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21 Relay Testing and Commissioning

21 Relay Testing and Commissioning 21.1 I-*,."/%*I.The testing of protection equipment schemes presents a num er of pro !ems" This is ecause the main function of protection equipment is so!e!# concerne$ %ith operation un$er s#stem fau!t con$itions& an$ cannot Introduction 21.1 rea$i!# e teste$ un$er norma! s#stem operating con$itions" This situation is aggra'ate$ # the Electrical type tests 21.2 an$ use of increasing comp!e(it# of protection schemes re!a#s containing soft%are" The testing of protection equipment ma# e $i'i$e$ into Product safety type tests 21.4 four stages: i. t#pe tests Environmental type tests 21.5 ii. routine factor# pro$uction tests iii. commissioning tests

Electromagnetic compatibility tests 21.3

Soft are type tests 21.!

"ynamic validation type testing 21.# iv. perio$ic maintenance tests Production testing 21.$
21.1.1 *ype *ests

%ommissioning tests 21.&

Secondary test e(uipment 21.1) pu !ishe$in'ection specification an$ comp!ies %ith a!! re!e'ant

T#pe tests are require$ to pro'e that a re!a# meets the

stan$ar$s" )ince the principa! function of a protection in'ection testing 21.11 re!a#Secondary is to operate correct!# un$er a norma! po%er con$itions& it is essentia! that the performance e Primary in'ection testing 21.12 assesse$ un$er such con$itions" Comprehensi'e t#pe tests simu!ating the operationa! con$itions are therefore *esting of protection sc+eme logic 21.13 con$ucte$ at the manufacturer*s %or+s $uring the $e'e!opment an$ certification of the equipment" *ripping and alarm annunciation tests 21.14 The stan$ar$s that co'er most aspects of re!a# Periodic testsC37"90" 21.15 1o%e'er performance aremaintenance ,-C 602.. an$ /0), ma# a!so in'o!'e consi$eration of the Protectioncomp!iance sc+eme design for maintenance 21.1! requirements of ,-C 61000& 60062 an$ 60.29& %hi!e pro$ucts inten$e$ for use in the --C a!so ha'e to comp!# ,eferences 21.1# %ith the requirements of 3irecti'es 29/336/--C an$ 73/23/--C" )ince t#pe testing of a $igita! or numerica! re!a# in'o!'es testing of soft%are as %e!! as har$%are& the t#pe testing process is 'er# comp!icate$ an$ more in'o!'e$ than a static or e!ectromechanica! re!a#"

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21.1.2 ,outine 0actory Production *ests

%ou!$ ta+e 4 #ears to %rite the functiona! t#pe-test specifications& 30 #ears to perform the tests an$ se'era! These are con$ucte$ to pro'e that re!a#s are free from #ears to %rite the test reports that resu!t" /utomate$ $efects $uring manufacture" Testing %i!! ta+e p!ace at techniques/ equipment are c!ear!# require$& an$ are se'era! stages $uring manufacture& to ensure pro !ems co'ere$ in )ection 21"7"2" are $isco'ere$ at the ear!iest possi !e time an$ hence minimise reme$ia! %or+" The e(tent of testing %i!! e -!ement 4ange )tep )i5e $etermine$ # the comp!e(it# of the re!a# an$ past I>1 0"02 - 4"00,n 0"01,n manufacturing e(perience"
I>2 0"02 - 32,n 0"01,n 3irectiona!it# 6or%ar$/4e'erse/0on-$irectiona!

21.1.3 %ommissioning *ests These tests are $esigne$ to pro'e that a particu!ar protection scheme has een insta!!e$ correct!# prior to setting to %or+" /!! aspects of the scheme are thorough!# chec+e$& from insta!!ation of the correct equipment through %iring chec+s an$ operation chec+s of the in$i'i$ua! items of equipment& finishing %ith testing of the comp!ete scheme" 21.1.4 Periodic 1aintenance %+ec2s

4C/ -9.7 to 89.7 17 Characteristic 3T/,39T 3efinite Time 3e!a# 0 - 100s 0"01s ,-C )tan$ar$ ,n'erse ,-C ,39T Time 3e!a# ,-C :er# ,n'erse ,-C -(treme!# ,n'erse ;< =ong Time ,n'erse Time 9u!tip!ier )etting >T9)? 0"02. - 1"2 0"02. ,--- 9o$erate!# ,n'erse ,--- :er# ,n'erse ,--- ,39T Time 3e!a# ,--- -(treme!# ,n'erse ;)-C@2 ,n'erse ;)-C@2 )hort Time ,n'erse Time 3ia! >T3? 0". - 1. 0"1

These are require$ to i$entif# equipment fai!ures an$ ,-C 4eset Time >3T on!#? 0 - 100s 0"01s $egra$ation in ser'ice& so that correcti'e action can e ,--- 4eset Time ,39T/3T ta+en" Aecause a protection scheme on!# operates un$er ,--- 3T 4eset Time 0 - 100s 0"01s ,--- 9o$erate!# ,n'erse fau!t con$itions& $efects ma# not e re'ea!e$ for a ,--- :er# ,n'erse significant perio$ of time& unti! a fau!t occurs" 4egu!ar ,--- ,39T 4eset Time ,--- -(treme!# ,n'erse testing assists in $etecting fau!ts that %ou!$ other%ise ;)-C@2 ,n'erse remain un$etecte$ unti! a fau!t occurs"
Table 21.1: Overcurrent relay element specification

;)-C@2 )hort Time ,n'erse

21.2 E3E%*,I%43 *5PE *ES*S :arious e!ectrica! t#pe tests must e performe$& as fo!!o%s:
Test 1 Three phase non-$irectiona! pic+ up an$ $rop off accurac# o'er comp!ete current setting range for oth stages Three phase $irectiona! pic+ up an$ $rop off accurac# o'er comp!ete 4C/ setting range in the for%ar$ $irection& current ang!e s%eep Three phase $irectiona! pic+ up an$ $rop off accurac# o'er comp!ete 4C/ setting range in the re'erse $irection& current ang!e s%eep Three phase $irectiona! pic+ up an$ $rop off accurac# o'er comp!ete 4C/ setting range in the for%ar$ $irection& 'o!tage ang!e s%eep Three phase $irectiona! pic+ up an$ $rop off accurac# o'er comp!ete 4C/ setting range in the re'erse $irection& 'o!tage ang!e s%eep Three phase po!arising 'o!tage thresho!$ test /ccurac# of 3T timer o'er comp!ete setting range /ccurac# of ,39T cur'es o'er c!aime$ accurac# range /ccurac# of ,39T T9)/T3 -ffect of changing fau!t current on ,39T operating times 9inimum Pic+-;p of )tarts an$ Trips for ,39T cur'es /ccurac# of reset timers -ffect of an# !oc+ing signa!s& opto inputs& :T)& /utorec!ose :o!tage po!arisation memor#

21.2.1 0unctional *ests

Test 2


The functiona! tests consist of app!#ing the appropriate inputs to the re!a# un$er test an$ measuring the performance to $etermine if it meets the specification" The# are usua!!# carrie$ out un$er contro!!e$ en'ironmenta! con$itions" The testing ma# e e(tensi'e& e'en %here on!# a simp!e re!a# function is eing teste$"& as can e rea!ise$ # consi$ering the simp!e o'ercurrent re!a# e!ement of Ta !e 21"1" To $etermine comp!iance %ith the specification& the tests !iste$ in Ta !e 21"2 are require$ to e carrie$ out" This is a time consuming tas+& in'o!'ing man# engineers an$ technicians" 1ence it is e(pensi'e" Bhen a mo$ern numerica! re!a# %ith man# functions is consi$ere$& each of %hich has to e t#pe-teste$& the functiona! t#pe-testing in'o!'e$ is a maCor issue" ,n the case of a recent re!a# $e'e!opment proCect& it %as ca!cu!ate$ that if one person ha$ to $o a!! the %or+& it

Test 3

Test 4

Test . Test 6 Test 7 Test 2 Test 9 Test 10 Test 11 Test 12 Test 13 Test 14

Table 21.2: Overcurrent relay element functional type tests


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21.2.2 ,ating *ests

secon$s" This is carrie$ out et%een a!! circuits an$ case earth& et%een a!! in$epen$ent circuits an$ across 4ating t#pe tests are con$ucte$ to ensure that components are use$ %ithin their specifie$ ratings an$ norma!!# open contacts" The acceptance criterion for a pro$uct in ne% con$ition is a minimum of 1009 " /fter that there are no fire or e!ectric shoc+ ha5ar$s un$er a a $amp heat test the pass criterion is a minimum of norma! !oa$ or fau!t con$ition of the po%er s#stem" This is in a$$ition to chec+ing that the pro$uct comp!ies %ith 109 " its technica! specification" The fo!!o%ing are amongst the rating t#pe tests con$ucte$ on protection re!a#s& the 21.2.# 4u6iliary Supplies specifie$ parameters are norma!!# to ,-C 602..-6" 3igita! an$ numerica! protection re!a#s norma!!# require an au(i!iar# supp!# to pro'i$e po%er to the on- oar$ 21.2.3 *+ermal 7it+stand microprocessor circuitr# an$ the interfacing optoThe therma! %ithstan$ of :TDs& CTDs an$ output contact iso!ate$ input circuits an$ output re!a#s" The au(i!iar# supp!# can e either a"c" or $"c"& supp!ie$ from a num er circuits is $etermine$ to ensure comp!iance %ith the of sources or safe supp!ies - i"e" atteries& ;P)D& specifie$ continuous an$ short-term o'er!oa$ con$itions" ,n a$$ition to functiona! 'erification& the pass criterion is generators& etc"& a!! of %hich ma# e su Cect to 'o!tage $ips& short interruptions an$ 'o!tage 'ariations" 4e!a#s that there is no $etrimenta! effect on the re!a# assem !#& are $esigne$ to ensure that operation is maintaine$ an$ or circuit components& %hen the pro$uct is su Cecte$ to no $amage occurs $uring a $istur ance of the au(i!iar# o'er!oa$ con$itions that ma# e e(pecte$ in ser'ice" Therma! %ithstan$ is assesse$ o'er a time perio$ of 1s supp!#" for CTDs an$ 10s for :TDs" Tests are carrie$ out for oth a"c" an$ $"c" au(i!iar# supp!ies an$ inc!u$e mains 'ariation oth a o'e an$ e!o% the nomina! rating& supp!# interruptions $eri'e$ # 21.2.4 ,elay 8urden open circuit an$ short circuit& supp!# $ips as a The ur$ens of the au(i!iar# supp!#& optica!!# iso!ate$ percentage of the nomina! supp!#& repetiti'e starts" The inputs& :TDs an$ CTDs are measure$ to chec+ that the $uration of the interruptions an$ supp!# $ips range from pro$uct comp!ies %ith its specification" The ur$en of 2ms to 60s inter'a!s" / short supp!# interruption or $ip pro$ucts %ith a high num er of input/output circuits is up to 20ms& possi !# !onger& shou!$ not cause an# ma!function of the re!a#" 9a!functions inc!u$e the app!ication specific i"e" it increases accor$ing to the operation of output re!a#s an$ %atch$og contacts& the num er of optica!!# iso!ate$ input an$ output contact ports %hich are energise$ un$er norma! po%er s#stem reset of microprocessors& a!arm or trip in$ication& !oa$ con$itions" ,t is usua!!# en'isage$ that not more acceptance of corrupte$ $ata o'er the communication !in+ an$ the corruption of store$ $ata or settings" 6or a than .0E of such ports %i!! e energise$ in an# !onger supp!# interruption& or $ip in e(cess of 20ms& the app!ication" re!a# se!f reco'ers %ithout the !oss of an# function& $ata& settings or corruption of $ata" 0o operator inter'ention is require$ to restore operation after an interruption or 21.2.5 ,elay Inputs $ip in the supp!#" 9an# re!a#s ha'e a specification that 4e!a# inputs are teste$ o'er the specifie$ ranges" ,nputs e(cee$s this requirement& to!erating $ips of up to .0ms 21 inc!u$e those for au(i!iar# 'o!tage& :T& CT& frequenc#& %ithout operation eing affecte$" optica!!# iso!ate$ $igita! inputs an$ communication ,n a$$ition to the a o'e& the re!a# is su Cecte$ to a num er circuits" of repetiti'e starts or a sequence of supp!# interruptions" /gain the re!a# is teste$ to ensure that no $amage or $ata 21.2.! ,elay .utput %ontacts corruption has occurre$ $uring the repetiti'e tests" Protection re!a# output contacts are t#pe teste$ to ensure that the# comp!# %ith the pro$uct specification" Particu!ar %ithstan$ an$ en$urance t#pe tests ha'e to carrie$ out using $"c"& since the norma! supp!# is 'ia a station atter#" 21.2.# Insulation ,esistance )pecific tests carrie$ out on $"c" au(i!iar# supp!ies inc!u$e re'erse po!arit#& a"c" %a'eform superimpose$ on e the $"c" supp!# an$ the effect of a rising an$ $eca#ing au(i!iar# 'o!tage" /!! tests are carrie$ out at 'arious !e'e!s of !oa$ing of the re!a# au(i!iar# supp!#" 21.3 E3E%*,.149-E*I% %.1P4*I8I3I*5 *ES*S

The insu!ation resistance test is carrie$ out accor$ing toThere are numerous tests that are carrie$ out to ,-C 602..-.& i"e" .00: $"c" F10E& for a minimum of . $etermine the a i!it# of re!a#s to %ithstan$ the e!ectrica!

