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LEED Green Associate Study Guide

LEED Green Associate Study Guide A Study Resource for Green Building and LEED Core Concepts and

A Study Resource for Green Building and LEED Core Concepts and the LEED Green Associate Exam Process

2009

Study Guide A Study Resource for Green Building and LEED Core Concepts and the LEED Green

LEED Green Associate Study Guide

2009 Edition published: 01 January, 2011

NOTICE

DISCLAIMER

THIS STUDY GUIDE IS PROVIDED BY Studio4 LLC ON AN “AS IS” BASIS. Studio4 LLC MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED AS TO THE INFORMATION, CONTENT, MATERIALS OR PRODUCTS INCLUDED IN THIS DOCUMENT. TO THE FULL EXTENT PERMISSIBLE BY APPLICABLE LAW, Studio4 LLC DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Studio4 LLC WILL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES OF ANY KIND ARISING FROM THE USE OF THESE MATERIALS INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, AND CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.

The materials herein are intended to be used as supplemental study materials for preparation of the LEED Green Associate examination. This study guide should be considered as a supplement to the study materials as recommended by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) and the Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI). Studio4 LLC makes no guarantees for passing the LEED Green Associate examination. As a condition of use, the user covenants not to sue and agrees to waive and release Studio4 LLC, its officers, directors and volunteers from any and all claims, demands and causes of action for any injuries or losses that the user may now or hereafter have a right to assert against such parties as a result of the use of, or reliance on, this study guide.

COPYRIGHT All content included in this study guide is the property of Studio4 LLC and is protected by U.S. copyright laws. You are not permitted to modify, distribute, reproduce, publish, transmit or create derivative documents from any material in this document for any private, public or commercial purposes. You may download a copy of the study guide for personal, non-commercial use, provided that you do not remove any copyright, trademark or other proprietary notices from the downloaded materials without prior written approval from Studio4 LLC.

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or through the website at www.studio4llc.com. ii | Chapter 1 LEED® Green Associate Study Guide ©

LEED® Green Associate Study Guide

© 2011 Studio4 LLC All Rights Reserved

Table of Contents

Green Associate Study Guide

 

i

Notice

ii

Disclaimer

 

ii

Copyright

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CHAPTER

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1

Introductory conversations into sustainable design and construction and the associated benefits of the roles of the LEED AP and LEED rating sysems

 

Introduction

1

About this Study Guide

2

Why Bother with LEED® Certification?

3

LEED® vs Green

4

Integrated Design Process

5

Green Trend Forecasting

6

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8

An analysis between conventional construction techniques versus green building strategies and the environmental impacts associated with each

 

Green Building

 

8

The Argument for Building Green

9

The Sustainable Parts of Green Design

10

Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost

11

The Integrated Design Approach

11

The Integrated Process

12

The Building Program

13

Credit Interactions

13

Harvard University Office of Sustainability Green Building Resource

13

Green Building Costs

15

Green Building Benefits

15

Hard Costs

15

Soft Costs

15

Life Cycle Costs

15

Economic Benefits

16

Health and Community Benefits

16

Environmental Benefits

16

ENERGY STAR

16

Final Thoughts

17

Terminology to know

17

Thoughts to keep

17

Green Associate Study Guide

STAR 16 Final Thoughts 17 Terminology to know 17 Thoughts to keep 17 Green Associate Study

Table of Contents

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A review of the U.S. Green Building Council, Green Building Certification Institute, LEED and the processes required for, and associated with, LEED certification

U.S. Green Building Council

20

Introduction

21

USGBC’s Mission

22

USGBC’s Vision

22

U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)

22

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

22

The Triple Bottom Line

22

Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI)

23

LEED Green Building Rating Systems

23

LEED Rating Systems: Project Types and Sustainable Categories

23

LEED Rating Systems: Summary Overview and Use Guidance

24

Multiple Certifications

26

LEED Reference Guides

26

Rating System Structure

26

Prerequisite and Credit Structure

27

LEED 2009

28

Credit Harmonization

28

Credit Weightings

28

Carbon Overlay

28

Regionalization

29

Credit Interpretation Request (CIRs)

29

Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs)

30

Registration and Certification Process

31

GBCI

31

LEED Online

31

Project Checklist

31

Credit Forms and Calculators

31

Charrette

32

Project Administrator

32

LEED AP

32

LEED Certification

32

Certification Process: General

33

Certification Process: Overview

34

Certification Process: Detailed

34

LEED for Homes

39

LEED Accreditation

40

USGBC Portfolio Program

42

Green Associate Study Guide

34 LEED for Homes 39 LEED Accreditation 40 USGBC Portfolio Program 42 Green Associate Study Guide

Table of Contents

LEED Technical Advisory Group (TAG)

42

USGBC/GBCI Trademark Guidelines

42

Final Thoughts

43

Terminology to know

43

Thoughts to keep

43

Studio4 Office Project: the Program Narrative

44

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48

The sustainable goals of the Sustainable Sites category address the following areas: site selection; transportation related emission reduction; stormwater management; heat island reduction; light pollution reduction; protection of existing habitats and ecosystems

 

Sustainable Sites (SS)

 

48

Credit Matrix

49

Site Related Boundaries

49

Building Footprint

49

Development Footprint

49

Property Boundary

49

Project Boundary

49

LEED Project Boundary

49

Introduction

50

Transportation

50

Site Selection

52

Site Design

53

Low Impact Development (LID)

55

Stormwater Management

55

Heat Island Effect

57

Light Pollution Reduction

59

Development Density and Community Connectivity

60

Full Time Equivalents (FTEs)

62

Codes & Referenced Standards

63

Final Thoughts

64

Terminology to know

64

Thoughts to keep - the Triple Bottom Line (People, Planet, Profit)

65

Studio4 Office Project: Sustainable Sites

69

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80

The sustainable goals of the Water Efficiency category address the following areas: Indoor potable water reduction; outdoor potable water reduction; water efficiency as a teaching tool

 

Water Efficiency (WE)

 

80

Credit Matrix

 

81

Introduction

81

Green Associate Study Guide

Water Efficiency (WE)   80 Credit Matrix   81 Introduction 81 Green Associate Study Guide

Table of Contents

Water Type Definitions

81

Indoor Potable Water Use Reduction

82

Outdoor Potable Water Use Reduction

82

Additional Benefits of Potable Water Use Reduction

82

Water Efficiency as a Teaching Tool

82

Water Efficient Strategies

82

Codes & Referenced Standards

85

Final Thoughts

86

Terminology to know

86

Thoughts to keep - the Triple Bottom Line (People, Planet, Profit)

86

Studio4 Office Project: Water Efficiency

88

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92

The sustainable goals of the Energy and Atmosphere category address the following areas: reducing energy demand; increasing energy efficiency; building and building systems commissioning; managing refrigerants; renewable energy; ongoing energy performance

 

Energy and Atmosphere (EA)

 

92

Credit Matrix

93

Introduction

93

Energy Demand

94

Energy Efficiency

95

Energy Simulation

95

Renewable Energy

96

Ongoing Energy Performance

97

Building Commissioning

98

Monitoring and Verification

99

Managing Refrigerants to Eliminate CFCs

99

Codes & Referenced Standards

100

Final Thoughts

101

Terminology to know

101

Thoughts to keep - the Triple Bottom Line (People, Planet, Profit)

102

Studio4 Office Project: Energy and Atmosphere

104

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110

ThesustainablegoalsoftheMaterialsandResourcescategoryaddressthefollowing areas: sustainable construction and materials selection; waste management

 

Materials and Resources (MR)

 

110

Credit Matrix

111

Introduction

111

Life Cycle Impacts

111

Sustainable Materials

112

Green Associate Study Guide

111 Introduction 111 Life Cycle Impacts 111 Sustainable Materials 112 Green Associate Study Guide

Table of Contents

Construction Waste Reduction

112

Source Reduction

112

Reuse and Recycling

112

Waste Management

112

Calculating Material Costs

113

Materials and Resources Credit Metrics

113

Sustainable Material Selection Strategies

113

Storage and Collection of Recyclables

113

Building Reuse: Maintain Existing Walls, Floors and Roof

113

Building Reuse: Maintain Interior Nonstructural Elements

114

Materials Reuse

114

Recycled Content

114

Regional Materials

114

Rapidly Renewable Materials

114

Sustainable Purchasing Policies

114

Consider purchasing third party certification sustainable products

115

Codes & Referenced Standards

115

Final Thoughts

115

Terminology to know

115

Thoughts to keep- the Triple Bottom Line (People, Planet, Profit)

116

Studio4 Office Project: Materials and Resources

119

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124

The sustainable goals of the Indoor Environmental Quality category address the following areas: indoor air quality; thermal comfort, lighting and acoustics

 

Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)

 

124

Credit Matrix

125

Introduction

125

Ventilation

126

Contaminants

126

Material Selection

127

Occupant Control of Systems

127

Daylight and Views

128

Acoustics

128

Core & Shell (CS)

128

Schools

128

Codes & Referenced Standards

129

Final Thoughts

130

Terminology to know

130

Thoughts to keep - the Triple Bottom Line (People, Planet, Profit)

130

Studio4 Office Project: Indoor Environmental Quality

132

Green Associate Study Guide

Planet, Profit) 130 Studio4 Office Project: Indoor Environmental Quality 132 Green Associate Study Guide

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140

The Innovation in Design credit category awards bonus points for projects that use new and innovative technologies and strategies to improve a building’s performance and for including a LEED Accredited Professional on the team

 

Innovation in Design (ID)

 

140

Credit Matrix

141

Introduction

141

ID Credit 1: Innovation in Design

142

Innovation in Design (Innovative Performance)

