Sie sind auf Seite 1von 4

HARMONIC-TUNED PATCH ACTIVE INTEGRATED ANTENNA FOR A HIGH-EFFICIENCY KU-BAND TRANSMITTER

P. Baccarelli, P. Burghignoli, F. Frezza, A. Galli, P. Lampariello, S. Paulotto, G. Valerio


"Sapienza" University of Rome, Electronic Engineering Department - Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy. Fax: 39 06 4742647 E-mail: 1a1 a-illo mal.de-i Keywords: Active integrated antennas, harmonic tuning, compact filters, patch antennas, power transmitters.

Abstract
Design strategies are presented for harmonic-tuned active integrated antennas based on the use of microstrip patches and compact photonic bandgap filters. The synthesis of optimal values for the antenna input impedance at the fundamental, second, and third harmonic frequencies is achieved perturbing either the geometry of the antenna or the geometry of the filter, on the basis of an ad-hoc unit-cell characterization. Numerical simulations of input impedance and radiation properties are provided on two examples to validate the proposed approaches.

Examples are given and numerical simulations are presented, obtained with a commercial moment-method simulator, that confirm the feasibility of the proposed approaches.

IPA
Case 1:

C~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
ZIN

1 Introduction and background


The ever increasing demand of high efficiency in microwave transmitters, especially for application in portable devices, has led in recent years to intensive research on advanced operation classes for Power Amplifiers (PAs) (see, e.g., [3] and references therein). In particular, harmonic-tuned PAs base their operation on the termination of their output port on suitable values of the load impedance at the operating frequncy and at the first higher-order harmonics (typically, the second and third), which allow for reducing the power dissipated in the active device as well as the power delivered to the load at harmonic frequencies, thus increasing the Power Added Efficiency (PAE). Various Active Integrated Antenna (AIA) configurations have been proposed for achieving harmonic tuning in microwave transmitters [2,5]. In this paper we present two design strategies for specific applications in the Ku band, both based on the simultaneous use of a compact Photonic BandGap (PBG) microstrip filter [4,7] and of a circular patch radiator. The design constraints include optimal values for the complex input impedance ZIN = RINjXIN of the antenna (corresponding to the input reflection coefficient fIN) at the operating frequency fo, whereas at the higher-order harmonics it is required that FIN 1=1 with prescribed ranges for the imaginary part of the input impedance. The two proposed designs rely on either modifying the shape of the patch and adopting a regular PBG filter, or modifying the shape of the filter maintaining a regular patch shape (see Fig. 1).

Case 2:

Fig. 1: Illustration of two design strategies for a harmonictuned power amplifier (PA) connected to a microstrip patch antenna.

2 AIA design based on a perturbed patch

ZIN = RIN +jXIN of the antenna are RIN E (13,17) Q and XIN E (15,2 1) Q at the operating frequencyf= 14 GHz; moreover, it XIN < -17 Q at the third harmonic.

In the first example the requirements on the input impedance

is required that XIN E (-80,-20) Q at the second harmonic and

A modified circular patch is used to avoid resonances at the second and third harmonic frequencies [5]. In order to further improve the mismatch at the third harmonic frequency, a compact filter made of a small number of PBG cells (adapted from [4]) is introduced. The filter has been dimensioned on the basis of a full-wave analysis in a periodic configuration through a rigorous periodic moment-method approach [1]: the geometry of the unit cell is designed such that the value of the attenuation constant at the third harmonic is sufficiently high to allow for using a small number of cells. Finally, the synthesis of the optimal input impedance at the operating frequency is performed through an impedance transformer and a pair of tuning stubs; the resulting geometry is shown in Fig. 2.

., -..d2 .
s

ws
1.

IS 11I (dB)
0

5.356 mn
VI

1.4 mm
- ........mm

0.521
Im1

V y
z

-2 -4
-6 -8

mm

Fig. 2: Harmonic-tuned patch antenna with perturbed patch geometry and relevant parameters.

-10
-12

f (GHz) The geometrical dimensions indicated in Fig. 2 have been calculated through simulations performed with the Fig. 3: Magnitude (dB) of the input reflection coefficient as commercial software Ansoft Designer.TM, based on a momenta function of frequencyf for the antenna in Fig. 2. method approach that assumes an ideally infinite substrate for the antenna. In order to assess the sensitivity of the results to 0 the finite size of the substrate, further simulations have been Gain performed with the commercial software Ansoft HFSSTm, 330 30 10 based on the finite element method, for a truncated substrate (dBi) 5 with dimensions 30X20 mm. 0 -5 60 In Table 1 a comparison of the values obtained for the input -10 impedance at the operating, second, and third harmonic -15 frequencies is shown. It can be observed that the synthesised -20 values of ZIN at the operating frequency and at the second -25 harmonic satisfy the design constraints both for the infinite -30 90 and for the truncated structure. On the other hand, at the third harmonic the imaginary part is only slightly above the prescribed upper limit of- 17 Q.

