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An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

The History and Philosophy of Political Science


OVERVIEW The first pages of the essay will provide a run-down of the historical background of the political science using its definition as starting point. It will be followed by a discussion the two a!or perspectives in study of politics " as science of statecraft and as an exploration of the dynamics of political power. #ro there$ the discussion would shift to the develop ent of the discipline fro %ocrates to &achiavelli. ' few sentences would also be devoted to eastern ancient political science. It will then proceed to a survey of the discipline(s history anchored on the develop ent of political ideologies. The second part of this paper will proceed to a review of the philosophy of political science. 'lthough this section would touch so e issues on political philosophy$ a greater e phasis would be placed on the philosophy of science of political science, as such) discussions on etaphysics$ ontology$ and episte ology as it ay be applied to political science research will be in order. This paper does not clai to provide the readers with an e*haustive work on the history and philosophy of political science. Rather$ this essay(s pri ary ob!ective is to si ply organi+e the author(s understanding of topic. This was written serve as his personal platfor for a ore in-depth understanding of the topic in the future. The readers are en!oined by the author to treat this work in the sa e anner " a work in progress. In the sa e anner$ he further hopes that this work would help the readers in their own ,uest for a deeper understanding of the sub!ect. The reference list provided at the last page of this essay ay be used as a reading list to foster greater understanding not only of the history and philosophy of political science$ but the general concepts in social sciences as well. ' list of so e of the ost influential political philosophers$ with a short description of their philosophical pro!ects$ has also been provided by the author to serve as additional background infor ation for the readers. -I%TOR. O# /O0ITI1'0 %1IE21E What is political science3 This is probably the very first ,uestion asked by an Introduction to Political Science instructor on the first day of classes. The si plest answer to this ,uestion is to define political science as the study of politics. Of course$ such an answer would re,uire a follow-up ,uestion " what is politics3 /olitics ca e fro the root word polis. ' polis is the ter for the 4reek citystates. The 4reeks used the ter 5politikos$( to describe anything pertaining to the polis 6&iller$ 7889:. ;asically$ politikos is anything political. The science of statecraft When we talk about politics$ we often attribute it to the affairs of the state and its power to decide on things within its authority. <uring the ancient ti es$ the govern ent of the polis is the end-all and be-all of all decisions within the sa e city-state. It is the only do inant political
Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

organi+ation. ' particular city-state(s leader 6or leaders: has the power over anyone and everything within the city. In turn$ the city-state represents its citi+ens in the conduct of its e*ternal or foreign affairs. 'dditionally$ in the 4reek polis$ as in the kingdo s of other ancient civili+ations$ the study of politics ca e hand-in-hand with the study of history 6% ith$ =>>?:. While history was used to archive the achieve ents of the ruling class$ % ith 6=>>?: stated in a .ale @niversity lecture on /olitical /hilosophy that political science simply was a science of statecraft It was addressed to statesman or potential statesmen charged with steering the ship of state. In such case$ the principal role of a political science research was erely to analy+e historical records to advise the onarch on what to do. %uch preoccupation still relevant today as it was in the past. &achiavelli is a well known practitioner of this kind of politics 6% ith$ =>>?:. /olitical advisers$ spin-doctors and political ca paign anagers$ a ong others can be regarded as Adirect ancestorsB of &achiavelli. The dyna ics of power Today$ however$ a political society does not erely refer to the state or to the science of statecraft. /olitical %cience is now understood not erely the science of govern ent$ instead it is the study of the dyna ics of political power 6authority C legiti acy:$ and its ac,uisition and application within a polity. Therefore$ politics ay now refer to any other subsyste s such as local govern ent units$ corporations$ schools) as well as suprasyste s such as the @nited 2ations or the '%E'2. /olitics also pertains to the affairs on any other organi+ation which re,uires decision- aking to operate. To paraphrase a definition of <avid Easton 6Tansey C Dackson$ =>>9$ p. E:$ political science can be described as the study that deals with the authoritati!e allocation of scarce !alues and resources within a polity. /olitical power is dyna ic because$ it ay transferable 6it can be sei+ed or ac,uired:) it is also dyna ic because decisions ade by the different political subsyste s and suprasyste s influence the state 6and vice-versa: " being the pri ary repository of political powers within a given territory. %ocrates to &achiavelli Who is the founder of /olitical %cience3 %o e say that /lato is the founder of /olitical %cience. Others contend that it(s actually 'ristotle. % ith 6=>>?:$ on his .ale @niversity lecture attributed the founding of the discipline to %ocrates$ the teacher of /lato. On the other hand and pri arily through "he #epu$lic$ so e political scientists consider /lato as the founder of the discipline. /lato envisioned an ideal state 6Fallipolis: ruled by guardians with everyone perfor ing their roles in the state according to their training and abilities. -is views on "he #epu$lic are not only significant in political science$ but also in the field of sociology$ econo ics$ and even in education$ a ong others. %ocrates is also reputed by so e political scientists as the founder of political science. Through /lato(s writings we can see how he asked serious ,uestions on the eaning$ purpose and utility of political life. #or % ith 6=>>?:$ Socrates is the founder of our discipline who asks a$out the !irtues of moral and political life. -is dialogues on the ,uestion 5what is !ustice( re ain to be one of the ost enduring ,uestions in social sciences today.

Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

' ong the three 5contenders$( the ost recogni+ed as the 5founding father( appears to be 'ristotle. Why3 /robably because$ 'ristotle was the first person recorded in history to have insisted that politics can $e reduced to science 6to borrow -u e(s words:. ;y studying govern ents 6constitutions: of the 4reek-city states$ 'ristotle insisted on e pirical observation to arrive at a generali+ation on how govern ent works and on how it should work. E pirical observation is considered as the bedrock of the sciences. 'ristotle(s political science is both normati!e and empirical) ore would be discussed about those ter s later on this essay. In the eanti e$ it is also i portant to note that 'ristotle also described political science as Athe aster scienceB 6Roskin et. al.$ =>>G:. -e argued that everything is political. To use 0asswell(s words 678GH:$ politics concerns itself with the following ,uestionsI who gets what, when and how. In a city-state$ the govern ent prescri$es which sciences are to $e studied and the other capacities %% such as military science, household management, and rhetoric 6%utton$ 7889:. 'ncient /eriod 6East vs. West: 1onsidering the wealth of preserved works fro 4reek philosophers$ it has been widely accepted that political science e erged fro ancient 4reece 6at least in written for :. -owever$ the works of 1onfucius C 0ao T+e$ a ong other political thinkers fro the East proves that in each historic period and in almost e!ery geographic area and as long as there is a civili+ation we can find someone studying politics and increasing political understanding 6Wikipedia:. The open-sourced online encyclopedia 6Wikipedia: also entioned a certain 1hanakya 6GH>-=JH ;1:$ described as so eone who had been a professor of Takshashila @niversity and later beco ing /ri e &inister to 1handragupta &aurya$ as one of the earliest known political thinkers, economists and king%makers. 'ccording to the web page$ 1hanakya wrote the &rthashastra, which was one of the earliest treatises on political thought, economics and social order. 'pparently$ his writings on fiscal policies, welfare, international relations, and war strategies anticipated ost European political thinkers on these sub!ects 6including /lato and %ocrates:. 'nother page on the encyclopedia tagged hi as the AIndian &achiavelli.B 's a /ri e &inister to 1handragupta &aurya$ he practiced what % ith 6=>>J: referred to as the Ascience of statecraftB Ro an E pire While the ancients generally preoccupied the selves with the Awhat ought to beB in politics. The political scientists of the Ro an era concerned the selves with the following ,uestionsI how the #oman 'mpire $ecame what it was then$ what is the origin of the nations surrounding the #oman 'mpire$ how do they conduct their political affairs 6Wikipedia:. 's it can be noticed$ they were ore concerned with the Awhat isB of politics. ;asically$ the Ro ans took a ore positive 6with focus in 5descriptive(: rather than nor ative stance$ it was oriented toward understanding history, understanding methods of go!erning, and descri$ing the operation of go!ernments. ' ong the ost notable political scientists of the period were the followingI /olybius$ 0ivy$ and /lutarch. In a way$ these writers were the antecedents of the enlighten ent thinkers in using the positive-descriptive approach in political science research. The &iddle 'ges

Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

'fter the fall of the Ro an E pire$ the Ro an 1atholic 1hurch gradually beca e the do inant political force in Europe. 'ccording to another Wikipedia article$ during the (iddle &ges, the study of politics was widespread in the churches and courts. It further e*plained that works such as &ugustine of )ippo*s "he +ity of ,od synthesi-ed current philosophies and political traditions with those of +hristianity. <uring this period$ politics and theology were essentially one and the sa e. The outlook being theological$ the approach in the study of politics where almost strictly normati!e their task was to ascertain which system of go!ernment would $ring humankind closest to what ,od wished 6Roskin$ =>>G:. &achiavelli The Renaissance arked the beginning of the odern political science. 2iccolo &achiavelli$ known for his great 6albeit controversial: work "he Prince 6published in 7HG=: $rought what some $elie!e is the crux of modern political science. the focus on power 6Roskin$ =>>G:.B &achiavelli(s otivations as a political scientist were devoid of any theological considerations. -is approach is entirely practical and a oral. -e was a realist. 'ny odern definition of political science involving the dyna ics of power " how it is ac,uired and utili+ed$ ay be traced back to &achiavelli(s approach in the study of politics. It was also &achiavelli who esta$lished the emphasis of modern political science on direct empirical o$ser!ation of political institutions and actorsB 6Wikipedia:. It is already a co on knowledge in the field that he is considered as the father of the modern political science. The 'ge of Ideologies %ocial 1ontract -obbes$ 0ocke and Rousseau are a ong the well known social contract theorists. They believed that the society is a result of a contract. The point of departure of these theorists is the so-called state of nature. 'ccording to the $ in the distant past$ there is no society " the people were in a state of nature. 4overn ents only ca e into being when the people agreed to for the sa e for their utual protection. The works of these AcontractualistsB is a reflection of their atte pt to answer one of the funda ental ,uestions in political science " what is the purpose of the govern ent and society3 These thinkers differed in many points, $ut agreed that humans, at least in principle, had /oined in what #ousseau called a social contract that e!eryone now has to o$ser!e. -owever$ in contrast with 0ocke and Rousseau$ -obbes insisted that there is no escape clause in a social contract$ once e*ecuted the testa ent can longer be broken. While 0ocke and Rousseau inserted an escape clause in his concept of the social contract. This ulti ately eans that when a ruler turns into a despot$ the people will have the the right to revolt and start over with a new social contract. ;ecause of this$ they ;urke regarded the as radicals. 'lthough$ 0ocke and Rousseau(s version of the social contract both had an escape clause, their views diverged when it co es to their view of the society. Rousseau believed in the utter goodness of an$ for hi $ it is society itself which has corrupted hi . ;ut despite this$ he still society ay b i proved by the conscious efforts of the co unity e bers to i pose the general will. #or even if an individual is good$ it i %pirit of the 0aws &ontes,uieu(s %pirit of the 0aws 6published in 7JE9: is a treatise political theory. It has been said that the %pirit of the 0aws should be assured of a place in the classics in the field of political science 6-oselit+$ 78J>:. 'lthough &achiavelli can be considered as the founder of
Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

