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Fired Equipment and Design

Fired equipment transfers heat produced by combustion of the fuel to the process stream. In gas processing equipment, the fuel is usually natural gas; however, ethane, propane, or light oils are sometimes used. The process stream varies widely, e.g., natural gas, heavier hydrocarbons, water, glycol, amine solutions, heat transfer oils, and molten salts.

Fired equipment can be classified as:

1. Direct fired heaters where the combustion gases occupy most of the heater volume and heat the process stream con- tained in pipes arranged in front of refractory walls – the

radiant section – and in a bundle in the upper portion – the convection section. Convective heaters are a special application in which there is only a convection section. 2. Firetube heaters where the combustion gases are con- tained in a firetube that is surrounded by a liquid that fills the heater shell. This liquid may be either the proc- ess streamor a heat transfer mediumthat surroundsthe coil bundle containing the process stream.

Fig. 8-2 lists the common applications and general charac- teristics of these heaters.

FIG. 8-1

Nomenclature

 

a

=

constant, Eq 8-21

A

=

area, m 2

AO

=

Dry combustion air mols per dry fuel mols, for stochiometric combustion, mols/mols

B

=

parameter defined by Eq 8-21

 

c

=

number of carbon atoms in fuel molecule

C

=

constant, Eq 8-4 and Eq 8-8

C

d

= burner spud discharge coefficient

C

p

=

specific heat, kJ/(kg K)

CO

=

carbon monoxide mols in mols of dry flue gases,

CO 2 =

mols/mols carbon dioxide mols in mols of dry flue gases,

CO 2 O =

mols/mols carbon dioxide mols in mols of dry flue gases for

stochiometric combustion, mols/mols

d

D

EA

f f

F

= diameter of pipe or cylinder or fin, mm

=

=

=

= view factor, dimensionless

diameter of pipe or cylinder, m volume percentage of excess combustion air, % Fanning friction factor

Fl o = mols of dry flue gases per mols of dry fuel for stochiometric combustion, mols/mols

g

=

acceleration due to gravity = 9.8067 m/s 2

G

=

Ratio of air to fuel, kg/kg; or

=

mass velocity, kg/(s m 2 )

GHI

=

gross heat input, kW

GTE

=

gross thermal efficiency, Eq 8-17a

Gr

=

Grashof number, dimensionless

h

=

heat

transfer coefficient, W/(m 2 °C)

H

=

heat content or enthalpy, kJ/kg; or

=

height of stack, m; height of fin, mm

Hav

=

available draft, Pa (gauge)

HHV = higher or gross heating value, kJ/Sm 3

k

= thermal conductivity, W/(m °C)

L

= length of heat transfer surface, m; or

= mean beam length, m; or

LHV

characteristic dimension, m = lower or net heating value, kJ/Sm 3

=

m

=

constant, Eq 8-4 and Eq 8-8 or

=

dimension, m

M

= mass flow rate, kg/hr

n

=

number of fins per meter, number of tube rows

ni

=

=

=

number of nitrogen atoms in fuel molecule

Nu

NHI

Nusselt number, dimensionless

= net heat input, kW

NPS

= nominal pipe size, mm

NTE

net thermal efficiency, Eq 8-17b

o

=

=

=

number of oxygen atoms in fuel molecule

O 2

oxygen mols in mols of dry flue gases, mols/mols

O 2 O

oxygen mols in mols of dry flue gases for

stochiometric combustion, mols/mols

P

=

partial pressure of CO 2 + H 2 O, atm

P B = barometric pressure, kPa

P = press ure difference, kPa

Pg

=

burner fuel gas pressure, kPa (abs)

Pr

= Prandtl number = C p / k, dimensionless

q gs = gas flow rate at standard conditions, m 3 /day

q l

Q

r

rf

R

liquid flow rate, m 3 /hr

=

= heat transfer or heat input or heat content (rates), W

= ratio of flue gases to heat release, kg/(MW hr)

= fouling heat flow resistance, (m 2 °C)/W

= fraction of total heat liberation absorbed in radiant section (Fig. 8-20)

RD = relative density

Re = Reynolds number, DV / or LV / , dimens ionless

hy

=

number of hydrogen atoms in fuel molecule

s

= number of sulfur atoms in fuel molecule

I

=

average tube radiant heat flux intensity

S

= tube spacing, mm

 