142

Exemplary Performance

142

Rating System ID Points

143

ID Credit 1: Innovation in Design

143

Path 1: Innovation in Design (Innovative Performance)

143

Path 2: Exemplary Performance

143

ID Credit 2: LEED Accredited Professional

143

ID Credit 3: The School as a Teaching Tool

143

Studio4 Office Project: Innovation in Design

144

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USGBC has identified environmental concerns that are important for every region of the country and offers bonus points for credits that address those regional priorities

 

Regional Priority (RP)

 

146

Credit Matrix

147

Regional Priority Credits

147

Studio4 Office Project: Regional Priority

148

Studio4 Office Project: Certification Summary

150

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The LEED Green Associate accreditation is for professionals who want to demonstrate green building expertise in non-technical fields of practice denoting basic knowledge of green design, construction, and operations

 

LEED Green Associate Exam

 

152

LEED Green Associate Exam

153

Study Materials

153

4 Steps for Exam Preparation

153

Getting Started

154

Examination Eligibility Requirements

154

Applying for the Exam

154

Registration and Scheduling

155

LEED Green Associate Application and Exam Fees

155

Testing Rules & Regulations

155

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Green Associate Application and Exam Fees 155 Testing Rules & Regulations 155 Green Associate Study Guide

Table of Contents

One Month Before Your Exam

156

One Week Before Your Exam

156

The Day of Your Exam

156

Examination Format

156

Miscellaneous

156

Passing the Exam

157

Failing the Exam

157

Certificates

157

Exam Specifications

157

LEED Credentialing

158

5 Things Every Candidate Should Know

158

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A directory of the seven primary areas of study recommended for preparation of the Green Associate examination

 

The Seven Domains

 

160

1. Synergistic Opportunities and LEED Application Process

161

2. Project Site Factors

163

3. Water Management

163

4. Project Systems and Energy Impacts

163

5. Acquisition, Installation, and Management of Project Materials

163

6. Stakeholder Involvement in Innovation

164

7. Project Surroundings and Public Outreach

164

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Acronyms, abbreviations and definitions that may be unfamiliar or have specific meanings in the context of sustainability and green building

 

Acronyms & Glossary of Terms

 

166

Acronyms & Abbreviations

167

Glossary of Terms

171

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216

Green resource links, charts, processes, fees, credit interactions, referenced standards and miscellaneous support information

 

Appendix

216

Green Resources

 

217

Websites

217

Publications

217

Blogs

217

Green Associate Study Guide

Green Resources   217 Websites 217 Publications 217 Blogs 217 Green Associate Study Guide

Table of Contents

USGBC & GBCI Organizational Chart

219

Six Steps to Certification

220

Project Certification Fees

221

LEED Rating Systems & Reference Guides

222

LEED Rating Systems Reference Guides

223

Project Checklist Sample

224

Credit Form Sample

225

Commissioning Process

226

Commissioning Authority

226

Tasks and Responsibilities

227

Referenced Standards

228

Referenced Standards

238

Credit Interactions

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Green Associate Study Guide

Referenced Standards 228 Referenced Standards 238 Credit Interactions 242 Green Associate Study Guide

Personal involvement with sustainable ideals is a noblecause,regardlessthephilosophicaldifferences we may have with regard to the issues at hand and how these issues are best addressed. Being committed to our sustainable goals in a responsible manner can deliver a process of educated dialog that will help safeguard the environment for this generation and beyond.

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the environment for this generation and beyond. CHAPTER | 1 Introduction » About this Study Guide

Introduction

» About this Study Guide

» Commentaries: the Value of LEED

» Why Bother with LEED Certification

» LEED vs Green

» Integrated Design Process

» Green Trend Forecasting

of LEED » Why Bother with LEED Certification » LEED vs Green » Integrated Design Process

1

Introduction

About this Study Guide

The Studio4 study guide is a third party resource and recommended to be used as a supplement to USGBC and GBCI materials. It would be nearly impossible for any third party study material to accurately and completely convey the complete message USGBC promotes relative to green and sustainable knowledge. As such, those who plan to take any LEED exam are encouraged to purchase and download materials as recommended by USGBC. Much of this study guide is focused on information and strategies contained within the Green Associate Candidate Handbook, the Green Building and Core Concepts Guide and the 2009 LEED Reference Guide for Green Building Design and Construction in an effort to accurately assess what LEED promotes and teaches. USGBC has made a commitment to see that the LEED processes and information highways are frequently updated to meet ever changing demands. Therefore, it becomes exceedingly important to be connected in order to remain current. Throughout this guide, including the first page of the Appendix, are links to USGBC and GBCI web sites as well as links to additional green resource sites. You will see two terms repeated over and over and over - Integrated Design and Synergies. These are the two most important aspects to understanding what makes a sustainable project successful.

To assist in understanding green building and LEED’s relationship to sustainability, a LEED project has been developed that progressively builds at the end of each sustainable category chapter. Creating this project from site selection to credit selection will present a broad overview of the integrated design approach for achieving credits in order to produce a cost effective, high performance building. However, the underlying purpose for creating this project is to relate the sustainable items discussed in the chapter to a more detailed review of the process as to how green strategies are implemented. This content extends beyond that required for the Green Associate exam and need not be studied in great detail, but viewed as a source to understand how LEED is used as a tool for the development of green projects. The Studio4 Office Project is introduced at the conclusion of the USGBC chapter and continues at the conclusion of each sustainable category chapter.

Passing the LEED Green Associate exam, Part 1, is a requirement when continuing forward toward a Tier II LEED AP with Specialty exam, Part 2. It would benefit all exam candidates to consider other resources such as online tests offered by third parties. These tests offer much more than simply answering questions correctly, as they provide a computer based experience similar to that which will be encountered at the actual test site. One such source for online tests is Green Building Education Services ( http://www.greenexamprep.com/ ). Also consider quality green educational sites such as LEEDuser ( http://www.leeduser.com/ ). Blogsites like Real Life LEED offer valuable and current insight with regards to USGBC/GBCI/LEED ( http://www.reallifeleed.com/ ). If you encounter difficulties in understanding any aspect of LEED, sign onto the LEED section of the ARE forum and post a question, or simply observe the ongoing dialog ( http://www.areforum.org/ ).

Commentaries: the Value of LEED

The following four pages are commentaries in support of the value LEED provides in establishing benchmarks for achieving sustainable goals through the design and construction of our built environments and how to protect of our natural resources, while providing more efficient and healthier places to live, work and play.

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and healthier places to live, work and play. 2 | Chapter 1 LEED® Green Associate Study

LEED® Green Associate Study Guide

© 2011 Studio4 LLC All Rights Reserved

Introduction

Why Bother with LEED® Certification?

Part one: Intrinsic Benefits

Building owners often question the additional time and expense involved with registering a building for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED (Registered)) certification through the United States Green Building Council (USGBC), versus just simply including ‘’green’’ features in a project. There are several reasons why owners choose to have their buildings certified through the various LEED Rating Systems. Some building owners feel that environmentally, it is the right thing to do. Others make the decision to pursue LEED due to requirements of their own governing body. Still other building owners pursue a financial incentive offered through their local government or parent organization. Essentially, there are three general reasons why building owners should seek Certification: commitment, legitimacy, and marketability.

Commitment. By registering your project with the USGBC you are committing to design and construct your building to the standards and requirements outlined by the LEED Rating System. Your design team and your building’s contractor are then committed to integrating those design features to ensure that your building is more durable, healthy and more energy efficient. Through the rigors of budget, programming, or other project challenges, these ‘’green’’ features will remain because you and your team decided to produce a building that merits LEED Certification and national recognition for its sustainability.

Legitimacy. In the face of widespread ‘’green washing’’ (i.e.: the attempt by businesses or individuals to mislead consumers as to the environmental practices of a company or the environmental benefits of a product or service), LEED Certification tells your peers, clients and customers, that your building’s sustainable features have been verified by a third party to promote energy conservation, to ensure a healthier indoor environment and to reduce its impact on the environment. LEED is a consensus-based system, meaning one that was commented and voted upon by the USGBC’s diverse membership. It ensures that your project team didn’t just invent the ‘’green’’ requirements on your own or design your project to some arbitrary definition of sustainability. Instead, thousands of professionals (there are over 100,000 LEED Accredited Professionals within the USGBC) collaborated, discussed and agreed upon these requirements.

Marketability. A LEED Certified headquarters, branch office, retail location, or elementary school is a strong marketing tool to show the community that your organization is committed to something greater than itself. It demonstrates that you were willing to make the extra effort to not only include those features, but also to have them confirmed - better yet Certified - by a nationally and internationally recognized leader in the field. The LEED Rating System is a tool that can help create a space that will enhance your employees’, clients’, or students’ everyday environment while reducing operating and maintenance costs as well as decreasing its impact on the environment. LEED Certification demonstrates how it was accomplished.

Michael Senger, LEED AP, is a Mechanical Engineer with Heapy Engineering. Involved in over 100 LEED projects and with +50 LEED Accredited Professional on staff, Heapy Engineering is one of the leading sustainable design firms in the country. Michael is also a Board Member of the Cincinnati Regional Chapter of the USGBC.

LEED® Green Associate Study Guide

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Regional Chapter of the USGBC. LEED® Green Associate Study Guide © 2011 Studio4 LLC All Rights

Chapter 1 |

3

Introduction

LEED® vs Green

Three years ago, my team of graduate engineering students was presenting the energy, environmental,

and economic analysis for the construction of a net-zero energy building. The client patiently listened,

asked questions, and then dictated a verdict and calculations had paid off.

