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The Uncanny Hollywood: How Hollywoods filmic texts consistently confront us with Freuds Uncanny.

The Uncanny - (Ger: Das Unheimliche - the opposite of what is familiar) Introduction It could be an arguable comment that psychoanalytic theory has been met with scrutiny within film studies in recent decades. The cultural studies movement of the 1 !"s and from that the rise of cognitive film theory in the 1 #"s made prominent by $ordwell% &arroll etc has led to cognitivism defining '(itself as an alternative to psychoanalysis in film studies) *$ordwell 1 !+!,-. The apparent

.deconstructive techni/ues of psychoanalytic film theory and the almost scientific practices of cognitivism has created a dichotomy on the one hand yet also a blurring of the two practices on the other. The philosophical and scientific implications of both methods and their inherent relationship with .truth has led many to /uestion .whether psychoanalysis is a fundamentally flawed cognitive approach *0chneider ,""1+2!- itself. 3one of the less% recent literature surrounding psychoanalytic film theory appears to analy4e the verisimilitude of the practice itself rather than its application to film consumption. Though I do not wish to consider a debate comparing the two practices% I do wish to point out that psychoanalysis has en5oyed *and still will- a consistent relevance to cinema despite the emergence of other methods within our practice% a consistency this essay hopes to continue.

6sychoanalysis origins within film theory occurred in the 1 !"s and 7"s where film scholars sought to add a greater degree of critical rigour to their practice%

influenced by structuralist ideas of anthropology *8evi90trauss-% semiology *de 0aussure-% political philosophy *:lthusser- and 0ociology *;arcuse-% film theory has delved consistently into the realms of psychoanalysis and in particular the wor<s of =ac/ues 8acan and 0igmund Freud. It is here via Freud that I wish to introduce the theory of the Uncanny and the central theory of this essay. Though first identified by >rnst =entsch in his 1 "! essay On The Psychology Of The Uncanny% it was not until 1 1 that Freud developed and elaborated on the theory. : concept of unusual psychological phenomena% the Uncanny grew popular during modernism and its fascination with the ugly and the grotes/ue. 0pecifically% the Uncanny is that which is frightening but also familiar% for example a d?5@ vu moment which seems to show that our <nowledge of ourselves is incorrect and limited. The Uncanny forces us to /uestion our own identity and the reality around us by invo<ing repressed psychic stages of earlier life% aspects of our unconscious life or the animalistic experience of the human species. These repressed beliefs or desires from childhood born can be desires of castration% involuntary compulsions *repetition compulsion.- and irrational conceptions of the universe such as telepathy and the power of the psyche. Using the dual and paradoxical definitions of Das Heimliche mentioned at the start of my essay and Aerman gothic tale Der an!mann *which I will return to later-% Freud reveals the powerful and unconscious potential the Uncanny has on the unarmed spectator% a power that is able to trigger a 'disturbing transformation of the familiar into the unfamiliar) *=ac<son 1 #1+!B-. Freud illustrates this unfamiliar transformation by using the examples of wax wor< figures% artificial dolls and automatons%

suggesting that the Uncanny can allow for .doubts CtoD whether an apparently animate being is really alive or conversely whether an lifeless ob5ect might not be in fact animate) *Freud 1 1 +B-. Through these examples% Freud asserts that the individual has the potential to experience the Uncanny in relation to a wide range of perhaps personal yet now alien artefacts.

$eyond the aforementioned repressed desires that the Uncanny evo<es lies *I would argue- the most important% that of The Eouble. The phenomenon of The Eouble is born from that of an infantile excessive or erotic interest in ones self% 'born as insurance from the destruction of the ego% an energetic denial of the power of death) *Freud 1 1 + -. The double serves as a nodal point for all repressed energy as a child% anything damaging to the ego such as repressed ideals are absorbed by the Eouble% it becomes its own unconscious individual body in adulthood. $ut when this construct is encountered in later life within literature or cinematic wor<s for example% a strange sense of the Uncanny is invo<ed due to its return to the animalistic idea of the individual occupying two separate bodies. Fet what ma<es the Eouble so fascinating to the individual is not the narcissistic observation of the ego nor any self criticism of this stranger but 'all those unfilled but possible futures to which we still li<e to cling to in phantasy% all those strivings of the ego to which adverse external circumstances have crushed) *Freud 1 1 +1"-. This is what the Eouble "ltimately represents% an implication of possible choices and paths an individual could have ta<en% a rare personal in9sight to a being whom the individual could have been% yet is now

merely a stranger evo<ed by the protagonist on the screen. The personal ramifications of such an outloo< do not need to be overstated and the Eoubles *and Uncanny theory as a whole- relevance to psychoanalysis should not be underestimated. Through specific cinematic genres of science fiction% horror or fantasy% an individual spectator can confront the Eouble% and other repressed desires the Uncanny evo<es.

Though I do not wish to suggest that it is only the li<es of science fiction% horror or fantasy *genre terms I wish to use interchangeably due to their similar potential+ see below- that can invo<e the Uncanny% I do wish to assert that within the realms of these highly fictionali4ed genres lies a blan< slate of sorts that can allow for such confrontations. The aforementioned genres are best suited to invo<ing a psychoanalytic response from its spectators precisely due to their ability to either recreate a universe the spectator can relate with then destroy any pretence to realism and verisimilitude it contains% or by constraining the spectator and using enough ambiguity within the narrative to resist audiences from willingly ad5usting themselves into this created fictional world. Furthermore% I would also suggest that there are .pre9conditions that a text must abide by in order to best invo<e a psychoanalytic response. These .pre9conditions% though not at all universal or strict enough in that not following them would hinder experiencing the Uncanny% are more guidelines in terms of narrative that should be followed% in that the texts I wish to analysis later in this essay may brea< or bend many of the .pre9conditions I wish to state here. Though these .pre9conditions are ma<ing a

leap from literacy theory in its application to film% in pinpointing concrete guidelines for these texts% my subse/uent analysis of them would allow me to fully explore the universes they create% their visual style and subse/uent ramifications of how they evo<e the Uncanny+


Have an individualist narrative+ an anchored character% the centre of the

events within the fictionali4ed world. $y having this specific character in which we consistently identify with we can pertain to specific sub5ective access beyond that of an ensemble group of characters. However the text may also have multiple narrators surrounding this individualist character% ma<ing ambivalent any sub5ective consistency. 1. >xternal events are portrayed through this character specifically and

coloured through his psyche. Though sub5ective access does not necessarily result in the Uncanny% a fictionali4ed world beyond that of mere ob5ective surveillance is re/uired. 1. : binary opposition or dilemma of that which is real and that which is

imaginary must occur through this character+ though I do not wish to dwell on 8acan at this point within the essay% it is imperative that the focali4ed character struggles with issues that cast doubt on that which is based in reality and that which is s<ewered and manipulated through their psyche. The audience must in turn struggle with this confusing dichotomy much li<e the character+ '3ot all such stories evo<e the Uncanny but stories about such scenarios that convey them as vivid and realistic might) *0chneider ,""1+ "-. For example% Aerman

expressionist text The #a$inet Of Doctor #aligari *1 ,"- reveals a deep and complex relationship of fantasy and reality through the character of Francis% evo<ing irrational conceptions such as telepathy and immense foresight of future% two infantile beliefs related to the Uncanny.