(circumferential), W/m 2

Sm 3 = standard cubic meters at 101.325 kPa and 15°C

8-1

FIG. 8-1 (Cont’d)

Nomenclature

 

T

= temperature, K

=

Subscripts

 

T

temperature difference, °C

a

=

atmospheric air at operating conditions

 

t

=

fin thickness, mm

as

=

air at standard conditions

U

= overall heat transfer coefficient, W/(m 2 K)

B

= barometric

UHT

= useful heat transfer or heat duty, W

b

= bulk

 

V

=

velocity, m/s

c

= convective

w

= weight of air, kg

cs

=

cross section, projection

wt = wall thickness, mm

f

=

fin; fouling; friction; Fanning

 

x

=

distance in direction of heat transfer, m or mm

g

=

gas

Y

Greek

=

expansion factor, dimensionless

gas at standard conditions i = inside, internal

gs

=

= volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion,

LM

=

log mean base e

 

1/(°C or K)

m

= middle surface

1 , 2 , = emissivities of combustion gases and wall,

o

=

outside, external, overall

respectively

p

= pipe

 

=

viscosity of fluid, mPa s

r

= radiant

=

s

= stack

 
 

=

density of fluid, kg/m 3 Stefan-Boltzmann constant,

w

= wall

 

5.67 (10 8 ) W/(m 2 K 4 )

1

=

burner operating conditions 2

= 3.1416

2

= burner operating conditions 2

FIG. 8-2

Heater Applications and Characteristics

Direct Fired

Firetube

Applications

Applications

Hot oil heater Regeneration gas heaters

Amine and stabilizer reboilers

Indirect fired water bath heaters (line heaters)

Propane and heavier hydro- carbon vaporizers Hot oil and salt bath heaters Glycol and amine reboilers Low pressure steam generators

Characteristics

Characteristics

More ancillary equipment and controls Higher thermal efficiency Requires less plot space Forced or natural draft combustion

Heat duty usually less than 2930 kW Easily skid mounted Forced or natural draft combustion Less likely to have hot spots or tube rupture

HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction

Fourier’s law of conduction gives the rate of heat transfer through substances resulting from vibrations and interactions between ad- jacent molecules as opposed to overall motion or mixing of the mole- cules. Conduction always applies to solids and rarely to fluids.

Fundamental equations for steady heat conduction through some common solid shapes, ignoring border conditions, are:

For unidimensional perpendicular heat flow through flat walls, as in heat flow through a square or very large cylindrical tank wall:

8-2

Q

=

1000 k A wt T

Eq 8-1

For heat transfer in cylindrical geometry where the heat transfer is normal to the axis, as in heat flow through a cylin- drical vessel or pipe wall:

Q

=

2

L k T

ln (D o /D i )

=

2

L k T

ln(d o /d i )

Eq 8-2a

For radial heat flow through a spherical vessel:

Q

=

2

k T

(1 / D i ) + (1 / D o ) =

k T

(500 /d i ) + (500 /d o )

Eq 8-2b

Fig. 8-3 gives the thermal conductivities and densities of commercial refractories and insulation. Similar data for met- als are given in Fig. 8-8 and Fig. 9-8. Example 8-1 — Estimate the loss per linear meter through a 25 mm layer of block insulation covering a 200 mm NPS Sch 40 steam header. Assume:

T i = 120°C

T o = 10°C

k = 0.0721 W/(m °C)

Solution Steps

d o = 269.9 mm

d i = 219.1 mm

L = 1 m

From Eq 8-2a

Q

=

=

2

L k(T i

T o )

ln (d o /d i )

239 W per linear m

=

2 (3.1416)(1)(0.0721)(120 10)

ln (269.9 / 219.1)

FIG. 8-3 Properties of Commercial Refractories and Insulations

 

Max

 

Thermal Conductivity, W/(m °C) at Mean Temperature, °C

   

Cold

 
 

Products

Service

Density,

3

Crush

Notes

Temp, °C

kg/m

Strength,

 

(Note 1)

260

540

815

1100

1370

kPa

 