Next, we assembled a professional design team to take the project from concept to concrete. The house would have it all: net-zero energy use, a sustainable project site, low water use, and sustainable materials. The idea of LEED certification was brought up and immediately dismissed by the team. Why would our building need such a stamp of approval when we knew just how good the design was? No one knew just how wrong we were. Throughout the various stages of design, our student team lamented as the green features were removed. Once completed, the building would retain its net-zero energy status, but had lost all other important green features.

My current projects are larger and more expensive than that small house. But, the values of the lessons

learned during my final years as a graduate student are greater than any that I have learned. I have come

to realize the true value of the LEED rating system as a necessity to truly attain sustainable (‘’green’’)

design.

we had the financial green light. Years of analysis, research,

During my career, I have seen project teams make 70% of the design decisions while spending just the first 1% of the design budget. Thus, it becomes a daunting task to retroactively set project goals specifically sustainability goals. The less prominent the goal, the more likely the feature necessary to attain that goal will fall by the wayside or be ‘’value-engineered’’ from the project.

The LEED Rating System is a tool that a design team uses in order to insure that a project’s green features are properly designed, constructed, and accounted for. Human error pervades the construction process. Examples of such errors include ordering the wrong product, calculation mistakes, or forgetting a step

in a process. The LEED process, by no means ensures a perfect building. However, many portions of

the LEED process act to significantly decrease such errors. One of the most prominent examples is the Commissioning process, which is a service that all owners will benefit from, regardless of project scope, size, or cost.

Once the entire project has been completed, the owner asks, ‘’What insures that I now own and operate a green building?’’ If the project has achieved LEED Certification, the team can be certain of their answer. The entire project team knows which goals have been successfully achieved, how much energy and water the building should save, and what type of indoor environment has been created for the building occupants.

A holistic perspective is necessary to grasp the true impact of a third-party rating system such as

LEED. The LEED Rating system has two major components. First, LEED promotes general sustainability oriented features such as bike racks and daylighting. Second, LEED is a group of ‘’best-practice’’ codes and standards compiled to influence the construction industry. When projects pursue LEED Certification, the market is driven to provide goods and services that attain the standards that have been chosen. Each LEED-Certified project strengthens the green building movement, pushes for products that are less impactful on people and the environment, and enables property owners to truly know just how ‘’green’’ their building is.

Greg Raffio, LEED AP, is with Heapy Engineering

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Raffio, LEED AP, is with Heapy Engineering 4 | Chapter 1 LEED® Green Associate Study Guide

LEED® Green Associate Study Guide

© 2011 Studio4 LLC All Rights Reserved

Introduction

Integrated Design Process

The built and natural environments are inextricably and vitally linked. To create a high performance / sustainable facility, a collaborative design approach is essential for a successful outcome. The Integrated Design Process fosters knowledge-sharing among significant stakeholders during the development of a holistic design and leads to increased project value.

These stakeholders should be comprised of the owner group, key users, facilities directors, programmers, real estate managers, architects, commissioning agents, civil engineers, planners, mechanical engineers, interior designers, structural engineers, construction managers, electrical engineers, plumbing designers, landscape architects, and / or key specialty consultants. The General Contractor and / or the Construction Manager should also be included in this process to encourage the sharing of cost, scheduling and construction knowledge. This will also familiarize the contractor with the construction intent resulting in a more accurate bid and more efficient construction period.

During the traditional approach, design and construction professionals work somewhat independently on their respective area of expertise. One of two things can happen when consultants are added to the design process midstream. The new team member shares expertise that changes the project late in the process, requiring more time, effort and money to back track; or more commonly, the team decides not to pursue the new approach. In either case, the project and the owner suffer a consequence. ‘Value Engineering’ during design and construction becomes the norm, which leads to value loss.

The Integrated Design Process deviates from this traditional approach as it leverages the collective expertise as early as the pre-design phase, where the highest potentials and greatest values are realized. ‘Value’ engineering tends to generate project cuts, which successfully lessen the construction costs, but usually lessen the true value. The Integrated Design Process is vital to a successful work process, which can lessen the damages of ‘value’ engineering.

By bringing all the stakeholders to the design process early, intensive analysis and in-depth investigations can discover complementary and innovative project goals and design strategies when change costs less. This Integrated Design Team establishes project goals together while engaging in a productive exchange of ideas. The team understands, applies and tests these goals throughout the design process.

Stakeholders share their knowledge in multi-day charrette (brainstorming) formats; trade-offs and connections are recognized. Problems are reframed and better solutions are generated by creating an innovative and collaborative environment where each opinion matters. The entire team establishes and meets the project goals, objectives and major solutions. These charrettes frequently become rather lively and informal without jurisdiction. They are investigatory by nature, thoughtfully critiqued and leverage the expertise and resources of the team. Connections are made that typically are not immediately understood, such as how paint color impacts the mechanical load or how building orientation affects human productivity. Sometimes the most effective solutions have the lowest construction cost implications and might be undiscovered in a traditional design process.

By utilizing the Integrated Design Process, deep curiosity, thorough analysis and strategic, technical problem solving prevail, leading to a more comprehensive, cost effective and sustainable facility.

Chad Edwards, RA, LEED AP, is an Associate at Emersion Design and serves on the USGBC Cincinnati Regional Chapter Board of Directors.

LEED® Green Associate Study Guide

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Chapter Board of Directors. LEED® Green Associate Study Guide © 2011 Studio4 LLC All Rights Reserved

Chapter 1 |

5

Introduction

Green Trend Forecasting

Over the course of the last 8 years, Green talk has infiltrated everything. The number of ‘’Green Building’’ articles in newspapers has jumped from around 1,000 per year in 2000 to more than 9,000 in 2007. More cities and states are adopting green building incentives and policies (like Cincinnati and Ohio). Much of this has been attributed to the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED Rating system and its success. The USGBC has had a huge impact on the building industry as membership in the organization has grown by 50% every year for the last ten years. But there is something much larger at work in our world than the impact of LEED. Companies ranging from Wal-Mart to Starbucks are touting their sustainability initiatives, and it isn’t just limited to the United States. There are now Green Building Councils in twelve countries on five continents. Somewhere along the way, ‘green’ has crossed the line between a fad and a movement.

Motivations for companies going green vary widely, and aside from the obvious motivation of saving the planet, many organizations have gone green to save money, or even to simply improve their public image. Still others have started talking green just to ride the wave of dollars following as customers seek greener products, vehicles, homes, and offices. So what’s next? Amidst the green buzz, here are several trends in the green movement that visionary businesses should be preparing for.

The first green trend and the reason LEED has been successful, is third party verification. In a time when Chevron and BP make commercials about their sustainability missions, and green-washing claims like ‘all natural’ are everywhere, it is important to have verifiable definitions for what green really is. For buildings, that is LEED, but there are many other important third party verifications for the rest of our lives and businesses. The International Organization for Standardization is developing the 14000 series of ISO standards to define vocabulary and validate processes for product manufacturing and environmental impact management.

The second trend related to going green is rising energy costs. This should go without saying, but energy will only get more expensive before and if it ever gets cheaper. A comparison between investing the same amount of money in the S&P 500 or in energy efficiency for your building puts it all in perspective. Over the last ten years, the S&P 500 Index Fund has increased 36.8% while energy costs have risen 300%.

The phrase ‘’Blue collar jobs to Green collar jobs’’ is one of the hottest topics for politicians, and represents the third trend. With the global push for sustainability, the need for solar panel manufacturing and installing, wind turbine manufacturing, green product manufacturing, and an endless list of sustainable business opportunities justifies the name ‘’the Next Industrial Revolution’’.

Finally, savvy businesses recognize that by embracing sustainability at their core, employees will be proud to work there. When your job and your company is about more than just making widgets, a sense of loyalty and pride is inevitable, and as ‘Generation Y’ takes hold in the workforce, with their notorious ‘job-hopping’ tendencies, it is even more important for employers to recognize the recruitment potential of going green before their competitors do.

Shawn Hesse, of Emersion Design, was the 2008 Chair of the USGBC Cincinnati Chapter

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the 2008 Chair of the USGBC Cincinnati Chapter 6 | Chapter 1 LEED® Green Associate Study

LEED® Green Associate Study Guide

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Annually, buildings account for 39% of the total energy used and 72% of the electricity consumed in the U.S. Each day 5 billion gallons of potable water are used to flush toilets. Green building practices can substantially reduce negative environmental impacts through high performance, market leading design, construction and operations practices. Green operations and management reduces operating costs and increases workers’ productivity by improving indoor air quality.

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productivity by improving indoor air quality. CHAPTER | 2 Green Building » The Argument for Building

Green Building

» The Argument for Building Green

» The Sustainable Parts of Green Design

» Life Cycle Assessment & Life Cycle Cost

» The Integrated Design

» The Integrated Process

» The Building Program

» Credit Interactions

» Harvard University

» Green Building Costs

» Green Building Benefits

» ENERGY STAR

» Final Thoughts

Interactions » Harvard University » Green Building Costs » Green Building Benefits » ENERGY STAR »

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Green Building

The Argument for Building Green

When working on a LEED project, there are many decisions that will need to be made which transcend conventional wisdom with respect to our thinking, designing and developing the actual built product. Understanding the basic tenets of green building is paramount to progressing a successful sustainable project. Conventional building methods should be generally regarded as unfriendly assaults on the environment, our natural resources and our quality of life.