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en'ironment in %hich the# are insta!!e$" The su station that the re!a# can %ithstan$ an interruption in the au(i!iar# supp!# %ithout $e-energising& e"g" s%itching en'ironment is a 'er# se'ere en'ironment in terms of the e!ectrica! an$ e!ectromagnetic interference that can off& an$ that %hen this time is e(cee$e$ an$ it $oes arise" There are man# sources of interference %ithin a transient!# s%itch off& that no ma!operation occurs" su station& some originating interna!!#& others eing ,t simu!ates the effect of a !oose fuse in the atter# con$ucte$ a!ong the o'erhea$ !ines or ca !es into the circuit& or a short circuit in the common $"c" supp!#& su station from e(terna! $istur ances" The most interrupte$ # a fuse" /nother source of $"c" interruption common sources are: is if there is a po%er s#stem fau!t an$ the atter# is supp!#ing oth the re!a# an$ the circuit rea+er trip coi!s" Bhen the atter# energises the coi!s to initiate the b. s#stem fau!ts circuit rea+er trip& the 'o!tage ma# fa!! e!o% the c. !ightning stri+es require$ !e'e! for operation of the re!a# an$ hence a $"c" interrupt occurs" The test is specifie$ in ,-C 602..-11 d. con$uctor f!asho'er an$ comprises a interruptions of 2& .& 10& 20& .0& 100 an$ e. te!ecommunication operations e"g" mo i!e phones 200ms" 6or interruptions !asting up to an$ inc!u$ing / %ho!e suite of tests are performe$ to simu!ate these 20ms& the re!a# must not $e-energise of ma!operate& %hi!e for !onger interruptions it must not ma!operate" t#pes of interference& an$ the# fa!! un$er the roa$ um re!!a of %hat is +no%n as -9C& or -!ectromagnetic The re!a# is po%ere$ from a atter# supp!#& an$ oth Compati i!it# tests" short circuit an$ open circuit interruptions are carrie$ out" -ach interruption is app!ie$ 10 times& an$ for Aroa$!# spea+ing& -9C can e $efine$ as: au(i!iar# po%er supp!ies %ith a !arge operating range& The ability of equipment to co-exist in the same the tests are performe$ at minimum& ma(imum& an$ electroma netic environment! other 'o!tages across this range& to ensure comp!iance ,t is not a ne% su Cect an$ has een teste$ for # the o'er the comp!ete range" a. s%itching operations mi!itar# e'er since the a$'ent of e!ectronic equipment" -9C can cause rea! an$ serious pro !ems& an$ $oes nee$ to e 21.3.2 4.%. ,ipple on ".%. Supply ta+en into account %hen $esigning e!ectronic equipment" This test >,-C 602..-11? $etermines that the re!a# is a !e -9C tests $etermine the impact on the re!a# un$er test to operate correct!# %ith a superimpose$ a"c" 'o!tage on of high-frequenc# e!ectrica! $istur ances of 'arious the $"c" supp!#" This is cause$ # the station atter# eing +in$s" 4e!a#s manufacture$ or inten$e$ for use in the charge$ # the atter# charger& an$ the re!e'ant %a'eform --C ha'e to comp!# %ith --C 3irecti'e 29/336/--C in is sho%n in 6igure 21"1" ,t consists of a 12E pea+-to-pea+ this respect" To achie'e this& in a$$ition to $esigning for ripp!e superimpose$ on the $"c" supp!# 'o!tage" statutor# comp!iance to this 3irecti'e& the fo!!o%ing range of tests are carrie$ out: 60"00 a. $"c" interrupt test

.0"00 40"00 30"00 20"00 10"00 0"00


b. a"c" ripp!e on $"c" supp!# test c. $"c" ramp test d. high frequenc# $istur ance test e. fast transient test f. surge immunit# test g. po%er frequenc# interference test +. e!ectrostatic $ischarge test i. con$ucte$ an$ ra$iate$ emissions tests '. con$ucte$ an$ ra$iate$ immunit# tests

Time >ms? "i ure 21.1: #.$. ripple superimpose% on %.c. supply test

6or au(i!iar# po%er supp!ies %ith a !arge operating range& the tests are performe$ at minimum& ma(imum& an$ 2. po%er frequenc# magnetic fie!$ tests other 'o!tages across this range& to ensure comp!iance for the comp!ete range" The interference is app!ie$ using a fu!! %a'e rectifier net%or+& connecte$ in para!!e! %ith 21.3.1 ".% Interrupt *est the atter# supp!#" The re!a# must continue to operate This is a test to $etermine the ma(imum !ength of time %ithout ma!function $uring the test"


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21.3.3 ".%. ,amp "o n:,amp /p This test simu!ates a fai!e$ station atter# charger& %hich : %ou!$ resu!t in the au(i!iar# 'o!tage to the re!a# s!o%!# ramping $o%n" The ramp up part simu!ates the atter# eing recharge$ after $ischarging" The re!a# must po%er up c!ean!# %hen the 'o!tage is app!ie$ an$ not ma!operate" : There is no internationa! stan$ar$ for this test& so in$i'i$ua! manufacturers can $eci$e if the# %ish to con$uct such a test an$ %hat the test specification sha!! e" 21.3.4 ;ig+ 0re(uency "isturbance *est The 1igh 6requenc# 3istur ance Test simu!ates high The pro$uct is energise$ in oth norma! >quiescent? an$ 'o!tage transients that resu!t from po%er s#stem fau!ts trippe$ mo$es for this test" ,t must not ma!operate %hen an$ p!ant s%itching operations" ,t consists of a 1915 the interference is app!ie$ in common mo$e 'ia the $eca#ing sinusoi$a! %a'eform& as sho%n in 6igure 21"2"integra! coup!ing net%or+ to each circuit in turn& for 60 secon$s" ,nterference is coup!e$ onto communications The interference is app!ie$ across each in$epen$ent circuits& if require$& using an e(terna! capaciti'e coup!ing circuit >$ifferentia! mo$e? an$ et%een each in$epen$ent circuit an$ earth >common mo$e? 'ia an c!amp" e(terna! coup!ing an$ s%itching net%or+" The pro$uct is energise$ in oth norma! >quiescent? an$ trippe$ mo$es 21.3.! Surge Immunity *est for this test& an$ must not ma!operate %hen the The )urge ,mmunit# Test simu!ates interference cause$ interference is app!ie$ for a 2 secon$ $uration" # maCor po%er s#stem $istur ances such as capacitor an+ s%itching an$ !ightning stri+es on o'erhea$ !ines %ithin .+m of the su station" The test %a'eform has an open circuit 'o!tage of 4+: for common mo$e surges an$ 2+: for $ifferentia! mo$e surges" The test %a'eshape consists on open circuit of a 1"2/.0ms rise/fa!! time an$ a short circuit current of 2/20ms rise/fa!! time" The generator is capa !e of pro'i$ing a short circuit test 0 Time current of up to 2+/& ma+ing this test potentia!!# $estructi'e" The surges are app!ie$ sequentia!!# un$er soft%are contro! 'ia $e$icate$ coup!ing net%or+s in oth $ifferentia! an$ common mo$es %ith the pro$uct energise$ in its norma! >quiescent? state" The pro$uct 21 sha!! not ma!operate $uring the test& sha!! sti!! operate "i ure 21.2: (i h "requency )isturbance %ithin specification after the test sequence an$ sha!! not Test 'aveform incur an# permanent $amage" 21.3.5 0ast *ransient *est 21.3.# Po er 0re(uency Interference
Aurst perio$& 300 ms Aurst $uration >1/1. ms?

t . ns rise time& .0 ns pu!se %i$th

4epetition perio$ t

"i ure 21.&: "ast Transient Test 'aveform

The 6ast Transient Test simu!ates the 1: interference This test simu!ates the t#pe of interference that is cause$ %hen there is a po%er s#stem fau!t an$ 'er# high !e'e!s cause$ # $isconnector operations in G,) su stations or rea+$o%n of the )66 insu!ation et%een con$uctors of fau!t current f!o% in the primar# con$uctors or the an$ the earthe$ enc!osure" This interference can either earth gri$" This causes .0 or 6015 interference to e in$uce$ onto contro! an$ communications circuits" e in$ucti'e!# coup!e$ onto re!a# circuits or can e $irect!# intro$uce$ 'ia the CT or :T inputs" ,t consists of There is no internationa! stan$ar$ for this test& ut one a series of $uration ursts at 300ms inter'a!s& each use$ # some ;ti!ities is: urst consisting of a train of .0ns %i$e pu!ses %ith 'er# a. .00: r"m"s"& common mo$e fast >.ns t#pica!? rise times >6igure 21"3?& %ith a pea+ 'o!tage magnitu$e of 4+:" b. 2.0: r"m"s"& $ifferentia! mo$e

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app!ie$ to circuits for %hich po%er s#stem inputs are not connecte$"

1. current an$ 'o!tage app!ie$ at 90E of setting& >re!a# not trippe$? Tests are carrie$ out on each circuit& %ith the re!a# in the 2. current an$ 'o!tage app!ie$ at 110E of setting& >re!a# trippe$? fo!!o%ing mo$es of operation: 3. main protection an$ communications functions 1. current an$ 'o!tage app!ie$ at 90E of setting& are teste$ to $etermine the effect of the $ischarge >re!a# not trippe$? To pass& the re!a# sha!! not ma!operate& an$ sha!! sti!! 2. current an$ 'o!tage app!ie$ at 110E of setting& perform its main functions %ithin the c!aime$ to!erance" >re!a# trippe$? 3. main protection an$ communications functions are teste$ to $etermine the effect of the 21.3.& %onducted and ,adiated Emissions *ests interference The re!a# sha!! not ma!operate $uring the test& an$ sha!! These sti!! tests arise primari!# from the essentia! protection perform its main functions %ithin the c!aime$ to!erance" requirements of the -uropean Communit# >-;? $irecti'e on -9C" These require manufacturers to ensure that an# equipment to e so!$ in the countries comprising the 21.3.$ Electrostatic "isc+arge *est -uropean ;nion must not interfere %ith other equipment" To achie'e this it is necessar# to measure the This test simu!ates the t#pe of high 'o!tage interference emissions from the equipment an$ ensure that the# are that occurs %hen an operator touches the re!a#Ds front e!o% the specifie$ !imits" pane! after eing charge$ to a high potentia!" This is e(act!# the same phenomenon as getting an e!ectric shoc+ %hen Con$ucte$ emissions are measure$ on!# from the stepping out of a car or after %a!+ing on a s#nthetic fi reequipmentDs po%er supp!# ports an$ are to ensure that %hen carpet" connecte$ to a mains net%or+& the equipment $oes not inCect interference ac+ into the net%or+ %hich cou!$ a$'erse!# ,n this case the $ischarge is on!# e'er app!ie$ to the front affect the other equipment connecte$ to the net%or+" pane! of the re!a#& %ith the co'er oth on an$ off" T%o t#pes of $ischarges are app!ie$& air $ischarge an$ contact 4a$iate$ emissions measurements are to ensure that the $ischarge" /ir $ischarges are use$ on surfaces that areinterference ra$iate$ from the equipment is not at a norma!!# insu!ators& an$ contact $ischarges are use$ on!e'e! that cou!$ cause interference to other equipment" surfaces that are norma!!# con$ucting" ,-C 602..-22-2 This test is norma!!# carrie$ out on an @pen /rea Test is the re!e'ant stan$ar$ this test& for %hich the test )ite >@/T)? %here there are no ref!ecting structures or parameters are: sources of ra$iation& an$ therefore the measurements a. co'er on: C!ass 4& 2+: contact $ischarge& 1.+: airo taine$ are a true in$ication of the emission spectrum $ischarge of the re!a#" /n e(amp!e of a p!ot o taine$ $uring b. co'er off: C!ass 3& 6+: contact $ischarge& 2+: air con$ucte$ emissions tests is sho%n in 6igure 21"." $ischarge The test arrangements for the con$ucte$ an$ ra$iate$ ,n oth cases a o'e& a!! the !o%er test !e'e!s are a!so emissions tests are sho%n in 6igure 21"6" teste$" Bhen performing these t%o tests& the re!a# is in a The $ischarge current %a'eform is sho%n in 6igure 21"4" quiescent con$ition& that is not trippe$& %ith currents 100 an$ 'o!tages app!ie$ at 90E of the setting 'a!ues" This 90 is ecause for the maCorit# of its !ife& the re!a# %i!! e in 4ise Time H 0"7 to 1"0 ns" 20 Current specifie$ for 30 ns an$ 60 ns 70 the quiescent state an$ the emission of e!ectromagnetic 60 interference %hen the re!a# is trippe$ is consi$ere$ to e .0 40 of no significance" Tests are con$ucte$ in accor$ance 30 %ith ,-C 602..-2. an$ -0 .0021-2& an$ are $etai!e$ in 20 10 Ta !e 21"3"
0 0 10 20 30 40 .0 60 70 20 90 Time& ns "i ure 21.*: +,) $urrent -aveform 4a$iate$ 6requenc# 4ange )pecifie$ =imits Test =imits 30 - 230915 30$A>I:/m? 40$A>I:/m? at 30m at 10m 230 - 1000915 37$A>I:/m? 47$A>I:/m? at 30m at 10m 79$A>I:? 79$A>I:? 0"1. - 0".915 quasi-pea+ quasi-pea+ 66$A>I:? a'erage 66$A>I:? a'erage 73$A>I:? 73$A>I:? 0". - 30915 quasi-pea+ quasi-pea+ 60$A>I:? a'erage 60$A>I:? a'erage


The test is performe$ %ith sing!e $ischarges repeate$ on each test point 10 times %ith positi'e po!arit# an$ 10 Con$ucte$ times %ith negati'e po!arit# at each test !e'e!" The time inter'a! et%een successi'e $ischarges is greater than 1 Table 21.&: Test criteria for $on%ucte% an% secon$" Tests are carrie$ out at each !e'e!& %ith the re!a# .a%iate% +missions tests in the fo!!o%ing mo$es of operation:
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100 90 20 70 60 .0 40 30 20 10 0 0"1 1 10 100 "i ure 21./: $on%ucte% +missions Test 0lot 6requenc#& 915 T#pica! trace Juasi-pea+ !imits /'erage !imits

)creene$ room

/nte-cham er

-";"T" ,mpe$ance net%or+

/ccess pane! )upport/ana!#sis equipment

>a? Con$ucte$ -9C emissions test arrangement


/ntenna -";"T"


Turnta !e

-arth P!ane

> ? 4a$iate$ -missions test arrangement on an @/T) -";"T" - -quipment un$er test "i ure 21.1: +2$ test arran ements