FIREBRICK H-W Karundal XD H-W UFALA APGreen KX-99 APGreen Empire S

1815

3.520

2.940

2.827

2.827

2.841

2995

107 588

2

1650

1.870

1.846

1.889

1.961

2.077

2515

48

263

1370

1.400

1.428

1.471

1.543

1.601

2291

73

774

1315

1.200

1.269

1.327

1.370

1.428

2114

14

479

INSULATING BRICK APGreen Greenlite 30 Thermal Ceramics K-25 Thermal Ceramics K-23 Thermal Ceramics K-20

HEAVY CASTABLE APGreen Greencast 94 APGreen Mizzou

1650

0.375

0.447

0.519

0.577

0.649

977

8101

1370

0.159

0.187

0.216

0.245

609

1517

1260

0.144

0.173

0.216

0.245

497

1000

1090

0.130

0.159

0.202

465

862

1870

2.090

1.817

1.630

1.543

1.558

2611

39

990

2,3,4,5

1650

1.120

1.111

1.082

1.067

1.067

2211

20

684

3,11

LIGHT CASTABLE APGreen Kast-O-Lite 25 APGreen 45-L APGreen Castable 22 APGreen Cast Block Mix

GUN & RAM MIXES Premier 85 RAM HS H-W Tuff Shot LI APGreen Kast-O-Lite 26-LI GR

1425

0.519

0.505

0.534

0.577

1378

8963

8

1370

0.389

0.375

0.361

1137

17

237

3,6,7,8

1200

0.245

0.274

0.317

0.361

849

1896

3,8

870

0.086

0.144

0.216

352

138

8

1650

3.130

2.034

1.817

1.716

1.745

2803

34

474

5,9

1425

0.894

0.952

0.966

0.981

0.995

1906

23

787

6,11

1425

0.548

0.534

0.562

0.620

1474

13

790

CERAMIC FIBER Thermal Ceramics Saffl Fiberfrax Durablanket 2600 Fiberfrax Durablanket 2600 Fiberfrax 550 Paper Thermal Cer Cerablanket Thermal Cer Cerablanket

BLOCK & BOARD Fiberfrax Duraboard LD Fiberfrax Duraboard HD Thermal Ceramics TR-20 USG K-FAC 19 Schuller Thermo 12 PARTEK Paroc 1212 Schuller 1000 SpinGlas

1535

0.055

0.101

0.144

0.216

0.332

48

 

4

1425

0.074

0.166

0.314

0.513

96

1425

0.074

0.141

0.261

0.427

128

1260

0.061

0.108

0.192

0.306

192

1175

0.072

0.144

0.245

0.375

96

1175

0.053

0.115

0.216

0.303

128

1260

0.081

0.123

0.179

0.250

256

345

1260

0.081

0.126

0.212

0.232

416

483

1090

0.092

0.111

0.133

400

1386

12

1035

0.074

0.128

296

228

10,13

350

0.066

0.092

240

1103

10,14

350

0.061

0.141

192

10,13

455

0.072

48

10,15

NOTES

 

1.

Maximum Service Temperature listed has no safety factor included.

 

2.

90-94% Alumina product for extreme temperature or high velocity service.

3.

Cast properties listed, gunning product available but properties will be different.

 

4.

Low silica product.

5.

For burner blocks and severe service.

 

6.

Can be used as one shot (single layer) lining.

 

7.

High performance medium weight lining.

 

8.

May be used as back-up insulation in 2 layer lining.

 

9.

85% Alumina ramming plastic for burner blocks, etc.

10.

For external insulation only.

11.

May be used as hot face lining in dual layer system.

 

12.

Diatomaceous earth base.

13.

Mineral wool base.

14.

Calcium silicate base.

15.

Fiber glass base.

8-3

FIG. 8-4

Heat Transfer Constants 2 for Eq 8-4 (Natural or Free Convection)

 

Configuration

D or Y (Y = Gr Pr)

C

m

Vertical Plates

Y

< 10 4

1.36

0.20

or Cylinders

10 4

<

Y <

10 9

0.55

0.25

10 9

<

Y

0.13

0.33

Horizontal Plates:

     
 

Facing Up

10 5

<

Y < 2(10 7 )

0.54

0.25

Facing Up

2(10 7 ) < Y <3 (10

10 )

0.14

0.33

Facing Down

3(10 5 ) < Y < 3(10 10 )

0.27

0.25

Long Horizontal

     

Cylinders

D

< 0.1

0.53

0.25

L

> D

0.1

< D < 0.5

0.47

0.25

 

0.5

< D

0.11

0.33

Short Horizontal

Y

< 10 5

0.49

0.00

Cylinders

10 -5 < Y < 10 3

0.71

0.04

L

= D < 8 in.

