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The Celts The Celts From 500 BC to 795 AD the Celts were the exclusive tribe of the island.

The were not the first inhabitants. But when the arrived the assimitlated with the native !eo!le. "ost of the Celts were# tall and blond and the learned to wor$ with iron. the lived scattered on farms with hi%h walls around. There were no urban centres and the economic basis of societ was cattel rearin% and a%riculture. The Celts had no central !olitical or%anisation# but there were man bi% families# wich the called &clans'# scattered all over the island. (ometimes the &clans' consisted of u! to five %enerations# and all the farmhouses# cows# shee! and fields belon%ed the &clan'. )n the social life of the celts the &druid' was ver im!ortant# who had the !ur!ose of a !riest# fortuneteller and ma%ician. Another im!ortant !erson was the !oet or bard. As societ was non*literate# their function was to !ass on histor as well was to entertain. The +omans never came to )reland and so the celts could $ee! their own culture# but nevertheless the Celts and +omans artered. Durin% the fifth centur AD Christianit was interoduced# and with Christianit came ,atine culture and latine scri!t. -ow the bards were not that im!ortant an more# because the mon$s# .atricianus was one of the first mon$ in ireland /still (T. .atric$0s da 1# were able to write down )reland0s histor . 523455!d627%!9r At the time the most !owerful clan leaders wished to have more !ower and so eventuall the be%an to rule bi%%er areas. .oliticall # )reland was or%ani8ed into a number of $in%doms or tuatha# each of it was 5uite inde!endent under ist elected $in% /a more !owerful clanleader1.9rou!s of tuatha tended to combine# but the $in% who claimed overlordshi! in each %rou! had a !rimac of honour rather

than of 7uristiction. A division of the countr into five %rou!s of tuatha# $nown as the Five Fifsths occurred at the be%innin% of the Christian era.These were :lster# "eath# ,eister# "unster and Connau%ht. )n 795 AD the ;i$in%s invaded and severel reduced the !ower of the Celts. But Celtic lan%ua%e is still s!o$en in the west of )reland. The ;i$in%s !%345525627%%! At the end of the ei%hth centur broad shi!s reached the )rish coast# wich were able to resist wild storms. Those shi!s belon%ed to the ;i$in%s# (candanavian !eo!le from toda 0s -orwa and Denmar$. The sailed u!stream and invlicted devastation. The ;i$in%s !lundered and destro ed monasteries# and $illed all the mon$s and ever )rish !erson the saw. )n <42 AD the ;i$in%s con5uered two harbours# Ana%assan and Dublin# and chan%ed them into fortresses# because the had decided to sta on the island forever. The natives did not !ut u! tou%h resistance /the li$ed !eace and# as there was no bi% war before# the did not $now how to fi%ht =1. The climate was not as bad as in (candinaia# and the land was much more fertible than the %round at home. But in the lon% term the harbour in the north founded b the -orwe%ian ;i$in%s /Anna%assan1# could not survive# in contrast to the more southern >arbour# Dublin# founded b Danish ;i$in%s# wich ex!anded. 9raduall the !ower of the Danish %rew more and more inland. >owever# the also lost some of their warli$e character and be%an to associate and marr the Celtic inhabitants.

At the be%innin% of the 22th centur # man Celts became hostile to the ;i$in%s at Clontarf /near Dublin1# finall effected when (candinavian allies of the $in% of Dublin were defeated b >i%h $in% Brian Boru in 2024. The !ower of the ;i$in%s was bro$en. ?et there was no !eace. After Brian Boru died the local $in%s fou%ht each other for the !osition of hi%h $in%. The An%lo * -ormans B 2233# there was wides!read civil unrest. The $in% of ,eister / the bi%%est of the five ares1 +or @0Connor lost !ower and went to An%land to as$ for hel!. >enr )). / $in% of An%land1 was %lad to find a reason to interfere in )rish matters and so he allowed ,eincester0s $in% to enlist soldiers from Bales. )n 2270 a small but well e5ui!ed arm arrived let b (tron%bow /an An%lo*-orman adventurer1. >is modern wea!ons were far su!erior to an thin% the locals had so he easil overcame them. )n 2276 the island became a !art of Britain. B the Treat of Bindsor @0Connor# the hi%h $in% acce!ted >enr )). as his overlord and restricted his own st le to that of $in% of Connau%ht. The -ormans built bi% fortresses# wich the )rish !eo!le could not con5uer# because the had littel war ex!erience. But after a time the -ormans could not maintain their own culture# the conse5uence of wich was that -ormans !ic$ed u! their lan%ua%e# culture# custome and traditions of the natives. The were afraid the -ormans were &becomin% more )rish than the )rish themselves'. Britain was not ha!! to see that# and so !assed two lawsC overrolin% the )rish !arliament. * The -ormans were not allowed to s!ea$ )rish an more. * "ixed "arria%es were forbidden.