The design, construction and operation of conventional buildings:

Pre design

Lack of project team communication and coordination

Lack of sustainable support for site selection and building orientation/location

Lack of focus as a responsible member of the community

Poor stewardship of site during development

Loss of topsoil

Disregard for existing habitat and ecosystems

Lack of coordinated construction parking and material delivery storage areas

Project design

Excessive carbon dioxide emissions

Excessive use of energy and electricity

Excessive use of potable water

Excessive burden on our raw material resources

Poor indoor environmental quality

Construction practices

Poor waste management

Lack of sufficient building moisture protection

As such, conventional buildings account for:

14% of potable water consumption

30% of waste output

38% of carbon dioxide (CO 2 )emissions

40% of raw material use

39% of energy use

72% of electrical consumption

By definition, sustainability is the ability of the current generation to meet its own needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. With the projected population and construction growth, coupled with the vast amount of resources that our buildings consume, we are going to have to get a lot smarter about how we build.

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Green Building

Through a coordinated team effort and intelligent, educated design decisions, the goal of sustainable design, or “green” design, is to create high performance buildings that reduces life cycle costs, reduces environmental impacts related to infrastructure, increases employee productivity and increases the efficiency of building operations. While federal, state and local governments are adopting more sustainable building practices, government agencies, utility companies and manufacturers increasingly offer financial incentives to developers and owners to enhance the environmental performance of their buildings.

A GSA survey of 12 green buildings revealed the following savings and Improvements:

13% reduced maintenance costs

26% reduced energy usage

27% increased levels of occupant satisfaction

33% reduced carbon dioxide emissions

Additionally

sustainable green buildings successfully addresses the aforementioned concerns related to conventional design and construction practices

As LEED continues to grow in acceptance and projects get on board for certification, building codes are being rewritten to incorporate more sustainable mandates

The Sustainable Parts of Green Design

USGBC defines green building as the integrated effort of transforming the way built environments are designed, constructed and operated and encourages involvement from early planning to beyond the end of a structure’s life. Incorporating a holistic, or whole building, approach to the design and construction, green building produces high performance by focusing on sustainable categories as defined by LEED. With an integrated and holistic approach, the interaction, or synergies and trade-offs, between construction strategies is managed to maximize performance results. LEED channels green design through five sustainable categories as determined by the environmental issues being addressed.

The five sustainable categories of LEED (except LEED for Homes and LEED for Neighborhood Development) plus the two categories for ID and RP:

Development) plus the two categories for ID and RP: • Sustainable Sites (SS) • Water Efficiency

Sustainable Sites (SS)

Water Efficiency (WE)

Energy and Atmosphere (EA)

Materials and Resources (MR)

Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)

Innovation in Design (ID)

Regional Priority (RP)

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Green Building

Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a cradle-to-grave analysis that examines the building along with its materials and components. From their extraction, manufacture and transport, to their use, reuse, recycling and assumed disposal, the process of life cycle assessment minimizes the negative impacts on people and the environment. LCA is essential to sustainable design!

Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis assesses the total cost of ownership, taking into account all costs related to design and construction, ownership, operations and the eventual disposal of a building and its parts. By definition, sustainable design requires an analysis of a building over its entire life and life cycle cost analysis identifies which high performance building systems will save money over the life of the building. For example: Product A may cost less and have a life expectancy of 5 years whereas Product B may cost a little more but have a life expectancy of 15 years, making Product B a better choice due to it having a better life cycle cost.

Life Cycle Costs include:

Initial project design and construction costs - cradle

Building operating costs

Building maintenance, repair and replacement costs

Building salvage value at the end its life - grave

Value Engineering (VE ), when considering sustainability, can be defined as a ratio of function to cost, with the goal of improving performance, quality and life cycle cost. Conventionally however, value engineering is used as a cost cutting exercise, often late in the process when costs need to be cut from the budget, for whatever reason. When components are VE’d out of the project late, the project and the owner suffer a consequence. Value engineering tends to generate project cuts, which successfully lessen the construction costs, but usually lessen the true value. However, when using an integrated design process, considering value engineering with the life cycle cost of a building will reflect the efficiency of a building long after it is built and occupied.

The Integrated Design Approach

Any design process should begin by establishing parameters that define the goals of a project. These parameters are then transformed into rough visual representations, referred to as schematic designs. Schematic designs then become the theme that is used as the base for developing the final design/engineering that is eventually incorporated into the construction documents.

Architects, engineers, contractors and other stake holders traditionally work separately of each other, with minimal coordination and communication between the team members. This type of segregated design and limited communication restricts integration and subsequent synergistic opportunities, often leading to under or over designed systems.

In an integrated design approach, all stakeholders are brought into the project at the onset to discuss the project goals and requirements. At several checkpoints during the design process, reviews are conducted to verify that the owner’s requirements and goals are being met. Integrated design allows the stakeholders and design team to coordinate the design process so that each member is aware of all decisions made. This is critical as most decisions made relative to one discipline will have an affect on other disciplines. For instance, if the owner decides to

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Green Building

omit day lighting controls, this decision will most likely cause a change to the building’s heat gain, requiring additional cooling capacity while also increasing the electrical loads and energy consumption. Integrated and holistic design and understanding synergies are essential to meeting the sustainable goals of a green building. All interested parties must be gathered early, communicate often and coordinate their efforts collectively to ensure success.

The Integrated Process

The success of the integrated design process is dependant upon the makeup of the project team and its early integration into the project. For a typical sustainable project, the team members and their responsibilities would include:

Project Owner: defines the parameters of the project and often participates in the selection of the project team

LEED AP: optional member of the Project Team but can play an essential role in ensuring a successful sustainable project

Design Team:

Architect: design of the building and often coordinates the Design Team

Civil Engineer: design of the site development plan and related strategies such as storm water management; often, civil engineering firms have Landscape Architects on staff

Mechanical/Electrical/Plumbing (MEP) Engineers: design of the building’s mechanical systems such as HVAC, Plumbing, Electrical and Lighting, system controls

General Contractor/Contractor: construction related activities

Commissioning Authority: oversees the commissioning process to ensure compliance with the construction documents

Facilities/Maintenance Staff: oversees and maintains the building after occupancy and should be a participant in the integrated design process

Building Occupants: users of the building

Another important process is the development of a timeline for design and construction phase activities:

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Predesign: Information gathering and establishing goals (charrette)

Design:

Schematic Design (SD): prepare design options to establish project layout and scope

Design Development (DD): refinement of preliminary spaces and begin design of the building’s energy systems

Construction Documents (CD): completed detailed documents ready for permitting

Bidding: CDs sent for bids and subsequent award of contracts to prepare for construction

Construction: the processes involved with construction from beginning until occupancy

Substantial Completion: construction has been completed and could be occupied

Final Completion: all construction activities completed

Certificate of Occupancy: legal authorization by local building officials that project conforms to applicable codes

Occupancy: buildings can only be legally occupied after the Certificate of Occupancy has been issued.

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Green Building

The Building Program

The Project Team’s building program should include: the physical constraints of the project; general room by room description; the project’s environmental vision and goals and it’s design criteria and priorities; criteria for energy efficiency, indoor air quality, materials selection, waste and demolition recycling as well as other green requirements; consideration of the local cultural and climatic factors including ease of pedestrian and mass transit access; budget; schedule

Credit Interactions

One of the most critical aspects of a successful green project strategy is to understand the credit interactions, or synergies, that may develop when a credit is being considered. It would be difficult, at best, to recognize all the behind-the-scenes interactions taking place without developing an integrated project team. How one credit impacts other areas can have both positive, synergies, and negative, trade-offs, implications. A good project team will consider the fact that every decision they make will have, to some degree, an impact somewhere along the chain. Recognizing the importance of understanding synergies and trade-offs is just simply being a responsible professional.

An argument can be made that every action has an opposite and equal reaction. Certainly, every action has some degree of reaction and the importance here is, first, to recognizing these reactions and, second, analyzing the overall impact to the project as a whole. One of the simpler examples to use would be the issues related with ‘cool’ roofs. Obviously a cool roof with a lighter color will be of great value in a hot environment such as Florida. The roof would reflect much of the sun’s energy - allowing the building to be cooler - requiring less cooling - reducing the size of required HVAC equipment - resulting in less energy consumption. Great! This is what we’re striving for. Now take that ‘cool’ roof to the upper limits of Michigan. The absolute same reactions but NOT what we want in a colder climate. Cooler buildings equate to increased heating - requiring additional energy. This example, obviously, plays to the extreme side of the issues, but what about that cool roof somewhere in the middle of the country in a more moderate climate zone. Some decisions will be, as they say, no brainers. However, many will require a careful analysis into the pros and cons. This is why an integrated project team is important.

The Appendix has several charts listing all credits and their potential for interacting with other credits. Reviewing these credit interactions and understanding just the basics of synergies and trade-offs is important to understanding green LEED.

Harvard University Office of Sustainability Green Building Resource

The Harvard University Office of Sustainability Green Building Resource website is a treasure cove of information about sustainability. From Green Building Guidelines, the Integrated Design Approach, Implementation Tools, Credit-by-Credit LEED Roadmap, Energy Modeling, Life Cycle Costing, Case Studies and more, few sources offer or share more than Harvard does with their LEED projects.

The Integrated Design Approach is so critical to the success of sustainable projects that Harvard offers the Integrated Design Checklist, Integrated Design 101 (10 page summary analysis) and Roadmap for the Integrated Design Process (114 page Summary Guide and Reference Manual).

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Green Building

The following, taken from Harvard’s website, is a partial checklist of salient items relative to the Integrated Design Approach and is well worth promoting in this guide.

If it is important, ask for it: Include integrated design, sustainability, occupant education & LEED goals in RFP language, interview questions, and Owners Project Requirements.