odern political science$ &ontes,uieu(s work was the first conscious attempt to esta$lish politics as a social science$B further ore$ like &achiavelli(s The /rince$ it further reinforced political science as a predominantly empirical, positi!e discipline rather than a predominantly normati!e one. The Wealth of 2ations On Roskin(s discussion of the rise of classical liberalis 6=>>G:$ he ,uoted #rederick Watkins of .ale in saying that 7JJ? should be known as the A.ear One of the 'ge of Ideology.B It can be re e bered that 7JJ? was the year when the @nited %tates of ' erica declared its independence fro the ;ritish E pire. -owever$ aside fro that very i portant event$ this was also the year when the 'da % ith(s Wealth of 2ations was published. The Wealth of 2ations is political and econo ic treatise advocating a free arket econo y as ore productive and ore beneficial to society. 'da % ith laid the foundation for future classical liberal ideologies 6free arket capitalis :. 'ge of Ideologies In con!unction with the works of the two liberal social contract theorists " 0ocke and Rousseau$ as well as the writings of &ontes,uieu 6%pirit of the 0aws:$ the Wealth of 2ations paved the way for the rise of classical liberalis . 1lassical liberalis is an ideology advocating a free arket society and guaranteed legal e,uality 6right to life$ liberty$ property$ and the pursuit of happiness:. In turn$ reactions to the classical liberal thoughts resulted to e ergence of classical conservatis . ;urke$ according to Roskin 6=>>G$ p.8?:$ believed that the li$erals place0d1 too much confidence on human reason. 2urke further contended that the way li$eral ideas were applied in 3rench re!olutionists turned it into radicalismB 6Roskin =>>G:. %ince the rise of classical liberalis also coincided with Industrial Revolution$ it can also be argued that gradual shift of the eans production fro feudalis to capitalis greatly contributed to the liberal thoughts. The Industrial Revolution saw the increasing influence of the capitalists. 's a result$ a strand if critical opinion arose in reaction to the o$!ious excesses of the capitalist systemB 6Roskin$ =>>G:. These groups called the selves socialists. The ost pro inent figure in the socialist circle is Farl &ar*. The ost radical of these socialists advocated the use of ar ed struggle to overthrow the capitalist regi e. &ore oderate reactions to the o$!ious excesses of the capitalists where also espoused by T.-. 4reen and Dohn %tuart &ill both accepted that the capitalist syste has its flaws$ but it could be refor ed with so e degree of govern ent intervention. The &odern /olitical %cience /olitical %cience in the 'cade e The odern /olitical %cience has been characteri+ed by the so called Aage of ideologies.B The following ,uote fro a Wikipedia article highlighted the creation of university depart ents and chairsI "he ad!ent of political science as a uni!ersity discipline in the 4nited States is e!idenced $y the naming of uni!ersity departments and chairs with the title of political science shortly $efore the +i!il 5ar. In 6789, 3rancis :ie$er was named the first
Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

Professor of )istory and Political Science at +olum$ia 4ni!ersity. In 677;, +olum$ia formed the first School of Political Science. "he discipline esta$lished the &merican Political Science &ssociation in 6<;=. Integrating political studies of the past into a unified discipline is an ongoing pro/ect, and the history of political science has pro!ided a rich field for the growth of $oth normati!e and positi!e political science, with each part of the discipline sharing some historical predecessors. In the 6<8;s and the 6<>;s, a $eha!ioral re!olution stressing the systematic and rigorously scientific study of indi!idual and group $eha!ior swept the discipline. &t the same time that political science mo!ed toward greater depth of analysis and more sophistication, it also mo!ed toward a closer working relationship with other disciplines, especially sociology, economics, history, anthropology, psychology, and statistics. Increasingly, students of political $eha!ior ha!e used the scientific method to create an intellectual discipline $ased on the postulating of hypotheses followed $y empirical !erification and the inference of political trends, and of generali-ations that explain indi!idual and group political actions. ?!er the past generation, the discipline placed an increasing emphasis on rele!ance, or the use of new approaches and methodologies to sol!e political and social pro$lems. On &ethod The sa e Wikipedia article also entioned the creation of a certain A/erestroika &ove entB which was apparently organi+ed as a reaction against what supporters of the mo!ement called the mathematici-ation of political science.B The Wikipedia article$ paraphrasing the 1hronicle of -igher Education 6=>>7: also entioned that these /erestroikans argued for a plurality of methodologies and approaches in political science and for more rele!ance of the discipline to those outside of it. 's of the ti e that this paper was written$ an internet search using the phrase A odern political scienceB would also result to at least two articles challenging current ethod of odern political science. One article$ written by &ark R. 1rovelli insists that there e*ist a shocking uselessness and $anality of most political science scholarship today. One of the reasons he cited is the apparent refusal of odern political scientists to tackle the conse@uential and difficult @uestions of politics. This co ent obviously raises the issue of the perceived ,uantification in the discipline$ and its apparent lack of concern to the original goals of the classical political philosophers to answer funda ental ,uestion related to politics. %ean <. %utton 6=>>G:$ of the <epart ent of /olitical %cience Rochester Institute of Technology also ade a si ilar conclusion along the lines of 1rovelli(s argu ent$ challenging odern political scientists to go back the funda ental ,uestions in politics. /-I0O%O/-. O# /O0ITI1'0 %1IE21E /hilosophy in /olitical %cience /hilosophy literally eans Alove of wisdo .B 'ccording to 'l a %alvador-%antiago 6788?:$ the phrase eant that A an can never perfectly possess a co prehensive understanding of all that is eant by wisdo but is in continuous and pursuit of itB. Therefore$ the love of wisdo is an endless and probably even unre,uited. #or one thing$ the ,uest for greater
Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

understanding is botto less$ and for another$ one can never e*pect wisdo give the love in return. The vastness of the sub!ect atter is unfatho able. #or %alvador-%antiago 6788?: it is only limited $y the capacity of the human mind to ask new @uestions and to formulate old ones in some no!el way. /hilosophy is asking deep and penetrating ,uestions about the world. In the study of politics$ one ust also recogni+e the need to ask ,uestions. In fact$ asking ,uestions is dee ed as the beginning of understanding. The classics in political thought and theories$ as well as the ideologies that we now have are anifestations of ankind(s efforts in answering great ,uestions about our society. -ow these ,uestions ay be answered$ and what ,uestions should be answered are it itself philosophical proble s. Other political scientists are also concerned with the orality of political decisions$ while others si ply content with the description and generali+ation of social pheno ena. #unda ental Kuestions What are the funda ental ,uestions in political science3 /rofessor %teven ;. % ith 6=>>?: suggested the following list as a ong the oldest and funda ental ,uestions in the discipleI 5hat is /usticeA 5hat are the goals of a decent societyA )ow should a citi-en $e educatedA 5hy should I o$ey the law, and what are the limits, if any, to my o$ligationA 5hat constitutes the ground of human dignityA Is it freedomA Is it !irtueA Is it lo!e, is it friendshipA