10 -3 < Y < 1

1.09

0.10

 

1 < Y < 10 4 10 4 < Y < 10 9 10 9 < Y

1.09

0.20

0.53

0.25

0.13

0.33

Convection

Heat transfer between a solid and an adjacent fluid occurs by movement of the fluid molecules. Hot molecules leave the surface of the solid and are replaced by cold ones. Most of the resistance to this form of heat transfer occurs in a thin film or layer next to the solid surface. This layer exists even if the bulk fluid flow is violently turbulent.

Newton’s law of cooling applies to convective heat transfer

Q

=

h A T

Eq 8-3

Natural or free convection — occurs when the only

force promoting the fluid flow results from temperature differ- ences in the fluid. Under these conditions the heat transfer coefficient is obtained from the Nusselt equation.

or

Gr = 10 6 D o

3

2 g

T

2

= d o

3

2 g

T

1000

2

Gr =

10 6 L 3 2 g

T

2

Pr

=

C p

k

Eq 8-6a

Eq 8-6b

Eq 8-7

The constants C and m depend on the shape and size of the

solid surface, the orientation of the surface to the fluid, whether the solid is hotter than the fluid or vice versa, and the magnitude of (Gr Pr). A brief summary of C and m for some usual situations is given in Fig. 8-4.

Nu, Gr, and Pr are dimensionless when the units indicated in Fig. 8-1 are used in equations 8-4 through 8-7. The physical properties are those of the fluid at the film temperature, which is often assumed to be the average of the solid surface and bulk fluid temperatures. Fluid properties may have to be evaluated at an assumed film temperature, and this assumption then confirmed from the results — see Example 8-4.

The coefficient of thermal expansion for low pressure gas (i.e. ideal gas) equals 1/(T, K). It is left in this form for use in Gr and is not converted to 1/°C for dimensional consistency. Example 8-2 — What is the heat transfer coefficient for natu- ral convection around a 75 mm NPS Sch 40 pipe surrounded by water at 88°C? Assume T o for the pipe is 45.6°C.

Solution Steps

T film = 88 + 45.6

2

T film = 66.8 °C

From Eq. 8-4, 8-5a, 8-6a and 8-7, and Fig. 8-4:

d o = 88.9 mm

Nu = 0.47 (Gr Pr) 0.25

 

Nu =

C

(Gr Pr) m

Eq 8-4

h d o

 

d o 3 2 g

T C p

0.25

Where

 

1000

k

1000

k

   
 

Nu

 

h D o

h d o k

Eq 8-5a

 

=

990 kg/m 3

=

k

=

1000

 

or

Nu =

h L

Eq 8-5b

g = 9.807 m/s 2 = 0.00063 1/°C

T

=

88

45.6 °C

 

k

 
 

FIG. 8-5

 

Heat Transfer Constants for Equation 8-8 2, 3 Forced Convection

 
   

Configuration

Characteristic Length

 

Re

Pr

C

m

Flat plate parallel to flow Cylinder axis perpendicu-

Plate length

10 3 < Re < 10 5 1 < Re < 4 4 < Re < 40 40 < Re < 4000 4(10) 3 < Re < 4(10) 4 4(10) 4 < Re 10 4 < Re 2(10) 3 < Re 2(10) 3 < Re

> 0.6

0.648

0.50

Cylinder diameter

> 0.6

0.99

0.33

lar

to flow

 

> 0.6

0.91

0.39

 

> 0.6

0.68

0.47

> 0.6

0.193

0.62

> 0.6

0.0266

0.81

Inside pipes Outside bank of tubes

Inside pipe diameter Staggered outside tube diameter In line

0.7 < Pr < 700

0.023

0.80

> 0.6

0.33

0.60

 

> 0.6

0.26

0.60

8-4

C p = = 4.187 kJ /(kg ∑ °C) 0.63 mPa ∑ s k =
C p
=
=
4.187 kJ /(kg ∑ °C)
0.63 mPa ∑ s
k = 0.632 W/(m ∑ °C)
The properties of water ( , , , k) are based on the film
temperature.
0.25
= 0.47 ∑ 1000 ∑ k
d o
d o 3 ∑ 2 ∑ g ∑
∑ T ∑ C p
h o
1000
∑ k
0.25
0.47 k
(88.9) 3 (990) 2 (9.807)(0.00063 )(42.4)(4.187)
h
=
o
88.9
1000
∑ (0.63)(0.632)
1000
=
697.3 W/(m 2 ∑ °C)

