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Emotionsregulation durch Verbalisieren: Differenzierung neuronaler Aktivierungsmuster unter Bercksichtigung individueller Unterschiede in der Fhigkeit seine Emotionen zu identifizieren

und zu kommunizieren
Autoren: Kazzer, P., Bajbouj, M., Heekeren, H. R., Jacobs, A., Klann-Delius, G., Menninghaus, W., Prehn, K. Konferenztitel: 38. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fr Psychophysiologie und ihre Anwendung (DGPA) und der Fachgruppe Biologische Psychologie und Neuropsychologie in der Deutschen Gesellschaft fr Psychologie (DGPs) Psychologie und Gehirn Ort: Jena Jahr:2012 Typ: Konferenzbeitrag

Abstract
Es ist eine verbreitete Annahme, dass es hilft ber emotionale Erlebnisse zu sprechen, um die ausgelsten Emotionen zu regulieren. Die wenigen bisherigen Untersuchungen zeigen jedoch widersprchliche Befunde (fr eine bersicht s. Rim et al., 1998). Ziel unserer fMRTStudie war es daher, den Einfluss verschiedener Verbalisierungsstrategien auf die Verarbeitung emotionaler Reize zu untersuchen. Dabei sollte insbesondere die Fhigkeit des Einzelnen seine Emotionen zu beschreiben bercksichtigt werden. Es wurden 32 Probanden (16 Mnner) negative emotionale Bilder prsentiert. Whrend des Betrachtens sollten die Probanden entweder ihre Emotionen verbalisieren (laut besttigen oder leugnen) oder ber die im Bild dargestellten Fakten sprechen. Bilder aus der letzteren Bedingung wurden im Wiedererkennungstest schlechter erinnert und als weniger emotional bewertet. Fakten zu verbalisieren fhrte zudem zu einer hheren Aktivitt in frontoparietalen Kontrollarealen. Dieser Effekt war besonders stark bei Probanden mit hherer Fhigkeit ihre Emotionen zu beschreiben (Toronto Alexithymie Skala) und spiegelte sich auch auf neuronaler Ebene in unterschiedlichen Aktivierungsmustern des rechten temporalen Poles wider. Unsere Ergebnisse sttzen die Sichtweise, dass diese Region eine wichtige Rolle bei der Integration von sprachlichen und emotionalen Prozessen spielt und dass gerade das Verbalisieren einen wesentlichen Einfluss auf die Verarbeitung und Erinnerung emotionaler Reize hat.

The impact of social sharing on the processing of emotional stimuli


Autoren: Prehn, K., Korn, C. W., Bajbouj, M., Klann-Delius, G., Menninghaus, W., Jacobs, A., Heekeren, H. R. Konferenztitel: Annual Meeting der Organization for Human Brain Mapping

Ort: Peking Jahr:2012 Typ:Konferenzbeitrag

Abstract
Background: Experiencing emotions often involves social interactions in which people communicate their feelings to each other (Rim, 2009). The processing of emotional stimuli and its up- and down-regulation has, however, mostly been investigated by taking an individualistic point of view (emphasizing voluntary control mechanisms such as cognitive reappraisal or the willful suppression of emotional expressions; Ochnser, 2005). In the present study, we take a socialinteractive perspective by investigating how emotion processing is influenced by another persons (similar or different) experience (Cialdini, 2004). We hypothesize that participants ratings of emotional stimuli conform to another persons ratings. We expect emotional conformity to be associated with altered neural activity in emotion processing brain regions. Methods: We invited two participants together (N=40; 20 pairs of the same sex, 8 male pairs) and asked them to simultaneously rate negative and neutral IAPS pictures regarding emotional arousal. The participants (one inside and one outside the MR scanner (3T Siemens MRI; TR = 2s; TE = 30 ms; flip angle: 70; FOV: 192 mm; matrix: 64 x 64; voxel size: 3 x 3 x 3 mm; 37 slices) took turns in being the first or second one to rate. In the position of the second rater, they first saw the rating of the confederate (display confederates rating) and only afterwards the picture (display image), the content of which could be anticipated by the other persons arousal rating. To reliably create three different conditions for the second rater, the rating of the other person was pre -determined by the computer: 1) rating equal to, 2) rating two points higher (overestimation), or 3) rating two points lower than the original IAPS norm rating of the respective picture (underestimation). To make the rating of the confederate more relevant, in some trials the second rater could avoid having to look at the picture by choosing to blur it. Results: Participants emotional ratings conformed to the ratings they (apparently) received from the confederate. The rating of the second rater was higher after seeing a high rating (overestimation) than after seeing a low rating (underestimation; paired t-test, p=0.002). At the neural level, we found enhanced activity in bilateral anterior insula extending into lateral orbito-frontal cortex when participants saw a high arousal rating by the confederate compared to a lower one in anticipation of the picture (p < 0.0001; k > 10 voxels). Perceived discrepancy to the other persons experience in the picture phase (i.e. when the participant saw a highly arousing picture that had been rated as low arousing by the confederate) correlated with increased activity in the posterior medial frontal cortex. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence for an effect of social sharing on the processing of emotional stimuli. In particular, processing of emotional stimuli is influenced by and tends to conform to another persons experience as has been shown before also for likeability and attractiveness ratings (Campbell-Meiklejohn, 2010; Klucharev, 2009). This tendency to emotionally conform to another person seems to be mediated by regulation of th e emotional response when anticipating the emotional picture (Herwig, 2007).