% ith$ further challenged his students to reflect on the utility$ rationale$ and e ergence of regimesI Perhaps the oldest and most fundamental @uestion that I wish to examine in the course of this semester is the @uestion. what is a regimeA 5hat are regimesA 5hat are regime politicsA "he term BregimeB is a familiar one. 5e often hear today a$out shaping regimes or a$out changing regimes, $ut what is a regimeA )ow many kinds are thereA )ow are they definedA 5hat holds them together, and what causes them to fall apartA Is there a single $est regimeA "hose are the @uestions I want us to consider. -e also suggested a theological di ension to his list of the funda ental ,uestions when he said thatI &nd of course, the all important @uestion, e!en though political philosophers and political scientists rarely pronounce it, namely, @uid sit deus, what is ,odA Coes he existA &nd what does that imply for our o$ligations as human $eings and citi-ens ' Wikipedia article on political philosophy$ on the other hand$ clai ed that the three central concerns of political philosophy areI political economy 6,uestions on property rights and
Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

access to capital$ as well as its regulation:) !ustice 6it(s de and$ ,uestions in distribution$ the use punish ent:) and the rules of truth and e!idence 6how !udg ents are rendered$ ,uestion on the due process of the law:.B While a certain &ark 1rovelli$ a colu nist for the 0ewRockWell.co $ a libertarian blogsite challenged odern political scientists and philosophers to ask the following ,uestionI Is taxation morally /ustifia$leA Value !udg ents on what to answer first a ong the ,uestions posited above$ as well as on the deciding what to answer or not answer are philosophical issue in itself. 'tte pts to answer these serious$ penetrating ,uestions have been ade by our predecessors in the discipline. &ost of these answers ended up as political theories. %o e even beca e a staple of political ideologies. Others were generali+ed as approaches and ethods in the study of politics. 's students of political science$ it re ains to be our task to continue answering these ,uestions in so e Anew and noble waysB as well as to find and answer new ,uestions in all anners affecting political life. &etaphysics &etaphysics is basically the act of ,uestioning reality " the nature of reality. ' Wikipedia article on the sa e defines etaphysics as the investigation of the principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. &etaphysics deals with a lot of things concerning the nature of reality$ however$ this essay will focus only on the issue involving the nature of mind and matter. It will also discuss the central ontological @uestion in social sciences 6social ontology:. &ind and &atter The nature of ind and atter is an i portant philosophical ,uestion in any acade ic field. The great etaphysical debate started by /lato and 'ristotle regarding the nature of ind and atter 6spirit and for : not only influenced our general world view$ it also influenced our opinions regarding how knowledge can be ac,uired 6episte ology:. This essay shall discuss the three perspectives on the nature of ind and atter which has greatly influenced how we do acade ic research. ' brief discussion of the co on research ethods applied in /olitical %cience will be presented in the Episte ology section of this essay later on. Idealis 'ccording to a Wikipedia article of the sa e topic Idealism is the philosophical theory that maintains that the ultimate nature of reality is $ased on mind or ideas. Idealis can be classified as a for of monism$ wherein$ the idea 6or for : constitute what is real. This eans that everything that we can see in this world is erely products of perception$ what is real is the idea of the particular ob!ect that we are seeing. Idealis greatly influenced the rationalist tradition in episte ology. /lato$ believing that our sense will only deceive us fro what is ideal and eternal taught the rationalists not to rely on their senses) instead$ to rely pri arily on the reasoning to gain knowledge. &aterialis is a reaction to the idealist view that only the ind 6spirit$ for or idea: is the ulti ate nature of reality. Realis is also a onist concept$ but instead of basing reality solely on the idea$ it is solely based on the for 6body:. 4enerally$ aterialis is also used synony ously with the realism. &aterialis beca e very popular during the Renaissance and Enlighten ent when the natural sciences began its full bloo . It gave us the e pirical ethod

Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

for obtaining knowledge. Its success in the natural sciences eventually paved the way for its adoption in the social sciences. <ualists claims that neither the mind nor matter can $e reduced to each other in any way, and thus is opposed to materialism in general 6Wikipedia:. <ue to its applicability to 1hristian theology 6duality of the ;ody and %oul: dualis greatly influenced edieval political thought. Ontological Kuestion 'ccording to &c2abb 6=>>E: in his book Research &ethods for /olitical %cience 6p. 7H:$ ontology is Athe field of philosophy that deals with what we can learn " what is Aout thereB that can be known. The sa e book further elaborated that an ontological @uestion in politics deals with what political scientists should studyI "he ontological @uestion in political science deals with such issues as whether political scientists should study institutions, political $eha!iors, or other political phenomena. The above ,uote illustrates the basic ontological ,uestion in the study of politics would be which fundamental @uestion in the discipline should $e studiedA The answer to this ,uestion boils down to a person(s ontological predispositions. In social sciences$ the a!or ontological issue would be conflict between the society and the individual. Which entity influences which3 This ontological debate between the structure 6society: and agency 6individual: is a central issue in political science as well as any other social science disciplines. -olis vs. Individualis Those who believe in the pri acy of the agency believe that mankinds social existence is largely determined $y the o!erall structure of society 6Wikipedia:. %ubscribing to the idea that the whole is greater than the su of its parts$ they are known as the advocates of the principle of holism. In contrast to the holis $ there are those who subscribe to indi!idualism. Individualist researchers stress the capacity of indi!idual agents to construct and reconstruct their worlds 6Wikipedia:. Individualis in /olitical %cience In political philosophy$ those who subscribe to individualis tend to support the ideas of classical liberalis . 'ccording to 4erald 4aus 6%tanford Encyclopedia of /hilosophy:$ classical liberals insists that an economic system $ased on pri!ate property is uni@uely consistent with indi!idual li$erty, allowing each to li!e her life Dincluding employing her la$or and her capital D as she sees fit. 1lassical liberals are co itted to the liberty of individuals. They are also co itted to free arket capitalis $ while the ore radical ones ay subscribe to libertarianis or even anarchis . The Wikipedia article on individualis lists the following as a ong the well known classical liberalsI Eohn :ocke &dam Smith "homas Eefferson "homas Paine Eeremy 2entham "homas )ill ,reen Eohn (aynard Feynes 3riedrich !on )ayek 9

Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

Ca!id )ume 2aron de (ontes@uieu Immanuel Fant

Isaiah 2erlin Eohn #awls 2ertrand #ussell

' certain article fro Dohn 1. 4ood an of the 2ational Institute for /olicy %tudies described described the political philosophy of the @nited %tates prior to the =>th century as followsI Prior to the G;th century, classical li$eralism was the dominant political philosophy in the 4nited States. It was the political philosophy of "homas Eefferson and the signers of the Ceclaration of Independence and it permeates the Ceclaration of Independence, the +onstitution, the 3ederalist Papers and many other documents produced $y the people who created the &merican system of go!ernment. (any of the emancipationists who opposed sla!ery were essentially classical li$erals, as were the suffragettes, who fought for e@ual rights for women. -olis in /olitical %cience The principle that the social existence is largely determined $y the o!erall structure of society 6Wikipedia: can be observed in the odern liberalis or the so-called left-wing ideologies. It can also be observed in the views of classical conservatives and the e*tre e nationalists. In contrast to the classical liberals$ a modern li$eral focuses on e,uality of wealth and privilege rather than personal freedo . The classical conser!ati!es on the other hand are those political thinkers and individuals during the Renaissance and Enlighten ent period who favors the preservation of the status ,uo " the onarchy$ the aristocracy and the feudalist syste 6ancien regime1$ while the principle of nationalis refers to a social mo!ement a social mo!ement that focuses on the nation It is a type of collecti!ism emphasi-ing the collecti!e of a specific nation 6Wikipedia:. The co on ground a ong these political ideologies would their reliance on the structure of the society " the govern ent and its institution to effect social change. It can be observed that in all these ideologies$ there is a general tendency to subordinate the goals of the individual to the collective goal of the state. ' ong our classical political thinkers$ Farl &ar* and T.-. 4reen can be classified as odern liberals. Ed und ;urke and Doseph de &aistre can be generally regarded as classical conservatives. #inally$ 2iccolo &achiavelli and Tho as -obbes could be generally seen as nationalists. The Third Option &odern social scientists believe that the structureLagency dichoto y can be reconciled. One article on Wikipedia describes the structuration, as one of the conte porary efforts to eli inate the conflict between the holistic and individualist view. The open-sourced encyclopedia described structuration as followsI the theory of structuration holds that all human action is performed within the context of a pre%existing social structure which is go!erned $y a set of norms
Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

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An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

andHor laws which are distinct from those of other social structures. "herefore, all human action is at least partly predetermined $ased on the !arying contextual rules under which it occurs. )owe!er, the structure and rules are not permanent and external, $ut sustained and modified $y human action. It can be observed later on that this theory of structuration is ore or less si ilar to the syste s approach in political science research. Episte ology 'ccording to an article in %tanford Encyclopedia of /hilosophy written y /eter &arkie 6=>>9:$ episte ology can be defined as the study of knowledge and /ustified $elief. ;ut how do we study knowledge3 In studying knowledge$ %E/ suggests that we answer the following ,uestionsI 5hat are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledgeA 5hat are its sourcesA 5hat is its structure, and what are its limitsA 's considerI a study of !ustified belief$ &arkie 6=>>9: posited the following ,uestions for us to )ow we are to understand the concept of /ustificationA 5hat makes /ustified $eliefs /ustifiedA Is /ustification internal or external to one*s own mindA

' si pler definition of episte ology can be seen in WikipediaI 'pistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, and whether knowledge is possi$le. ;oth definitions illustrates that episte ology is i portant in all acade ic endeavors. In the field education$ episte ology deter ines a person(s teaching approach and ethodology. In the field of political science$ especially in political research$ episte ology guides us on the ac,uisition of knowledge. -ow it is ac,uired and how it can be processed. 's a study of !ustified belief$ episte ology is the guiding force of political ideology. Two &a!or Theories of Fnowledge 'c,uisition 7. Rationalis 'ccording to &arkie 6=>>9:$ to be a rationalist is to adopt at least one of three clai s. a. "he IntuitionHCeduction "hesisI %o e propositions in a particular sub!ect area$ %$ are knowable by us by intuition alone) still others are knowable by being deduced fro intuited propositions. b. "he Innate Fnowledge "hesisI We have knowledge of so e truths in a particular sub!ect area$ %$ as part of our rational nature.
Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

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An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

c. "he Innate +oncept "hesisI We have so e of the concepts we e ploy in a particular sub!ect area$ %$ as part of our rational nature. %ocrates and /lato undoubtedly subscribed to this theory. 'lthough so e would argue that during the earlier period in the history of social sciences that introspection is a valid for of e pirical in,uiry$ it appears it is ore consistent with Ite ' of the above Rationalist clai s. 's such$ the for ulation of the social contract theories$ for e*a ple$ especially on the deter ination of the state of nature by eans of introspection can be regarded as pri arily rationalist in character. /rior to the bloo of the natural sciences 6Renaissance and Enlighten ent period:$ ost political thinkers can be considered as rationalists. Of course$ the ost notable e*ception to this would be 'ristotle$ a naturalist who is regarded both as a AfatherB to biology and political science. =. E piricis E piricis (s e phasis on the sense e*perience$ to put si ply$ it is a Ato see is to believeB theory of knowledge. 'ccording to the Wikipedia article on the sub!ect atter$ it is a theory of knowledge emphasi-ing the role of experience, especially experience $ased on perceptual o$ser!ations $y the fi!e senses. #or /eter &arkie the thesis of e piricis can be described using the following sentenceI 5e ha!e no source of knowledge in S or for the concepts we use in S other than sense experience. In political science$ the use of direct observation is evident in the works of 'ristotle$ &achiavelli and &ontes,uieu$ to na e !ust a few. E piricis in political science$ as well as in social science$ in general beca e the 5unofficial( and 5standard( approach in answering funda ental ,uestions in politics since the 'ge of Enlighten ent. &achiavelli$ 'ristotle$ and &ontes,uieu used the e pirical ethod by observing the currently e*isting govern ent during their ti e$ in order to gain a better understanding of their sub!ect atter. ;ased on the definitions provided above that rationalis and e piricis can be used in tande " usually$ an in,uiry starts with the use of reason$ then proceeds with actual observation$ afterwards$ reasoning ay also be used to draw causal connection a ong the things observed. The Two &a!or &ethodological /ositions 7. /ositivist 6&c2abb$ =>>E: The positivist tradition in the social science is a result of the atte pt of social scientists to ake the discipline closer to the ethods used in the natural sciences. The positivist position is characteri+ed by e piricis and ob!ectivity 6value free:. 's uch as possible$ e*tra efforts ust also be ade to ake the positivist study ,uantifiable. 'ccording to &c2abb 6=>>E:$ the pattern of in,uiry follows the scientific ethod$ e phasi+ing the following principlesI o Reliance on logical reasoning o E phasis on e*perience o 1o it ent to easure ent

Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

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An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

/ositivist Research 'pproaches The book #esearch (ethods in Political Science 6&c2abb$ =>>E: presented three approaches based on the positivist tradition. The su ary of which shall be presented in this paper. ' fourth approach provided in 1hapter = of Roskin(s Introduction to /olitical %cience 6=>>G: shall also be presented to broaden this survey of positivist approaches. a. Institutional 'nalysis Institutionalis subscribes to the holistic view of social ontology. 's such$ it places greater e phasis on the role of the structure as opposed to the role of the political actors. The approach is relies on e pirical observation followed by description of the structure or institution being studied. Its usual ode of analysis is co parative. @sing the su ary provided by &c2abb 6=>>E$ p. 7?$ #ig. =.7:$ it can be said that goal of institutionalism is to discover the Arules$ nor s$ standardsB of the institutions of politics using the e pirical ethod. b. Rational 1hoice The Rational 1hoice theory is an individualist approach focusing on the role of individual in social change. The theory relies on the assu ption that an individual 6or group of individuals: decides on political issue based on how uch they will benefit fro it. 's such$ it uses athe atical tools to predict which decision will provide the a*i u gain for a particular individual or group. It seeks to discover the conditions for group or individual action as he or they interact with ainstrea political society. c. ;ehavioralist The ;ehavioralist approach is also an individualist approach to political science research. It is a reaction against the Apurely descriptive approach of the institutional ethodsB 6&c2abb$ =>>E:. It atte pts to discover Apatterns of behavior to identify causal relationships and identify general lawsB 6&ac2abb =>>E$ p. 7?$ #ig. =.7:. ;y focusing on political behavior$ it further strengthened the co parative ode of in,uiry. The ode of in,uiry starts with an observation of a particular behavior$ then it proceeds with an in,uiry and how this affects the political society. ;ehavioralis is a political science adaptation of ;.#. %kinner(s behavioris $ it(s its analysis of cause-effect relationship between behavior and the political syste can be likened to the sti ulus-response echanis in behavioris . d. %yste s Theory 6Roskin$ =>>G$ p. =J-G7: While the ;ehavioris is an adaptation of a psychological approach$ the %yste s Theory is based on biological concept. In syste s theory$ the political society is treated like the organ-syste in hu an biology. @sually$ the political syste is described as a syste co posed of social$ econo ic and political organs. The individual or aggregate of individuals 6people: is connected to the political syste by eans of feedback echanis s. They are seen to be capable

Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

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An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

of affecting the syste $ while at the sa e ti e) they are liable affected by it. ;ehavioris is an atte pt to synthesi+e the agencyLstructure dichoto y. =. /ostpositivist 6&c2abb$ =>>E: The post-positivist tradition is a reaction to the positivist tradition in political science research. They are essentially nor ative in character$ e phasi+e the use of mental reflection and are ,ualitative by design. While the positivist appears to focus on the govern ent-citi+en dyna ics of the political science$ postpositivists appears to be ore interested in the power dyna ics. "hey 0postpositi!ists1 are interested in studying the distri$ution and exercise of power and domination, and actions of indi!iduals and groups who seek to gain power and hold on it once they ha!e it. /ostpositivists researchers generally use two ode of in,uiry$ the interpretative and the critical ode. The interpretative ode of in,uiry is based on the anthropological research. 's such$ it is characteri+ed the use the following ,uantitative toolsI o /articipant observation o In-depth interviewing o 'ction research case studies o 0ife-history ethods o #ocus groups The critical ode on the other hand is participatory in character. It involves the research participants in identifying the causes of the particular political issue they in$ then they proceed to e power the to bring about positive change. This ode$ which is obviously nor ative in character$ is also known as e ancipative or e powering research. The conflict theory is one of the best e*a ples of the critical ode approaches. This theory e phasi+es role of class conflicts in affecting changes in the society. 'lthough there appears to be a growing trend in the use of postpositivist approaches$ behavioris re ains to be the do inant ethod in political science research 6&c2abb$ =>>E$ p. =>:. The reaction of the /erestroikans 6 entioned in page H of this essay: also signify that the positivist approaches involving the A athe aticali+ationB of the discipline is still the do inant ethodological trend in political science. <espite the contention that the increasing ,uantification in political science can be regarded as beneficial to the future of the discipline$ efforts ust also be sustained to aintain the rationalist and philosophical tradition in the study of politics. There are still countless funda ental ,uestions in political philosophy that we are challenged to answer. In the sa e anner$ those ,uestions which have already been answered needs to be continuously rephrased in the conte*t of the changing ti es. The ,uestion of ethodology$ whether it is ,ualitative or ,uantitative shouldn(t atter too uch. 'fter all$ the real ob!ective of political science research is to continue to broaden the knowledge base of the discipline$ all research endeavors$ as long as it is philosophically sound should be welco ed.

Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

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An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