Forced convection — occurs when the fluid flow adja- cent to a solid is promoted by external force, e.g., pumping, agitation, etc. The result is a substantial increase in the heat transfer rate. The Dittus-Boelter correlation is:

Eq 8-8a

Nu = C Re m Pr 0.33

Utilization of a viscosity correction term gives the Sieder-Tate correlation:

0.14

Nu = C ∑ Re m ∑ Pr 0.33 ∑ b w Where 1000 ∑
Nu = C ∑ Re m ∑ Pr 0.33 ∑
b
w
Where
1000 ∑ D ∑ V ∑
d ∑ V ∑
Re
=
=
0.3537 ∑ M
353.7 ∑ M
=
=
D ∑
d
0.3537 ∑ q l ∑
353.7 ∑ q l ∑
=
=
D ∑
d ∑
q gs ∑ RD
18.05 ∑ q gs ∑ RD
=
=
55.4
∑ D
d ∑
or
1000 ∑ L
∑ V ∑
Re =

Eq 8-8b

Eq 8-9a

Eq 8-9b

Equation 8-8b need be used only for high viscosity fluids such as glycol.

As before, Re is dimensionless when the units indicated in Fig. 8-1 are used in equations 8-9a and 8-9b. The constants C and m depend on the configuration and the type of fluid flow — laminar, intermediate, or turbulent — which is characterized by the magnitude of the Reynolds number. Fig. 8-5 lists values for the more common situations.

Example 8-3 — Find the heat transfer coefficient for 280 000 Sm 3 /day of 0.6 relative density natural gas flowing at 13 800 kPa (abs) in a 75 mm NPS Sch 40 pipe when the pipe wall and gas temperatures are 40 °C and 22 °C, respectively.

Solution Steps

T film

=

40 + 22

2

=

31 °C

From Eq 8-7, 8-8a, and 8-9a and Fig. 8-5:

Nu = 0.023 (Re) 0.8 (Pr) 0.33

8-5

h d i

1000 k

Where:

= 0.023

18.05

q gs RD

0.8

C p

0.33

 

k

 

d i

 

d i = 73.7 mm

 

=

19 (10 3 ) mPa s

k

= 0.052 W/(m °C)

C p = 3.06 kJ/(kg °C)

q gs

= 0.28 10 6

RD = 0.60

Sm 3 /day

h i = 0.023 (1000 ) k

h i = 0.023 (1000 ) 0.052

18.05 q gs RD

0.8 0.33 Cp ∑ k
0.8
0.33
Cp ∑
k

0.8

d i

d i

73.7

18.05 (0.28) (10 6 ) 0.6

(73.7) (19) (10 3 )

3.06

(19) (10 3 )

0.33

0.052

h i = 1971 W/(m 2 °C)

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

So far, only the individual or local heat transfer coefficients

have been considered. As discussed in Section 9 “Shell and

Tube Heat Exchangers” the individual heat transfer coeffi- cients are combined into an overall heat transfer coefficient. See Fig. 9-3 for calculation of T LM .

Eq 8-10

U must be based on some specific area. Considering all the resistances to heat transfer through a hollow cylinder whose wall is made of two different materials (i.e. metal pipe and a layer of insulation), the overall heat transfer based on the in- sulation outside diameter is:

Q

=

U A T LM

U o =

=

1

1

D

o

+ rf o + rf i D o

h

o

+ D i h i

D o ln (D o /D m ) + D o ln (D m /D i )
+

2

k o

2

k i

D

i

 

1

1

d

o

+ rf o + rf i d o

 

h

o

+ d i h i

d o ln (d o /d m ) + d o ln (d m /d i )
+

2000 k o

2000

k i

d

i

Eq 8-11 When there is only one solid layer, delete the fourth term in Equation 8-11 and change the subscript m to i and delete the subscript on k in the third term. Example 8-4 — Find the overall heat transfer coefficient for a 75 mm NPS Sch 80 pipe submerged in an 88 °C water bath. 280 000 Sm 3 /day of 13 800 kPa (abs) natural gas is to be heated from 16 °C to 29 °C. Refer to Examples 8-2 and 8-3; note that the heat flow through the pipe is similar to Example

8-1.