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21.3.1) %onducted and ,adiated Immunity *ests

operate their ra$ios/mo i!e phones %ithout fear of re!a# ma!operation" These tests are $esigne$ to ensure that the equipment is immune to !e'e!s of interference that it ma# e su Cecte$ ,-C 602..-22-3 specifies the ra$iate$ immunit# tests to to" The t%o tests& con$ucte$ an$ ra$iate$& arise from the e con$ucte$ >/0),/,--- C37"90"2 is use$ for equipment fact that for a con$uctor to e an efficient antenna& it ui!t to ;) stan$ar$s?& %ith signa! !e'e!s of: must ha'e a !ength of at !east 1/4 of the %a'e!ength of 1. ,-C: C!ass ,,,& 10:/m& 20915 -1000915 the e!ectromagnetic %a'e it is require$ to con$uct" 2. /0),/,---: 3.:/m 2.915 - 1000915 %ith no ,f a re!a# %ere to e su Cecte$ to ra$iate$ interference at mo$u!ation& an$ again %ith 100E pu!se 1.0+15& then a con$uctor !ength of at !east mo$u!ation H &33 (131/>1/3 ( 13& ( *? ,-C 602..-22-6 is use$ for the con$ucte$ immunit# test& H /33 m %ith a test !e'e! of: %ou!$ e nee$e$ to con$uct the interference" -'en %ithC!ass ,,,& 10: r"m"s"& 1.0+15 - 20915" a!! the ca !ing attache$ an$ %ith the !ongest PCA trac+ !ength ta+en into account& it %ou!$ e high!# un!i+e!# that the re!a# %ou!$ e a !e to con$uct ra$iation of this 21.3.11 Po er 0re(uency 1agnetic 0ield *ests frequenc#& an$ the test therefore& %ou!$ ha'e no effect" These tests are $esigne$ to ensure that the equipment is The interference has to e ph#sica!!# intro$uce$ # immune to magnetic interference" The three tests& con$uction& hence the con$ucte$ immunit# test" stea$# state& pu!se$ an$ $ampe$ osci!!ator# magnetic 1o%e'er& at the ra$iate$ immunit# !o%er frequenc# !imit fie!$& arise from the fact that for $ifferent site con$itions of 20915& a con$uctor !ength of appro(imate!# 1"0m is the !e'e! an$ %a'eshape is a!tere$" require$" /t this frequenc#& ra$iate$ immunit# tests can 2&.&.11.1 ,tea%y state ma netic fiel% tests e performe$ %ith the confi$ence that the re!a# %i!! con$uct this interference& through a com ination of the These tests simu!ate the magnetic fie!$ that %ou!$ e attache$ ca !ing an$ the PCA trac+s" e(perience$ # a $e'ice !ocate$ %ithin c!ose pro(imit# of /!though the test stan$ar$s state that a!! 6 faces of the the po%er s#stem" Testing is carrie$ out # su Cecting equipment shou!$ e su Cecte$ to the interference& in the re!a# to a magnetic fie!$ generate$ # t%o in$uction practice this is not carrie$ out" /pp!#ing interference to coi!s" The re!a# is rotate$ such that in each a(is it is the si$es an$ top an$ ottom of the re!a# %ou!$ ha'e su Cecte$ to the fu!! magnetic fie!$ strength" ,-C 61000!itt!e effect as the circuitr# insi$e is effecti'e!# screene$ 4-6 is the re!e'ant stan$ar$& using a signa! !e'e! of: # the earthe$ meta! case" 1o%e'er& the front an$ rear =e'e! .: 300//m continuous an$ 1000//m short $uration of the re!a# are not comp!ete!# enc!ose$ # meta! an$ are The test arrangement is sho%n in 6igure 21"7" therefore not at a!! %e!! screene$& an$ can e regar$e$ as an -9C ho!e" -!ectromagnetic interference %hen $irecte$ at the front an$ ac+ of the re!a# can enter free!# onto the PCADs insi$e"


Bhen performing these t%o tests& the re!a# is in a quiescent con$ition& that is not trippe$& %ith currents an$ 'o!tages app!ie$ at 90E of the setting 'a!ues" This is ecause for the maCorit# of its !ife& the re!a# %i!! e in the quiescent state an$ the coinci$ence of an e!ectromagnetic $istur ance an$ a fau!t is consi$ere$ to e un!i+e!#" 1o%e'er& spot chec+s are performe$ at se!ecte$ frequencies %hen the main protection an$ contro! functions of the re!a# are e(ercise$& to ensure that it %i!! operate as e(pecte$& shou!$ it e require$ to $o so" The frequencies for the spot chec+s are in genera! se!ecte$ to coinci$e %ith the ra$io frequenc# roa$cast an$s& an$ in particu!ar& the frequencies of mo i!e communications equipment use$ # personne! %or+ing "i in the su station" This is to ensure that %hen %or+ing in the 'icinit# of a re!a#& the personne! shou!$ e a !e to

,n$uction coi!

,n$uction coi!


Groun$ p!ane

-";"T" - -quipment un$er test ure 21.4: 0o'er frequency ma netic fiel% set-up


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To pass the stea$#-state test& the re!a# sha!! not ma!operate& an$ sha!! sti!! perform its main functions %ithin the c!aime$ to!erance" 3uring the app!ication of the short $uration test& the main protection function sha!! e e(ercise$ an$ 'erifie$ that the operating characteristics of the re!a# are unaffecte$" 21.&.11.2 0ulse% ma netic fiel%

open contacts inten$e$ for connection to tripping circuits& in accor$ance %ith /0),/,--- C37"90 3. 1"0+: r"m"s"& .0/6015 for 1 minute across the norma!!# open contacts of %atch$og or changeo'er output re!a#s& in accor$ance %ith ,-C 602..-.

The routine $ie!ectric 'o!tage %ithstan$ test time ma# e These tests simu!ate the magnetic fie!$ that %ou!$ e shorter than for the 1 minute t#pe test time& to a!!o% a e(perience$ # a $e'ice !ocate$ %ithin c!ose pro(imit# of reasona !e pro$uction throughput& e"g" for a minimum of the po%er s#stem $uring a transient fau!t con$ition" 1 secon$ at 110E of the 'o!tage specifie$ for 1 minute" /ccor$ing to ,-C 61000-4-9& the generator for the in$uction coi!s sha!! pro$uce a 6"4/16Is %a'eshape %ith test !e'e! .& 100//m %ith the equipment configure$ as 21.4.2 Insulation 7it+stand for .vervoltages for the stea$# state magnetic fie!$ test" The re!a# sha!! The purpose of the 1igh :o!tage ,mpu!se Bithstan$ t#pe not ma!operate& an$ sha!! sti!! perform its main functions test is to ensure that circuits an$ their components %i!! %ithin the c!aime$ to!erance $uring the test" %ithstan$ o'er'o!tages on the po%er s#stem cause$ # 21.&.11.& )ampe% oscillatory ma netic fiel% !ightning" Three positi'e an$ three negati'e high 'o!tage These tests simu!ate the magnetic fie!$ that %ou!$ e impu!ses& .+: pea+& are app!ie$ et%een a!! circuits an$ the case earth an$ a!so et%een the termina!s of e(perience$ # a $e'ice !ocate$ %ithin c!ose pro(imit# of in$epen$ent circuits > ut not across norma!!# open the po%er s#stem $uring a transient fau!t con$ition" ,-C 61000-4-10 specifies that the generator for the coi! sha!! contacts?" /s efore& $ifferent requirements app!# in the pro$uce an osci!!ator# %a'eshape %ith a frequenc# of case of circuits using 3-t#pe connectors" 0"1915 an$ 1915& to gi'e a signa! !e'e! in accor$ance The test generator characteristics are as specifie$ in ,-C %ith =e'e! . of 100//m& an$ the equipment sha!! e 602..-. an$ are sho%n in 6igure 21"2" 0o $isrupti'e configure$ as in 6igure 21"7" $ischarge >i"e" f!asho'er or puncture? is a!!o%e$" 21.4 P,."/%* S40E*5 *5PE *ES*S ,f it is necessar# to repeat either the 3ie!ectric :o!tage or 1igh :o!tage ,mpu!se Bithstan$ tests these shou!$ e carrie$ out at 7.E of the specifie$ !e'e!& in accor$ance %ith ,-C 602..-.& to a'oi$ o'erstressing insu!ation an$ components"

/ num er of tests are carrie$ out to $emonstrate that the pro$uct is safe %hen use$ for its inten$e$ app!ication" The essentia! requirements are that the re!a# is safe an$ %i!! not cause an e!ectric shoc+ or fire ha5ar$ un$er norma! con$itions an$ in the presence of a sing!e fau!t" / num er of specific tests to pro'e this ma# e carrie$ out& as fo!!o%s" 21.4.1 "ielectric <oltage 7it+stand


3ie!ectric :o!tage Bithstan$ testing is carrie$ out as a routine test i"e" on e'er# unit prior to $espatch" The purpose of this test is to ensure that the pro$uct ui!$ is as inten$e$ # $esign" This is $one # 'erif#ing the c!earance in air& thus ensuring that the pro$uct is safe to operate un$er norma! use con$itions" The fo!!o%ing tests are con$ucte$ un!ess other%ise specifie$ in the pro$uct $ocumentation:

.+: pea+ 4ise time >10 E to 90 E? H 1"2 s 3uration >.0 E? H .0 s


1. 2"0+: r"m"s"& .0/6015 for 1 minute et%een a!! "i ure 21.5: Test enerator characteristics termina!s an$ case earth an$ a!so et%een for insulation 'ithstan% test in$epen$ent circuits& in accor$ance %ith ,-C 21.4.3 Single 0ault %ondition 4ssessment 602..-." )ome communication circuits are e(c!u$e$ from this test& or ha'e mo$ifie$ test /n assessment is ma$e of %hether a sing!e fau!t requirements e"g" those using 3-t#pe connectors con$ition such as an o'er!oa$& or an open or short circuit& 2. 1".+: r"m"s"& .0/6015 for 1 minute across norma!!#app!ie$ to the pro$uct ma# cause an e!ectric shoc+ or fire

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ha5ar$" ,n the case of $ou t& t#pe testing is carrie$ out 21.5.2 ;umidity *est to ensure that the pro$uct is safe" The humi$it# test is performe$ to ensure that the pro$uct %i!! %ithstan$ an$ operate correct!# %hen su Cecte$ to 93E re!ati'e humi$it# at a constant 21.4.4 Eart+ 8onding Impedance temperature of 407C for .6 $a#s" Tests are performe$ to C!ass 1 pro$ucts that re!# on a protecti'e earth ensure that the pro$uct functions correct!# %ithin connection for safet# are su Cecte$ to an earth on$ing specification after 21 an$ .6 $a#s" /fter the test& 'isua! impe$ance >-A,? t#pe test" This ensures that the earth inspections are ma$e for an# signs of unaccepta !e path et%een the protecti'e earth connection an$ an# corrosion an$ mou!$ gro%th" accessi !e earthe$ part is sufficient!# !o% to a'oi$ $amage in the e'ent of a sing!e fau!t occurring" The test 21.5.3 %yclic *emperature:;umidity *est is con$ucte$ using a test 'o!tage of 12: ma(imum an$ a test current of t%ice the recommen$e$ ma(imum This is a short-term test that stresses the re!a# # protecti'e fuse rating" /fter 1 minute %ith the current su Cecting it to temperature c#c!ing in conCunction %ith f!o%ing in the circuit un$er test& the -A, sha!! not e(cee$high humi$it#" 0"1 " The test $oes not rep!ace the .6 $a# humi$it# test& ut is 21.4.5 %E 1ar2ing / C- mar+ on the pro$uct& or its pac+aging& sho%s that comp!iance is c!aime$ against re!e'ant -uropean Communit# $irecti'es e"g" =o% :o!tage 3irecti'e 73/23/--C an$ -!ectromagnetic Compati i!it# >-9C? 3irecti'e 29/336/--C" 21.5 E-<I,.-1E-*43 *5PE *ES*S :arious tests ha'e to e con$ucte$ to pro'e that a re!a# can %ithstan$ the effects of the en'ironment in %hich it is e(pecte$ to %or+" The# consist of: the fo!!o%ing tests: 1. temperature 2. humi$it# 3. enc!osure protection 4. mechanica!

use$ for testing e(tension to ranges or minor mo$ifications to pro'e that the $esign is unaffecte$" The app!ica !e stan$ar$ is ,-C 60062-2-30 an$ test con$itions of: 82.7C F37C an$ 9.E re!ati'e humi$it#/8..7C F27C an$ 9.E re!ati'e humi$it# are use$& o'er the 24 hour c#c!e sho%n in 6igure 21"9"
100 90 20 70 96E 9.E 90E 1.min 9.E 20E

-n$ of temperature temperature rise Time 8..7C


These tests are $escri e$ in the fo!!o%ing sections" 21.5.1 *emperature *est

F0".h 82.7C 3h 12hF0".h 6h 24h 3h

8227C 8227C Time

Temperature tests are performe$ to ensure that a pro$uct can %ithstan$ e(tremes in temperatures& oth "i ure 21.6: $yclic temperature7humi%ity test profile hot an$ co!$& $uring transit& storage an$ operating 6or these tests the re!a# is p!ace$ in a humi$it# ca inet& con$itions" )torage an$ transit con$itions are $efine$ asan$ energise$ %ith norma! in-ser'ice quantities for the a temperature range of K2.7C to 8707C an$ operating as comp!ete $uration of the tests" ,n practica! terms this K2.7C to 8..7C" usua!!# means energising the re!a# %ith currents an$ 3r# heat %ithstan$ tests are performe$ at 707C for 96 'o!tages such that it is 10E from the thresho!$ for hours %ith the re!a# $e-energise$" Co!$ %ithstan$ tests operation" Throughout the $uration of the test the re!a# is are performe$ at K407C for 96 hours %ith the re!a# $e- monitore$ to ensure that no un%ante$ operations occur" energise$" @perating range tests are carrie$ out %ith the @nce the re!a# is remo'e$ from the humi$it# ca inet& its pro$uct energise$& chec+ing a!! main functions operate insu!ation resistance is measure$ to ensure that it has %ithin to!erance o'er the specifie$ %or+ing temperature not $eteriorate$ to e!o% the c!aime$ !e'e!" The re!a# is range K2.7C to 8..7C" then functiona!!# teste$ again& an$ fina!!# $ismant!e$ to
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chec+ for signs of component corrosion an$ gro%th" The acceptance criterion is that no un%ante$ operations sha!! occur inc!u$ing transient operation of in$icating $e'ices" /fter the test the re!a#Ds insu!ation resistance shou!$ not ha'e significant!# re$uce$& an$ it shou!$ perform a!! of its main protection an$ communications functions %ithin the c!aime$ to!erance" The re!a# shou!$ a!so suffer no significant corrosion or gro%th& an$ photographs are usua!!# ta+en of each PCA an$ the case as a recor$ of this" 21.5.4 Enclosure Protection *est -nc!osure protection tests pro'e that the casing s#stem "i ure 21.13: an$ connectors on the pro$uct protect against the ingress of $ust& moisture& %ater $rop!ets >stri+ing the case at pre$efine$ ang!es? an$ other po!!utants" /n Laccepta !eD !e'e! of $ust or %ater ma# penetrate the case $uring testing& ut must not impair norma! pro$uct operation& safet# or 80"2/ cause trac+ing across insu!ate$ parts of connectors"
0 -0"2/ .elay un%er oin seismic test

1"2/ / 0"2/ Pu!se shape >ha!f sine?

