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# Fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing

## Nathan Henry and Nicholas Cemenenkoff

Let's draw a squiggly line that doesn't intersect itself with a pencil. Then we'll take a blue pen and place four or ve dots anywhere along the pencil line and connect each dot. Comparing the lines created a zig-zagging geometric line and a free-owing, spontaneous line - we see that they don't exactly match up. The blue line sort of follows the squiggle's path, but obviously not exactly. But what if we drew the rst pencil squiggle, but then created a blue line comprised of 50 dots? The blue line would look much more like the squiggle. 200 dots? It'd probably just be made of dots and t almost exactly. In essence, adding more dots increases the amount of data derived from the pencil squiggle, the signal. Digital signal processing is the art of converting a continuously changing analog waveform into a series of discrete digital levels. Much like adding blue dots on a pencil line, the analog waveform is sliced into equal segments and the resulting waveform amplitude is measurable from the middle of each segment. Figure 1: A Pencil Squiggle and a Blue Line 

breaking it down into a linear combination of the basis vectors such that
f (x) = a1 e1 + + an en

Approaching the subject mathematically, let's say we are given a function space V with basis = {b1 , ... , bn }, and within this space we want to approach, or approximate the analog function f () by

In fact, Fourier was the one to rst come up with a groundbreaking theorem for this type of problem, and in it he proves that any continuous, periodic signal can be approximated as a sum of sines and cosines. So let's use those as our basis vectors and try to solve for the cocients, a1 , ... ., an . With a Fourier series, we are going to try to write a series representation for f (x) on L x L in the form,

f ( x) =
n=0

An cos

nx nx + Bn sin L L n=1

From our background in dierential equations and calculus, we see that a Fourier series is, in some way, a combination of the Fourier sine and Fourier cosine series. For now, it's not critically important to know if the series will actually converge to f (x), but we'll just assume it does. Next, we need to determine the coecients An and Bn . Now, cutting some corners here but bear with me, imagine the graphs of sine and cosine. They are perfectly opposite by inspection. It's a little long, but it's relatively simple to prove that the sets are mutually
nx nx and cos L L n=1 n=1 orthogonal on the interval L x L. The specic formulas for this principle are if n = m = 0 L 2L nx mx cos cos dx = L if n = m = 0 L L L 0 if n = m sin

sin
L

mx nx sin dx = L L

L 0

if n = m if n = m
mx L

So let's start o by multiplying both sides of the series above, f (x), by cos L to L.

## and integrating from

f ( x) =
n=0

An cos

nx nx + Bn sin L L n=1
L

mx f (x) cos dx = L L

## nx mx An cos cos dx + L L L n=0

Bn sin
L n=1

nx mx cos dx L L

Integral signs are just fancy summation symbols. So let's change them around just for shits and giggles.

f (x) cos
L

mx dx = An L n=0

cos
L

nx mx cos dx + Bn L L n=1

sin
L

nx mx cos dx L L

Now we'll take advantage of the fact that the sines and cosines are mutually orthogonal. The integral in the second series will always be zero and in the rst series, the integral will be zero if n = m. This reduces to

f (x) cos
L

mx dx = L

Am (2L) Am (L)

if n = m = 0 if n = m = 0

## Solving for Am gives

A0 = 1 = L
L

1 2L

f (x) dx
L

Am

f (x) cos
L

mx dx L

m = 1, 2, 3, ...
mx L

Now, do it all over again, ya varmint! But this time, multiply both sides by sin sides from L to L and interchange the integral and summation to get
mx dx = An f (x) sin L L n=0
L

. Integrate both

## nx mx sin dx + Bn cos L L L n=1

sin
L

nx mx sin dx L L

In this case the integral in the rst series will always be zero and the second will be zero if n = m and so we get

f (x) sin
L

mx dx = Bm (L) L

## Finally, solving for Bm gives,

Bm 1 = L
L

f (x) sin
L

mx dx L

m = 1, 2, 3, ...

With Fourier sine and Fourier cosine series, since the functions are conveniently even, it's quite easy to show a reduced form of the coecients in terms of an integral from 0 to L. However, since this Fourier series, or Fourier transform is arbitrary, we have no idea whether f (x) is even, odd, or neither. So there it is right there! 2