are bounded by thick lignified
walls and provide mechanical support. Tracheids & vessels are involved in conduction of water &
minerals from roots to different parts of the plants. Tracheids are elongated, tube like cells.
Whereas, vessels are shorter and wider than Tracheids. The partitions between the vessels element
are dissolved to form continuous channels or water pipes. Vessels are present only in flowering
Function 1. Conduction of water & minerals
2. Mechanical strength to plant
2. Phloem – It is a living conductive tissue. It is composed of following four elements or cells a)
Sieve tubes b) Companion cells c) Phloem Parenchyma d) Phloem fibres.
a) Sieve tubes – are slender, tube like structure
composed of thin walled elongated cells placed end to
end. The end walls of cells are perforated and are
called sieve plate. These cells lack nucleus
Sieve cells: - Elongated, narrow cells with tapering
ends. Sieve areas occur all over wall.
b) Companion cells – These cells are associated with
sieve tubes. These are thin-walled parenchyma cells
containing dense and active cytoplasm and a large
Although sieve tube elements do not have nuclei
but they still remain living because they are dependent
on adjacent companion cells which develop from the
same original meristematic cells. They store food and
help to conduct it. The two cells together form a functional
unit. Phloem fibres are dead sclerenchyma cells.
Parenchyma cells also form part of phloem.
Function: - Phloem transport food from leaves to the
other parts of the plant body.

location of various plant tissues is shown in the above figure of transverse section dicot stem of

Animal tissues are of four types: -
1. Epithelial tissue: - This tissue consists of thin protective layer of cell which covers the surface of
the body and lines the internal organs and spaces. The cells are generally packed close together.
The shape of the cells depends upon the location and function of the
Epithelial tissue may be simple - composed of single layer of
cells or stratified i.e. made up of several layers of cells.
Types of Epithelial tissue: Depending upon shape and function of cell,
they are classified into five types – Squamous, cuboidal, columnar,
ciliated and glandular.
a) Squamous epithelium: It is made up of thin, flat, irregular shaped
cells which fit together like floor tiles to form a smooth membrane.
Occurence: It forms the lining of blood vessels and alveoli and allows
diffusion to take place easily.
b) Cuboidal Epithelium: It consists of cube like
Occurence: It is found in kidney tubules, in ducts
of glands (salivary, sweat glands etc).
Function: It helps in absorption and secretion in
addition to protection.
c) Columnar Epithelium: It consists of column-like (tall and
slender) cells. Nuclei are towards the base and sometimes the
free ends of cells have microvilli which increase the surface
area of cells for absorption and secretion.
Occurence: It forms the inner lining of alimentary canal
(stomach & intestine)
Function: The main functions are absorption and secretion.
d) Ciliated epithelium: Certain cuboidal or columnar cells
develop cytoplasmic outgrowth, called cilia. Such
cells form ciliated epithelium.
Occurence: It is found in inner side of hollow organs sperm
ducts, lines the trachea, bronchi, kidney tubules and
Function: The constant lashing movement of cilia help
move substances through the ducts.
e) Glandular Epithelium: - Columnar or cubodial
epithelium is modified to form glands which secrete
chemicals. E.g. Goblet cells of alimentary can secrete mucus,
salivary glands secrete saliva.
It is made up of muscles cells which are elongated, large cylindrical,
so they are also called as muscle fibres. Contractile proteins are
present in muscle cells which bring about contraction and relaxation
to make the movements of the body possible. On the basis of their
location, structure and function, there are 3 types of muscle fibres:
Striated, Unstriated and Cardiac.
(i) Striated muscles: These are also known as striped, skeletal or
voluntary muscles. The muscle fibres show alternate dark and light
stripes, so they are termed as striped (striated) muscles. Since they
are attached to bones, are also called as skeleton muscles. They work
according to our will, so they are termed as voluntary muscles. The
cells are long, non-tapering, cylindrical, unbranched. They are
multinucleated and nuclei are peripheral in position. They are enclosed in
a thin plasma membrane called sarcolemma.
Occurence: These occur in muscles of limbs, body wall, face, neck etc
Function: Striated muscles provide force for locomotion and all other
voluntary movement of the body. They contract rapidly and get tired.

d) Smooth muscles: These are also known as non-striated, visceral or

involuntary muscles. The muscles fibres or cells are spindle shaped, which
are held together by loose connective tissue. Nucleus is located in the
centre of sarcoplasm (cytoplasm). The fibres do not bear any bands or
stripes across the muscle hence termed as smooth or unstriated muscles.
Occurence: These are found in the walls of the visceral organs as intestine,
stomach, blood vessel etc. hence also called as visceral muscles. They are
not attached to the skeleton.