21.5.5 1ec+anical *ests 9echanica! tests simu!ate a num er of $ifferent mechanica! con$itions that the pro$uct ma# ha'e to en$ure $uring its !ifetime" These fa!! into t%o categories a. response to $istur ances %hi!e energise$ b" response to $istur ances $uring transportation >$e-energise$ state?

0"43 2".3 2".3


2"43 H T1 63 H T2 3 - $uration of nomina! pu!se / - pea+ acce!eration of nomina! pu!se T 1- minimum time for monitoring of pu!se %hen con'entiona! shoc+/ ump machine is use$ T 2 - as T1 %hen a 'i ration generator is use$

"i ure 21.11: ,hoc879ump Impulse 'aveform Tests in the first categor# are concerne$ %ith the response to 'i ration& shoc+ an$ seismic $istur ance" The test !e'e!s for shoc+ an$ ump tests are: The tests are $esigne$ to simu!ate norma! in-ser'ice )hoc+ response >energise$?: con$itions for the pro$uct& for e(amp!e earthqua+es" These tests are performe$ in a!! three a(es& %ith the 3 pu!ses& each 10g& 11ms $uration pro$uct energise$ in its norma! >quiescent? state" 3uring the test& a!! output contacts are continua!!# monitore$ )hoc+ %ithstan$ >$e-energise$?: for change using contact fo!!o%er circuits" :i ration 3 pu!ses& 1.g& 11ms $uration 21 !e'e!s of 1gn& o'er a 1015-1.015 frequenc# s%eep are Aump >$e-energise$?: use$" )eismic tests use e(citation in a sing!e a(is& using 1000 pu!ses& 10g& 16ms $uration a test frequenc# of 3.15 an$ pea+ $isp!acements of 7".mm an$ 3".mm in the ( an$ # a(es respecti'e!# e!o% the crosso'er frequenc# an$ pea+ acce!erations of 2"0gn an$ 1"0gn in these a(es a o'e the crosso'er frequenc#"21.! S.0*74,E *5PE *ES*S The secon$ categor# consists of 'i ration en$urance& 3igita! an$ numerica! re!a#s contain soft%are to shoc+ %ithstan$ an$ ump tests" The# are $esigne$ to imp!ement the protection an$ measurement functions of simu!ate the !onger-term affects of shoc+ an$ 'i ration a re!a#" This soft%are must e thorough!# teste$& to that cou!$ occur $uring transportation" These tests are ensure that the re!a# comp!ies %ith a!! specifications an$ performe$ %ith the pro$uct $e-energise$" /fter these that $istur ances of 'arious +in$s $o not resu!t in une(pecte$ resu!ts" )oft%are is teste$ in 'arious stages: tests& the pro$uct must sti!! operate %ithin its specification an$ sho% no signs of permanent a. unit testing mechanica! $amage" -quipment un$ergoing a seismic b. integration testing t#pe test is sho%n in 6igure 21"10& %hi!e the %a'eform for the shoc+/ ump test is sho%n in 6igure 21"11 c. functiona! qua!ification testing

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The purpose of unit testing is to $etermine if an 21.!.3 /nit *esting Environment in$i'i$ua! function or proce$ure imp!emente$ using Aoth 3#namic an$ )tatic ;nit Testing are performe$ in soft%are& or sma!! group of c!ose!# re!ate$ functions& is the host en'ironment rather than the target free of $ata& !ogic& or stan$ar$s errors" ,t is much easieren'ironment" 3#namic ;nit Testing uses a test harness to $etect these t#pes of errors in in$i'i$ua! units or sma!!to e(ecute the unit>s? concerne$" The test harness is groups of units than it is in an integrate$ soft%are $esigne$ such that it simu!ates the interfaces of the architecture an$/or s#stem" ;nit testing is t#pica!!# unit>s? eing teste$ - oth soft%are-soft%are interfaces performe$ against the soft%are $etai!e$ $esign an$ # an$ soft%are-har$%are interfaces - using %hat are the $e'e!oper of the unit>s?" +no%n as stu s" The test harness pro'i$es the test $ata ,ntegration testing t#pica!!# focuses on these interfaces to those units eing teste$ an$ outputs the test resu!ts in a form un$erstan$a !e to a $e'e!oper" There are man# an$ a!so issues such as performance& timings an$ s#nchronisation that are not app!ica !e in unit testing" commercia!!# a'ai!a !e testing too!s to automate test harness pro$uction an$ the e(ecution of tests" ,ntegration testing a!so focuses on LstressingD the soft%are an$ re!ate$ interfaces" ,ntegration testing is L !ac+ o(D in nature& i"e" it $oes not21.!.4 Soft are:Soft are Integration *esting ta+e into account the structure of in$i'i$ua! units" ,t is )oft%are/)oft%are ,ntegration Testing is performe$ in t#pica!!# performe$ against the soft%are architectura! the host en'ironment" ,t uses a test harness to simu!ate an$ $etai!e$ $esign" The specifie$ soft%are requirements inputs an$ outputs& har$%are ca!!s an$ s#stem ca!!s >e"g" %ou!$ t#pica!!# a!so e use$ as a source for some of thethe target en'ironment operating s#stem?" test cases" 21.!.1 Static /nit *esting 21.!.5 Soft are:;ard are Integration *esting

)oft%are/1ar$%are ,ntegration Testing is performe$ in )tatic ;nit Testing >or static ana!#sis as it is often ca!!e$?the target en'ironment& i"e" it uses the actua! target ana!#ses the unit>s? source co$e for comp!e(it#& precision har$%are& operating s#stem& $ri'ers etc" ,t is usua!!# trac+ing& initia!isation chec+ing& 'a!ue trac+ing& strong performe$ after )oft%are/)oft%are ,ntegration Testing" Testing the interfaces to the har$%are is an important t#pe chec+ing& macro ana!#sis etc" Bhi!e )tatic ;nit Testing can e performe$ manua!!#& it is a !a orious an$feature of )oft%are/1ar$%are ,ntegration Testing" Test cases for ,ntegration Testing are t#pica!!# ase$ on error prone process an$ is est performe$ using a those $efine$ for :a!i$ation Testing" 1o%e'er the proprietar# automate$ static unit ana!#sis too!" ,t is emphasis shou!$ e on fin$ing errors an$ pro !ems" important to ensure that an# such too! is configure$ Performing a $r# run of the 'a!i$ation testing often correct!# an$ use$ consistent!# $uring $e'e!opment" comp!etes ,ntegration Testing" 21.!.2 "ynamic *esting


21.!.! <alidation *esting 3#namic Testing is concerne$ %ith the runtime eha'iour of the unit>s? eing teste$ an$ so therefore& The purpose of :a!i$ation Testing >a!so +no%n as )oft%are /cceptance Testing? is to 'erif# that the the unit>s? must e e(ecute$" 3#namic unit testing can soft%are meets its specifie$ functiona! requirements" e su -$i'i$e$ into b L lac8 box!testing an$ L'hite box! :a!i$ation Testing is performe$ against the soft%are testing" L9lac8 box!testing 'erifies the imp!ementation requirements specification& using the target of the requirement>s? a!!ocate$ to the unit>s?" ,t ta+es noen'ironment" ,n i$ea! circumstances& someone account of the interna! structure of the unit>s? eing in$epen$ent of the soft%are $e'e!opment performs the teste$" ,t is on!# concerne$ %ith pro'i$ing +no%n inputs tests" :a!i$ation Testing is blac8 box!in nature& i"e" it an$ $etermining if the outputs from the unit>s? are $oes not ta+e into account the interna! structure of the correct for those inputs"-hite L box!testing is concerne$ soft%are" 6or re!a#s& the non-protection functions %ith testing the interna! structure of the unit>s? an$ inc!u$e$ in the soft%are are consi$ere$ to e as measuring the test co'erage& i"e" ho% much of the co$e important as the protection functions& an$ hence teste$ %ithin the unit>s? has een e(ecute$ $uring the tests" in the same manner" The o Cecti'e of the unit testing ma#& for e(amp!e& e to -ach 'a!i$ation test shou!$ ha'e pre$efine$ e'a!uation achie'e 100E statement co'erage& in %hich e'er# !ine of criteria& to e use$ to $eci$e if the test has passe$ or the co$e is e(ecute$ at !east once& or to e(ecute e'er# fai!e$" The e'a!uation criteria shou!$ e e(p!icit %ith no possi !e path through the unit>s? at !east once" room for interpretation or am iguit#"
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21.!.# *raceability of <alidation *ests

Po%er s#stem simu!ators can e $i'i$e$ into t%o t#pes: a. those %hich use ana!ogue mo$e!s of a po%er s#stem b. those %hich mo$e! the po%er s#stem mathematica!!# using $igita! simu!ation techniques

Tracea i!it# of 'a!i$ation tests to soft%are requirements is 'ita!" -ach soft%are requirement $ocumente$ in the soft%are requirements specification shou!$ ha'e at !east one 'a!i$ation test& an$ it is important to e a !e to pro'e this" 21.!.$ Soft are 1odifications = ,egression *esting

21.#.1 /se of Po er System 4nalogue 1odels

6or man# #ears& re!a#s ha'e een teste$ on ana!ogue mo$e!s 4egression Testing is not a t#pe test in itsD o%n right" ,t of po%er s#stems such as artificia! transmission !ines& or test is the o'era!! name gi'en to the testing performe$ %hen p!ant capa !e of supp!#ing significant amounts of current an e(isting soft%are pro$uct is change$" The purpose of M21"1N" 1o%e'er& these approaches ha'e significant 4egression Testing is to sho% that uninten$e$ changes !imitations in the current an$ 'o!tage %a'eforms that can to the functiona!it# >i"e" errors an$ $efects? ha'e not e generate$& an$ are not suita !e for automate$& een intro$uce$" unatten$e$& testing programmes" Bhi!e sti!! use$ on a -ach change to an e(isting soft%are pro$uct must e !imite$ asis for testing e!ectromechanica! an$ static re!a#s& consi$ere$ in itsD o%n right" ,t is impossi !e to specif# a a ra$ica!!# $ifferent approach is require$ for $#namic stan$ar$ set of regression tests that can e app!ie$ as atesting of numerica! re!a#s" Lcatch-a!!D for intro$uce$ errors an$ $efects" -ach change to the soft%are must e ana!#se$ to $etermine %hat ris+ there might e of unintentiona! changes to the 21.#.2 /se of 1icroprocessor 8ased Simulation E(uipment functiona!it# eing intro$uce$" Those areas of highest ris+ %i!! nee$ to e regression teste$" The u!timate The comp!e(it# of numerica! re!a#s& re!iant on soft%are regression test is to perform the comp!ete :a!i$ation for imp!ementation of the functions inc!u$e$& $ictates Testing programme again& up$ate$ to ta+e account of some +in$ of automate$ test equipment" The functions the changes ma$e" of e'en a simp!e numerica! o'ercurrent re!a# >inc!u$ing 4egression Testing is e(treme!# important" ,f it is not a!! au(i!iar# functions? can ta+e se'era! months of performe$& there is a high ris+ of errors eing foun$ in automate$& 24 hours/$a# testing to test comp!ete!#" ,f such test equipment %as a !e to app!# rea!istic current the fie!$" Performing it %i!! not re$uce to 5ero the chance of an error or $efect remaining in the soft%are& an$ 'o!tage %a'eforms that c!ose!# match those foun$ ut it %i!! re$uce it" 3etermining the 4egression Testing on po%er s#stems $uring fau!t con$itions& the equipment can e use$ either for t#pe testing of in$i'i$ua! re!a# that is require$ is ma$e much easier if there is $esigns or of a comp!ete protection scheme $esigne$ for tracea i!it# from proper!# $ocumente$ soft%are a specific app!ication" ,n recognition of this& a ne% requirements through $esign >again proper!# generation of po%er s#stem simu!ators has een $ocumente$ an$ up to $ate?& co$ing an$ testing" $e'e!ope$& %hich is capa !e of pro'i$ing a far more accurate simu!ation of po%er s#stem con$itions than has 21.# "5-41I% <43I"4*I.- *5PE *ES*I-9 een possi !e in the past" The simu!ator ena !es re!a#s 21 to e teste$ un$er a %i$e range of s#stem con$itions& There are t%o possi !e metho$s of $#namica!!# pro'ing representing the equi'a!ent of man# #ears of site the satisfactor# performance of protection re!a#s or e(perience" schemesO the first metho$ is # actua!!# app!#ing fau!ts on the po%er s#stem an$ the secon$ is to carr# out ,imulation har%'are comprehensi'e testing on a po%er s#stem simu!ator" -quipment is no% a'ai!a !e to pro'i$e high-spee$& high!# The former metho$ is e(treme!# un!i+e!# to e use$ K accurate mo$e!!ing of a section of a po%er s#stem" The !ea$ times are !ength# an$ the ris+ of $amage occurring equipment is ase$ on $istri ute$ microprocessor- ase$ ma+es the tests 'er# e(pensi'e" ,t is therefore on!# use$ har$%are containing soft%are mo$e!s of the 'arious on a 'er# !imite$ asis an$ the fau!ts app!ie$ are e!ements of a po%er s#stem& an$ is sho%n in 6igure 21"12" restricte$ in num er an$ t#pe" Aecause of this& a pro'ing The mo$u!es ha'e outputs !in+e$ to current an$ 'o!tage perio$ for ne% protection equipment un$er ser'ice sources that ha'e a simi!ar transient capa i!it# an$ ha'e con$itions has usua!!# een require$" /s fau!ts ma# suita !e output !e'e!s for $irect connection to the inputs occur on the po%er s#stem at infrequent inter'a!s& it canof re!a#s Ki"e" 110: for 'o!tage an$ 1//./ for current" ta+e a num er of #ears efore an# possi !e shortcomings ,nputs are a!so pro'i$e$ to monitor the response of re!a#s are $isco'ere$& $uring %hich time further insta!!ations un$er test >contact c!osures for tripping& etc"? an$ these ma# ha'e occurre$" inputs can e use$ as part of the mo$e! of the po%er