Though I have so far only discussed the Uncanny in terms of literacy theory% neglecting to analysis any filmic texts fully% I feel I have fore grounded the possible forms the Uncanny can be experienced by the spectator and some basic *yet flexible and not at all universal- narratives that can best invo<e it. However% I would now li<e to discuss three diverse filmic texts Hollywood has produced *%ran&enstein 1 21% 'la!e ("nner 1 #, and )oon ,"" - which can be read as offering a first hand experiencing of Freuds psychoanalytical theory to the spectator. :dmittedly this analysis isnt a personal confession of psychoanalytic experience% the subse/uent familiari4ation with the Uncanny I ma<e in these texts can hopefully result in a taught spectator discovering first hand other filmic texts that invo<e an individual and repressed response of infantile beliefs. I will then try to ascend specific texts and genres to discuss the Uncanny potential the art of cinema and its subse/uent consumption has as a whole in relation to the film9as9mirror notions of &hristian ;et4 and the psychological realms of =ac/ues 8acan.

3ote+ Eue to the male based nature of Freuds writings *and 8acan for that matter-% this essay will see< to assume a male spectators position in relation to

the texts *0ee 6enley 1 here-.

1 for a feminist interrogation of several texts analysed

Early Universal Horror & Frankenstein It would not be at all surprising if many found my inclusion of %ran&enstein *1 21% Ghale- to be a tad problematic. ;any scholars may consider including the classic adaptation of the famous gothic novel to be an undermining of the Uncanny and its uni/ue contribution to cinema purely because of the .Uncanny9 ness of ;ary 0helleys source material already. 8i<e the literature texts of Drac"la or The trange #ase Of Dr *e&yll +n! )r Hy!e, 'the very unreality of the gothic text becomes paradoxically a special place for the Uncanny) *0mith ,""7+1B-. However% Id argue that the art of cinema can allow for an even more accessible and powerful experience of the Uncanny. Though a bold claim and one that may seem to disagree even with Freud% the cinematic world of these highly fictional genres offers a much more immersive multi9sensory and apparently realist world beyond that of gothic literature text. Githin the realms of the cinema screen lies the immense ability to ta<e this .unreality and create an ambiguous yet visual universe to constrain the spectator enough that they cannot willingly enter it and treat it as such. >arly Universal horror pictures% %ran&enstein in particular% used several immersive techni/ues in the production of their pictures such as their detailed expressionistic set designs and anti9traditional lighting to create a hauntingly eerie world to which the image-$ase! Uncanny can flourish and be experienced by the spectator. If we briefly examine other

Universal horror pictures from this era% for example% Drac"la *$rowning 1 21with its parasitic title character holds the ability to turn repressed desires of psychic powers and animal transformations into reality% these Uncanny desires are embodied within $ela 8ugosis cult classic eerie speech pattern and intentionally stiff performance thereby allowing the fictional gothic character to brea< 'the uncanny mobility of normal% natural and sexual boundaries) *$otting+ 1 !+11!-% and in turn possibility releasing that which was once repressed within

the individual spectator. Furthermore% The -n.isi$le )an *Ghale 1 22- carries connotations of the Uncanny% beyond mere psychic abilities and the paradoxical animation of that which should not be animated *3othingness-% the text 5uxtapositions supporting character Er :rthur Hemp *Harrigan- with the Invisible ;an *Ariffin- to create a mirrored effect of two characters that validate each other. :s 8inda Eryden notes+ 'The Invisible ;an stems from oppositions between Ariffin% an enraged and amoral experimenter in the Uncanny and Hemp% the rational% ethical scientist) *,""2+172- . $oth characters become the others Eouble% rationalising each others actions and come to represent a single entity% containing both within it repression and liberation of age old desires. These prominent traits within the filmic text could possibly evo<e the Uncanny in relation to personal desires of the Eouble or possibly that of irrational concepts of the Universe such as invisibility within the passive spectator causing them to doubt the <nowledge of themselves or the reality they believe to be real.

$ut when we analysis the Universal studios horror classic %ran&enstein

specifically and the familiar tale of Henry Fran<ensteins *&olin &live- strive to create a human life from the combination of human organs% we find a rich text of psychoanalytic potential via its relationship with the emergence of synchronised sound technology. The plot *which is now a household tale- tells the story of Henry Fran<enstein% whom via his own genius and sheer will *and the assistance of medicine% electricity and Aod- creates the ;onster *$oris Harloff-. : towering yet simple beast of immense power. However due to the error of Henrys assistance Frit4% The ;onster <nows only hate and murder. :s Henry prepares to marry his fianc?e >li4abeth *;ae &lar<e-% the ;onster escapes from Henrys laboratory% a watch tower in the mountains% intent on <illing him. :fter the ;onsters initial rampage% including a somewhat controversial *yet nessercaryscene of him unintentionally drowning a small child% Fran<enstein is hunted by the towns fol< to a windmill where he is subse/uently destroyed by fire.

:s previously suggested% Universal horror wor<s effectively via its visual expressionistic mise9en9scene to constraint but also immerse the spectator into a fictionali4ed world. Fet what ma<es %ran&enstein uni/ue compared to its other similar gothic filmic texts *beyond its immense presence in populist culture- is that it masters a chilling combination of synchronised sound with image to evolve the text into a uni/ue multi9sensory art form that only cinema can provide. Though *as previously said- the very literature of %ran&enstein holds the 'Uncanny9ness) that epitomi4es the Aothic text% Universals horror masterpiece contributes and ascends its effectiveness in relation to the technological context

of the cinematic medium at the time of production and reception. $eyond simply a visual dichotomy of Er Fran<enstein and The ;onster (Film Image 1 as the others Eouble% %ran&enstein uses its non9diegetic soundtrac<% dialogue and diegetic sound effects combined with its dar< visual images to transform a distant silent alien being into an animated Uncanny body. For a 1 21 audience still ad5usting to the first public exhibition of sound in the mid 1 ,"s% %ran&enstein represents a creative energy that has revolutionised the cinematic medium% a dead body brought to life by si44ling bolts of electricity to terrify the unsure Hollywood film industry and in turn hint at the possible pessimistic connotations that sound has for the cinema. Fet in relation to the Uncanny specifically% it is re/uired to understand the context of the films release to fully understand the high importance I am placing on sound to invo<e an individual and unfamiliar response. 6rior to the films release% %ran&enstein used an ambiguous mar<eting campaign to effectively leave whomever was playing the ;onster as un<nown. ;any publications wrongly suggested $ela 8ugosi was to play the part% Universal studios were tight9lipped which in turn caused a large amount of suspense and press surrounding the films release% this culminating finally in the theatre adaptation9influenced tradition of billing the ;onster without a name on the opening credits. To a 1 21 spectator preparing to indulge in Universals latest release% there is remar<ably little <nown about its main characters creation beyond >dward Ian 0loans bracing last warning to any naJve individuals in the auditorium. In doing so% Universal created a reliance for its spectators to concentrate heavily on the films audio trac< rather than its visuals% turning the