14

21

28

35

42

TABLE 1 INPUT IMPEDANCE (OHM)

\\

| 0 = 90 |

120

f
14 GHz

Real part

28 GHz
42 GHz

17.05 (Designer) 16.84 (HFSS) 5.08 (Designer) 7.34 (HFSS) 2.87 (Designer) 2.03 (HFSS)

Imaginary part 15.95 (Designer) 13.95 (HFSS) -26.09 (Designer) -30.52 (HFSS) -14.87 (Designer) -13.13 (HFSS)

210 180

150

Fig. 4: Gain patterns (dBi) in the principal planes 0= 00 and 0= 90 atf= 14 GHz for the antenna in Fig. 2.

Table 1: Input impedance of the antenna with perturbed patch geometry of Fig. 2 at the fundamental, first, and second harmonic frequencies: effect of substrate truncation. The impedance mismatch obtained at the second and third harmonics is very satisfactory also for the antenna on a truncated substrate.

3 AIA design based on a perturbed filter


In the second example the requirements on the input impedance ZIN = RINFJXIN of the antenna are RIN E (13,17) Q and XIN E (15,2 1) Q at the operating frequency fo = 14.25 GHz; at the higher-order harmonics it is required that IXINI E (100,300) Q at the second harmonic and IXINI > 17 Q at the third harmonic. Optimum values are indicated as ZIN = 5j1 8 Q atfo = 14.25 GHz, XIN = 100 Q at the second harmonic, and XIN= -17 Q at the third harmonic. In this case, a regular patch of circular shape is used as a radiator with radius a = 3.8 mm, such that it resonates at the operating frequency f0. The

In particular, in Fig. 3, results are shown for the magnitude of the input reflection coefficient of the harmonic-tuned patch antenna of Fig. 2, obtained by using Ansoft HFSS. Both the second and third harmonics are substantially rejected and the filtering effect of the 1-D EBG structure operating in its rejection of both the second and the third harmonics and the synthesis of the required reactance values at those frequencies bandgap is clearly observable above about 38 GHz. are performed through a perturbed filter made of three Fig. 4 shows the total gain patterns for = 00 (E plane) and different cells (numbered starting from the input port), = 900 (H plane) at the operating frequencyf= 14 GHz. adopting the procedure outlined in the following.

2.5

o/k
2
1.5
e

Im(ZIN) @ 2f0
L

Im(ZIN) @
0
-5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35

3f0

L = 1.1 mm -L=0.9mm
< 1 mm 2iL=1.3

800 600 400 200

0
-200 -400 -600

20

25

30

35

40

45 42.75 GHz

28.5 GHz

-800

f (GHz)

0.5

1
Lstub (mm)

1.5

-40

Fig. 5: Normalized attenuation constant of the periodic filter with unit cell as in the inset, as a function of Fig. 7: frequency f for different values of the parameter L. Other parameters: spatial period p = 1.60 mm; width of all the microstrip-line lengths in the unit cell equal to 0.42 mm.
(dB) -c
-5
-10

Lstub
,

Input reactance at the second (2fo, solid line) and third (3fo, dashed line) harmonic frequencies for a filter as in Fig. 5 with a pair of shorted tuning stubs on the second cell, as a function of the stub length
..

(dB)

-10 -15
-20

-15
-20
-25

-30
-35

'1sill
.....is I
10

-25
-30

is1I
1i
10
1

15

20

25 30 f (GHz

35

40

45

-35

15

20

25 30 f (GHz)

35

40

45

Fig. 6: Reflection and transmission scattering parameters in Fig. 8: Reflection and transmission scattering parameters in magnitude as a function of f for a three-cell tapered magnitude vs. f for a three-cell perturbed filter as in filter with L1 = 0.9 mm, L2 = 1.1 mm, L3 = 1.3 mm. Fig. 6 with a symmetric pair of shorted tuning stubs Other parameters: as in Fig. 5. on the second cell (LSwb = 1.25 mm).
By means of a full-wave analysis of the cell in a periodic configuration [1], information is gained on the value of the attenuation constant in the frequency band of interest as a function of one of the geometrical parameters characterizing the cell geometry, i.e., the length L as illustrated in the inset of Fig. 5. The parameter L is then chosen so that the first cell rejects only the third harmonic (L = 0.9 mm), while the third cell transmits only the fundamental harmonic (L = 1.3 mm). In the second cell, L assumes the intermediate value 1.1 mm, such that the second harmonic is still in the stopband of the filter but close to its edge. The relevant dispersive behaviours of the unit-cell attenuation constant as a function off and for the different L values are given in Fig. 5.
In Fig. 6 the reflection and transmission scattering parameters vs. f of the resulting tapered three-cell filter confirm that the