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"i ure 21.12: )i ital po'er system simulator for relay7protection scheme testin


test resu!ts eing a'ai!a !e on comp!etion s#stem" The soft%are is a!so capa !e of mo$e!!ing the $#namic response of CTDs an$ :TDs accurate!#" / !oc+ schematic of the equipment is sho%n in 6igure Bhere it is $esire$ to chec+ the response of a re!a# or 21"13& is ase$ aroun$ a computer %hich ca!cu!ates an$ protection scheme to an actua! po%er s#stem transient& stores the $igita! $ata representing the s#stem 'o!tages the transient can e simu!ate$ using sophisticate$ po%er an$ currents" The computer contro!s con'ersion of the s#stems ana!#sis soft%are an$ the resu!ts transferre$ $igita! $ata into ana!ogue signa!s& an$ it monitors an$ $igita!!# to the simu!ator& or the e'ent recor$er recor$ing contro!s the re!a#s eing teste$" of the transient can e use$& in either $igita! or ana!ogue ,imulation soft'are form as inputs to the simu!ator mo$e!" @utput signa! con'ersion in'o!'es circuits to e!iminate the quantisation;n!i+e most tra$itiona! soft%are use$ for po%er s#stems steps norma!!# foun$ in con'entiona! 3// con'ersion" ana!#sis& the soft%are use$ is suita !e for the mo$e!!ing /na!ogue mo$e!s of the s#stem trans$ucer the fast transients that occur in the first fe% characteristics can e interpose$ et%een the signa! mi!!isecon$s after fau!t inception" T%o 'er# accurate processors an$ the output amp!ifiers %hen require$" simu!ation programs are use$& one ase$ on time $omain This equipment sho%s man# a$'antages o'er tra$itiona!an$ the other on frequenc# $omain techniques" ,n oth programs& sing!e an$ $ou !e circuit transmission !ines are test equipment: represente$ # fu!!# $istri ute$ parameter mo$e!s" The a. the po%er s#stem mo$e! is capa !e of repro$ucing !ine parameters are ca!cu!ate$ from the ph#sica! high frequenc# transients such as tra'e!!ing %a'es construction of the !ine >s#mmetrica!& as#mmetrica!& b. tests in'o!'ing 'er# !ong time constants can e transpose$ or non-transpose$?& ta+ing into account the carrie$ out effect of con$uctor geometr#& con$uctor interna! impe$ance an$ the earth return path" ,t a!so inc!u$es& c. it is not affecte$ # the harmonic content& noise %here appropriate& the frequenc# $epen$ence of the !ine an$ frequenc# 'ariations in the a"c" supp!# parameters in the frequenc# $omain program" The d. it is capa !e of representing the 'ariation in the frequenc# $epen$ent 'aria !e effects are ca!cu!ate$ current associate$ %ith generator fau!ts an$ po%er using 6ast 6ourier Transforms an$ the resu!ts are s%ings con'erte$ to the time $omain" Con'entiona! current transformers an$ capacitor 'o!tage transformers can e e. saturation effects in CTDs an$ :TDs can e mo$e!!e$ simu!ate$" f. a set of test routines can e specifie$ in soft%are an$ then !eft to run unatten$e$ >or %ith on!# occasiona! The fau!t can e app!ie$ at an# one point in the s#stem an$ monitoring? to comp!etion& %ith a $etai!e$ recor$ of can e an# com ination of phase to phase or phase


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3// con'ersion

=inear interpo!ation circuits

CT mo$e!

Current amp!ifier

I$ :3; ,/@ )u s#stem :# Computer -quipment un$er test 3// :o!tage con'ersion

<e# oar$ :3;


interpo!ation circuits Contact status monitor

C:T mo$e!



<e# oar$


<e# : CT - Current transformer C:T - Capacitor 'o!tage transformer :3; - :isua! $isp!a# unit

)igna!!ing Channe! )imu!ation To secon$ 4T3)

!in+ to secon$

>Bhen require$?

4T3) "i ure 21.1&: 9loc8 %ia ram of microprocessor-base% automate% relay test system

to earth& resisti'e& or non-!inear phase to earth arcing fau!ts" po%er frequenc# 6or series compensate$ !ines& f!asho'er across a series +. the use of $irect coup!e$ current amp!ifiers a!!o%s capacitor fo!!o%ing a short circuit fau!t can e simu!ate$" time constants of an# !ength The frequenc# $omain mo$e! is not suita !e for i. capa !e of simu!ating s!o% s#stem changes $e'e!oping fau!ts an$ s%itching sequences& therefore the %i$e!# use$ -!ectromagnetic Transient Program >-9TP?& '. repro$uces fau!t currents %hose pea+ amp!itu$e 'aries %ith time %or+ing in the time $omain& is emp!o#e$ in such cases" ,n a$$ition to these t%o programs& a simu!ation program 2. trans$ucer mo$e!s can e inc!u$e$ ase$ on !umpe$ resistance an$ in$uctance parameters l. automatic testing remo'es the !i+e!ihoo$ of is use$" This simu!ation is use$ to represent s#stems %ith measurement an$ setting errors !ong time constants an$ s!o% s#stem changes $ue& for m. t%o such equipments can e !in+e$ together to e(amp!e& to po%er s%ings" simu!ate a s#stem mo$e! %ith t%o re!a#ing points 21.4.2.& ,imulator applications The simu!ator is a!so use$ for the pro$uction testing of The simu!ator is use$ for chec+ing the accurac# of re!a#s& in %hich most of the a$'antages !iste$ a o'e 21 ca!i ration an$ performing t#pe tests on a %i$e range of app!#" /s the tests an$ measurements are ma$e protection re!a#s $uring their $e'e!opment" ,t has the automatica!!#& the qua!it# of testing is a!so great!# fo!!o%ing a$'antages o'er e(isting test metho$s: enhance$" 6urther& in cases of suspecte$ ma!function of a. *state of the art* po%er s#stem mo$e!!ing $ata can a re!a# in the fie!$ un$er +no%n fau!t con$itions& the simu!ator can e use$ to rep!icate the po%er s#stem an$ e use$ to test re!a#s fau!t con$itions& an$ con$uct a $etai!e$ in'estigation b. free$om from frequenc# 'ariations an$ noise or into the performance of the re!a#" 6ina!!#& comp!e( harmonic content of the a"c" supp!# protection schemes can e mo$e!!e$& using oth the re!a#s inten$e$ for use an$ soft%are mo$e!s of them as c. the re!a# un$er test $oes not ur$en the po%er appropriate& to chec+ the suita i!it# of the propose$ s#stem simu!ation scheme un$er a %i$e 'ariet# of con$itions" To i!!ustrate d. a!! tests are accurate!# repeata !e this& 6igure 21"14>a? sho%s a section of a particu!ar po%er s#stem mo$e!!e$" The %a'eforms of 6igure 21"14> ? sho% e. %i$e an$%i$th signa!s can e pro$uce$ the three phase 'o!tages an$ currents at the primaries of f. a %i$e range of frequencies can e repro$uce$ :T1 an$ CT1 for the fau!t con$ition in$icate$ in 6igure g. se!ecte$ harmonics ma# e superimpose$ on the 21"14>a?"

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0 3G = ,nfinite us "& "" "* =ine 2 CT4 CA4

4G CA3 CT3


9G =43 =44

CA1 CT1 !oa$ 1 !oa$ 2 !oa$ 3 =41 4e!a# 1 4e!a# 2 >a? -(amp!e po%er s#stem
: a : : b : : c : Ia I Ib I Ic I 0 0"02

"1 =ine 1

"2 "


CA2 11G




"i ure 21.1*: +xample of application stu%y

> ? :o!tages an$ currents at :T1/CT1

0"16 0"24 0"32 0"4 0".6


21.$ P,."/%*I.- *ES*I-9


Pro$uction testing of protection re!a#s is ecoming far more $eman$ing as the accurac# an$ comp!e(it# of the pro$ucts increase" -!ectronic po%er amp!ifiers are use$ to supp!# accurate 'o!tages an$ currents of high sta i!it# to the re!a# un$er test" The inc!usion of a computer in the test s#stem a!!o%s more comp!e( testing to e performe$ at an economica! cost& %ith the a$'antage of spee$ an$ repeata i!it# of tests from one re!a# to another" 6igure 21"1. sho%s a mo$ern computer-contro!!e$ test ench" The har$%are is mounte$ in a specia! rac+" -ach unit of the test s#stem is connecte$ to the computer 'ia "i ure 21.1/: 2o%ern computer-controlle% test bench an interface us" ,n$i'i$ua! test programs for each t#pe of re!a# are require$& ut the interface use$ is stan$ar$ Aecause soft%are is e(tensi'e!# teste$ at the t#pefor a!! re!a# t#pes" Contro! of input %a'eforms an$ testing stage& there is norma!!# no nee$ to chec+ the ana!ogue measurements& the monitoring of output correct functioning of the soft%are" Chec+s are !imite$ signa!s an$ the ana!#sis of test $ata are performe$ # the computer" / printout of the test resu!ts can a!so e to $etermining that the ana!ogue an$ $igita! ,/@ is pro$uce$ if require$" functioning correct!#" This is achie'e$ for inputs #


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app!#ing +no%n 'o!tage an$ current inputs to the re!a# un$er test an$ chec+ing that the soft%are has capture$ the correct 'a!ues" )imi!ar!#& $igita! outputs are e(ercise$ # using test soft%are to actuate each output an$ chec+ing that the correct output is energise$" Pro'i$e$ that appropriate proce$ures are in p!ace to ensure that on!# t#pe-teste$ soft%are is $o%n!oa$e$& there is no nee$ to chec+ the correct functioning of the soft%are in the re!a#" The fina! step is to $o%n!oa$ the soft%are appropriate to the re!a# an$ store it in the -P4@9 fitte$ in the re!a#" 21.& %.11ISSI.-I-9 *ES*S

b. genera! inspection of the equipment& chec+ing a!! connections& %ires on re!a#s termina!s& !a e!s on termina! oar$s& etc" c. insu!ation resistance measurement of a!! circuits d. perform re!a# se!f-test proce$ure an$ e(terna! communications chec+s on $igita!/numerica! re!a#s e. test main current transformers f. test main 'o!tage transformers g. chec+ that protection re!a# a!arm/trip settings ha'e een entere$ correct!# +. tripping an$ a!arm circuit chec+s to pro'e correct functioning

,nsta!!ation of a protection scheme at site creates a ,n a$$ition& the fo!!o%ing chec+s ma# e carrie$ out& num er of possi i!ities for errors in the imp!ementation $epen$ing on the factors note$ ear!ier" of the scheme to occur" -'en if the scheme has een i. secon$ar# inCection test on each re!a# to pro'e thorough!# teste$ in the factor#& %iring to the CTDs an$ operation at one or more setting 'a!ues :TDs on site ma# e incorrect!# carrie$ out& or the CTDs/:TDs ma# ha'e een incorrect!# insta!!e$" The impact '. primar# inCection tests on each re!a# to pro'e of such errors ma# range from simp!# eing a nuisance sta i!it# for e(terna! fau!ts an$ to $etermine the >tripping occurs repeate$!# on energisation& requiring effecti'e current setting for interna! fau!ts >essentia! in'estigation to !ocate an$ correct the error>s?? through for some t#pes of e!ectromechanica! re!a#s? to fai!ure to trip un$er fau!t con$itions& !ea$ing to maCor 2. testing of protection scheme !ogic equipment $amage& $isruption to supp!ies an$ potentia! ha5ar$s to personne!" The strategies a'ai!a !e to remo'e This section $etai!s the tests require$ to co'er items these ris+s are man#& ut a!! in'o!'e some +in$ of testing >a?K>g? a o'e" )econ$ar# inCection test equipment is at site" co'ere$ in )ection 21"10 an$ )ection 21"11 $etai!s the secon$ar# inCection that ma# e carrie$ out" )ection Commissioning tests at site are therefore in'aria !# performe$ efore protection equipment is set to %or+" 21"12 co'ers primar# inCection testing& an$ )ection 21"13 $etai!s the chec+s require$ on an# !ogic in'o!'e$ in the The aims of commissioning tests are: protection scheme" 6ina!!#& )ection 21"14 $etai!s the tests 1. to ensure that the equipment has not een require$ on a!arm/tripping circuits tripping/a!arm $amage$ $uring transit or insta!!ation circuits" 2. to ensure that the insta!!ation %or+ has een carrie$ out correct!# 21.&.1 Insulation *ests 3. to pro'e the correct functioning of the protection /!! the $e!i erate earth connections on the %iring to e scheme as a %ho!e 21 teste$ shou!$ first e remo'e$& for e(amp!e earthing The tests carrie$ out %i!! norma!!# 'ar# accor$ing to the !in+s on current transformers& 'o!tage transformers an$ protection scheme in'o!'e$& the re!a# techno!og# use$& $"c" supp!ies" )ome insu!ation testers generate impu!ses an$ the po!ic# of the c!ient" ,n man# cases& the tests %ith pea+ 'o!tages e(cee$ing .+:" ,n these instances actua!!# con$ucte$ are $etermine$ at the time of an# e!ectronic equipment shou!$ e $isconnecte$ %hi!e commissioning # mutua! agreement et%een the the e(terna! %iring insu!ation is chec+e$" c!ientDs representati'e an$ the commissioning team" The insu!ation resistance shou!$ e measure$ to earth 1ence& it is not possi !e to pro'i$e a $efiniti'e !ist of an$ et%een e!ectrica!!# separate circuits" The rea$ings tests that are require$ $uring commissioning" This are recor$e$ an$ compare$ %ith su sequent routine section therefore $escri es the tests common!# carrie$ tests to chec+ for an# $eterioration of the insu!ation" out $uring commissioning" The insu!ation resistance measure$ $epen$s on the The fo!!o%ing tests are in'aria !# carrie$ out& since the amount of %iring in'o!'e$& its gra$e& an$ the site protection scheme %i!! not function correct!# if fau!ts e(ist" humi$it#" Genera!!#& if the test is restricte$ to one a. %iring $iagram chec+& using circuit $iagrams cu ic!e& a rea$ing of se'era! hun$re$ megohms shou!$ e sho%ing a!! the reference num ers of the o taine$" ,f !ong !engths of site %iring are in'o!'e$& the interconnecting %iring rea$ing cou!$ e on!# a fe% megohms"