Influential /olitical /hilosophers The following list is e*cerpted fro Wikipedia.co to provide the readers in a general background on the ost influential political philosophers throughout history.
Wikipedias note: Listed below are a few of the most canonical or important thinkers, and especially philosophers whose central focus was in political philosophy and/or who are good representatives of a particular school of thought. Confucius : The first thinker to relate ethics to the political order. Chanakya : Founder of an independent political thought in ndia! laid do"n rules and guidelines for social! la" and political order in society. #o$i : Epony%ous founder of the #ohist school! ad&ocated a strict utilitarianis%. Socrates'Plato: (a%ed their practice of in)uiry *philosophy*! and there+y stand at the head of a pro%inent ,often called *Western*- tradition of syste%atic intellectual analysis. Set as a partial +asis to that tradition the relation +et"een kno"ledge on the one hand! and a .ust and good society on the other. Socrates is "idely considered founder of Western political philosophy! &ia his spoken influence on Athenian conte%poraries/ since Socrates ne&er "rote anything! %uch of "hat "e kno" a+out hi% and his teachings co%es through his %ost fa%ous student! Plato. Aristotle: Wrote his Politics as an e0tension of his (ico%achean Ethics. (ota+le for the theories that hu%ans are social ani%als! and that the polis ,Ancient 1reek city state- e0isted to +ring a+out the good life appropriate to such ani%als. His political theory is +ased upon an ethics of perfectionis% ,as is #ar02s! on so%e readings-. #encius : 3ne of the %ost i%portant thinkers in the Confucian school! he is the first theorist to %ake a coherent argu%ent for an o+ligation of rulers to the ruled. Han Fei$i : The %a.or figure of the Chinese Fa.ia ,4egalist- school! ad&ocated go&ern%ent that adhered to la"s and a strict %ethod of ad%inistration. Tho%as A)uinas : n synthesi$ing Christian theology and Peripatetic teaching! A)uinas contends that 1od2s gift of higher reason! coupled "ith di&ine &irtues and hu%an la"! pro&ides the foundation for righteous go&ern%ent. (iccol5 #achia&elli: First syste%atic analyses of: ,6- ho" consent of a populace is negotiated +et"een and a%ong rulers rather than si%ply a naturalistic ,or theological- gi&en of the structure of society/ ,7- precursor to the concept of ideology in articulating the episte%ological structure of co%%ands and la". Tho%as Ho++es: 1enerally considered to ha&e first articulated ho" the concept of a social contract that .ustifies the actions of rulers ,e&en "here contrary to the indi&idual desires of go&erned citi$ens-! can +e reconciled "ith a conception of so&ereignty. 8aruch Spino$a: Set forth the first analysis of *rational egois%*! in "hich the rational interest of self is confor%ance "ith pure reason. To Spino$a2s thinking! in a society in "hich each indi&idual is guided of reason! political authority "ould +e superfluous.
Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

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An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

9ohn 4ocke: 4ike Ho++es! descri+ed a social contract theory +ased on citi$ens2 funda%ental rights in the state of nature. He departed fro% Ho++es in that! +ased on the assu%ption of a society in "hich %oral &alues are independent of go&ern%ental authority and "idely shared! he argued for a go&ern%ent "ith po"er li%ited to the protection of personal property. His argu%ents %ay ha&e +een deeply influential to the for%ation of the :nited States Constitution. 8aron de #ontes)uieu: Analy$ed protection of the people +y a *+alance of po"ers* in the di&isions of a state. ;a&id Hu%e: Hu%e critici$ed the social contract theory of 9ohn 4ocke and others as resting on a %yth of so%e actual agree%ent. Hu%e "as a realist in recogni$ing the role of force to forge the e0istence of states and that consent of the go&erned "as %erely hypothetical. He also introduced the concept of utility! later picked up on and de&eloped +y 9ere%y 8entha%. 9ean<9ac)ues =ousseau: Analy$ed the social contract as an e0pression of the general "ill! and contro&ersially argued in fa&or of a+solute de%ocracy "here the people at large "ould act as so&ereign. %%anuel >ant: Argued that participation in ci&il society is undertaken not for self<preser&ation! as per Tho%as Ho++es! +ut as a %oral duty. First %odern thinker "ho fully analy$ed structure and %eaning of o+ligation. Argued that an international organi$ation "as needed to preser&e "orld peace. Ada% S%ith: 3ften said to ha&e founded %odern econo%ics/ e0plained e%ergence of econo%ic +enefits fro% the self<interested +eha&ior ,*the in&isi+le hand*- of artisans and traders. While praising its efficiency! S%ith also e0pressed concern a+out the effects of industrial la+or ,e.g. repetiti&e acti&ity- on "orkers. His "ork on %oral senti%ents sought to e0plain social +onds outside the econo%ic sphere. Ed%und 8urke: rish %e%+er of the 8ritish parlia%ent! 8urke is credited "ith the creation of conser&ati&e thought. 8urke2s =eflections on the =e&olution in France is the %ost popular of his "ritings "here he denounced the French re&olution. 8urke "as one of the +iggest supporters of the A%erican =e&olution. 9ohn Ada%s: Enlighten%ent "riter "ho defended the A%erican cause for independence. Ada%s "as a 4ockean thinker! "ho "as appalled +y the French re&olution. Ada%s is kno"n for his outspoken co%%entary in fa&or of the A%erican re&olution. He defended the A%erican for% of repu+licanis% o&er the French li+eral de%ocracy. Ada%s is considered the founder of A%erican conser&ati&e thought. Tho%as Paine: Enlighten%ent "riter "ho defended li+eral de%ocracy! the A%erican =e&olution! and French =e&olution in Co%%on Sense and The =ights of #an. 9ere%y 8entha%: The first thinker to analy$e social .ustice in ter%s of %a0i%i$ation of aggregate indi&idual +enefits. Founded the philosophical'ethical school of thought kno"n as utilitarianis%. 9ohn Stuart #ill: A utilitarian! and the person "ho na%ed the syste%/ he goes further than 8entha% +y laying the foundation for li+eral de%ocratic thought in general and %odern! as opposed to classical! li+eralis% in particular. Articulated the place of indi&idual li+erty in an other"ise utilitarian fra%e"ork.

Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

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An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

Tho%as Hill 1reen: %odern li+eral thinker and early supporter of positi&e freedo%.