The distance of the input port from the filter is adjusted so that the value of XIN at the third harmonic meets the design specifications. The value of the reactance at the second harmonic is instead adjusted by inserting a pair of symmetrical stubs directly on the second cell of the filter, shorted by vertical vias to reduce their length (one of these stubs may be connected to a DC source to polarize the PA).
In Fig. 7, the variation of the input reactance XIN of the filter is shown as a function of the stub length at the second and third harmonic frequencies; such input reactance is largely independent of the value of the load at the output port of the filter, thanks to the high rejection level achieved at those frequencies. It can be observed that a very wide range of values for XIN can be synthesised at the second harmonic while maintaining the value of XIN at the third harmonic

fundamental harmonic is transmitted, whereas second and substantially unaltered. third harmonics are rejected.

d\ t

T w

| ~ ~_ ~

_R

Fig. 9: Geometry of the harmonic-tuned patch antenna with

In Table 2, the values of the input impedance synthesised through the proposed procedure are given: as can be seen, such values fully meet all the specifications both at the operating frequency and at the higher-order harmonics, where in particular a high rejection level is obtained ( -IN IdB -0.60 @2fo and |IN ldB= 1.21 @3fo). In Fig. 10, the gain pattern in the principal planes 5 = 00 and = 900 is shown, which can be seen to be very wide and smooth and substantially equal to that of a standard circular patch antenna.

L,tub = 1.25 mm; d= 3.84 mm; Wnotch = 0.20 mm.


TABLE 2 INPUT IMPEDANCE (OHM)

perturbed filter geometry. Parameters: w = 2.10 mm;

4 Conclusion
Two design strategies have been presented for microstrip patch antennas to be used in highly efficient transmitters in the Ku band, based on power amplifiers operating in a tunedload configuration.

The synthesis of the desired complex values of the antenna input impedance at the fundamental frequency, as well as of the input reactance at the second and third harmonic frequencies, is achieved by modifying the patch shape and introducing suitable matching sections before the filter (in the Table 2: Input impedance of the antenna with perturbed filter first design) or by modifying the geometry of the filter (in the second design). A fundamental tool is in both cases geometry of Fig. 9. represented by the preliminary analysis of the filter dispersion properties in a periodic environment, which allows us to gain fundamental information on the stopband features as a 0 Gain function of the involved geometrical parameters. 10 - -30 30
14.25 GHz 28.50 GHz 42.75 GHz 16.86 21.69 3.14 15.31 143.81 -17.95
(dBi)
0
-10 -20 -30
-

Real part

Imaginary part

/
,,

f
I. ...

60
....

Both approaches have lead to satisfactory designs, the second one being more flexible and systematic, and also allowing for a more compact overall topology of the radiator.
90

References

[1] P. Baccarelli, C. Di Nallo, S. Paulotto, D. R. Jackson. "A full-wave numerical approach for modal analysis of 1-D periodic microstrip structures", IEEE Trans. \ = 900 Microwave Theory Tech., 54, pp. 1350-1362, (2006). [2] K. Chang, R. A. York, P. S. Hall, T. Itoh. "Active integrated antennas", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 50, pp. 937-944, (2002). [3] F. Giannini, G. Leuzzi. Non-linear microwave circuit design. New York, NY: Wiley, 2004. Fig. 10: Gain patterns in the principal planes for the antenna [4] B.-L. Ooi. "Compact EBG in-phase hybrid-ring equal with perturbed filter geometry of Fig. 9. power divider", IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 53, pp. 2329-2334, (2005). The introduction of the stubs on the second cell further [5] V. Radisic, Y. Qian, T. Itoh. "Novel architectures for perturbs the filter response, however still allowing the high-efficiency amplifiers for wireless applications", fundamental harmonic to be transmitted. In Fig. 8, the IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 46, pp. 1901relevant behaviours of both the reflection and the 1909, (1998). transmission scattering parameters are shown as a function of [6] Y. J. Sung, Y.-S. Kim. "An improved design of frequencyf microstrip patch antennas using photonic bandgap structure", IEEE Trans. Antennas. Propag., 53, pp. the distance of the from the filter and the Finally, patch length 1799-1804, (2005). of the notches are designed in order to synthesise the desired value of the input impedance at the fundamental frequency. [7] Q. Xue, K. M. Shum, C. H. Chan. "Novel 1-D microstrip PBG cells", IEEE Microwave Guided Lett., The resulting complete structure is presented in Fig. 9 with 10, pp. 403-405, (2000). the relevant geometrical parameters.