Evaluate program needs: Work with building occupants and project team to assess an actual building program with space needs, and consider opportunities to share resources through adjacencies and providing communal amenities. By better understanding actual program needs, team members are more likely to work towards a common goal and create a successful project.

Establish measures for success: Set measurable sustainability targets for energy, water, daylight, etc. and require reporting on progress towards goals as part of all design submissions. For successful designs, consider financial incentives such as passing on tax credits or sharing energy savings or coming in under GMP.

Take advantage of available expertise: Include design charrettes in Concept and Schematic Design that include representatives from all major stakeholders including members of the owner’s team, design team, construction team, and possibly vendor’s team. See HGCI sample agendas.

Ask why: Question decisions made during building design and construction that were done based on “rules of thumb” or “business as usual.” Project teams should be prepared to look to alternatives to common strategies and develop solutions appropriate for their specific project. Each project is unique and technologies are constantly changing, so very few decisions should be taken for granted.

Model alternative building systems: Include energy modeling in Concept, Schematic, & Design Development with multiple parametric runs to evaluate major design decisions.

Design for operations and maintenance: Identify & include operations representative in charrettes, design meetings, and construction meetings. Provide comprehensive preventive maintenance plan and ensure effective training of operations and maintenance staff.

Commission throughout project: Engage a commissioning agent in Schematic Design and include thorough verification of building performance and plans for continuous commissioning throughout building’s life.

Consider life cycle costs: Identify Life Cycle Costing requirements early in design prior to selecting systems and require LCC results before making major design decisions. Utilize life cycle costs when evaluating systems rather than strictly first costs.

Consider alternative funding mechanisms: Make project team aware of local utility rebates, state and federal grant programs, power purchasing agreements and performance contracts and take advantage of these programs as appropriate. If the team is made aware of these opportunities early in the design process, they are more likely to suggest strategies to pursue these monies.

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Green Building

Meter and verify performance: Identify measurement and verification requirements for the project and include operations staff and controls vendor in design process.

Utilize lessons learned: Provide project team with access to and training for the High Performance Building Resource. Throughout the project, collect and share documentation including energy model files, LCC results, evaluation of consultants and contractors, and success stories.

Green Building Costs

The general belief that green buildings add costs to new construction projects is often misunderstood. With a basic LEED certified building, it is possible to design and construct green buildings at little or no additional cost. Although some studies show as little as a 2% cost increase for green building projects, the cost differential rises commensurate with the level of certification being sought. The more greenness a project seeks, the higher the resultant project costs.

Numerous options are available to eliminate or minimize extra costs for green buildings. In many regions, state, local and utility company incentives are available to cover costs associated with green design services or reducing the cost of specific energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies and products. Importantly, by incorporating a holistic design approach that takes advantage of the interaction of building systems by optimizing systems, other systems can shrink or be eliminated, offsetting the optimization costs. Also, some LEED credits may address strategies already written into local codes.

In every type of construction project, regardless if they are conventional or sustainable, there are 2 basic types of costs related to the project: the project’s hard costs and soft costs. With LEED, a third cost element, life cycle costs, are used for the purposes of factoring into the analysis the true value of a building over it’s lifetime.

Hard Costs: costs for expenditures related to the actual construction phases of the project such as sitework, concrete, masonry, roofing, interior finishes such as carpet and painting, mechanical systems, etc. In general, these are the costs paid to the general contractor, subcontractors or material suppliers for direct construction related activities and materials.

Soft Costs: typically costs for services outside the realm of what is done on the construction site. Including, but not limited to, architectural and engineering fees, permit fees, legal and real estate fees, interest paid for the cost of doing the project, insurance, closing costs, etc.

Life Cycle Costs: “cradle to grave” costs that go beyond the initial construction costs to include operation and maintenance of the building after occupancy, demolition costs and reuse value at the end of the building’s life.

Green Building Benefits

Green buildings save energy, use less water, generate less waste and provide higher levels of indoor quality and comfort over conventional design and construction practices. Studies conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that Americans spend, on average, 90% of their time indoors where pollutant levels can be 2 to 100 times higher than outdoor levels. Green buildings provide higher levels of occupant satisfaction with regards to air quality and lighting, where studies indicate significant gains with occupant productivity.

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Green Building

Economic Benefits

Reduce operating costs

Enhance asset value and profits

Improve employee satisfaction and productivity

Optimize life cycle economic performance

Health and Community Benefits

Improve air, thermal and acoustic environments

Enhance occupant comfort and health

Minimize strain on local infrastructure

Contribute to overall quality of life

Environmental Benefits

Enhance and protect ecosystems and biodiversity

Improve air and water quality

Reduce solid waste

Conserve natural resources

• Reduce solid waste • Conserve natural resources ENERGY STAR From the EPA ENERGY STAR website:

ENERGY STAR

From the EPA ENERGY STAR website:

What is the difference between LEED and ENERGY STAR?

ENERGY STAR is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) program that focuses on improving energy performance in buildings as a method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. ENERGY STAR is a technical assistance and recognition program that offers owners and managers of all buildings access to free tools and resources to help them evaluate their energy performance and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Organizations are encouraged to begin by benchmarking the performance of their buildings using ENERGY STAR’s Portfolio Manager online energy tracking tool. For certain types of buildings that perform in the top 25% compared to their peers nationwide, the ENERGY STAR label is available as an indicator of superior energy performance. Buildings carrying the ENERGY STAR label consume on average about 35% less energy than their non-ENERGY STAR counterparts.

LEED is a building certification process that looks at various aspects of “green building” and awards recognition to buildings that meet certain standards. Users of the LEED process earn credits in several categories associated with green buildings. These differ by the type of LEED certification, but generally include: sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy & atmosphere, materials & resources, indoor environmental quality, and innovation. While each category may have required prerequisites that must be met, for the bulk of the credits required for certification users can choose in which categories they wish to focus based on their own priorities.

ENERGY STAR also provides labeling for home appliances, electronics, cooling and heating equipment and for homes as an indication that the item has met certain energy efficiencies.

EPA ENERGY STAR website:

http://energystar.custhelp.com/cgi-bin/energystar.cfg/php/enduser/std_adp.php?p_faqid=4908

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Green Building

Final Thoughts

Terminology to know

Refer to Acronyms and Glossary of Terms chapter

Hard Costs

Integrated Design Team

Life Cycle Assessment

Life Cycle Costs

Soft Costs

Sustainability

Thoughts to keep

Conventional buildings account for:

14% of potable water consumption

30% of waste output

38% of carbon dioxide emissions

39% of energy use

40% of raw material use

72% of electrical consumption

Energy usage in commercial buildings (EPA, September 2008):

1% office equipment

3% personal computers

3% cooking

6% refrigeration

7% ventilation

7% cooling

8% water heating

9% other

20% lighting

38% space heating

Green building performance:

13% lower maintenance costs

26% less energy usage

27% higher levels of occupant satisfaction

33% lower carbon dioxide emissions

Green Building Benefits:

Economic

Health & Community

Environmental

Green buildings cost approximately 2% more than conventional buildings

Americans spend 90% of their time indoors where pollutant levels are higher than outdoor levels

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Green Building

A holistic approach considers the analysis of the sum of a building’s parts as opposed to the separation of these parts

The integrated design/build approach binds the individual members of the team into one homogenous entity that collaborates as one unit

ENERGY STAR can be used to compare performance of multiple buildings

Life Cycle Assessment = LCA = Environment and People

Life Cycle Cost = LCC = Economics

Design/Construction process:

Predesign

Design:

Schematic Design (SD)

Development Design (DD)

Construction Documents (CD)

Bid

Construct

Occupy

The five categories of LEED (except LEED for Homes and LEED for ND):

Sustainable Sites (SS)

Water Efficiency (WE)

Energy and Atmosphere (EA)

Materials and Resources (MR)

Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)

Innovation in Design (ID)

Regional Priority (RP)

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T he U.S. Green Building Council promotes sustainability in how the buildings of today are

designed, built and operated through an integrated and holistic approach. USGBC developed the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Rating Systems and Greenbuild. LEED is a comprehensive system of five interrelated standards covering all aspects of the development and construction process. Greenbuild is a green building conference that promotes the green building industry, including environmentally responsible materials, sustainable architecture, techniques and public policy.

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architecture, techniques and public policy. CHAPTER | 3 U.S. Green Building Council » Introduction » USGBC,

U.S. Green Building Council

» Introduction

» USGBC, LEED and GBCI

» LEED Green Building Rating Systems

» Harmonization, Weightings & Carbon Overlay

» CIRs & MPRs

» Registration and Certification Process

» Prerequisite and Credit Structure

» Submittal Review

» LEED for Homes

» LEED Accredidation

» USGBC Portfolio Program

» LEED Technical Advisory Group

» USGBC/GBCI Trademark Guidelines

» Final Thoughts

» Studio4 Project: the Program Narrative

Technical Advisory Group » USGBC/GBCI Trademark Guidelines » Final Thoughts » Studio4 Project: the Program Narrative

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U.S. Green Building Council

Introduction

Sustainability in this country, and many other countries throughout the world, is benchmarked by Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). LEED defines both the accredited professionals who work in the sustainable field and the degree of sustainability of certified constructed projects. As such, there are two distinct parts to the LEED environment.

One part is the accreditation of professionals who possess knowledge in the field of sustainability. There are three levels, or tiers, of accreditation based on the degree of green knowledge. Tier I

is the LEED Green Associate who demonstrates a basic knowledge and skill in practicing green

design, construction and development. Tier II is the LEED Accredited Professional with Specialty for those who have an extraordinary depth of knowledge in green building practices and specialization in a specific field. These professionals are designated as LEED AP+, where the + marker indicates the designation for the area of specialization, such as LEED AP BD+C, whereas BD+C indicates Building Design and Construction. The top level, Tier III, is reserved for the LEED AP Fellow, a LEED AP with specialty who has held the LEED AP credential for eight cumulative years and must document a total of at least 10 years of experience in the green building field. Nominees for the LEED Fellow will be nominated by their peers.