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21.&.2 ,elay Self=*est Procedure

ro ust mo'ing coi!& permanent magnet& centre-5ero t#pe" / !o% 'o!tage atter# is use$& 'ia a sing!e-po!e push3igita! an$ numerica! re!a#s %i!! ha'e a se!f-test utton s%itch& to energise the primar# %in$ing" @n proce$ure that is $etai!e$ in the appropriate re!a# manua!" These tests shou!$ e fo!!o%e$ to $etermine if c!osing the push- utton& the $"c" ammeter& /& shou!$ gi'e a positi'e f!ic+ an$ on opening& a negati'e f!ic+" the re!a# is operating correct!#" This %i!! norma!!# in'o!'e chec+ing of the re!a# %atch$og circuit& e(ercising a!! 21.6.&.2 2a netisation $urve $igita! inputs an$ outputs an$ chec+ing that the re!a# )e'era! points shou!$ e chec+e$ on each current ana!ogue inputs are %ithin ca!i ration # app!#ing a test transformer magnetisation cur'e" This can e $one # current or 'o!tage" 6or these tests& the re!a# outputs areenergising the secon$ar# %in$ing from the !oca! mains norma!!# $isconnecte$ from the remain$er of the supp!# through a 'aria !e auto-transformer %hi!e the protection scheme& as it is a test carrie$ out to pro'e primar# circuit remains openO see 6igure 21"17" The correct re!a#& rather than scheme& operation" characteristic is measure$ at suita !e inter'a!s of app!ie$ ;nit protection schemes in'o!'e re!a#s that nee$ to 'o!tage& unti! the magnetising current is seen to rise 'er# communicate %ith each other" This !ea$s to a$$itiona! rapi$!# for a sma!! increase in 'o!tage" This in$icates the testing requirements" The communications path appro(imate +nee-point or saturation f!u( !e'e! of the et%een the re!a#s is teste$ using suita !e equipment tocurrent transformer" The magnetising current shou!$ ensure that the path is comp!ete an$ that the recei'e$ then e recor$e$ at simi!ar 'o!tage inter'a!s as it is signa! strength is %ithin specification" 0umerica! re!a#s re$uce$ to 5ero" ma# e fitte$ %ith !oop ac+ test faci!ities that ena !e Care must e ta+en that the test equipment is suita !# either part of or the entire communications !in+ to e rate$" The short-time current rating must e in e(cess of teste$ from one en$" the CT secon$ar# current rating& to a!!o% for the /fter comp!etion of these tests& it is usua! to enter the measurement of the saturation current" This %i!! e in re!a# settings require$" This can e $one manua!!# 'ia e(cess of the CT secon$ar# current rating" /s the the re!a# front pane! contro!s& or using a porta !e PC an$ magnetising current %i!! not e sinusoi$a!& a mo'ing iron suita !e soft%are" Bhiche'er metho$ is use$& a chec+ or # $#namometer t#pe ammeter shou!$ e use$" a secon$ person that the correct settings ha'e een use$ ,t is often foun$ that current transformers %ith is $esira !e& an$ the settings recor$e$" Programma !e secon$ar# ratings of 1/ or !ess ha'e a +nee-point 'o!tage scheme !ogic that is require$ is a!so entere$ at this stage" higher than the !oca! mains supp!#" ,n these cases& a 21.&.3 %urrent *ransformer *ests The fo!!o%ing tests are norma!!# carrie$ out prior to energisation of the main circuits" 21.6.&.1 0olarity chec8
02 0 01 0 0 1 ,1 # 9 $

step-up interposing transformer must e use$ to o tain the necessar# 'o!tage to chec+ the magnetisation cur'e"
Test p!ug iso!ating current transformers from re!a# coi!s

:aria !e transformer 2.0: 2/

/ To re!a# coi!s : 2.0: a"c" supp!#





0 ,2 2 9ain circuit rea+er open P8 /

)tep-up transformer if require$

"i ure 21.14: Testin current transformer ma netisin curve

21.&.4 <oltage *ransformer *ests

"i ure 21.11: $urrent transformer polarity chec8

:o!tage transformers require testing for po!arit# an$ phasing"

-ach current transformer shou!$ e in$i'i$ua!!# teste$ to21.6.*.1 0olarity chec8 'erif# that the primar# an$ secon$ar# po!arit# mar+ings The 'o!tage transformer po!arit# can e chec+e$ using are correctO see 6igure 21"16" The ammeter connecte$ the to metho$ for CT po!arit# tests" Care must e ta+en to the secon$ar# of the current transformer shou!$ e a connect the atter# supp!# to the primar# %in$ing& %ith


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the po!arit# ammeter connecte$ to the secon$ar# %in$ing" ,f the 'o!tage transformer is of the capacitor t#pe& then the po!arit# of the transformer at the ottom of the capacitor stac+ shou!$ e chec+e$" 21.6.*.2 .atio chec8

This chec+ can e carrie$ out %hen the main circuit is first ma$e !i'e" The 'o!tage transformer secon$ar# ,f the three-phase 'o!tage transformer has a ro+en'o!tage is compare$ %ith the secon$ar# 'o!tage sho%n $e!ta tertiar# %in$ing& then a chec+ shou!$ e ma$e of on the namep!ate" the 'o!tage across the t%o connections from the ro+en 21.6.*.& 0hasin chec8 $e!ta :; an$ :< & as sho%n in 6igure 21"12" Bith the The secon$ar# connections for a three-phase 'o!tage rate$ a!ance$ three-phase supp!# 'o!tage app!ie$ to the 'o!tage transformer primar# %in$ings& the ro+en-$e!ta transformer or a an+ of three sing!e-phase 'o!tage 'o!tage shou!$ e e!o% .: %ith the rate$ ur$en transformers must e carefu!!# chec+e$ for phasing" Bith the main circuit a!i'e& the phase rotation is chec+e$connecte$" using a phase rotation meter connecte$ across the three phases& as sho%n in 6igure 21"12" Pro'i$e$ an e(isting 21.&.5 Protection ,elay Setting %+ec2s pro'en :T is a'ai!a !e on the same primar# s#stem& an$ that secon$ar# earthing is emp!o#e$& a!! that is no% /t some point $uring commissioning& the a!arm an$ trip necessar# to pro'e correct phasing is a 'o!tage chec+ settings of the re!a# e!ements in'o!'e$ %i!! require to e et%een& sa#& oth #LD phase secon$ar# outputs" There entere$ an$/or chec+e$" Bhere the comp!ete scheme is shou!$ e nomina!!# !itt!e or no 'o!tage if the phasing is engineere$ an$ supp!ie$ # a sing!e contractor& the correct" 1o%e'er& this test $oes not $etect if the phase settings ma# a!rea$# ha'e een entere$ prior to $espatch sequence is correct& ut the phases are $isp!ace$ # 1207 from the factor#& an$ hence this nee$ not e repeate$" from their correct position& i"e" phase / occupies the The metho$ of entering settings 'aries accor$ing to the position of phase $ or phase9 in 6igure 21"12" This can re!a# techno!og# use$" 6or e!ectromechanica! an$ static e chec+e$ # remo'ing the fuses from phases 9 an$ $ re!a#s& manua! entr# of the settings for each re!a# >sa#? an$ measuring the phase-earth 'o!tages on the e!ement is require$" This metho$ can a!so e use$ for secon$ar# of the :T" ,f the phasing is correct& on!# phase $igita!/numerica! re!a#s" 1o%e'er& the amount of $ata to e entere$ is much greater& an$ therefore it is usua! to # shou!$ e hea!th#& phases 9 an$ $ shou!$ ha'e on!# a sma!! resi$ua! 'o!tage" use appropriate soft%are& norma!!# supp!ie$ # the manufacturer& for this purpose" The soft%are a!so ma+es the essentia! tas+ of ma+ing a recor$ of the $ata entere$ # much easier" 9
$ #

Correct phasing shou!$ e further su stantiate$ %hen carr#ing out Lon !oa$D tests on an# phase-ang!e sensiti'e re!a#s& at the re!a# termina!s" =oa$ current in a +no%n phase CT secon$ar# shou!$ e compare$ %ith the associate$ phase to neutra! :T secon$ar# 'o!tage" The phase ang!e et%een them shou!$ e measure$& an$ shou!$ re!ate to the po%er factor of the s#stem !oa$"

:1 $9 :2

:; : :< :2

@nce the $ata has een entere$& it shou!$ e chec+e$ for comp!iance %ith the recommen$e$ settings as ca!cu!ate$ from the protection setting stu$#" Bhere appropriate soft%are is use$ for $ata entr#& the chec+s can e consi$ere$ comp!ete if the $ata is chec+e$ prior 21 to $o%n!oa$ of the settings to the re!a#" @ther%ise& a chec+ ma# require$ su sequent to $ata entr# # inspection an$ recor$ing of the re!a# settings& or it ma# e consi$ere$ a$equate to $o this at the time of $ata entr#" The recor$e$ settings form an essentia! part of the commissioning $ocumentation pro'i$e$ to the c!ient" 21.1) SE%.-"4,5 I->E%*I.- *ES* E?/IP1E-*


#9 $

Phase rotation meter

)econ$ar# inCection tests are a!%a#s $one prior to primar# inCection tests" The purpose of secon$ar# inCection testing is to pro'e the correct operation of the protection scheme that is $o%nstream from the inputs to the protection re!a#>s?" )econ$ar# inCection tests are a!%a#s $one prior to primar# inCection tests" This is

"i ure 21.15: :olta e transformer phasin chec8

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ecause the ris+s $uring initia! testing to the =: si$e of the equipment un$er test are minimise$" The primar# >1:? si$e of the equipment is $isconnecte$& so that no $amage can occur" These tests an$ the equipment necessar# to perform them are genera!!# $escri e$ in the manufacturer*s manua!s for the re!a#s& ut rief $etai!s are gi'en e!o% for the main t#pes of protection re!a#s" 21.1).1 *est 8loc2s:Plugs for Secondary In'ection E(uipment ,t is common practice to pro'i$e test !oc+s or test "i ure 21.16: 2o%ern test bloc87plu s soc+ets in the re!a# circuits so that connections can rea$i!# e ma$e to the test equipment %ithout 21.1).2 Secondary In'ection *est Sets $istur ing %iring" Test p!ugs of either mu!ti-finger or sing!e-finger $esign >for monitoring the current in one The t#pe of the re!a# to e teste$ $etermines the t#pe of CT secon$ar# circuit? are use$ to connect test equipment equipment use$ to pro'i$e the secon$ar# inCection to the re!a# un$er test" currents an$ 'o!tages" 9an# e!ectromechanica! re!a#s The top an$ ottom contact of each test p!ug finger is ha'e a non-!inear current coi! impe$ance %hen the re!a# separate$ # an insu!ating strip& so that the re!a# circuitsoperates an$ this can cause the test current %a'eform to e $istorte$ if the inCection supp!# 'o!tage is fe$ $irect!# can e comp!ete!# iso!ate$ from the s%itchgear %iring %hen the test p!ug is inserte$" To a'oi$ open-circuiting to the coi!" The presence of harmonics in the current CT secon$ar# termina!s& it is therefore essentia! that CT %a'eform ma# affect the torque of e!ectromechanica! re!a#s an$ gi'e unre!ia !e test resu!ts& so some inCection shorting Cumper !in+s are fitte$ across a!! appropriate test sets use an a$Custa !e series reactance to contro! the L!i'e si$eD termina!s of the test p!ug A-6@4- it is inserte$" current" This +eeps the po%er $issipation sma!! an$ the Bith the test p!ug inserte$ in position& a!! the test equipment !ight an$ compact" circuitr# can no% e connecte$ to the iso!ate$ Lre!a# si$eD test p!ug termina!s" )ome mo$ern test !oc+s 9an# test sets are porta !e an$ inc!u$e precision incorporate the !i'e-si$e Cumper !in+s %ithin the !oc+ ammeters an$ 'o!tmeters an$ timing equipment" Test an$ these can e set to the Lc!ose$D or LopenD position assets ma# ha'e oth 'o!tage an$ current outputs" The appropriate& either manua!!# prior to remo'ing the co'er former are high-'o!tage& !o% current outputs for use an$ inserting the test p!ug& or automatica!!# upon %ith re!a# e!ements that require signa! inputs from a :T remo'a! of the co'er" 4emo'a! of the co'er a!so e(poses as %e!! as a CT" The current outputs are high-current& the co!our-co$e$ face-p!ate of the !oc+& c!ear!# !o% 'o!tage to connect to re!a# CT inputs" ,t is in$icating that the protection scheme is not in ser'ice& important& ho%e'er& to ensure that the test set current an$ ma# a!so $isconnect an# $"c" au(i!iar# supp!ies use$ outputs are true current sources& an$ hence are not for po%ering re!a# tripping outputs" affecte$ # the !oa$ impe$ance of a re!a# e!ement current coi!" ;se of a test set %ith a current output that Bith$ra%ing the test p!ug imme$iate!# restores the is essentia!!# a 'o!tage source can gi'e rise to serious connections to the main current transformers an$ pro !ems %hen testing e!ectromechanica! re!a#s" /n# 'o!tage transformers an$ remo'es the test connections" 4ep!acement of the test !oc+ co'er then remo'es the significant impe$ance mismatch et%een the output of the test set an$ the re!a# current coi! $uring re!a# short circuits that ha$ een app!ie$ to the main CT operation %i!! gi'e rise to a 'ariation in current from that secon$ar# circuits" Bhere se'era! re!a#s are use$ in a $esire$ an$ possi !e error in the test resu!ts" The re!a# protection scheme& one or more test !oc+s ma# e fitte$ operation time ma# e greater than e(pecte$ >ne'er !ess on the re!a# pane! ena !ing the %ho!e scheme to e than e(pecte$? or re!a# LchatterD ma# occur" ,t is quite teste$& rather than Cust one re!a# at a time" common for such errors to on!# e foun$ much !ater& Test !oc+s usua!!# offer faci!ities for the monitoring an$ after a fau!t has cause$ maCor $amage to equipment secon$ar# inCection testing of an# po%er s#stem through fai!ure of the primar# protection to operate" protection scheme" The test !oc+ ma# e use$ either 6ai!ure in'estigation then sho%s that the reason for the %ith a mu!ti-fingere$ test p!ug to a!!o% iso!ation an$ primar# protection to operate is an incorrect!# set re!a#& monitoring of a!! the se!ecte$ con$uctor paths& or %ith a $ue in turn to use of a test set %ith a current output sing!e finger test p!ug that a!!o%s the currents on consisting of a 'o!tage-source %hen the re!a# %as !ast in$i'i$ua! con$uctors to e monitore$" / mo$ern test teste$" 6igure 21"20 sho%s t#pica! %a'eforms resu!ting !oc+ an$ test p!ugs are i!!ustrate$ in 6igure 21"19" from use of test set current output that is a 'o!tage



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: re!a#/source


)aturation !e'e! of magnetic circuit >current? !imite$ on!# # 3"C" resistance of re!a# coi!