;onster into an imagined figure that is created within the mind of the spectator purely based on these noises. Universals re5ection% intentional ambiguity and hesitation in revealing the ;onster until that fateful turning9reveal forces the spectator to fascinate yet also dread to imagine visually the arrival of this unnatural being. Gith only the spectators personal interpretation of the ;onster to comprehend% %ran&enstein transforms its main character into that which could evo<e the Uncanny by allowing itself to be born from the unfamiliarity of the spectators mind% which in turn could represent repressed desires of irrational conceptions and of the Eouble. Unfortunately to a modern day spectator %ran&enstein/s auditory influence may appear to be less than meets the eye% yet bac< in the time of its release it would have been considered to be strange% eerie and unnaturally fascinating. 0imple and common sounds of footsteps% paper rustling and wind blowing adds to the texts ability to create an ambiguous world awaiting the arrival of an unfamiliar monster to destabili4e the spectators ability to willingly ad5ust to perceived reality. Fet when the ;onster does finally reveal himself% it is his speech pattern which most effectively forces the viewer 'to register the sensuous /ualities of the &reatures guttural noises(and to pro5ect the unearthliness of these sounds onto the spea<ers body) *0padoni ,""7+1",-. In turn releasing the visual Uncanny entity via an audible trigger suitable to that of a figure made of fresh corpse pieces. The ;onster is created as a somehow unfamiliar figure yet one which is preemptively created from the minds of the individual spectator based on recently exhibited synchronised sound alone. The individual spectators fascination and dread of the ;onsters appearance is

created and subse/uently constrained on assumptions inspired by the blurring of natural sounds as unfamiliar and in turn repressed desires of irrational concepts and the Eouble that these unfamiliar and Uncanny moments within this apparently expressionistic world provo<e.

It is truly fascinating how much relevance %ran&enstein and a large amount of other early Universal horrors have in relation to a diverse collection of film theory practices. Though I do not wish to divulge at all far from my analysis of the film and its relationship to the Uncanny% I feel that %ran&enstein *and Id argue a large ma5ority of science fiction% horror texts- have been given un5ust scholarly attention within diverse film practices. :s :lexander Eoty notes+ 'It is ama4ing that gay horror director =ames Ghale has yet to receive full9scale /ueer auteurist consideration for films such as %ran&enstein% the idea of men ma<ing the 'perfect man) *1 2+11-. Furthermore% the possible reading of the ;onster representing

the proletariat has fascinating connotations to avid scholars connected to theories of 8ouis :lthussers ideological state apparatus and &ahiers writers &omolli and 3arboni. Though I have no where near the space to argue the corner for these films and their relevance% the fact that these pictures can offer diverse readings of psychoanalytic% /ueer and cinesemiology based ideological criticism proves that these texts have enough interest to attract even the most marginali4ed *in terms of their chosen film practice- film scholars.

The !andman" #uestions o$ %er$ormance & Blade Runner

:s we analysis the evolving portrayals of the Eouble and the Uncanny from the early sound cinema efforts of Universal 0tudios towards gradually more modern science fiction texts a specific and intentional pattern will appear. From the recreated alien of %ran&enstein towards the futuristic replicants *the perfect creation of humans% yet not humans- within 'la!e ("nner *1 #,- and finally towards 0am $ells exact clone in )oon *,"" -, the final film I wish to analyse% a certain cycle of bodies could be suggestible. :s cinematic technology has advanced through the decades% the representation of the Eouble and its embodiment of repressed desires has also evolved. From the creation of the ;onster via medicine% science and Aod himself% through to the creation of the perfected human of everything you wish to be and finally towards an exact personal clone of you% your memories% ideals and dreams% the Eouble has evolved with the cinematic spectator in terms of our specific texts.

Fet when analysing 'la!e ("nner itself we find a text representing several different changes within film theory. Firstly% after the death of the production code and rise of 3ew Hollywood and furthermore the $loc<buster features of the mid9 1 7"s% less rigorously analysed genres of film theory *Fantasy% Horror and 0cience Fiction- rose to the foreground of our film practice. 0uddenly texts such as The Terminator 0 *1 1- and The 12orcist *1 72- began to be read as

allegories of an heightened crisis in Keaganite masculinity *hyper9masculinityand the fragility of the symbolic order respectively *=effords 1 2% Fried<in 1 #!-.

This was due to the parallel rise of the post9modern condition of undermined

binary oppositions which in turn proved problematic for the white male sub5ect. ;arginali4ed film practices of Lueer theory and Feminist film theory rose to the foreground bringing with them an accessibility of new texts% re9readings of once situated ones and reestablishment of theories of psychoanalysis and film spectatorship. 'la!e ("nner was born during the height of this reconfiguration of film theory and not only epitomi4es the rigorous analysis of texts once seen as irrelevant *apparent by the wealth of film literature discussing it- but is also one of the most suitable and diverse texts to embrace once marginali4ed film practices.

'la!e ("nner is a filmic piece that never the less polari4es the viewer. >xternally the film has experienced a complex 5ourney of initial failure% eventual cult status% immense filmic influence and numerous re9releases of contradictory storylines and controversial negotiations *so much that I must define the edition dissected here% The %inal #"t of ,""#-. :s merely a viewer researching the history of the filmic text% 'la!e ("nner represents the ambiguity and the constantly changing boundaries that has become a landmar< of the post9modernist condition. In terms of my analysis of the text in relation to Freud and the Uncanny Eouble% I wish to reveal the blurring of the real and performance in relation to human identity that the text plays with in the 5uxtaposition of main protagonist Eec<ard *Ford- and the human9li<e appearance of the replicants he must hunt. :s the distinction between that which is reality to Eec<ard and the hallucinatory resemblance of reality that the replicants embody is gradually destabili4ed% 'la!e ("nner can evo<e repressed feelings of the Uncanny to the individual spectator *such as the

Eouble9ness of the replicant leader Koy $atty% played by Kutger Hauer or the unreliability of perception- as they struggle with that which is correct or familiar with the unfamiliar and alien sensation of the world and of the self.