>arl #ar0: n large part! added the historical di%ension to an understanding of society! culture and econo%ics. Created the concept of ideology in the sense of ,true or false- +eliefs that shape and control social actions. Analy$ed the funda%ental nature of class as a %echanis% of go&ernance and social interaction. 1io&anni 1entile: >no"n as the 2Philosopher of Fascis%2 and ghost"rote the ;octrine of Fascis% "ith 8enito #ussolini and argued that the Fascist State is an ethical and educational state and that the indi&idual should put the interests of the State first. 9ohn ;e"ey: Co<founder of prag%atis% and analy$ed the essential role of education in the %aintenance of de%ocratic go&ern%ent. Antonio 1ra%sci: nstigated the concepts hege%ony and social for%ation. Fused the ideas of #ar0! Engels! Spino$a and others "ithin the so<called do%inant ideology thesis ,the ruling ideas of society are the ideas of its rulers-. Her+ert #arcuse: 3ne of the principal thinkers "ithin the Frankfurt School! and generally i%portant in efforts to fuse the thought of Sig%und Freud and >arl #ar0. ntroduced the concept of repressi&e desu+li%ation! in "hich social control can operate not only +y direct control! +ut also +y %anipulation of desire. Analy$ed the role of ad&ertising and propaganda in societal consensus. Friedrich Hayek: He argued that central planning "as inefficient +ecause %e%+ers of central +odies could not kno" enough to %atch the preferences of consu%ers and "orkers "ith e0isting conditions. Hayek further argued that central econo%ic planning < a %ainstay of socialis% < "ould lead to a *total2 state "ith dangerous po"er. He ad&ocated free<%arket capitalis% in "hich the %ain role of the state is to %aintain the rule of la". Hannah Arendt: Analy$ed the roots of totalitarianis% and introduced the concept of the *+anality of e&il* ,ho" ordinary technocratic rationality co%es to deplora+le fruition-. 8rought distincti&e ele%ents of and re&isions to the philosophy of #artin Heidegger into political thought. 1eorg Hegel: E%phasi$ed history and continuity influenced #ar0 and 3akeschott. saiah 8erlin: ;e&eloped the distinction +et"een positi&e and negati&e li+erty 4eo Strauss: Strauss is kno"n for his "ritings on the classical and %odern philosophers and for denouncing %odern politics. 9ohn =a"ls: =e&italised the study of nor%ati&e political philosophy in Anglo<A%erican uni&ersities "ith his 6?@6 +ook A Theory of 9ustice! "hich uses a &ersion of social contract theory to ans"er funda%ental )uestions a+out .ustice and to criticise utilitarianis%. =o+ert (o$ick: Critici$ed =a"ls! and argued for li+ertarianis%! +y appeal to a hypothetical history of the state and the real history of property. #ichael 3akeshott: Pro&ided a conser&ati&e philosophy anchored in history and Hegelianis%. %o e notable conte porary political philosophers are ' y 4ut ann$ %eyla ;enhabib$ 4.'. 1ohen$ 4eorge Fateb$ Wendy ;rown$ %tephen &acedo$ &artha 2ussbau $ Ronald <workin$ Tho as /ogge$ Will Fy licka$ 1harles Taylor$ /hilippe Van /ari!s and &ichael Wal+er.
Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

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An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

RE#ERE21E% ;ooks
-o+elit+$ ;ert #. 6Ed.:. 678J>:. ' Reader(s 4uide to the %ocial %ciences. Revised Ed. 2ew .orkI #ree /ress &c2abb$ <avid E. 6=>>E:. Research &ethod for /olitical %cienceI ,uantitative and ,ualitative ethods. 2ew .orkI &.E. %harpe$ Inc. %antiago$ 'l a %. 6788?:. 0ogicI The art of reasoning. =nd ed. &anila. Roskin$ &ichael 4. et. al. 6=>>G:. /olitical %cienceI 'n introduction. 9th ed. 2ew DerseyI /rentice -all Tansey$ %tephen <ouglas C Dackson$ 2igel. 6=>>9:. /oliticsI the basics 6Eth ed.:. 2ew .orkI Routledge

Internet " %tanford Encyclopedia of /hilosophy


4aus$ 4erald 6=>>J$ %epte ber 7>: 0iberalis . Stanford 'ncyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October J$ =>>8$ fro httpILLplato.stanford.eduLentriesLliberalis L &arkie$ /eter 6=>>9$ 'ugust ?:. Rationalis vs. E piricis . Stanford 'ncyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October =$ =>>8$ fro httpILLplato.stanford.eduLentriesLrationalis -e piricis L &iller$ #red 6=>>=$ Duly 78:. 'ristotleMs /olitical Theory. Stanford 'ncyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October 7$ =>>8$ fro httpILLplato.stanford.eduLentriesLaristotle-politicsL

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Episte ology. 5ikipedia. Retrieved October 7$ =>>8$ fro httpILLen.wikipedia.orgLwikiLEpiste ology Individualis . 5ikipedia. Retrieved October J$ =>>8$ fro httpILLen.wikipedia.orgLwikiLIndividualis &etaphysics. 5ikipedia. Retrieved October J$ =>>8$ fro httpILLen.wikipedia.orgLwikiL&etaphysics /olitical %cience. 5ikipedia. Retrieved %epte ber G>$ =>>8$ fro httpILLen.wikipedia.orgLwikiL/oliticalNscience /olitical philosophy. 5ikipedia. Retrieved October 7$ =>>8$ fro httpILLen.wikipedia.orgLwikiL/oliticalNphilosophy /hilosophy of social science. 5ikipedia. Retrieved %epte ber G>$ =>>8$ fro httpILLen.wikipedia.orgLwikiL/hilosophyNofNsocialNscience /olitics. 5ikipedia. Retrieved %epte ber G>$ =>>8 fro httpILLen.wikipedia.orgLwikiL/olitics %tructuration. 5ikipedia. Retrieved October J$ =>>8$ fro httpILLen.wikipedia.orgLwikiL%tructuration %tructure and agency. 5ikipedia. Retrieved October J$ =>>8$ fro httpILLen.wikipedia.orgLwikiL%tructureNandNagency

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1rovelli$ &ark R. 6=>>9$ Danuary =G:. &odern /olitical %cience Is ' #arce. :ew#ockwell.com. Retrieved October 7$ =>>8$ fro httpILLwww.lewrockwell.co LcrovelliLcrovelli7>.ht l % ith$ %teve ;. 6=>>?:. Introduction to /olitical /hilosophy - 0ecture 7 6What is /olitical /hilosophy:. ?pen Iale +ourses. Retrieved %epte ber G>$ =>>8$ fro httpILLoyc.yale.eduLpoliticalscienceLintroduction-to-political-philosophyLcontentLtranscriptsLtranscript>7.ht l NNNNNNNNNNNN. 6=>>?:. Introduction to /olitical /hilosophy - 0ecture = 61rito$ /lato:. ?pen Iale +ourses. Retrieved %epte ber G>$ =>>8$ fro httpILLoyc.yale.eduLpolitical-scienceLintroductionto-political-philosophyLcontentLtranscriptsLtranscript>=.ht l

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An Essay on The History and Philosophy of Political Science

%utton$ %ean <. 6=>>G:. /lato(s &enoI ' %ocratic challenge to odern political science. &ll &cademic. Retrieved October 7$ =>>8$ fro httpILLwww.allacade ic.co L etaLpN laNapaNresearchNcitationL>L?LGLHL=Lp?GH=?Ninde*.ht l

Finals Paper in GRSS200 | Paul Enrique C. Casas, Graduate Student (MATSS)

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