4e!a# %ith saturation of C3G magnetic circuit >phase shift from C3G in$ucti'e !oa$ sho%n?"

a? 4e!a# current coi! %a'eform $istorte$ $ue to use of 'o!tage source

)inusoi$a! C;44-0T %hen changing impe$ance of re!a# is s%ampe$ out # high source impe$ance


T#pica! :@=T/G- %a'eform appearing across re!a# current coi!s %ith sinusoi$a! , a o'e the re!a# setting >10 ( sho%n?"

? ;n$istorte$ re!a# current coi! current $istorte$ $ue to use of current source


"i ure 21.23: .elay current coil 'aveforms

source K the $istorte$ re!a# coi! current %a'eform gi'es 3-phase output set" 9uch greater precision in the setting of the magnitu$es an$ phase ang!es is possi !e& rise to an e(ten$e$ operation time compare$ to the compare$ to tra$itiona! test sets" 3igita! signa!s to e(pecte$ 'a!ue" e(ercise the interna! !ogic e!ements of the re!a#s ma# 9o$ern test sets are computer ase$" The# comprise aa!so e pro'i$e$" The a!arm an$ trip outputs of the re!a# PC >usua!!# a stan$ar$ !aptop PC %ith suita !e soft%are?are connecte$ to $igita! inputs on the PC so that correct an$ a po%er amp!ifier that ta+es the !o%-!e'e! outputs operation of the re!a#& inc!u$ing accurac# of the re!a# from the PC an$ amp!ifies them into 'o!tage an$ current tripping characteristic can e monitore$ an$ $isp!a#e$ signa!s suita !e for app!ication to the :T an$ CT inputs of on-screen& sa'e$ for inc!usion in reports generate$ !ater& the re!a#" The phase ang!e et%een 'o!tage an$ current or printe$ for an imme$iate recor$ to present to the outputs %i!! e a$Custa !e& as a!so %i!! the phase ang!es c!ient" @ptiona! features ma# inc!u$e GP) time et%een the in$i'i$ua! 'o!tages or currents ma+ing up as#nchronising equipment an$ remote-!ocate$ amp!ifiers

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to faci!itate testing of unit protection schemes& an$ $igita! ,/@ for e(ercising the programma !e scheme !ogic of mo$ern re!a#s" The soft%are for mo$ern test sets is capa !e of testing the functiona!it# of a %i$e 'ariet# of re!a#s& an$ con$ucting a set of tests automatica!!#" )uch sets ease the tas+ of the commissioning engineer" The soft%are %i!! norma!!# offer options for testing& ranging from a test carrie$ out at a particu!ar point on the characteristic to comp!ete $etermination of the tripping characteristic automatica!!#" This feature can e he!pfu! if there is an# reason to $ou t that the re!a# is operating correct!# %ith the tripping characteristic specifie$" 6igure 21"21 i!!ustrates a mo$ern PC- ase$ test set" Tra$itiona! test sets use an arrangement of a$Custa !e transformers an$ reactors to pro'i$e contro! of current an$ 'o!tage %ithout incurring high po%er $issipation" )ome re!a#s require a$Custment of the phase et%een the inCecte$ 'o!tages an$ currents& an$ so phase shifting transformers ma# e use$" 6igure 21"22 sho%s the circuit $iagram of a tra$itiona! test set suita !e for o'ercurrent re!a# resting& %hi!e 6igure 21"23 sho%s the "i circuit $iagram for a test set for $irectiona!/$istance re!a#s" Timers are inc!u$e$ so that the response time of the re!a# can e measure$" 21.11 SE%.-"4,5 I->E%*I.- *ES*I-9

ure 21.21: 2o%ern 0$-base% secon%ary in=ection test set

testing %i!! e !arge!# $etermine$ # the c!ient specification an$ re!a# techno!og# use$& an$ ma# range The purpose of secon$ar# inCection testing is to chec+ from a simp!e chec+ of the re!a# characteristic at a sing!e point to a comp!ete 'erification of the tripping that the protection scheme from the re!a# input characteristics of the scheme& inc!u$ing the response to termina!s on%ar$s is functioning correct!# %ith the settings specifie$" This is achie'e$ # app!#ing suita !e transient %a'eforms an$ harmonics an$ chec+ing of re!a# ias characteristics" This ma# e important %hen inputs from a test set to the inputs of the re!a#s an$ chec+ing if the appropriate a!arm/trip signa!s occur at the protection scheme inc!u$es transformers an$/or generators" the re!a#/contro! room/CA !ocations" The e(tent of

Coarse contro! reactor >2 2.0: a"c" supp!# 6ine contro! 'aria !e transformer )tart timer Aac+ing transformer 10E contro! 4e!a# current&I H /mmeter rea$ing >/?>1 ( >2 9e$ium contro! reactor ,nCection transformer )top timer 4e!a# short-circuiting s%itch # 4ange a$Custing CT

>1 I>

I 4e!a# coi!

"i ure 21.22: $ircuit %ia ram of tra%itional test set for overcurrent relays


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/ A C 0
:ar a i !e tr ansf orme r c ont ro!

)upp!# s%itch 440: 3p phase 4 %ire supp!#

Q> ? 22". 20"0 17". 1."0 12". 10"0 7". ."0 2". 0"0 -2". -."0 -7". -10"0 -1."0 -10"0 -."0 0"0

6au!t /-0

Cho+e 4e!a#

a$Custing CT
/ P/ / : P/ /

440/110: phase shifting g p transformer

> 'o!tage e!ement : :o!tmeter / /mmeter P/ Phase ang!e meter

:aria !e transformer for current contro! To other 'o!tage e!ements of re!a# # un$er test >if require$?

"i ure 21.2&: $ircuit %ia ram for tra%itional test set for %irectional7%istance relays

."0 10"0 1."0 4> ?

The testing shou!$ inc!u$e an# scheme !ogic" ,f the !ogic is imp!emente$ using the programma !e scheme !ogic faci!ities a'ai!a !e %ith most $igita! or numerica! re!a#s& appropriate $igita! inputs ma# nee$ to e app!ie$ an$ outputs monitore$ >see )ection 21"13?" ,t is c!ear that a mo$ern test set can faci!itate such tests& !ea$ing to a re$uce$ time require$ for testing" 21.11.1 Sc+emes using "igital or -umerical ,elay *ec+nology

"i ure 21.2*: )istance relay ?one chec8in usin search technique an% tolerance ban%s


B . P)A-Rone

The po!ic# for secon$ar# inCection testing 'aries %i$e!#" ,n some cases& manufacturers recommen$& an$ c!ients accept& that if a $igita! or numerica! re!a# passes itsD se!ftest& it can e re!ie$ upon to operate at the settings use$ an$ that testing can therefore e confine$ to those parts of the scheme e(terna! to the re!a#" ,n such cases& secon$ar# inCection testing is not require$ at a!!" 9ore often& it is require$ that one e!ement of each re!a# >usua!!# the simp!est? is e(ercise$& using a secon$ar# inCection test set& to chec+ that re!a# operation occurs at the con$itions e(pecte$& ase$ on the setting of the re!a# e!ement concerne$" /nother a!ternati'e is for the comp!ete functiona!it# of each re!a# to e e(ercise$" This is rare!# require$ %ith a $igita! or numerica! re!a#& pro a !# on!# eing carrie$ out in the e'ent of a suspecte$ re!a# ma!function"

"i ure 21.2/: Testin of po'er s'in bloc8in element C %iscrete points


"i ure 21.21: ,imulate% po'er s'in 'aveform To i!!ustrate the resu!ts that can e o taine$& 6igure 21"24 sho%s the resu!ts o taine$ # a mo$ern test set %hen $etermining the reach settings of a $istance re!a# 21.11.2 Sc+emes using Electromec+anical:Static ,elay *ec+nology using a search technique" /nother e(amp!e is the testing of the Po%er )%ing !oc+ing e!ement of a $istance re!a#" )chemes using sing!e function e!ectromechanica! or 6igure 21"2. i!!ustrates such a test& ase$ on using static re!a#s %i!! usua!!# require each re!a# to e $iscrete impe$ance points" This +in$ of test ma# not e e(ercise$" Thus a scheme %ith $istance an$ ac+-up a$equate in a!! cases& an$ test equipment ma# ha'e theo'ercurrent e!ements %i!! require a test on each of these a i!it# to generate the %a'eforms simu!ating a po%er functions& there # ta+ing up more time than if a $igita! s%ing an$ app!# them to the re!a# >6igure 21"26?" or numerica! re!a# is use$" )imi!ar!#& it ma# e important

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to chec+ the re!a# characteristic o'er a range of input of :TDs/CTDs ma# not then e $isco'ere$ unti! either currents to confirm parameters for an o'ercurrent re!a# spurious tripping occurs in ser'ice& or more serious!#& fai!ure to trip on a fau!t" This ha5ar$ is much re$uce$ such as: %here $igita!/numerica! re!a#s are use$& since the current i. the minimum current that gi'es operation at each an$ 'o!tage measurement/$isp!a# faci!ities that e(ist in current setting such re!a#s ena !e chec+ing of re!a# input 'a!ues against ii. the ma(imum current at %hich resetting ta+es those from other pro'en sources" 9an# connection/%iring p!ace errors can e foun$ in this %a#& an$ # iso!ating temporari!# the re!a# trip outputs& un%ante$ trips can e iii. the operating time at suita !e 'a!ues of current a'oi$e$" iv. the time/current cur'e at t%o or three points %ith Primar# inCection testing is& ho%e'er& the on!# %a# to the time mu!tip!ier setting T9) at 1 pro'e correct insta!!ation an$ operation of the %ho!e of v.the resetting time at 5ero current %ith the T9) at 1 a protection scheme" /s note$ in the pre'ious section& primar# inCection tests are a!%a#s carrie$ out after )imi!ar consi$erations app!# to $istance an$ unit secon$ar# inCection tests& to ensure that pro !ems are protection re!a#s of these techno!ogies" !imite$ to the :TDs an$ CTDs in'o!'e$& p!us associate$ %iring& a!! other equipment in the protection scheme 21.11.3 *est %ircuits for Secondary In'ection *estingha'ing een pro'en satisfactor# from the secon$ar# inCection tests" The test circuits use$ %i!! $epen$ on the t#pe of re!a# an$ test set eing use$" ;n!ess the test circuits are simp!e an$ o 'ious& the re!a# commissioning manua! %i!! 21.12.1 *est 0acilities gi'e $etai!s of the circuits to e use$" Common!# use$ /n a!ternator is the most usefu! source of po%er for test circuits can a!so e foun$ in Chapter 23 of reference pro'i$ing the hea'# current necessar# for primar# M21"1N" Bhen using the circuits in this reference& suita !e inCection" ;nfortunate!#& it is rare!# a'ai!a !e& since it simp!ifications can easi!# e ma$e if $igita! or numerica! requires not on!# a spare a!ternator& ut a!so spare re!a#s are eing teste$& to a!!o% for their ui!t-in us ars capa !e of eing connecte$ to the a!ternator an$ measurement capa i!ities K e(terna! ammeters an$ circuit un$er test" Therefore& primar# inCection is usua!!# 'o!tmeters ma# not e require$" carrie$ out # means of a porta !e inCection transformer /!! resu!ts shou!$ e carefu!!# note$ an$ fi!e$ for recor$ >6igure 21"27?& arrange$ to operate from the !oca! mains purposes" 3epartures from the e(pecte$ resu!ts must e supp!# an$ ha'ing se'era! !o% 'o!tage& hea'# current thorough!# in'estigate$ an$ the cause $etermine$" /fter %in$ings" These can e connecte$ in series or para!!e! rectification of errors& a!! tests %hose resu!ts ma# ha'e accor$ing to the current require$ an$ the resistance of een affecte$ >e'en those that ma# ha'e gi'en correct the primar# circuit" @utputs of 10: an$ 1000/ can e resu!ts? shou!$ e repeate$ to ensure that the protectiono taine$" /!ternati'e!#& mo$ern PC-contro!!e$ test sets scheme has een imp!emente$ accor$ing to ha'e po%er amp!ifiers capa !e of inCecting currents up to specification" a out 200/ for a sing!e unit& %ith higher current ratings eing possi !e # using mu!tip!e units in para!!e!"