Solution Steps Use h i , h o , and the conduction through the pipe wall to find U . Then check the heat fluxes to see that the right film tem- peratures were used. From Fig. 8-8, k = 45.3 W/(m °C) for the pipe wall at 48°C. Assume clean pipe.

h i = 1971 and h o = 697.3 W/(m 2 °C)

d i

=

73.7

and

d o = 88.9 mm

k = 45.3 W/(m °C)

FIG. 8-6

Fin Efficiency Chart 4

FIG. 8-6 Fin Efficiency Chart 4 FIG. 8-7 Fin Tip Temperature 5 8-6 From Eq 8-11
FIG. 8-6 Fin Efficiency Chart 4 FIG. 8-7 Fin Tip Temperature 5 8-6 From Eq 8-11

FIG. 8-7

Fin Tip Temperature 5

8-6 Fin Efficiency Chart 4 FIG. 8-7 Fin Tip Temperature 5 8-6 From Eq 8-11 U
8-6 Fin Efficiency Chart 4 FIG. 8-7 Fin Tip Temperature 5 8-6 From Eq 8-11 U

8-6

From Eq 8-11

U o

=

=

1

1

h o

+

d o

d o ln (d o /d i )

d i h i

2000 k

1

+

1

88.9

1971 + 88.9 ln (88.9 /73.7)

2000 45.3

697.3 + 73.7

= 448.4 W/(m 2 °C)

A o

=

d o

1000

=

0.2793 m 2

T o

=

88

T i1

=

16

T i2 =

29 °C

From Fig. 9-3

(T o

T i1 )

(T o

T i2 )

(88

16)

(88

29)

T LM

=

=

T o T o

T il

ln 65.28 °C

T i2

=

ln

88

16 29

88

T LM

Q = U o A o T LM = 448.41(0.2793)(65.28)

1

= 8176 W per linear m

°C

To confirm the film temperatures and the validity of the in- dividual heat transfer coefficients, the heat fluxes outside, through, and inside the pipe must be compared with the over- all heat flux. Consider one linear meter of pipe. At the average gas temperature of 22.5°C, calculate the fluxes for one linear meter of pipe.

Q o

=

h o A o

T o

FIG. 8-8 Thermal Conductivity of Ferrous Materials 4

FIG. 8-8 Thermal Conductivity of Ferrous Materials 4 8-7

8-7

FIG. 8-9

Normal Total Emissivity of Various Surfaces 3

A. Metals and Their Oxides

Surface

T, °C*

Emissivity*

Aluminum Highly polished plate, 98.3% pure

225-575

0.039-0.057

Polished plate

23

0.040

Rough plate

26

0.055

Oxidized at 599°C Aluminum-surfaced roofing

200-600

0.11-0.19

38

0.216

Calorized surfaces, heated at 600°C:

Copper

200-600

0.18-0.19

Steel

200-600

0.52-0.57

Brass

Highly polished:

73.2% Cu, 26.7% Zn

247-357

0.028-0.031

62.4% Cu, 36.8% Zn, 0.4% Pb, 0.3% Al

257-377

0.033-0.037

82.9% Cu, 17.0% Zn Chromium; (see Nickel Alloys for Ni-Cr steels)

277

0.030

38-538

0.08-0.26

Copper

Commercial, emeried, polished, but pits remaining

189

0.030

Commercial, scraped shiny but not mirror-like Polished

22

0.072

117

0.023

Plate, heated long time, covered with thick oxide layer

25

0.78

Cuprous oxide

799-1099

0.66-0.54

Iron and steel Metallic surfaces (or very thin oxide layer):

Cast iron, polished

200

0.21

Ground sheet steel

938-1099

0.55-0.61

Smooth sheet iron

899-1038

0.55-0.60

Oxidized surfaces:

Iron plate, pickled, then rusted red Completely rusted

20

0.612

19

0.685

Rolled sheet steel

21

0.657

Oxidized iron Cast iron, oxidized at 599°C

100

0.736

199-599

0.64-0.78

Surface

T, °C*

Emissivity*

Steel, oxidized at 599°C Iron oxide

199-599

0.79

499-1199

0.85-0.89

Sheet steel, strong rough oxide layer

24

0.80

Dense shiny oxide layer

24

0.82

Cast plate:

