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Digital Avionics

EICAS : Ln 14
M S Prasad : This lecture note is prepared from text books & open literature.

DIGITAL AVIONICS : LN 14 ENGINE INDICATING AND CREW ALERTING ( EICAS) SYSTEM:


EICAS is designed to provide all engine instrumentation and crew advisory/caution/warning alert messages in an integrated format. The crew alerting feature provides EICAS messages, flight deck lamp control and aural alerts . The system provides: Primary engine data: N1, EGT and warning and alert messages, (EPR) Secondary engine data: N2, fuel flow, oil quantity, pressure and temperature, vibration plus non-engine parameters: flight control surface position, hydraulic & pneumatic system power system including APU, deicing system etc. The system has two computers (R, L). Only one is in the control at the time and the other is standby.

EICAS modes EICAS categorizes displays and alerts according to function and usage into under mentioned modes: Operational: Engine operating information and any alerts which requires action by flight crews.. Only upper display presents this information.

Status: Provides details about the readiness of the aircraft . Maintenance: Trouble-shooting and verification testing of the major sub-systems EICAS display is shown in 7 colors: white: all scales, normal operating range of pointers, digital readouts. red: warning messages, maximum operating limit marks, digital readouts green: thrust mode readout, selected EPR/N1 speed marks or target cursors blue: testing of the system only yellow: caution and advisory messages, caution limit marks on scales, digital readouts magenta: during in-flight engine starting cyan: names of all parameters being measured and status marks EICAS levels: Level A warnings requiring immediate correction activity .Level B cautions requiring immediate crew awareness and possible activity . Level C advisories requiring crew awareness

System Alert level definition Time Critical Warnings Time critical warnings alert the crew of a non-normal operational condition requiring immediate crew awareness and corrective action to maintain safe flight. Time critical warnings are usually associated with primary flight path control. Master warning lights, voice alerts, and ADI indications or stick shakers announce time critical warning conditions. Warnings

Warnings alert the crew to a non-normal operational or system condition requiring immediate crew awareness and corrective action. Cautions Cautions alert the crew to a non-normal operational or system condition requiring immediate crew awareness. Corrective action may be required. Advisories Advisories alert the crew to a non-normal operational or system condition requiring routine crew awareness. Corrective action may be required.
EICAS Event Record

The flight crew can manually capture and record any suspect condition into EICAS memory using the EICAS EVENT RECORD switch. Systems which provide recorded information when the switch is activated include:

Air Systems Anti-ice and Rain APU Electrical System Electronic Engine Control fire Protection system Flight controls / Flaps & slats Fuel System (quantity and management) Hydraulic System Landing Gear & brakes Performance

Only the last manual event recorded will be retained for future retrieval. The event record function also has an automatic feature. When an EICAS event occurs, conditions are automatically written to EICAS memory.
Engine Pressure Ratio

Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR) is the primary thrust parameter used for monitoring and setting power. EPR is directly related to engine gross thrust. The EPR indicating system uses the ratio of pressure signals from LP compressor cold (PF) exhaust stream, and engine air intake pressure (P1) to provide an indication of engine thrust in flight compartment. The P1 probe is secured at

the top center position of the inner cowling, protrudes into the air intake and senses air inlet pressure. The probe is protected from ice formation by an electrically heated system. Annunciations associated with EPR are:

Maximum EPR. The Maximum EPR is the maximum certified thrust limit for all phases of flight and varies with existing ambient conditions. The maximum EPR is indicated by dual amber radials on the periphery of the EPR indicator. This value is acquired from the EEC or the TMC when the EEC is OFF or INOP. With the EEC ON, the thrust levers can be moved to the forward stop and the engines will not exceed the displayed maximum EPR. Thrust Reference Mode Reference/Target EPR indication Reference EPR Assumed Temperature Thrust Reverser Indication. Thrust Reverser Indication (REV) is displayed above the EPR indicator when the reverser is activated. The annunciation is amber REV when the reverser is unlocked or in transit. When the reverser is fully deployed, the annunciation changes color to green REV and the forward thrust reference displays are inhibited. Command Thrust Level. The Command Thrust Level is a display of thrust lever position and appears as an extension of the EPR pointer when the engine is stabilized. A change in thrust lever position moves the command thrust level and displays the commanded thrust on the EPR indicator. This allows for precise thrust control. Commanded EPR Sector. The Command EPR Sector is a display of the momentary difference between the command thrust level and existing EPR and appears as a white band on the EPR indicator. As the engine accelerates or decelerates to the command thrust level the command EPR sector is erased. This allows for monitoring of engine acceleration and deceleration.