Although there is currently no requirement for having a LEED Accredited Professional as a member of the project team, it cannot be overstated the value of a LEED AP, in a responsible position, on the project to help safeguard and direct the efforts to achieve project certification.

The second part of LEED is the certification of sustainable projects, as defined by the various LEED rating systems. Certification is awarded based on the degree of sustainability for the rating system selected by the project team. LEED rating systems cover a broad spectrum of building types, with pilot programs under development for additional rating systems. The LEED New Construction and Major Renovations rating system defines certain types of newly constructed projects, and includes major renovations. LEED for Homes is specific for residential projects, LEED Schools covers schools meeting certain criteria, and so on. For each rating system, there are various levels of certification awarded as determined by the amount of ‘green’ credit points achieved.

A major source controlling these processes is the Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI).

GBCI performs two basic functions. The first is the development and administration of the accreditation examinations for LEED GA or AP candidates. The second responsibility of GBCI is managing the LEED project certification process.

USGBC: Develops LEED Green Building Rating Systems; Provides and develops LEED based education and research projects

GBCI: Provides third party LEED professional credentials; Provides third party LEED project certification

NOTE: Given the critical importance of understanding the processes required to obtain LEED accreditation and certification, some content in this chapter was taken directly from the USGBC and GBCI websites and put together in an effort to develop an outlined yet cohesive description and linear progression of the processes. It is imperative that these websites be reviewed for complete and current information, as USGBC/GBCI updates and/or shifts location for this information .

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U.S. Green Building Council

USGBC’s Mission

To transform the way buildings and communities are designed, built and operated, enabling an environmentally and socially responsible, healthy and prosperous environment that improves the quality of life

USGBC’s Vision

Buildings and communities will regenerate and sustain the health and vitality of all life within a generation”

U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)

The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization formed in 1993 whose members represent companies and organizations across the industry and include building owners and users, real estate developers, facility managers, architects, designers, engineers, general contractors, subcontractors, product and building system manufacturers, government agencies, nonprofits. USGBC:

Committee based, Member driven and Consensus focused

Provides tools and expertise, Builds community, Provides forums for industry dialog, Educates the industry and the public and Stewards market transformation.

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

LEED is an acronym for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and was formed by USGBC as a third party certification program to provide definitions to, and measurements of, green buildings. LEED promotes a holistic, whole building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in location and planning, sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection, indoor environmental quality, innovative strategies and regional priority issues.

The Triple Bottom Line

Nearly every LEED sustainable strategy should be analyzed by how it measures to LEED’s adoption of the Triple Bottom Line. The triple bottom line, with regards to sustainability, establishes a measurement to recognize performance in three areas:

Economic Prosperity: impact on a corporation’s bottom line

Social Responsibility: impact of a person’s happiness, health and productivity

Environmental Stewardship: impact on air, water, land and global climate

Stewardship : impact on air, water, land and global climate Another way to think of TBL:

Another way to think of TBL: People, Planet, Profit

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U.S. Green Building Council

Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI)

The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI) was established in 2008 with the support of the U.S. Green Building Council to independently administer credentialing programs related to green building practices.

GBCI manages all aspects of the LEED Professional Accreditation program, including examination. GBCI also oversees the development and implementation of a credential maintenance program (CMP) for LEED APs.

USGBC handles the development of the LEED Rating Systems while GBCI administers all LEED AP accreditation and LEED project certification.

LEED Green Building Rating Systems

LEED Rating Systems: Project Types and Sustainable Categories

The LEED Rating System is a versatile tool for design and construction professionals that evaluates green buildings and neighborhoods and applies to new and existing institutional, commercial and residential buildings.

LEED Rating Systems:

LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations (NC)

LEED for Core & Shell (CS)

LEED for Commercial Interiors (CI)

LEED for Schools

LEED for Healthcare

LEED for Retail

LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance (EB O&M)

LEED for Homes

LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND)

Green building categories within each rating system:

Sustainable Sites (SS)

Water Efficiency (WE)

Energy and Atmosphere (EA)

Materials and Resources (MR)

Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)

Innovation in Design (ID); Innovation in Operation (IO)

Regional Priority (RP)

Additionally, the following categories are specific to the rating system noted:

Location and Linkages (LL): LEED for Homes

Awareness and Education (AE): LEED for Homes

Smart Location and Linkages: LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND)

Neighborhood Pattern and Design: LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND)

Green Infrastructure and Buildings: LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND)

Refer USGBC for current information and free download copies of all LEED Rating Systems:

http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=222

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U.S. Green Building Council

LEED Rating Systems: Summary Overview and Use Guidance

LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations (NC)

New Buildings and Major Renovations

New Buildings

Offices, institutional buildings (libraries, museums, churches, etc.), hotels, and residential buildings of 4 or more habitable stories

Major Renovations

Major HVAC replacement or modifications

Building core (major mechanical systems) & shell (building envelope and structural) renovation

LEED for Core & Shell (CS)

Developer controls core (major mechanical systems) & shell (building envelope and structural) but not leasable tenant spaces

Commercial office buildings, medical office buildings, retail centers, warehouses, institutional buildings and laboratory facilities

Developer has no control over the design and construction of the tenant build-out

Due to uncertainties associated with speculative Core & Shell projects, LEED CS offers guidance and procedures such as default occupancy counts, C&S Project Scope, etc.

LEED for Commercial Interiors (CI)

Tenant spaces primarily in office, retail, and institutional buildings

Tenant spaces that do not occupy the entire building

Supplements LEED Core & Shell projects

LEED for Schools

Must be used for the construction or major renovation of an academic building on K–12 school grounds

Other projects on a school campus may qualify under 2 or more LEED rating system project scopes

Nonacademic buildings on a school campus, such as administrative offices, dormitories or maintenance facilities are eligible for either LEED for New Construction or LEED for Schools

Projects involving postsecondary academic buildings or prekindergarten buildings may also choose to use either LEED for New Construction or LEED for Schools

LEED for Healthcare

Developed to meet the unique needs of the health care market

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Inpatient care facilities, licensed outpatient care facilities, and licensed long term care facilities, medical offices, assisted living facilities and medical education & research centers.

Addresses increased sensitivity to chemicals and pollutants, traveling distances from parking facilities, access to natural spaces and other environmental issues

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LEED for Retail

Recognizes the unique nature of the retail environment and addresses the different types of spaces that retailers need for their distinctive product lines

LEED for Retail: New Construction allows for the whole building certification of free standing retail buildings

LEED for Retail: Commercial Interiors permits tenants to certify their tenant build-out and finish without responsibility of the building envelope

Existing freestanding retailers can use LEED for Existing Buildings: O&M

LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance (EB O&M)

For the ongoing operations and maintenance of existing commercial and institutional buildings and residential buildings of 4 or more habitable stories

Solves building problems and improves building performance; maintain and improve this performance over time

Reduces cost streams associated with building operations, reduces environmental impacts, creates healthier and more productive employee workspaces

Encourages owners and operators of existing buildings to implement sustainable practices and reduce the environmental impacts of their building over their functional life cycles

Certifies the operations and maintenance of the building and creates a plan for ensuring high performance over time

Institutionalizes a process of reporting, inspection and review over the lifespan of the building

Applies to only single, whole buildings; if more than one building is on the same property, each must certify; individual tenant spaces are not eligible

LEED for Homes

Promotes the design and construction of single family and small multifamily homes

Must be 3 stories or less. 4 stories and above may use LEED NC or the LEED for Homes Mulit-Rise Pilot rating systems

Must provide permanent provisions for living, sleeping, cooking/eating and bathroom.

LEED for Neighborhood Development (ND)

The first national standard for neighborhood design and mixed use communities

Certifies development performance with regards to smart growth, urbanism and green buildings

Regulates land use planning of an entire neighborhood: buildings, infrastructure, street design and open space

Promotes development in areas of existing infrastructure and alternative transportation

Designed for new development, but applicable to redevelopment of existing areas

As with all LEED rating systems, LEED ND promotes the protection and enhancement of the environment, health and quality of life

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Multiple Certifications

Certain building types can achieve multiple rating systems:

Buildings certified under the NC, CS or Schools may also be certified under EB O&M

Buildings certified under CS may also be certified under CI

LEED Neighborhood Development may earn additional points for construction or retrofit of certified buildings which are part of the development

LEED Reference Guides

LEED 2009 Reference Guides include detailed information on the process for achieving LEED certification, detailed credit and prerequisite information, resources and standards for the LEED 2009 rating systems and all other requirements as outlined in the Prerequisite and Credit Structure section of this chapter. Refer to the Appendix for details of LEED Reference Guides and their respective LEED Rating Systems

Rating System Structure

The LEED Green Building Rating Systems are comprised of categories, each of which contains prerequisite and credit green building strategies.

Prerequisites: Each sustainable category in a LEED rating system contains one or more prerequisite requirements. Although structured much the same as credits, prerequisites differ from credits in that achievement of each and every prerequisite within the rating system is mandatory for project certification. Failure to meet any prerequisite will render a project ineligible for certification. Additionally, prerequisites earn no points.