'la!e ("nner not only epitomi4es the aforementioned changes of post9modern film practices but it also fascinatingly embodies Freuds the Uncanny specifically within its narrative. Keturning to Freuds seminal article of the Uncanny and specifically to the use of Aerman gothic short story The an!man by >.T.: Hoffmann% we find a rich text that has an inherent relationship to the Uncanny and to 'la!e ("nner itself. The story itself revolves around 3athaniel% a single bachelor engaged to a young woman named &lara but suffers nightmarish apparitions of a monster <nown as .The 0andman *whom he associates with his deceased fathers friend% &oppelius% an obnoxious lawyer-. .The 0andman ta<es pleasure in tearing out childrens eyes and whom falls in love with Mlympia% an automaton. =entsch in his initial article comments on Mlympia as a character of immense uncertainty on her status as an animate or inanimate ob5ect% though as mentioned previously this is a typical cause of the Uncanny% Freud expands on The an!man even further. Freud suggests firstly the ambivalence of the real and the imaginary within the literature *citing the multiple narrators of the story-% this ambivalence becomes decisive within the text% and much li<e our analysed filmic texts% it is a similar and possible pre9condition for the Uncanny. ;ore importantly however Freud suggests that being robbed of ones eyes *the aim of The 0andman- as having an .Uncanny9ness itself beyond the mere inanimate

Mlympia. Freud stresses the importance of the eyes+ ': study of dreams% phantasies and myths has taught us a morbid anxiety connected with the eyes and with going blind is often enough a substitute for the dread of castration) *1 1 +7-. Here Freud directly lin<s the repressed desires of castration and the Uncanny with The an!man3 &oppelius% the assumed embodiment of the 0andman to 3athaniel has <illed his father and become an all castrating powerful father himself% whom strives to burn out 3athaniels eyes near the beginning of the story. Therefore the deep repressed desires revolving around infantile sexuality are re9invo<ed by the loss of the eyes within The an!man thus in turn resurfacing repressed desires of the Uncanny. In returning to the text% 'la!e ("nner can be seen as having nearly the exact same effect on our cinematic spectators. Fears of castration revolving around the initial importance and then untrust or loss of the eyes can be closely associated with the destabili4ation of the dichotomy of Human 9vs.9 replicant and in turn the already blurred binaries of that which is real 9vs.9 performance in terms of human identity.

In light of the importance of eyes to Freuds subse/uent reading of The an!man% 'la!e ("nners subse/uent .Uncanny9ness should not be underestimated. Though its presence may be a problematic signifier for the spectator% its usage is a constant reminder of personal individual identity. :s the text begins we are greeted with a large landscape shot of our futuristic city repeatedly releasing poisonous gases into the atmosphere and it is here that we are immediately presented with this recurring motif of the eyes. :s we trac<

across the s<ies of 8os :ngeles ,"1 % a sudden cut is made to a large eye with these reflected city lights stretching to infinity visible in the pupil. $eyond simple religious or philosophical connotations *the eye loo<s very similar to the all9 seeing eye of providence when reflecting the pyramid head/uarters of the Tyrell Head/uarters- and that of the individual spectators own assumptions% eyes and their representation of perception are /uic<ly destabili4ed. Instead of being used as a form of ob5ectified surveillance to probe the environment% eyes are seen as windows to the soul and are constantly probed themselves. This direct reversal of the eyes is embodied within the first scene of the film% Holden% a fellow $lade Kunner *a .private eye/ of sorts to trac< and <ill replicants- uses a .Ioight9Hampff test to discover whether a man <nown as 8eon is a replicant or not. The test is a simple interview of moral /uestions while the interviewee is monitored through their breathing rate and pupil dilution. :s Holden pressures a somewhat reluctant and nervous 8eon and surveys his basic human behaviour% 8eon snaps and <ills Holden after he as<s him a /uestion regarding his mother. This direct violation of an individual and their sense of reality via their eyes is evolved further throughout the text so much so that not only is it possible the eyes present a simulated sense of the world but in the sense that you are a simulated replicant body yourself. :s the film continues% eyes are defined as being one of the few visual motifs in defining the dichotomy of human 9vs.9 the more human than human replicants. Keplicants themselves emit a small red aura around their eyes and the text itself constantly destabili4es this difference% even Eec<ard himself emits this same glow for a brief moment in his apartment in a later scene.

:s suggested within the .pre9conditions of this essay% our anchored character is presented with a dilemma of oppositions in relation to his own personal status and in the case of 'la!e ("nner it is exemplified by using the perception of the eyes to penetrate and expose the possibility of Eec<ard being a replicant. It is made clear early in the text that replicants gradually gain emotions the longer they live and cling further to their origins *which are in fact memory implanted and only exist physically via the use of unrelated and collected photos-. For example% Kachaels personal memories and cherished physical photographs are immediately destroyed by Eec<ard as he reveals he is fully aware of the artificiality of her assumed human identity by revealing the exact similarity of her memories with her creator Tyrells niece. Kachaels immediate fear and terrified Uncanny sensations *in that everything familiar about herself is undermined and made alien- reveal the immense reliance replicants come to have on images% an fascinating similarity with the post9modern human and their reliance on images to ma<e up their own personal history. The immediate destruction and distrust of the eyes *and its relationship to memory- creates an Uncanny9ness that Kachael or the spectator can not possibility resolve. Kachael% much li<e the spectator must in turn embrace the fact that they themselves are an image% a perfect reproduction of a human being.

However% eyes are most prominently associated in the text with the replicants creator% Tyrell% a character =udith Herman writes is closely associated with Eoctor

Fran<enstein+ 'CTheyD both desire to give man<ind a great gift(yet in bestowing the gift of life they both becomes gods' *1 7+B7-. :s a man of immense

technological power it seems fitting he relies on technology via his thic< glasses in order to <eep his sense of sight all the while producing replicants void of emotion. : god and father to replicants according to replicant leader Koy $atty% he is in turn castrated by Koy *in the Freudian sense- by ripping out his eyes with his bare hands after revealing the inevitability of Koys death.

Though a rational agent% Eec<ard begins to distrust his own perception of 0elf and Mther immediately after destabili4ing Kachaels assumed history *ironically revo<ing repressed desires from childhood which never actually existed-. However the first step in doing so is his subse/uent destruction of historiography% the process of how history is written. $y using a photographic analysis machine% Eec<ard analyses the murderous 8eons collected personal photos in order to find him. He subse/uently dismantles and dissects the photo to give him a lead but in his callous destruction of that which could be considered legitimate history% Eec<ard opens the possibility of his own history being simulated% this exemplified by the similarity of one of 8eons photos with his own. Through an intense struggle% eyes and subse/uently human memory are undermined throughout the text% the untrustworthy nature or even complete loss in the case of Tyrell represents a castration of familiarity in that which causes a fearful Uncanny sensation. This sensation could be suggestible in the character of Kachael who has her memories violated by Eec<ard when she ambushes him in his

apartment% not to mention the alien repressed desires the spectator themselves may be undergoing.

