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Theory Questions Part A : 5 x 2 =

10 marks


Part B : 1 x 10 = 10 marks



Record & Observations












1. Define the term Statistics.

Statistics can be defined as the collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data.

2. What are the utilities of Statistics?

It presents facts in a definite form. It simplifies mass of figures It facilitates comparison It helps in formulating and testing hypothesis. It helps in prediction.

3. What is a statistical package?

A statistical package is a suite of computer programs that are specialized for statistical analysis. It enables people to obtain the results of standard statistical procedures and statistical significance tests, without requiring low-level numerical programming. Most statistical packages also provide facilities for data management.

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Name the some of the statistical packages used by the researchers.

Stata - comprehensive statistics package StatXact - package for exact nonparametric and parametric statistics SAS - comprehensive statistical package Mentor - for market research StatCrunch - comprehensive statistics package and statistical survey tool, with community sharing of analysis

5. What does "SPSS" stand for?

Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

6. Who developed the SPSS?

SPSS was founded in 1968, SPSS Chairman of the Board Norman H. Nie collaborated with C. Hadlai (Tex) Hull and Dale Bent, two of his fellow Stanford University graduate students, and developed the first SPSS program.

Who are the beneficiaries of SPSS?

Market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, Education researchers, Marketing organizations and others.

8. Write the utilities of SPSS.

Market research Product enhancements Product preferences and usage Customer attitudes and behaviors Demographic surveys Referral identification Population/member demographics Employee satisfaction surveys Employee attitude studies Work schedule preferences Benefit analysis Government agency surveys Policy analysis Constituent preferences Crime analysis Academic surveys Testing and evaluation Student interest studies Professor/course evaluations

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9. List out the window types provided in SPSS.

Data Editor.


Draft Viewer.



10. Write the release history of SPSS.

SPSS 15.0.1 - November 2006 SPSS 16.0.2 - April 2008 SPSS Statistics 17.0.1 - December 2008 PASW Statistics 17.0.2 - March 2009

11. State the awards secured by SPSS.

Company to Watch Award in 2008

winner of the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur Of The Year© 2007 award


Nucleus Research Technology ROI Award


Industry Innovation & Advancement Award


What are the types of variables available in SPSS?







What do you mean by Dummy Variable?

A variable with two values are called Dummy variable. E.g., male and female.

14. What do you mean by categorical variable?

A variable for which numbers are simply identifiers and do not have mathematical properties, such as order. For example, the sales territory in which a company’s customer lives (Central, North, South) is a categorical variable. Also called a nominal variable.

15. Give the examples for Categorical Variable.

A variable with several values are called categorical variable. E.g. 0 = East

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1 = West

2 = North

3 = South

How do you read a SPSS Data?

In SPSS, go to FILE/OPEN. Click on the button “Files of Type”. Select the option “SPSS(*.sav). Click open.

17. Write the procedure for analyzing the data in SPSS.

Launch SPSS.

Get data into SPSS. You can open a previously saved SPSS data file, read a spreadsheet, database, or text data file, or enter data directly in the Data Editor.

Select a procedure. You can select a procedure from the menus or use SPSS command syntax to transform data, calculate statistics, and to create charts, interactive graphs, and maps.

Select the variables and run the procedure. The variables in the data file are displayed in a dialog box for the procedure.

View and manipulate the results. Results are displayed in the Viewer. You can browse, edit, and pivot the output and save it for use at a later time.

18. Write a short note on Data View.

The Data View shows a spreadsheet view of the cases (rows) and variables (columns). The data view contains numbers and text. It can not accept formulas.

19. Write a short note on Variable View.

The variable view displays are the metadata dictionary where each row Represents a variable and shows the variable name, variable label, value label(s), print width, measurement type and a variety of other characteristics.

20. What do mean by correlation? Correlation analysis is tool of determining the degree of relationship between the Variables.

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai

21. Define Sorting.

Sorting defines the order in which data are arranged in the data file and Displayed on your screen.