Smooth

23

0.80

Rough

23

0.82

Cast iron, rough, strongly oxidized

38-249

0.95

Wrought iron, dull oxidized Steel plate, rough

21-360

0.94

38-371

0.94-0.97

High temperature alloy steels (see Nickel Alloys)

Monel metal, oxidized at 599°C

199-599

0.41-0.46

Nickel Electroplated on pickled iron, not polished

20

0.11

Plate, oxidized by heating at 599°C

199-599

0.37-0.48

Nickel oxide

649-1254

0.59-0.86

Nickel alloys

Chromnickel

52-1034

0.64-0.76

Nickelin (18-32 Ni; 55-68 Cu; 20 Zn), gray oxidized

21

0.262

KA-2S alloy steel – (8% Ni; 18% Cr),

light silvery, rough, brown, after heating

216-490

0.44-0.36

After 42 hr. heating at 980°F NCT-3 alloy (20% Ni; 25% Cr), brown, splotched, oxidized from service

216-527

0.62-0.73

216-527

0.90-0.97

NCT-6 alloy (60% Ni; 12% Cr), smooth, black, firm adhesive oxide coat from service

271-563

0.89-0.82

Tin – bright tinned iron sheet

24

0.043 & 0.064

Zinc

Commercial, 99.1% pure, polished

227-327

0.045-0.053

Oxidized by heating at 750°F

399

0.11

Galvanized sheet iron, fairly bright

28

0.228

Galvanized sheet iron, gray oxidized

24

0.276

88.9

1000

Q o = (697.3)

Q o = 8257.3 W per linear m

(88 45.6)

Q p =

2

L k T

ln

d

o

d

i

Q p = (2) (3.14) (1) (45.3) (45.6 40) 88.9

ln

Q p = 8496.2 W per linear m

Q

h i A i

T i

73.7

i

=

Q

i

=

(1971)

73.7

1000

(40

22)

Q i = 8214.4 W per linear m

The agreement is close enough for purpose of this example.

The above refers to clean pipes. Fouling occurs with contin- ued use. Sometimes, fouling factors are specified; e.g., 0.0002 internally and externally. These are correction factors that are added to 1/U o . So,

U of =

1

1

U

o

+ 0.0002 + 0.0002 88.9

73.7

U of = 374.34 W/(m 2 °C)

Finned Tubes

When combustion gases flow externally and heat a liquid in

a pipe, there is a significant disparity between h i [usually over

[usually less than 60 W/(m 2 K)]. To

overcome this and make better use of a given length of pipe, the external surface is finned. When the gas flow is normal to the pipe axis, helical fins — typically 1.25 to 3 mm thick, 12.5 to 40 mm high, and 80 to 240 fins/m — are used. The result is an increase of up to tenfold in the external area of the pipe.

850 W/(m 2 K)] and h o

The total external surface area of a finned pipe and the cross sectional or projected area restricting normal gas flow per lin- ear foot are:

8-8

FIG. 8-9 (cont’d)

Normal Total Emissivity of Various Surfaces 3

B. Refractories, Building Materials, Paints, and Miscellaneous

Surface

T, °C*

Emissivity*

Asbestos

   

Board

23

0.96

Paper

38-371

0.93-0.945

Brick

Red, rough, but no gross irregularities Silica, unglazed, rough

21

0.93

1000

0.80

Silica, glazed, rough

1100

0.85

Grog brick, glazed See Refractory Materials below.

1100

0.75

Carbon

T-carbon (Gebr. Siemens) 0.9% ash (this started with emissivity at 125°C of 0.72, but on heating changed to values given)

127-627

0.81-0.79

Enamel, white fused, on iron

19

0.897

Glass, smooth Gypsum, 0.02 in. thick on smooth or blackened plate

22

0.937

21

0.903

Marble, light gray, polished

22

0.931

Oak, planed

21

0.895

Oil layers on polished nickel (lube oil) Polished surface, alone

20

0.045

+0.001-in. oil

0.27

+0.002-in. oil

0.46

+0.005-in. oil

0.72

Infinitely thick oil layer

0.82

Oil layers on aluminum foil (linseed oil) Al foil

100

0.087†

+1 coat oil +2 coats oil

100

0.561

100

0.574

* When two temperatures and two emissivities are given, they correspond, first to first and second to second, and linear interpolation is permissible.