However% beyond repressed desires of castration via the unofficial nature of memories% Eec<ard is also confronted with Freuds theory via the presence of perfect replicant leader Koy $atty *Film Image &-. :s the leader of the escaped replicants and programmed with military combat% it would be assumed that $atty would be considered a Terminator9es/ue creation% an alien void of emotion or social awareness. However% his passion for survival% his love of fellow replicant 6ris *Earyl Hannah- and his awareness of humanitys callousness reveals a strange and almost disturbing amount compared to the cold professionalism of Eec<ard. Though Eec<ard /uips 'replicants werent supposed to have feelingsN neither were $lade Kunners)% Eec<ard and Koy switch and begin to see themselves in the others position. :s Koy offers a beautiful solilo/uy on his rare experiences that '(your eyes wouldnt believe) as he begins to die in the acid rain near the end of the film% Eec<ard subse/uently represents an occupation of .retiring Koy $atty% a man who represents more of humanity than our main protagonist. In this 5arring awa<ening of Eec<ards almost repulsive sense of self% Koy $atty represents a .resemblance to a psychic truth which we have forgotten or lost sight of amid the welter of modern day experience(because of its reflective dimension% the replicant holds out great promise(for it carries the potential of bringing us bac< to ourselves *Kedmond ,""1+!2-. In other words% as Eec<ards callous occupation combined with the intrusive% omnipresent and

paranoid 8os :ngeles world he lives in slowly devours him emotionally *losing the one thing that anchors him as a human compared to replicants-% the replicants represent a humanism inspired by modern mans fascination with simulacrum% a humanism directly lost from man and his desire to recreate their own image. Though the replicants behaviour is /uestionable in their search to escape approaching death *a similarity with their creators-% $atty *as Eec<ards doubleoffers a reversal repercussion to Eec<ards relentless destruction of beings apparently .more human than human.

3ear the climax of the text% Koy and Eec<ard battle atop the 8os :ngeles s<yline and throughout Koy strives to reassert Eec<ards humanism through somewhat perverse means. Though Koy brea<s Eec<ards fingers and stal<s him through the damp corridors of =6 0ebastians home in order to appreciate pain and fear associated with being a human% it is not until $atty saves Eec<ards life by pulling him up from edge of the buildings roof that .causes Eec<ard to rethin< his view of replicants and their desire to live(Eec<ard reali4es that replicants deserve more concern than previously imagined *Hnight ,""#+,#-. This in turn inspires Eec<ard to escape 8os :ngeles with Kachael and help her live out her days in the tran/uillity of what can be assumed as being rural :merica% together. The direct inspiration of $atty onto Eec<ard made most visually with $atty pulling Eec<ard from the abyss reveals the fascinating influence Koy as a double has on the main protagonist. The problem Eec<ard faces in <illing beings with human compunction without human compunction himself reveals a visual .public version

of his private dilemma% an emerging self C$attyD confronting a repressed self Cthe robotic Eec<ardD *Telotte 1 B+1B,-. :s an Uncanny double% Koy represents a

humanism beneath his violent nature which Eec<ard seems to have lost forever. In inspiring Eec<ard by saving his life amongst other things% Koy invo<es repressed emotions that Eec<ard failed to associate with replicants and in turn destabili4es his assumptions of human vs. replicant identity. Eec<ard must consider the .Uncanny9ness of the now devoid assumptions of binaries. Through a choice of embracing or re5ecting this new unfamiliar and alien passion for replicants embodied within Kachael% Koy $atty lives on in a way that the Tyrell corporation could never provide for him.

Though Eec<ard is consistently confronted with the Uncanny throughout 'la!e ("nner via themes of castration or of the Eouble or perhaps the doll nature of the replicant 6ris% it is the dilemma of whether Eec<ard is a replicant or not that often overshadows other readings of the text% and Id argue possibly the text itself. Though argued by both cinephiles and film theory intellectuals vigorously for both possible answers% 'la!e ("nner adopts a deep level of ambiguity surrounding the status of its main protagonist. Though subse/uent releases have swung the argument to a solution in both directions% the ambivalence and consistent shifting of negotiations is reminiscent of the reclaiming of apparently heterosexual texts that defines the practice of /ueer theory. The most argued sub5ect to Eec<ard being a replicant is embodied within the character of Aaff% another $lade Kunner whom leaves an origami figure as a calling card on his travels. Halfway through

the film Eec<ard has a strange dream of a unicorn running through an empty forest% though initially repressed and brushed over by the film itself% the conclusion of the text reveals that Aaff has left an origami unicorn figure in Eec<ards apartment hinting that Aaff himself has access to Eec<ards dreams% something he could only do if Eec<ard was a replicant. Though the exploration and corruption of personal dreams is Uncanny in its self% it is worth exploring beyond Freuds seminal essay for a moment towards his other wor<s. Githin his much more <nown 1# boo< The -nterpretation of Dreams *1 11-% Freud asserts

that all dreams are 'under the most complex conditions% may be noted only as wish fulfilments and which present their content without concealment) *# - on the part of the dreamer and that even nightmares are expressions of unconscious repressed desires. Though the similarities with the Uncanny are obvious% Freud suggests further that often the nonsensical nature of dreams are carefully constructed via the individuals own elaborate intellectual activity. Using this argument I would li<e to propose a different reading of Aaffs unicorn. Though it is left ambiguous how Aaff has the <nowledge of Eec<ards dreams% Id li<e to suggest that the unicorn and Aaffs subse/uent origami figure represents more of a desire to be a replicant rather than an assertion of that status. Eec<ards dreams comes to represent a fragmented desire to become a replicant evident in turn by his desire to seduce unaware replicant Kachael and his desire for collective photos *a trait of replicants-% thus representing a wish for a plenitude relationship with something he is supposed to retire. Though confusing and ignorable on our intellectual plain% for Eec<ard% the unicorn represents a deeply