22. What is positive correlation?

Two variables are said to be positively correlated if both variables are change in the same direction. i.e. increase in one variable value will increase the other variable at the same time decrease in one value of variable leads to decrease in another.

23. What is negative correlation?

If the two variable change in opposite directions they are called negative correlation.

24. State the methods of studying correlation.

Scatter Diagram Method Graphic Method Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of correlation Rank method Concurrent Deviation Method Method of Least Squares.

25. Bring out the basic difference between correlation and regression.

Correlation coefficient is a measure of degree of co variability between two variables where regression analysis is to study the nature of relationships between two variables.

26. How do you express the regression equation of Y on X?

Y = a + b X

27. How do you express the regression equation of X on Y?

X = a + b X

28. State the purpose of computing correlation co efficient.

Correlation coefficient is used to simply compare two factors to see how closely those factors correlate to another.

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai

29. State the purpose of doing chi square analysis.

The Chi Square test is used to test the significant different between observed and expected frequencies. Always the Chi-Square test is used to test whether there is significant difference exists between two variables.

30. Define the word ‘Average’.

Average is an attempt to find one single figure to describe whole of figures.

31. What are the important types of average?

Arithmetic Mean (i) simple Median Mode Geometric Mean Harmonic Mean

32. What is cross tabulation?

(ii) weighted

A table that shows the relationship between two or more variables by presenting all a combination of categories of variables is called as Cross tabulation.

33. What do you mean by frequencies?

Tables showing what number or percentage of respondents gave each answer to a question are called as frequencies.

34. Explain the term ‘Non Parametric test’.

Nonparametric tests — Statistical tests that require either no assumptions or very few assumptions about a population’s distribution.

35. What is an Hypothesis?

Hypothesis is an assumed statement which should be proved or disproved while doing the research analysis.

36. State the types of Hypothesis.

Null Hypothesis Alternate Hypothesis

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37.How do you infer the chi square analysis in SPSS output.

If the value is less than

.05 the Null Hypothesis should be rejected.

If the value is greater than .05 the Null Hypothesis should be accepted.

38. Define Research.

Research is the serious academic activity with the set of objectives to identify and find the problem or find the solutions to the problem by systematic way of organizing, collecting and analyzing the data related to the problem.

39. What is full form of ANOVA and ANACOVA.


– Analysis of Variance


- Analysis of Covariance

40. What is a sample?

A sample is the part of the population under study.

41. What is Population?

Population refers to the whole of area under study or in simple terms, population refers the whole people related to a particular research problem.

42. What is MANOVA and MANCOVA?


– Multiple Analysis of Variance

MANACOVA - Multiple Analysis of Covariance.

43. Define Variance.

Variance: a measure of how data points differ from the mean

44. Explain the term research design.

Research Design refers to the step by step approach towards research. It explains the sequence of activities involved while conducting the research.

45. What is desk research?

All types of research conducted with in the organizations are called desk research.

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai

46. What is documentary research?

Documentary research involves the use of texts and documents as source materials: government publications, newspapers, certificates, census publications, novels, film and video, paintings, personal photographs, diaries and innumerable other written, visual and pictorial sources in paper, electronic, or other `hard copy' form.

47. What is mapping?

It is a valuable technique for visually displaying relationship between data related to the problem.

48. State the differences between Qualitative and Quantitative research.

Qualitative research is based on quality attributes of the Data. Where as Quantitative research is based on quantity attributes of the data.

49. What is cross sectional survey?

It refers to the survey of combination of clinical and community Population.

50. What do you meant by interpretation of data?

Interpretation of data means giving meaning to numeric obtained from the statistical research analysis.










Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai




What Makes SPSS Unique

For more than 37 years, SPSS has been the clear leader in analytics technology. Here are some of the reasons that customers have selected SPSS software to drive their decision making:

A history of innovation

Solving organization's most challenging business issues

A complete, 360° view into customers

Comprehensive predictive analytics technology

An integrated, enterprise-scalable platform

Real-time decision optimization capabilities

Easy integration with operational systems

Open, standards-based architecture

A faster return on your software investment

A lower total cost of ownership (TCO)

A History of Innovation in Analytics Technologies

SPSS is the leader in predictive analytics technologies. For more than 37 years, SPSS has enabled its customers—more than 120,000 corporations, academic institutions, healthcare providers, market research companies and government agencies—to better focus their operations and improve their performance. Our software helps organizations optimize interactions with their customers, regardless of whether they're patrons, employees, patients, students, or citizens, and ensure that the actions they are taking today will positively affect their ability to reach tomorrow's goals.

SPSS customers include:

Customers in more than 100 countries around the world use SPSS analytics

Both the Republican and Democratic parties poll citizens using analytics from SPSS

All 50 U.S. state governments use analytics from SPSS

The top 10 largest market research firms use SPSS software

More than 90% of the top U.S. universities use SPSS software

More than 85% of the top consumer packaged goods companies use SPSS analytics

The top 10 pharmaceutical companies in the world use SPSS analytics

The largest newspaper companies in the U.S. use SPSS software

Solving Organizations' Most Challenging Business Issues

Whether you're a commercial organization seeking to attract or retain customers more efficiently, increase the value of existing customers, or minimize losses due to fraud, SPSS has a solution designed to meet the needs of your business.

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Government agencies use SPSS predictive analytics software to detect fraud, non-compliance with laws or regulations, and to protect public safety and provide homeland security. Educational institutions use predictive analytics to manage resources by predicting demand for programs, and to raise funds cost effectively. Non-profit organizations use these technologies to anticipate program demand and raise funds. Scientific and healthcare organizations carry out lifesaving research, improve patient outcomes, and manage their business operations effectively, through the use of predictive analytics.

For more than three decades, SPSS has enabled organizations to anticipate and quantify changes in people's attitudes, preferences, and behavior so that they can confidently adapt strategies and tactics to meet their goals.

A True 360° View of Your Customers

In this era of increased competition for customers, organizations that capitalize on their customer interactions at every touch point achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. To gain this, however, you need more than just a customer's transaction history and demographic information. You must understand their opinions and attitudes, what they say or write, and what they do when they visit your Web site.

SPSS solutions help you both understand and predict customer behavior by using a unique combination of historical and demographic data from your operational systems and attitudinal data gathered through the many channels you use to communicate with your customers— your call center, Web site, surveys, and other vehicles. Our software enables you to develop in-depth customer understanding by using all of your customer information together, both traditional structured data and unstructured data, such as call center notes and responses to open-ended survey questions. No longer will critical customer insights remain hidden and unused in data silos. The result is a 360° view of your customers—a comprehensive picture that enables you to act quickly and effectively—and gives you a decisive advantage over your competitors.

Comprehensive Predictive Analytics

SPSS predictive analytics software improves business processes by directing, optimizing, and automating decisions made throughout an organization. Predictive analytics includes both the analysis of past, present, and projected future outcomes using advanced analytics, and decision optimization for determining which action will drive the optimal outcome. The recommended action is then delivered to the systems or people that can effectively implement it. Unlike other vendors that offer either limited predictive capabilities or predictive analytics that cannot be deployed enterprise-wide, SPSS' comprehensive technology is highly scalable and interoperable, enabling you to perform predictive analytics across disparate data sources and leverage your existing technology investments.

An Integrated Platform for Predictive Analytics

Unlike an isolated analytics tool with limited applicability or an elementary analytics component that meets only a fraction of your business objectives, SPSS technology is robust and expandable. With SPSS software you can address your enterprise's predictive analytic needs, whether they require reporting, statistics, data mining, text analysis, Web analytics, survey analysis, decision optimization, or a combination of these capabilities. Our integrated technology suite is designed to expand as your predictive needs grow.

Real-Time Decision Optimization: For Effective Decisions that Need to be Made Now

When interacting with customers—over the Web, on the telephone, through direct mail, in a store— SPSS technology can deliver a recommendation, along with supporting information, on the most appropriate action to take with that particular customer. Our software evaluates possible alternative actions, predicts which one a customer is likely to respond to, factors in which response will be most

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beneficial to your business, and then makes the recommendation to the systems or people that can take the action. The result is greater achievement of organizational goals, whether they're associated with revenue generation, cost reduction, customer retention, or fraud prevention.