Extrinsic emotion regulation through empathic comments


Autoren: Seehausen, M, Kazzer, P., Bajbouj, M., Heekeren, H. R., Jacobs, A., Klann-Delius, G., Menninghaus, W., Prehn, K. Konferenztitel: Annual Meeting of the Society of Biological Psychiatry Ort:Philadelphia Jahr:2012 Typ:Konferenzbeitrag

Abstract
Background: In the present study, we aimed at investigating the effects of empathetic paraphrasing, originally developed by Carl Rogers in Client-Centered Therapy, in the context of extrinsic emotion regulation. Methods: 20 participants (10 male) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a cognitive task and receiving positive or negative feedback. Negative feedback was followed by a verbal comment given over headphones which was either expressing or denying empathetic concern or perspective taking (i.e., emotional vs. cognitive empathy). After each trial, participants had to indicate their current feelings on a 9-point rating scale. Results: Participants reported less negative feelings when feedback was followed by empathetic compared to non-empathetic comments (p=0.001). At the neural level, activity in a network of brain regions elicited by negative feedback (comprising anterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, and pallidum) was significantly reduced by the empathetic comments. In addition, we found that emotional empathy elicited more activity in the superior temporal gyrus; while cognitive empathy generated higher activity in the angular gyrus. ROI analyses based on literature review also revealed significant effects of receiving empathetic interventions in regions usually associated with feeling empathy (e.g. anterior insula, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and supplementary motor area). Conclusion: The results provide evidence for a neural basis of interpersonal emotion regulation mechanisms and support the differentiation between different types of empathetic comments. Additionally, the results indicate that most brain regions involved in feeling empathy are also active when one is being treated in an empathetic manner.

Shaping emotion verbalization

processing

through

strategies

of

Autoren: Kazzer, P., Prehn, K., Bajbouj, M., Heekeren, H. R., Jacobs, A., Klann-Delius, G., Menninghaus, W.

Konferenztitel:Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience Ort:Washington, DC. Jahr:2011 Typ: Konferenzbeitrag

Abstract
To investigate the effect of verbalization on emotion perception, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance study and measured the brain activity in 32 volunteers either verbalizing their feelings looking at emotional pictures (emotion acknowledgment vs. denial condition) or depicted facts (fact verbalization condition). Contrasting brain activity during fact verbalization with emotion acknowledgment revealed greater activity in fronto-parietal regions associated with cognitive control. Emotion acknowledgment, in contrast, led to deeper stimulus processing and interoception indicated by increased activity in visual and somatosensory cortex, insula, and rostral anterior cingulate. Emotion denial compared with acknowledgment showed activity in dorsal anterior cingulate and inferior frontal gyrus associated with deception and conflict processing. To elucidate how verbalization shapes the coding process of emotional stimuli, we used an information-based approach in addition to the activationbased analysis to show that the activation pattern in the rostral parts of the temporal superior gyrus varies according to the experimental condition. This indicates that this area plays an important role as a coding interface between visceral emotional responses and representations of complex auditory stimuli. These results support the hypothesis that language use exerts significant influences on shaping and processing emotions.