repressed desire operating on an unconscious intellectual level. Aaff *whom has <nowledge of Eec<ards and Kachaels relationship himself- is also merely a pawn in this% his placement of the origami figure is a pleasurable violation of Eec<ards dreams and a conscious and explicit reawa<ening of his desire to be a replicant as well. Though irrelevant of whether Eec<ard is a replicant or not or Aaffs subse/uent <nowledge to that answer% the origami figure represents the combination of dreams and .Uncanny9ness of everyday familiar ob5ects that invo<e a deeply repressed desire of the self. Eec<ard and Kachaels subse/uent escape from 8os :ngeles and re5ection of the citys 'embodiment of postmodern plurality and hybridity% a virtual worlds fair of cultures and styles) *$roo<er ,""!+1#1- reveals a dissatisfaction with the new world that created Kachael and possibly Eec<ard also% instead opting for a rural :merica of primitivism and tran/uillity inspired by $attys humanism. In comparison% the neo9noir city of 'la!e ("nner is not a luxurious and ultra comfortable layout of s<yscrapers but rather carries 'an aesthetic of decay% exposing the dar< side of technology% the process of disintegration) *$runo 1 #7+!2-. :s mentioned within the pre9 conditions of this essay% the city embodies an extension of the Eec<ards internal uncertainty of the human and replicant dichotomy. $y situating the human run labyrinth of 8os :ngeles as a decaying and slowly dying hub of postmodernism% 8os :ngeles ,"1 is a visual arena for Eec<ards intense internal struggle of real and performance. 6erhaps one of the most respected science fiction pieces created% 'la!e ("nner creates an interweaving and complex world invo<ing repressed desires of castration via the loss of the eyes% the double of Koy $atty

and the violation of dreams to /uestion Eec<ards status as a replicant or a human and in turn confront the spectators assumptions of identity and that 'there is no difference between false and truth% real and imaginary) *$runo 1 #7+!#-.

The 'irror %hase & Moon :s I have strived to focus this article on the diverse representations of the Uncanny via the relationship of technical cinematic evolutions with Freuds theory *%ran&enstein) or the post9modern thematics which can evo<e Uncanny desires of Freudian castration and the Eouble evident within a filmic text * 'la!e ("nner), the lac< of discussion to Freuds mirror stage may seem problematic. 3otions of castration or the Eouble previously analysed have been restricted to discussions of how these texts stylistically or thematically evo<e them instead of there relationship to Freuds theories of childhood unconscious and conscious drives for individualism and identity. However% it is with the introduction of )oon that I wish to bring circular the relationship of Uncanny desires *specifically that of the Eouble and infantile castration- with the influential mirror stage. Though 'la!e ("nner may seem a more suitable text to discuss in this sense due to its direct re5ections of the father figure% sensitive notions of the mother and her subse/uent replacement in the Medipal tra5ectory% )oon represents much more efficiently the subse/uent transition of the male child from motherly plenitude to an individual entity and because of the repressed desires of castration and the Eouble that are related to such a transition% the .Uncanny9ness the spectator experiences in having this transition reawa<en and confront them on the big screen. First I would

li<e to discuss Freuds theory *and its subse/uent recalibration by 8acan- in order to fully solidify and define a complex application to )oon3 :s previously mentioned% this overview of Freud and 8acan has followed their tendency to only consider the male child compared to the differential experience of the female child and their subse/uent relationship to the Uncanny texts discussed here.

The mirror stage% according to Freud is the earlier age *! to 1# months- in which the individual male minor begins to achieve a social and sexual identity. 6rior to the mirror stage% the child has an illusory notion of plenitude with the mother% according to 8acan this is the first stage of the imaginary where the child desires nothing more than to be well cared for. The mother subse/uently holds the male child up to the mirror *an abstract concept- and provides an illusory sense of identification with the image of himself% thus the child enters 'the second stage of 8acans Imaginary and what Freud referred to as the narcissistic moment in the childs development towards a sub5ectivity) *Hayward 1 !+1#B-. :s the male

child loses plenitude with the mother in the mirror% he begins to become aware of the sexual difference of himself with the mother via the presence of the penis% and because of this begins to fear that this lac< the mother has represents ultimately the price of castration% she is to become a castrating mother. Though the cycle continues towards the Medipal phase *according to Freud- and with that the law of the father and 0ymbolic Mrder *according to 8acan-% the child still desires a unity and plenitude with the mother. However% due to the awareness the male child has of his difference with the mother figure and due to the law of

the father% the male infant is forced to find a satisfying plenitude with himself as a unified% coherent shape% a better self. The childs identification with this image of the self is called 'imaginary identification)% but as this plenitude with the self is imaginary *not actual-% it never actually replaces the lost plenitude with the mother before the mirror stage% therefore a constant search for it to be returned remains. This triggers a life long process of 'imaginary identification) whereby adults *li<e the infant- see< images that they *mis-recogni4e as themselves and which give them the impression of a better self.

Using cinema% the individual strives to find this .imaginary identification on the big screen% and in discussing )oon specifically% we can find a text that uses Uncanny notions of the Eouble to create two specific bodies of the same individual which evo<e such an identification. :s the double examines the .real individual body and the physical representation of an unconscious body of repressed desires% )oon purposely splits its main protagonist into two exact clones% one whom is anchored within the realms of plenitude with the mother and the other whom is fully aware of himself as an individual entity and is see<ing a suitable substitute for this plenitude% the imaginary identification with a family% a potential wife and daughter. :s )oon continues% we find a fascinating text which plays out in reality the psychological struggles a pre9mirror stage infantile male has to overcome% that being the recogni4ing of the difference with the castrating mother% the gradual plenitude he feels for himself and the .imaginary identification with images that offer to ma<e him feel more complete than he actually is% .an ideal

ego. *0tam 1

,+12"-. This complex and confrontational transition creates in turn

an Uncanny sensation which may force the spectator to invo<e personal repressed desires of their own struggles to obtain an individual social and sexual identity and in turn a .imaginary identification with )oon in order to give an impression of a better self.

The plot of )oon itself revolves around 0am $ell *0am Koc<well-% a 8unar Industries >mployee whom is nearing the end of his three year contract of overseeing harvesters which are extracting helium92 from underneath the ;oons core. :n individual 5ob% 0am single9handedly monitors the e/uipment with only an artificial intelligence assistant named A>KTF to help him. >xtremely isolated and lonely% 0ams only contact with >arth is via delayed recorded messages to his loving wife pregnant Tess and their unborn daughter >ve. :s time passes by and 0am edges closer to his relief date% he begins to hallucinate severely% seeing at one point an image of a small girl on the station. Two wee<s before he is to leave% 0am ventures onto the ;oons surface for a routine rover venture and sees the girl once more. Eistracted% 0am crashes his rover into one of the harvesters and barely manages to put on his spacesuit before passing out. 0am awa<ens in the infirmary with A>KTF with no recollection how he got there and after snea<ing bac< outside to the damaged rover% finds himself inside. :s the two 0ams struggle to come to grips with the other and confront each other to discover who is a .real and who is a .clone% A>KTF eventually informs them that they are both clones and the actual 0am is located bac< on >arth. $oth 0ams

devise a plan to escape the ;oon before a .rescue team arrives *the rescue team is implied to be a clean9up crew arriving to murder both clones before they can tell the 8unar Industries secret- however Mld 0am slowly succumbs to his wounds and after calling home and spea<ing to his grown up daughter and the actual 0am $ell% revealing his prior conversations with his family were merely recorded hoax messages% he dies peacefully. Gith the old 0am dead% the new clone escapes the planet inside one of the helium beacons that is being transported to >arth. A>KTF stays behind and awa<ens another clone to ta<e 0ams place to ensure the cycle continues on the ;oon. ;eanwhile% 0am% now on >arth reveals the 8unar Industries horrible secret% effectively destroying the company.