21.12 P,I14,5 I->E%*I.- *ES*S This t#pe of test in'o!'es the entire circuitO current transformer primar# an$ secon$ar# %in$ings& re!a# coi!s& trip an$ a!arm circuits& an$ a!! inter'ening %iring are chec+e$" There is no nee$ to $istur %iring& %hich o 'iates the ha5ar$ of open-circuiting current transformers& an$ there is genera!!# no nee$ for an# s%itching in the current transformer or re!a# circuits" The $ra% ac+ of such tests is that the# are time consuming an$ e(pensi'e to organise" ,ncreasing!#& re!iance is p!ace$ on a!! %iring an$ insta!!ation $iagrams eing correct an$ the insta!!ation eing carrie$ out as per $ra%ings& an$ secon$ar# inCection testing eing comp!ete$ satisfactori!#" ;n$er these circumstances& the primar# inCection tests ma# e omitte$" 1o%e'er& %iring "i errors et%een :TDs/CTDs an$ re!a#s& or incorrect po!arit#

# 2.0: a"c" supp!#

:aria !e transformer 40/

,nCection transformer 2.0/10 8 10 8 10 8 10: 10+:/

ure 21.24: Tra%itional primary in=ection test set


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,f the main current transformers are fitte$ %ith test the resi$ua! circuit& or re!a# $isp!a#& %i!! gi'e a rea$ing of %in$ings& these can e use$ for primar# inCection instea$ a fe% mi!!iamperes %ith rate$ current inCecte$ if the of the primar# %in$ing" The current require$ for primar#current transformers are of correct po!arit#" / rea$ing inCection is then great!# re$uce$ an$ can usua!!# e proportiona! to t%ice the primar# current %i!! e o taine$ using secon$ar# inCection test equipment" o taine$ if the# are of %rong po!arit#" Aecause of this& a ;nfortunate!#& test %in$ings are not often pro'i$e$& high-range ammeter shou!$ e use$ initia!!#& for e(amp!e ecause of space !imitations in the main current one gi'ing fu!!-sca!e $ef!ection for t%ice the rate$ transformer housings or the cost of the %in$ings" secon$ar# current" ,f an e!ectromechanica! earth-fau!t re!a# %ith a !o% setting is a!so connecte$ in the resi$ua! circuit& it is a$'isa !e to temporari!# short-circuit its 21.12.2 %* ,atio %+ec2 operating coi! $uring the test& to pre'ent possi !e Current is passe$ through the primar# con$uctors an$ o'erheating" The sing!e-phase inCection shou!$ e measure$ on the test set ammeter& /1 in 6igure 21"22" carrie$ out for each pair of phases" The secon$ar# current is measure$ on the ammeter /2 or Temporar# three-phase re!a# $isp!a#& an$ the ratio of the 'a!ue on /1 to that on short circuit /2 shou!$ c!ose!# appro(imate to the ratio mar+e$ on / the current transformer namep!ate" Primar# 2.0: a"c"
supp!# inCection test set A C 4e!a#
/ A C

Test p!ug insu!ation u / "i ure 21.26: 0olarity chec8 on main current transformers

Temporar# short circuit

01 0 , 1


21.12.4 Primary In'ection *esting of ,elay Elements /s %ith secon$ar# inCection testing& the tests to e carrie$ out %i!! e those specifie$ # the c!ient& an$/or those $etai!e$ in the re!a# commissioning manua!" 3igita! an$ numerica! re!a#s usua!!# require far fe%er tests to pro'e correct operation& an$ these ma# e restricte$ to o ser'ations of current an$ 'o!tage on the re!a# $isp!a# un$er norma! !oa$ con$itions" 21.13 *ES*I-9 .0 P,.*E%*I.- S%;E1E 3.9I%

02 0

,2 4e!a# or test !oc+ contact fingers

#1 # Primar# inCection test set 2.0: a"c" supp!#

Protection schemes often in'o!'e the use of !ogic to $etermine the con$itions un$er %hich $esignate$ circuit rea+ers shou!$ e trippe$" )imp!e e(amp!es of such "i ure 21.25: $urrent transformer ratio chec8 !ogic can e foun$ in Chapters 9-14" Tra$itiona!!#& this !ogic %as imp!emente$ # means of $iscrete re!a#s& separate from the re!a#s use$ for protection" )uch 21.12.3 %* Polarity %+ec2 imp!ementations %ou!$ occur %here e!ectromechanica! ,f the equipment inc!u$es $irectiona!& $ifferentia! or or static re!a# techno!og# is use$" 1o%e'er& $igita! an$ earth fau!t re!a#s& the po!arit# of the main current numerica! re!a#s norma!!# inc!u$e programma !e !ogic as transformers must e chec+e$" ,t is not necessar# to part of the soft%are %ithin the re!a#& together %ith con$uct the test if on!# o'ercurrent re!a#s are use$" associate$ $igita! ,/@" This faci!it# >common!# referre$ to The circuit for chec+ing the po!arit# %ith a sing!e-phase as Programma !e )cheme =ogic& or P)=? offers important test set is sho%n in 6igure 21"29" / short circuit is p!ace$ a$'antages to the user& # sa'ing space an$ permitting across the phases of the primar# circuit on one si$e of mo$ifications to the protection scheme !ogic through the current transformers %hi!e sing!e-phase inCection is soft%are if the protection scheme requirements change carrie$ out on the other si$e" The ammeter connecte$ in %ith time" Changes to the !ogic are carrie$ out using


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soft%are hoste$ on a PC >or simi!ar computer? an$ 9an# $esigns of %ith$ra%a !e circuit rea+er can e $o%n!oa$e$ to the re!a#" ;se of !anguages $efine$ in ,-C operate$ %hi!e in the maintenance position& so that 61131& such as !a$$er !ogic or Aoo!ean a!ge ra is su station operation can continue unaffecte$ e(cept for common for such soft%are& an$ is rea$i!# un$erstoo$ #the circuit contro!!e$ # the circuit rea+er in'o!'e$" ,n other cases& iso!ators can e use$ to a'oi$ the nee$ for Protection -ngineers" 6urther& there are se'era! us ar $e-energisation if the circuit in'o!'e$ is not rea$# common!# encountere$ protection functions that manufacturers ma# supp!# %ith re!a#s as one or more for energisation" L$efau!tD !ogic schemes" Aecause soft%are is use$& it is essentia! to carefu!!# test 21.15 PE,I."I% 14I-*E-4-%E *ES*S the !ogic $uring commissioning to ensure correct Perio$ic testing is necessar# to ensure that a protection operation" The on!# e(ception to this ma# e if the re!e'ant L$efau!tD scheme is use$" )uch !ogic schemes scheme continues to pro'i$e satisfactor# performance %i!! ha'e een pro'en $uring re!a# t#pe testing& an$ so for man# #ears after insta!!ation" /!! equipment is there is no nee$ for pro'ing tests $uring commissioning"su Cect to gra$ua! $egra$ation %ith time& an$ regu!ar testing is inten$e$ to i$entif# the equipment concerne$ 1o%e'er& %here a customer generates the scheme !ogic& it is necessar# to ensure that the commissioning tests so that reme$ia! action can e ta+en efore scheme con$ucte$ are a$equate to pro'e the functiona!it# of the ma!operation occurs" 1o%e'er& $ue care shou!$ e ta+en scheme in a!! respects" / specific test proce$ure shou!$in this tas+& other%ise fau!ts ma# e intro$uce$ as a $irect resu!t of the reme$ia! %or+" e prepare$& an$ this proce$ure shou!$ inc!u$e: The c!earance of a fau!t on the s#stem is correct on!# if a. chec+ing of the scheme !ogic specification an$ $iagrams to ensure that the o Cecti'es of the !ogic the num er of circuit rea+ers opene$ is the minimum necessar# to remo'e the fau!t" / sma!! proportion of are achie'e$ fau!ts are incorrect!# c!eare$& the main reasons eing: b. testing of the !ogic to ensure that the functiona!it# a. !imitations in protection scheme $esign of the scheme is pro'en b. fau!t# re!a#s c. testing of the !ogic& as require$& to ensure that no output occurs for the re!e'ant input signa! com inations The $egree of testing of the !ogic %i!! !arge!# $epen$ on the critica!it# of the app!ication an$ comp!e(it# of the !ogic" The responsi i!it# for ensuring that a suita !e test proce$ure is pro$uce$ for !ogic schemes other than the L$efau!tD one>s? supp!ie$ !ies %ith the specifier of the !ogic" 4e!a# manufacturers cannot e e(pecte$ to ta+e responsi i!it# for the correct operation of !ogic schemes that the# ha'e not $esigne$ an$ supp!ie$"

c. $efects in the secon$ar# %iring d. incorrect connections e. incorrect settings f. +no%n app!ication shortcomings accepte$ as impro a !e occurrences g. pi!ot %ire fau!ts $ue to pre'ious unre'ea!e$ $amage to a pi!ot ca !e +. 'arious other causes& such as s%itching errors& testing errors& an$ re!a# operation $ue to mechanica! shoc+


21.14 *,IPPI-9 4-" 434,1 4--/-%I4*I.- *ES*S The se!f-chec+ing faci!ities of numerica! re!a#s assist in minimising fai!ures $ue to fau!t# re!a#s" 3efects in ,f primar# an$/or secon$ar# inCection tests are not carrie$ out& the tripping an$ a!arm circuits %i!! not ha'e een secon$ar# %iring an$ incorrect connections are 'irtua!!# e!iminate$ if proper commissioning after scheme chec+e$" -'en %here such chec+s ha'e een carrie$ out& insta!!ation/a!teration is carrie$ out" The possi i!it# of CA trip coi!s an$/or Contro! 4oom a!arm circuits ma# ha'e incorrect settings is minimise$ # regu!ar re'ie%s of een iso!ate$" ,n such cases& it is essentia! that a!! of the re!a# settings" 0et%or+ fau!t !e'e!s change o'er time& tripping an$ a!arm circuits are chec+e$" an$ hence setting ca!cu!ations ma# nee$ to e re'ise$" This is $one # c!osing the protection re!a# contacts )%itching an$ testing errors are minimise$ # a$equate manua!!# an$ chec+ing that: training of personne!& use of pro'en soft%are& an$ %e!!$esigne$ s#stematic %or+ing proce$ures" /!! of these 1. the correct circuit rea+ers are trippe$ can e sai$ to e %ithin the contro! of the user" 2. the a!arm circuits are energise$ The remaining three causes are not contro!!a !e& %hi!e 3. the correct f!ag in$ications are gi'en t%o of these three are una'oi$a !e K engineering is not 4. there is no ma!operation of other apparatus that science an$ there %i!! a!%a#s e situations that a ma# e connecte$ to the same master trip re!a# or protection re!a# cannot reasona !# e e(pecte$ to co'er circuit rea+er at an affor$a !e cost"
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21.15.1 0re(uency of Inspection and *esting

/!though protection equipment shou!$ e in soun$ con$ition %hen first put into ser'ice& pro !ems can ,f the fo!!o%ing princip!es are a$here$ to as far as $e'e!op unchec+e$ an$ unre'ea!e$ ecause of its possi !e& the $anger of ac+-fee$s is !essene$ an$ fau!t infrequent operation" Bith $igita! an$ numerica! re!a#s& in'estigation is ma$e easier: the in- ui!t se!f-testing routines can e e(pecte$ to i. test !oc+s shou!$ e use$& to ena !e a test p!ug to re'ea! an$ annunciate most fau!ts& ut this $oes not e use$& an$ a $efecti'e unit to e rep!ace$ quic+!# co'er an# other components that& together& comprise the %ithout interrupting ser'ice protection scheme" 4egu!ar inspection an$ testing of a protection scheme is therefore require$" ,n practice& the ii. circuits shou!$ e +ept as e!ectrica!!# separate as possi !e& an$ the use of common %ires shou!$ e frequenc# of testing ma# e !imite$ # !ac+ of staff or # a'oi$e$& e(cept %here these are essentia! to the the operating con$itions on the po%er s#stem" correct functioning of the circuits ,t is $esira !e to carr# out maintenance on protection equipment at times %hen the associate$ po%er apparatus iii. each group of circuits %hich is e!ectrica!!# is out of ser'ice" This is faci!itate$ # co-operation separate from other circuits shou!$ e earthe$ through an in$epen$ent earth !in+ et%een the maintenance staff concerne$ an$ the net%or+ operations contro! centre" 9aintenance tests iv. %here a common 'o!tage transformer or $"c" ma# sometimes ha'e to e ma$e %hen the protecte$ supp!# is use$ for fee$ing se'era! circuits& each circuit is on !oa$" The particu!ar equipment to e teste$ circuit shou!$ e fe$ through separate !in+s or shou!$ e ta+en out of commission an$ a$equate ac+-up fuses" Bith$ra%a! of these shou!$ comp!ete!# protection pro'i$e$ for the $uration of the tests" )uch iso!ate the circuit concerne$ ac+-up protection ma# not e fu!!# $iscriminati'e& ut v. po%er supp!ies to protection schemes shou!$ e shou!$ e sufficient to c!ear an# fau!t on the apparatus segregate$ from those supp!#ing other equipment an$ %hose main protection is temporari!# out of ser'ice" pro'i$e$ %ith fu!!# $iscriminati'e circuit protection 9aintenance is assiste$ # the $isp!a#s of measure$ vi. a sing!e au(i!iar# s%itch shou!$ not e use$ for quantities pro'i$e$ on $igita! an$ numerica! re!a#s" ,ncorrect interrupting or c!osing more than one circuit $isp!a# of a quantit# is a c!ear in$ication that something is %rong& either in the re!a# itse!f or the input circuits" vii. terminations in re!a# pane!s require goo$ access& 21.15.2 1aintenance *ests Primar# inCection tests are norma!!# on!# con$ucte$ out $uring initia! commissioning" ,f scheme ma!operation has occurre$ an$ the protection re!a#s in'o!'e$ are suspect& or a!terations ha'e een ma$e in'o!'ing the %iring to the re!a#s from the :TDs/CTDs& the primar# inCection tests ma# ha'e to e repeate$" as these ma# ha'e to e a!tere$ if e(tensions are ma$e" 9o$ern pane!s are pro'i$e$ %ith specia! test faci!ities& so that no connections nee$ e $istur e$ $uring routine testing viii. Cunction o(es shou!$ e of a$equate si5e an$& if out$oors& must e ma$e %aterproof i6. a!! %iring shou!$ e ferru!e$ for i$entification an$ phase-co!oure$

21.1! P,.*E%*I.- S%;E1E "ESI90., 14I-*E-4-%E

21 )econ$ar# inCection tests ma# e carrie$ out at suita !e 6. e!ectromechanica! re!a#s shou!$ ha'e high inter'a!s to chec+ re!a# performance& an$& if possi !e& the operating an$ restraint torques an$ high contact re!a# shou!$ e a!!o%e$ to trip the circuit rea+ers pressuresO Ce%e! earings shou!$ e shrou$e$ to in'o!'e$" The inter'a! et%een tests %i!! $epen$ upon e(c!u$e $ust an$ the use of 'er# thin %ire for coi!s the critica!it# of the circuit in'o!'e$& the a'ai!a i!it# of an$ connections shou!$ e a'oi$e$" 3ust-tight the circuit for testing an$ the techno!og# of the re!a#s cases %ith an efficient reather are essentia! on use$" )econ$ar# inCection testing is on!# necessar# on these t#pes of e!ectromechanica! e!ement the se!ecte$ re!a# setting an$ the resu!ts shou!$ e 6i. static& $igita! an$ numerica! re!a#s shou!$ ha'e test chec+e$ against those o taine$ $uring the initia! faci!ities accessi !e from the front to assist in fau!t commissioning of the equipment" fin$ing" The re!a# manua! shou!$ c!ear!# $etai! the ,t is etter not to interfere %ith re!a# contacts at a!! e(pecte$ resu!ts at each test point %hen hea!th# un!ess the# are o 'ious!# corro$e$" The performance of the contacts is fu!!# chec+e$ %hen the re!a# is actuate$" 21.1# ,E0E,E-%ES ,nsu!ation tests shou!$ a!so e carrie$ out on the re!a# %iring to earth an$ et%een circuits& using a 1000: 21"1 0rotective .elays #pplication Dui%eE &r% e%ition " tester" These tests are necessar# to $etect an# /=)T@9 Transmission an$ 3istri ution& $eterioration in the insu!ation resistance" Protection an$ Contro!& 1927"
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