Solutions that Easily Integrate with your Operational Systems

To maximize the value your organization gains from predictive analytics, it has to be made a part of your day-to-day business operations.

SPSS provides technology that allows businesses to easily and effectively use predictive results by embedding them within their existing applications, such as marketing campaign management systems, call center applications, and more. Our software integrates with software from a wide range of vendors, including Siebel Systems, Oracle/PeopleSoft, SAP, e.Piphany, and many others. By integrating predictive analytics into your operations, organizations gain measurable competitive advantage through the improvement of their business processes.

Open, Standards-Based Technology

SPSS software follows industry standards such as OLE DB for data access, XMLA for data/format sharing, PMML for predictive model sharing, SSL for Internet security management, and LDAP/Active Directory Services for authentication and authorization, just to name a few. Our technology is easy to learn, works with your existing data structures, and easily integrates with most CRM vendor's technology.

A Faster Return on Your Software Investment

Unlike many other software solutions, SPSS predictive analytics solutions don't require long implementation periods. Predictive analytics from SPSS can be implemented quickly, so your organization begins reaping immediate value. Customers are up and running within months, not years.

For example, BankFinancial, an 80+ year-old financial institution with more than $1.5 billion in assets, implemented an SPSS predictive analytics solution designed to optimize marketing campaigns. Within two months, the solution was up-and-running and the organization experienced a 700% increase in campaign response rates.

FBTO, an insurance company and part of the Achmea Group, one of the largest financial services providers in the Netherlands, implemented a predictive analytics solution from SPSS. In two months, FBTO achieved measurable increases in marketing response rates and lower overall marketing costs.

A Lower Total Cost of Ownership

Your organization has already made investments in data storage, operational systems, customer relationship management solutions, IT infrastructure and, of course, in staffing. Unlike other vendors, who require additional investments in hardware and components such as proprietary databases in order to effectively implement their solutions, SPSS technology is designed to work with your existing technology infrastructure and staff resources.

To match the standard functionality of SPSS technology, competitors often require customers to invest in an extensive IT infrastructure as well as purchase critical functional components "a la carte." SPSS keeps your cost of ownership low by providing you with open technology and flexible licensing options. Our software products integrate both with each other and with your existing systems, so you get exactly what you need to accomplish your goals.

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai

Explain the Windows provided in SPSS.

SPSS provides specialized window types for end users. In the SPSS object model,these windows correspond to OLE Automation document objects that have methodsand properties that support most of the functionality found in the user interface. The window types, their purpose for the end user, and the corresponding OLE Automation object can be summarized as follows:

Data Editor. The working data file is displayed in the Data Editor, which is a spreadsheet-like system for entering and editing data. The corresponding OLE Automation object is Spss. Data document.

Viewer. All statistical results, tables, charts, and other output are displayed in the Viewer. The Viewer makes it easy to browse and edit your results, selectively show and hide output, and move presentation-quality output items (for example, tables and charts) between SPSS and other applications. The corresponding OLE Automation object is ISpssOutputDoc.

Draft Viewer. Output is displayed as simple text (instead of presentation-quality output items) in the Draft Viewer. Editing is limited. The corresponding OLE Automation object is ISpssDraftDoc.

Syntax. Syntax is displayed and edited in the syntax window. You can type the syntax

directly or create command syntax by pasting dialog box choices into a syntax window,

where your selections appear in the form of command syntax. You can save these

commands in a file for use in subsequent SPSS sessions. The corresponding OLE Automation

object is Spss SyntaxDoc.

Script. The script window provides a programming environment for SPSS scripts. Scripts allow you to customize and automate many tasks in SPSS. The script window doesn’t have a corresponding OLE Automation object—it is a programming environment.

Dr. S. Muthumani/Department of Management Studies/Sathyabama University/Chennai