Throughout the text% )oon asserts itself as text that is aware of the .imaginary identification of images that 0am is underta<ing and purposely constructs his world both thematically and cinematically in order to explicitly foreground this. From the beginning of the text% )oon introduces a fragmented and mediated view of the >arth and emphasises the heavy consumption and grotes/ue demand of fuel that its people need with which only 0ams hard wor< can supply. Iia the use of heterogenic and diverse images from news reports and surveillance footage of 0ams home world% the filmic text emphasi4es not only 0ams isolated and detached sub5ective experience of historical and mediated time but also his reliance on such images. This reliance on such images *such as the fa<e recorded messages with his family- emphasi4es the reproduction of

reality for him% but from a position that he is completely detached from it. : symptom of the post9modern condition% 'the passage from modern society to post modern society% is a passage from a metallurgic to a .semiurgic Can era of signsD society) *Fox ,""2+# -. This .semiurgic era that 0am lives in reveals his deep need for an .imaginary identification with these images that offer him a better sense of his self *literally in the hoax images of 0am and his daughter living happily on >arth- and his origins% even if they are completely reproduced% li<e him.

However% it with the introduction of 0ams cloned double that reveals the full extent of the .Uncanny9ness of )oon3 :lmost structualist in its emphasis of binaries% )oon purposely 5uxtapositions its two clones to emphasi4e the immense difference of the preOpost mirror stage. :s Mld 0am *the 0am involved in the rover accident- has gradually recogni4ed his need to free himself from ;oon personified in the motherly nature of A>KTF over the three years *much li<e a growing child-% the stations computer% the 3ew 0am exhibits a dependency and eternal fulfilment with his mother. :s a self implanted individual whom has only 5ust awo<en to complete his three year wor< shift on the ;oon% the 3ew 0am exhibits an aggressive and short9tempered personality as he begins to confront not only the Uncanny nature of having two distinct yet exact bodies but also his transition from the motherly dependent child to an individual and singular human see<ing a new form of plenitude with his family bac< home *so he believes-. Mld 0am on the other hand is experiencing an accepting and

mellow state of mind. Though he too struggles with the Uncanny nature of the Eouble and the constructed image of what he once was *a child in the pre9mirror stage at the start of his 8unar Industries career-% he has come to understand what he must do in order to replace the mother for which he has now recogni4ed himself as different and uni/ue from. Though Mld 0ams .imaginary identification with his family is completely artificial% to his <nowledge he believes he can replace the motherly nature of his current environment with the image of the nuclear family. Though he cannot possibly hope to fully destroy his lost plenitude as an infant% Mld 0ams strive to fulfil and enlighten himself with an imaginary identification with the mediated images of >arth% he can in turn create an ideal ego% an illusory notion to which he gives him a better impression of him self.

:s the two clones realise that rescue team .>li4a are in fact coming to the ;oon to silence them both% they /uic<ly decide that the Mld 0am should be the one to escape on the helium beacon as he 'did the three years). 3ew 0am recognises that he is not ready to be separated from the motherly plenitude of childhood and decides to stay behind with A>KTF. However% as Mld 0ams health slowly diminishes evident in multiple video logs of past 0ams health issues% 3ew 0am realises it is he who must accept the difference% the .lac< if you will between himself and the ;oonOA>KTF. He must cease being an artificial machine as much as A>KTF is and become his own individual willing to simultaneously challenge the mothers embrace and define his first role of a social and sexual identity. :s Mld 0am passes away after tal<ing to the .real 0am $ell bac< on

>arth% the 3ew 0am escapes leaving A>KTF with no option but to awa<en an another clone% a 3eo90am whom continues the infinite cycle of the child. This child represents the naJve unity with the maternal figure that the male child suggests within Freuds writings. ;eanwhile% the liberated and escaped 3ew 0am enters into >arths atmosphere and into the 0ymbolic Mrder% and with it patriarchal language and to fulfil his oedipal tra5ectory+ 'Ghere he was pre9 linguistic(he is now the sub5ect of patriarchal language. His sexual security and sub5ectivity depends on a female other as he must conform to the law of the father) *Hayward 1 !+1#7-. Gith this new stage of sexual and social identity%

3ew 0am finally passes through the mirror stage * Film Image ( and into the behavioural notions that society demands.

The visual rendition of psychological crisis of a pre9mirror stage minor that )oon creates is admittedly not an explicit reading of the seminal science fiction text. However% its Uncanny usage of the Eouble to evo<e the social and sexual identity of Freud and 8acans writings is a perfect example thematically and stylistically of films ability to confront the spectators deep unconscious drives that govern them. Iia the 5uxtaposition of two distinct yet exact bodies% )oon consistently /uestions the individuals early psychologically sexual traits via an allegory of immense isolation and loneliness that space demands. In doing so% )oon becomes a post9modern text built on mediated images that evo<es the Uncanny via the relationship of the individual to the society surrounding them and more precisely% how they eventually become part of it. However% when we

examine the mirror stage further% we find that the medium of cinema itself *not merely specific texts- holds the .imaginary identification that many adults see<. >nter &hristian ;et4.

)hristian 'et* & Film +s + 'irror :s &hristian ;et4 *whom was one of the forerunners of the semilogyOsemiotics movement- was one of the first theorists to move towards psychoanalytic theory in its application to film% he seems a fitting figure of our practice to introduce and expand on the notion of .imaginary identification. Though at first ;et4s theory may seem a loose argument compared to the thematic and cinematic analysis of the previous science fiction texts% on proper expansion it not only reveals the .Uncanny9ness that our specific texts hold *due to their aforementioned pre9 conditions- but the medium of cinema as a whole in its attempts to elicit a spectators response via returning them to a state of .complete pleasure% an impression of plenitude with the mother of the pre9mirror stage.

Though I do not have the space to fully explore the technicalities of ;et4s wor<% an overview alone of his ma5or contributions reveals an eternally influential and fascinating exploration of cinema and its effects on the individual. Firstly% I feel it is important to explain briefly how cinema can be in 5uxtaposition with a literal mirror *though an abstract concept in terms of Freud and 8acans wor<% it none of the less reveals the attributing relationship we have with the big screen-. $eyond simply the similarities of how film can .reflect two dimensional images of three9

dimensional ob5ects *or how we are li<e a child loo<ing at a mirror when a spectator loo<s at the film image-% ;et4s seminal boo< .The Imaginary 0ignifier *;et4 1 7B+7-% expands and defines how cinema influences us and the ramifications of viewing film+

1. The spectator is in a position where they are unable to move% or in a sense cannot do so without comprising their attention to the text% much li<e a pre9mirror stage infant. ,. The dar<ness of the cinema and brightness of the screen helps to disconnect the spectator from hisOher body 2. Images of ob5ects that are not in the space where they seem to be *absenceare presented in a way that reproduces a certain sense of plenitude *presence-.