Credits: Each sustainable category in a LEED rating system contains numerous credits that represent sustainable elements that collectively create a particular category. Credits are non- mandatory and are selected for a variety of reasons as deemed by the Project Team. However, in addition to the mandated prerequisites, certification requires achievement of a minimum number of credit points. Each credit is associated with a specific number of points and projects must be awarded a minimum number of points to achieve a particular level of certification, such as Certified, Silver, Gold or Platinum.

All LEED Rating Systems, except LEED for Homes, have 100 base points plus 6 Innovation in Design points and 4 Regional Priority bonus points, for a total of 110 points. LEED for Homes is based on a 125 point scale plus 11 Innovation in Design points. Projects, except LEED for Homes, achieve certification if they earn points according to the following levels:

Certified: 40 - 49 points

Silver: 50 - 59 points

Gold: 60 - 79 points

Platinum: 80+ points

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Prerequisite and Credit Structure

Every LEED prerequisite and credit will have one or more requirements that must be met in order to be in compliance. The first section of every prerequisite or credit summarizes the “Intent ”, or goals, of the credit and the “Requirements”, or methods, strategies and/or standards required to achieve compliance for that prerequisite or credit. The content structure of all LEED prerequisites and credits is as follows:

Intents:

Describes the sustainability goal

Requirements

Describes the path, or paths, that must be met for prerequisite or credit compliance.

The remainder of each prerequisite/credit section contains the following 13 components:

1. Benefits and Issues to Consider

Describes the environmental damage that is being mitigated and economic considerations offered by the prerequisite or credit

2. Related Credits

Other credits that may be affected through synergies or tradeoffs

3. Summary of Referenced Standards

Standards, such as ASHRAE, ASTM and EPA that may be used as a requirement to achieve prerequisite or credit compliance

For some prerequisites and credits, LEED will allow federal, state and or local laws or codes to over rule if they are more strict.

Not all prerequisites and credits require a referenced standard

4. Implementation

Methods and strategies that can be used to achieve prerequisite or credit compliance

5. Timeline and Team

Team members involved with achieving prerequisite or credit compliance, when this task should occur and if the prerequisite/credit can be a design or construction phase submittal

6. Calculations

Lists formulas and calculations, if required, to achieve prerequisite or credit compliance

7. Documentation Guidance

This important section lists and explains what documents are required to be uploaded to LEED Online demonstrating compliance and the declarant responsible for signing off on the prerequisite or credit

8. Examples

Some prerequisites and credits have examples to demonstrate how compliance can be achieved

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9. Exemplary Performance

Many credits can earn additional points for exceeding the minimum credit performance. No prerequisites offer Exemplary Performance points

10. Regional Variations

LEED recognizes regional differences by offering bonus points based on the zipcode identification of environmentally important credits

11. Operations and Maintenance Considerations

Methods and strategies for operational and maintenance procedures

12. Resources

Websites and print media that can offer additional relevant information beneficial to achieving prerequisite or credit compliance

13. Definitions

Definitions for terminology specific to that prerequisite or credit

LEED 2009

In response to creating credit unity across the various LEED 2009 rating systems and addressing the growing concerns related to threats upon the environment, USGBC has reorganized and advanced LEED 2009 rating systems.

Credit Harmonization

Credits and prerequisites from all LEED 2009 commercial and institutional rating systems have been consolidated and aligned, allowing credits and prerequisites to be consistent across all LEED 2009 rating systems.

Refer USGBC for detailed and current Credit Harmonization information:

http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1971#harmonization

Credit Weightings

LEED 2009 credits are assigned point values based on their ability to impact various environmental and human health issues. With revised credit weightings, LEED awards more points for strategies that will have greater positive impacts on energy efficiency and CO 2 reductions. Each credit is evaluated against numerous environmental impact categories. As a result, LEED 2009 operates on a 100-point scale.

Refer USGBC for detailed and current Credit Weighting information:

http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1971#weightings

Carbon Overlay

Carbon overlay addresses global warming by establishing the project’s carbon footprint. A building’s carbon footprint is the total greenhouse gas emissions associated with its construction and operation. LEED 2009 credits are prioritized by their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. As such, each credit is scored by how it compares to a baseline building.

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Regionalization

LEED 2009 has created the Regional Priority category that acknowledges the fact environmental priorities may differ between different geographical regions in the U.S. For a project’s location, as determined by its zip code, 6 existing LEED credits have been prioritized because they address environmental issues within that specific zip code. Although the project may be able to qualify for more than 4 of the 6 Regional Priority credits available, the project team can choose only 4 credits for which they prefer the points to apply.

Refer USGBC for detailed and current Regional Priority information:

http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1971

Credit Interpretation Request (CIRs)

Occasionally during the process of analyzing prerequisite or credit compliance requirements, the Project Team may encounter instances where they are unclear whether their strategy for achieving the credit is appropriate. The Project Credit Interpretation Request (CIR) and ruling process is designed to allow Project Teams to obtain technical and administrative guidance on how LEED requirements, including Minimum Program Requirements, Prerequisites, and Credits, pertain to their projects.

In summary:

CIRs can be submitted any time after project registration and expires upon the final award or denial of certification

CIRs must be submitted via LEED Online

CIRs are restricted to no more than one prerequisite or credit per submittal

CIRs should not be formatted in letter form, contain more than 600 words or 4000 characters and cannot be submitted with attachments (plans, photos, etc.)

CIR language cannot be revised any time during the CIR process

CIR rulings do not guarantee MPR/Prerequisite/Credit compliance or achievement

CIR rulings submitted pre-LEED 2009 Rating System are precedent setting

CIR rulings submitted after June 26, 2009 for all rating systems including pre-LEED 2009 and current versions, will be project specific

CIR database created for pre-LEED 2009 rating systems may not be used with LEED 2009 rating systems

Only USGBC Company Members, LEED Registered Project Team Members and USGBC Workshop Attendees have access to review CIRs

CIR fees are $220 for each application

Refer GBCI for detailed and current/updated CIR information:

http://www.gbci.org/Certification/Resources/cirs.aspx

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Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs)

Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs) are a set of 7 mandatory requirements that the project

must comply with, similar to prerequisites, in order to achieve certification. MPRs serve three goals:

Provide clear guidance to the customer

Protect the integrity of the LEED program

Reduce complications that may occur during the LEED Certification process

MPRs are rating system specific and projects must comply with each applicable MPR for the specific rating system it is seeking:

1. Must comply with environmental laws

Adhere to all applicable federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations

2. Be a complete or permanent building or space

A complete or permanent building or space on land that already exists

3. Use a reasonable site boundary

The LEED project boundary must include all contiguous land that is associated with the LEED project building. Gerrymandering of the LEED project boundary is prohibited

4. Comply with minimum floor area requirements

New Construction, Core & Shell, Schools, Existing Buildings: O&M

Minimum Gross Floor Area: 1,000 square feet

Commercial Interiors

Minimum Gross Floor Area: 250 square feet

5. Comply with minimum occupancy rates

New Construction, Core & Shell, Commercial Interiors, Schools

Must have at least one Full Time Equivalent occupant

Existing Buildings: O&M

Must have at least one Full Time Equivalent occupant

All building systems must be operating 12 continuous months before certifying

6. Commit to sharing whole building energy and water usage data

Must share energy and water usage data with the USGBC and GBCI for a period of five years

7. Comply with a minimum building area to site area ratio

The gross floor area of the LEED project building must be no less than 2% of the gross land area within the LEED project boundary

The 7 areas listed above represent a general outline of the MPR requirements and address only the core issue relative to the MPR. Each rating system may have specific requirements which must be met. Refer GBCI for detailed and updated MPR requirements:

http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=2102

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Registration and Certification Process

GBCI

The Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI) manages the review and verification process for projects seeking certification under the LEED Green Building Rating System. Refer GBCI for updated Registration and Certification information:

http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/building-certification/leed-certification.aspx

LEED Online

LEED Online is the control center where project teams manage the LEED Registration and Certification process and is available only to registered projects. Using LEED Online you can:

Manage project details

Complete documentation requirements

Upload supporting files

Submit applications for review

Receive reviewer feedback

Earn LEED certification

Project Checklist (aka LEED Credit Scorecard)

The LEED Project Checklist is a form used by the Project Team that lists all of the prerequisites and credits of the rating system being pursued:

Should be initiated by the Project Team early during the charrette process

Allows the Project Team members the ability to assess and track attempted credits

Lists all prerequisites and credits for each category with columns for the Project Team to mark as Yes, ? (Maybe), or No

A sample Project Checklist (v2.2) is available for review in the Appendix.

Credit Forms and Calculators (aka LEED Credit Templates, Letter Templates or Submittal Templates)

Mandatory to the certification process are the Adobe interactive PDF LEED Credit Forms that can be accessed only by the Project Administrator and invited Project Team members via LEED Online. Credit Forms are used to upload documentation required to verify prerequisite and credit compliance. Each Credit Form will list the requirements for achievement as well as the documentation required for submittal and must be signed by the declarant. For credits that require calculations, calculators are built in to indicate if the credit requirements have been met. In part, Credit Forms:

Streamlines the preparation of LEED applications

Allows the Project Administrator to assign Project Team member responsibility

Provides automatic calculation for compliance verification when required data is entered by a Project Team member

A sample v2.2 Submittal Template is available for review in the Appendix.

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Charrette

A LEED Charrette is a forum where those who can influence project decisions meet and begin planning the project. As a gathering of all key stakeholders in the LEED certification process, a charrette facilitates agreement on project goals. By soliciting ideas, issues, and concerns early in the project process, it saves time and money and gives an early sense of collective enthusiasm with realistic goals and directions.