Surface

T, °C*

Emissivity*

Paints, lacquers, varnishes

Snowhite enamel varnish on rough iron plate Black shiny lacquer, sprayed on iron

   

23

0.906

24

0.875

Black shiny shellac on tinned iron sheet

21

0.821

Black matte shellac

77-146

0.91

Black lacquer

38-93

0.80-0.95

Flat black lacquer

38-93

0.96-0.98

White lacquer Oil paints, sixteen different, all colors

38-93

0.80-0.95

100

0.92-0.96

Aluminum paints and lacquers

10% Al, 22% lacquer body, on rough or smooth surface

100

0.52

26% Al, 27% lacquer body, on rough or

smooth surface

100

0.3

Other Al paints, varying age and Al content Al lacquer, varnish binder, on rough plate

100

0.27-0.67

21

0.39

Al paint, after heating to 327°C

149-316

0.35

Plaster, rough lime

10-88

0.91

Porcelain, glazed

22

0.924

Quartz, rough, fused

21

0.932

Refractory materials, 40 different poor radiators

599-999

0.65-0.75

0.70

good radiators

0.80-0.85

0.85-0.90

Roofing paper

21

0.91

Rubber

Hard, glossy plate

23

0.945

Soft, gray, rough (reclaimed)

24

0.859

Water

0-100

0.95-0.963

† Although this value is probably high, it is given for comparison with the data, by the same investigator, to show the effect of oil layers. See Aluminum, part

A of this table.

A o

and

A cs

=

=

d o

+

1000

d

o

1

n t

1000

n t (d f 10 6

n

d f 2

d o

2

+

d o )

2

6

10

1000

Eq 8-12

Eq 8-13

The surface area of the fins is not as efficient as the external surface of the pipe because heat absorbed at the fin surface must be conducted to the fin base before it can pass through the pipe wall. Fin efficiencies are given in Fig. 8-6. These effi- ciencies are applied to the total external area.

Another important consideration is fin tip temperature. This can be obtained from the fin efficiency and Fig. 8-7. Fig. 8-8 gives the thermal conductivities and maximum rec- ommended fin tip temperatures for the more common ferrous construction materials.

Example 8-5 — Calculate the external surface and fin effi- ciency for 100 mm NPS Sch 80 pipe with the following finning:

118 fins/m, 31.75 mm high, 2.67 mm thick. Assume:

h o = 22.2 W/(m 2 °C)

k f = 43.3 W/(m °C)

8-9

Solution Steps

Abscissa in Fig. 8-6:

H

t

f = 31.75 mm

= 2.67 mm

h o

k f t

X = 0.045 H f ÷

=

0.045 (31.75) ÷

= 0.626

22.2

43.3 (2.67)

d o = 114 mm

d o + 2 H f

d f =

=

d f

=

d o

=

114 + 2 (31.75 )

177.5 mm

177.5

114 = 1.557

From Fig. 8-6, fin efficiency is 87%.

FIG. 8-10

Partial Pressure of CO 2 Plus H 2 O

FIG. 8-10 Partial Pressure of CO 2 Plus H 2 O FIG. 8-11 Beam Lengths for

FIG. 8-11

Beam Lengths for Gas Radiation 8

Dimension Ratio

Mean Beam Length, L

Rectangular Furnaces, Length-Width-Height, In Any Order

1-1-1 to 1-1-3 1-2-1 to 1-2-4 1-1-4 to 1-1-1-2-5 to 1-2-1-3-3 to 1--

}

(2/3) (Furnace Volume) 1 3

(1) (Smallest Dimension) (1.3) (Smallest Dimension) (1.8) (Smallest Dimension)

Cylindrical Furnaces, Diameter-Height

1-1

(2/3) (Diameter)

1-2 to 1-

(1) (Diameter)

From Eq 8-12:

n = 118 per meter ∑ d o 1 n ∑ t n ∑ A
n
=
118
per meter
∑ d o
1
n ∑ t
n ∑
A o
=
+
1000
1000
2
∑ 114
118 ∑ 2.67
=
1
+
1000
1000
=
3.676 m 2 perlinear m

Radiation

(d f 2 d o 2 )

6

10

118

(177.5 2 114 2 )

2

10 6