The $in% too$ this measure to sto! inte%ration# but there was onl limited success. At that time the im!ortance of the towns rose and there was a flourishin% trade between the -ormans and the )rish !eo!le. Adward ))). declared a law a%ainst that trade and a%ainst ever relation to the native !eo!le e.%. the -ormans had to $ee! their An%lish names. Durin% the firth half of the 25th centur )reland was# in effect# ruled b the three %reat earls# of Desmond# @rmonde and Dildare# who combined to dominate the Dublin %overment. )n 24<5 the >ouse of Tudor %ained !ower on the island. The Tudors >enr ;)). re!ieled the autonom of the )rish !arliament in 2494. -ow ever An%lish law was also in force in )relandC this resolution was called & .o nin%s Acts'. )t sub7ected the meetin%s and le%islative drafts of the )rish .arliament to control of the An%lish $in% and council. At the time of the +eformation >enr E))). bro$e all relations with the .o!e. >e forbade all monastic orders# includin% the )rish and confiscated their estates. The )rish !eo!le were inceuded because at that time the monasterie were ver im!ortant for records of )rish histor # culture and education. "arr Tudor sto!!ed this su!ression a few ears later# but she was afraid of the stron% Celtic traditions# and so# man An%lish men# mainl farmers settled in )reland to brin% )rish culture to an end.As a result resistance in )reland %rew a%ainst the An%lish. The )rish !olic of Alisabeth ). had the destinction of havin% reduced the countr to obience for the first time since the invasion of >enr )). Aconomicall # the towns and the countr side were exloited b the new administrators while the Fueen0s ex!enditure was increased.

"ost resistance came from :lster were the clan tradition was stron%est. Games ). continued Alisabethan !olic and as a result the exodus of )rih soldiers and churchmen to catholic countries on the continent was unabated.That made the )rish 5uestion an international one. >owever the realised the could not defeat the An%lish $in% Games ). and so the leaders flet to +ome. This fli%ht was called &The Fli%ht of the Aarls'. That conse5uence of that was that the $in% of An%land confiscated all the estates and setteled !rotestant farmers# commin% from An%land and (cotland. @liver Cromwell sto!!ed civil riots in An%land# but in 2342 civil riots also be%an in )reland. The Catholics# who fou%ht a%ainst the newl settled An%lishmen# were !ersecuted b the !rotestant.)n )reland there were far more Catholics than .rotestants# but the Catholics were not or%ani8ed and so the lost. )n 2549 @liver Cromwell wanted to sto! that civilwar in the wa he had done in An%land. >e came to the island and defeated all o!!osition. B 2356 all )rish resistance was over. >is methodes were hard. The )rish were forced into the west of the countr where the %round was !oorest. >is !hrase was &to hell or to Connau%ht'. After he left# he rewarded his soldiers b %ivin% them the best land. At that time man )rishmen emi%rated to America or in Auro!e or )ndia. A renewed cam!ai%n a%ainst Catholics and An%licans was not successful. Charles )). declared then com!lete reli%ious toleration.

.rotestantism existed mainl in the -orth# wich meant :lster. The new inhabitants# most of them (cots# were ver hard wor$in% !eo!le# who did not dama%e the econom # 5uite the reverseC now the econom in the -oth im!roved. This led to tension between the & Aconom * -orth' and the &Farmin%*(outh'. )n 23<9 there was a battle between the )rish# the Catholics# the An%lish and the .rotestants# wich toda is called the &Battle of Bo ne'. The catholic Ax*$in% Games )). lost the battle to his son*in* law# Billiam of @ran%e and flet to France. )rish Catholicism suffered ist most humilitatin% setbac$.That victor of the An%lish is celebrated ever ear. The .rotestants arran%e a !rocession thou%h the towns of northern )reland with oran%e fla%s and !ennatsH that0s often the cause of endless riots and feuds. Tension between -orth and (outh became worse because the farmin% industr in (outhern# and Central )reland was wea$ened b a law wich stated it# was forbidden to ex!ort wool exce!t to An%land. That means# that the An%lish could control the wool!rices and so )reland became more de!endent on An%land.