Project Administrator

The GBCI assigns the role of Project Administrator to the person who initially registers the project via LEED Online. This person is the main contact with the GBCI via LEED Online. Although it is advisable to select the Project Administrator during the charrette, this person can be replaced after registration. The roles of a Project Administrator include:

Provides project information when registering via LEED Online

Invites Team Members for access to LEED Online

Assigns credit responsibility to Team Members

LEED AP

Provides project coordination between all Project Team disciplines

Knows the responsibilities and status of each Team Member

Manages and reviews Project Team documentation prior to uploading to Credit Forms

Knows which credits each member of the Project Team is responsible for

Understands the entire certification process

Coordinates codes and standards

Must play a principle role in the project to be eligible for an Innovation in Design credit

LEED Certification

Individuals are Accredited and become LEED Accredited Professionals by successfully testing at the level of accreditation sought.

Buildings are Certified: A registered building is in the process of implementing LEED. A certified building is a completed project that has been awarded certification. LEED Certified is a project that has been certified to the base level: Certified.

Certified

Silver

Gold

Platinum

Companies or products are neither accredited nor certified

Organizations can obtain membership to USGBC national organization

Individuals can become members of USGBC regional chapters

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Certification Process: General

LEED certification is provided by an independent third-party to verify that a building project meets all requirements for the level of certification being sought. Certification for any project requires satisfying all Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs), prerequisites and a minimum number of credits. Each LEED 2009 rating system corresponds with a LEED reference guide that is the standard document for detailing the applicable prerequisites and credits as defined by the rating system structure.

Important to a clearer path to certification, the project should implement an integrated design approach to evaluate and define the project’s goals and certification level most appropriate for the project. Project teams can utilize resources, such as the project checklist, to identify individual credits and strategies that are readily achievable within the rating system. The project team should first determine if all prerequisites can be achieved.

Timeline and Project Design Phases

Predesign

Information gathering and establishing goals (charrette)

Schematic Design

Examines design options and establishes an agreed upon layout and scope of work

Design Development

Begins the process of refining the schematic design and developing first design of the project’s energy systems

Construction Documents

Schematic design developed into detailed drawings so that construction can take place

Construction

Construction documents (CDs) completed and necessary local authority approvals received to begin construction

Substantial Completion

Construction is nearly completed and the client could occupy the space, providing local authorities permit occupancy prior to receipt of Certificate of Occupancy

Final Completion

All construction per the construction documents has been completed

Certificate of Occupancy

Official notice by building authorities having jurisdiction that the project conforms to applicable building and safety codes

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Certification Process: Overview

For all LEED Ratings Systems except LEED for Homes and LEED for Neighborhood Development:

Step 1: Planning

Step 2: Registration

Step 3: Documentation

Step 4: Certification

LEED for Homes and LEED for Neighborhood Development follow different Rating Systems and Certification Processes:

LEED for Homes:

Step 1: Early Planning

Step 2: Design

Step 3: Build

Step 4: Verification and certification

Step 5: Reflection on achievements

LEED for Neighborhood Development:

Stage 1: Review prior to completion of entitlement (permitting) process

Stage 2: Certification of an approved development plan

Stage 3: Review of a completed neighborhood development

Certification Process: Detailed

except LEED for Homes & LEED for Neighborhood Development

Step 1: Planning (Charrette)

The first action toward any LEED project should be establishing a collective forum, or the charrette. The stakeholders comprising the charrette should document the project goals, prepare a draft of the LEED Credit Scorecard and select the Project Administrator.

Step 2: Registration

The LEED process begins with registration. The Project Administrator submits the registration form and registration fee. Registration information required:

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Account login information: name, address, company, title, e-mail address, password

Project type: select rating system type, USGBC member status, amount due

General project information: project title, project address, is project confidential

Primary contact information: name, address, organization, e-mail address

Project Owner information: name, organization, e-mail address

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Project details: owner type, project scope, site conditions, occupant type, owner occupied, gross square footage, project budget, current project phase, project type

Payment information

Registration provides:

Point of contact between GBCI and project

Access to LEED Online tools

Access to LEED Credit Forms (Credit Templates)

Ensures maximum potential for achieving certification, if done early in the design process

Registration fees (11 January 2010):

USGBC members: $900

Non-Members: $1,200

GBCI offers free registration for LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance for projects certified under LEED for New Construction, LEED for Schools, and LEED for Core & Shell prior to January 1, 2011.

Step 3: Application Submittal

For detailed and updated submittal/review process information per rating system refer to GBCI:

http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/building-certification/certification-guide.aspx

After project registration, the Project Administrator and Project Team should prepare the required information for prerequisite and credit submittal. Only the LEED Project Administrator is eligible to submit an application for review. To initiate the review process, a complete application must be submitted via LEED Online. Requirements for a complete application vary according to the review path, but will always include payment of the appropriate certification review fee.

Prior to certification, all project teams are required to submit completed documentation requirements for all prerequisites and at least the minimum number of credits required to achieve certification, as well as completed general project information forms. It is advisable to seek a few additional credits just for safety in the event some credits are denied.

There are multiple application review paths. LEED Online automatically determines which review paths are available for a given application based on both the LEED Rating System under which the project is registered and the level of completeness of the application.

Application requirements vary for each LEED Rating System and review path:

LEED for New Construction

Split Design & Construction Application

Combined Design & Construction Application

LEED for Schools

Split Design & Construction Application

Combined Design & Construction Application

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LEED for Core and Shell

Split Design & Construction Application

Combined Design & Construction Application

Precertification Application

LEED for Commercial Interiors

Split Design & Construction Application

Combined Design & Construction Application

LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance

O&M Application

O&M Recertification Application

The Split Design & Construction Review timeline is available to projects registered for certification under any LEED Design & Construction Rating System. An application for Split Design & Construction Review is submitted in up to four (4) parts, with requirements as follows:

The Design Review enables project teams to assess the likelihood of achievement for some or all design phase credits and/or prerequisites, prior to substantial project completion

All remaining requirements are then submitted with the Construction Application

Split Design & Construction Review:

Prepare design related credit documentation and submit prior to substantial project completion. Each prerequisite and credit states if submittal can be done during the design phase of the project.

Prepare construction related credit documentation and submit after the design phase review. Each prerequisite and credit states if submittal must be a construction phase submittal. Certification fee is split and paid at the time of each phase submittal.

Combined Design & Construction Review:

Prepare and submit required documentation for all required prerequisites and credits being pursued upon project completion. Certification fee is paid at the time of submittal.

Certification Fees:

In addition to the project registration fees, certification fees are required, based on the rating system the project is certifying under and the size of the building. There is also a fee variance for USGBC membership.

Submittal Review Status There are typically two reviews conducted: A Preliminary Review and response and a Final Review and response. If the project team disagrees with any ruling, they have the option to request an Appeal Review. During the review process, the GBCI responds to each prerequisite or credit submittal with one of the following:

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Anticipated: Only during a split Design Phase Review will the GBCI issue an “anticipated” response. This does not guarantee credit acceptance, only that the GBCI believes the credit does meet the requirements at this stage of the project

Pending: GBCI requires additional information

Awarded: Only during the final GBCI review will GBCI issue this response that the credit has met the requirements and points are earned

Denied: The prerequisite/credit has not met the requirements

Step 4: Certification

After the application has been completed and all fees received and processed, GBCI will perform a final review and formally rule on the application. The project is awarded the certification level based on the number of credits achieved.

If the Project Team decides to formally file an appeal, GBCI will issue a LEED review within 25 business days. If a final “denied” ruling is issued, the project is closed and can never be reopened.

Award: Only after the Project Team accepts the final ruling is the project awarded certification with a formal letter of certification

For complete and updated registration and important details regarding the application submittal and application review process per rating system, refer to GBCI:

http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/building-certification/leed-certification.aspx#

Registration Documentation

Certain documents are required when registering or submitting a project for certification:

Project Narrative describing background of the project, details of the building use, location and surrounding area of the building and any additional attributes of the project

Project photographs or rendering

Building elevation

Building floor plans

Gross square footage of the building, building occupant counts (FTE) and boundary descriptions. All these figures must be used consistently across applicable credits

Establishing USGBC website User Profile

1. Go to USGBC website www.usgbc.org

2. Click on Sign In along the top bar

3. If you do not have a User Profile, click on hyperlink Create a Site User Account

4. Enter personal information

5. Under Organization, enter your company

6. Enter Corporate ID for your company (if USGBC member)

7. Click Submit Your Registration at the bottom of the form and you will receive a password to accompany your e-mail address when gaining access to member only sections of the site

Once your User Profile is set up, team members can access LEED Online projects

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LEED Online Access

1. http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/building-certification/leed-online/about-leed-online.aspx

2. Enter e-mail address and password in Log in Now box

3. Select project to access and click Enter

Must have a registered project to gain access

LEED Online Components

My Project Page

My Projects

Active Projects

Saved Projects

Register

Rating Project Selector

Download Scorecard

Project Dashboard (aka Home Page)

Overview

Scorecard

Timeline

Team Administrator

Registration Details

Clarification

Messages

CIR

Credit Forms

Everything is done via electronic format

LEED Online form required for every prerequisite and all credits being attempted with access available for registered projects

Includes signature block for person responsible for credit

Includes space for narratives

Can attach numerous types, formats and examples of documentation

Six Steps to Certification: Review Summary

Step 1: Determine appropriateness of LEED

Form a charrette and gather information to determine if, and at what level, is LEED appropriate

Step 2: Registration via LEED OnLine

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Step 3: Prepare Application

Assign team members and prepare all documents required for prerequisites and credits being sought (minimum number of credits are required for Certification)

Step 4: Submit Application via LEED OnLine

Upload Credit Forms with all required documentation