Though the first two points may seem simple to understand% it is with this third similarity that I wish to fully expand and explain the importance psychoanalysis holds to our cinematic practice. Through the problematic and conflicting usage of .identification in film and the spectator.s position as .sub5ect.% I wish to attribute ;et4s notion of the cinema9as9mirror with Freud.s .Uncanny9ness and suggest that in this sense% this repetitive notion of going to the cinema reveals that the spectator is always under the watchful eye of the all9seeing pro5ector. >xpanding from $audrys use of the mirror stage% ;et4 asserts that cinema offers a specific and uni/ue play of presence and absence% one 'that is distinct from other <inds of experiences available to human beings and from other art forms and cultural

or social activities) *Kushton ,"" +,!#-. Using theatre in comparison% ;et4 reveals the specificity of the cinematic experience. Firstly% that the drama theatre offers is playing out in real time% in front of us% a presence, whereas cinema plays out actions which are not in front of us% they merely play out on the screen% they are a$sent3 Though a basic enough distinction% ;et4 uses the example of a chair represented in each art form. Githin the theatre% the chair *e.g. prop- though real and physical in front of our eyes is being used for a fictional purpose% but on the other hand% the chair on the cinema screen is a fictional chair being used for a fictional purpose. Thereby ;et4 asserts that 'every film is a fictional film) *1 7B+11- because of the consistently fictional mode of presentation that cinema wields. $ecause of this% ;et4 suggests 'that film is li<e a mirror(more than the other arts the cinema involves us in the Imaginary% it drums up all perception but to switch it immediately over into its own absence% which is the only present) *1 7B+11-.

;et4 asserts that this presence9absence binary may possibly explain the strong subconscious appeal that film exerts on people as it reproduces several processes that are central to the functioning of the human mind. Furthermore% through this defined binary *the absence of an ob5ect is made present giving the impression of plenitude- we find a close association with the process of .identification. This specific process is often referred to as .suture% and in this case can be defined as 'the different positions available to the spectator in relation to both screen and off9screen space) *0tam 1 ,+1! -. : basic form of

suture is achieved through the shot9reverse shot% a trait nearly all Hollywood pictures exhibit+ : shot showing a face loo<ing% which implies something being loo<ed at but absent from the shot Then the reverse shot shows the other side of the scenery 9 ma<ing it present and complete% thus creating a sense of plenitude. Ghen this is delayed we become anxious to complete the space% once it is the revealed we are in turn relieved.

If we loo< at a suitable example from Halloween *1 7#-% we find an extensive use of the 6MI shot *Film Image , and the absence of the reverse shot from the opening scene. :s ;ichael as a young child stal<s through his suburban home% an anxiety is created in the intentional ambiguity to whom the camera is embodied as. ;et4 argues that the pleasure of the cinema emerges through this process of suture once the .monster is shown and controlled. 0uture allows the spectator to identity with the imagined plenitude of the unified space of the sub5ect *.the ideal ego- on screen li<e the child identifies with .the ideal ego in the mirror. ;uch li<e 0am Koc<wells strive to assert a plenitude via the delayed images of his .family% cinema can wor< in a similar way to allow the spectator the imagined self9identication with an image. Though ;et4 is aware that the cinema is actually pro5ecting images of other people% not the reflection of the spectator *li<e a mirror- this identification still wor<s as .cinema is already on the side of the 0ymbolic *1 7B+1!-.

:s mentioned previously with )oon% 8acan suggests once the male child has gone through the mirror phase and identified with an image of a better self% an .the ideal ego% they become aware that the image is not the child itself% it only stands for the child. The image is only a symbol% something that signifies something else% at this point the child enters into the 0ymbolic realm. Mn entering this realm% the child understands that the absent ob5ect can be suggested by words or symbols and not the ob5ect itself% unli<e 8acans other psychic structures that have preceded it% such as the Keal *the ob5ect itself in full presence- and the Imaginary *the image of the absent ob5ect which might be confused the ob5ect as though it was present-. It is at this point that the child begins to use language as he has recognised that symbols can stand for people and ob5ects. In entering this 0ymbolic realm% 8acan asserts that the male childs transition is precipitated by the law of the father+ ':t the 0ymbolic stage% the child becomes not only integrated into a system of language but also into codes of conducts and social relationships) *&asebier 1 1+111-. :s the father intervenes

and forces the child to separate himself from the mother *using '3o) and its subse/uent symbolism-% the child is forced to re5ect Freuds Medipus complex *where the father and son compete for the mother- and reluctantly accept the new laws of the symbolic realm.

However% this entrance into the 0ymbolic does not mean the end of the Imaginary% 8acan theori4es that throughout our lives we reluctantly accept the

law of the father but we constantly wish to return to the Imaginary% which gives us an impression of a return to the original plenitude. Kather than fully accepting the full absence associated with the 0ymbolic% we are still attracted to the absenceOpresence of the Imaginary. Therefore the attraction of the cinema rests precisely in our desire to escape the .law and return to a world of complete pleasure% an impression of this plenitude% the presence9through9absence of cinema. For ;et4% spectators are generally aware of the 0ymbolic process of identification and can thus identity with the image of another person because they perceive attributes they wish belonged to themselves% the film image becomes a partial ideal ego *while being aware that the connection is purely 0ymbolic-. The spectator 'pro5ects agency in excess of its physical capabilities into the image% thus identifying with its image as an ideali4ed self) *>lsaesser ,"1"+!B- and wishes for a return to the original completeness that only 'imaginary identification) with the cinema may offer them.

;et4% expanding from Freuds 1 ,7 essay On %etishism/ asserts there is a doubling of a spectators cinematic experience based on the contradicting views of the psychoanalytic concept on fetishism. 'The spectator believes both that the action on the screen is not real and imaginary yet at the same time this spectator believes 9 unconsciously% primordially 9 that the scenes unfolding on the screen are real) *KushtonO$ettinson ,"1"+1B-. $y utili4ing this doubling and combining it with the aforementioned relationship cinema has to the psychological realms of 8acans and Freuds wor<% we can suggest that cinema as a whole is the ultimate

Uncanny .Eouble. Gor<ing li<e a mirror% it can strive to examine the individual spectator and will him to return to the complete plenitude that he experienced as a child. $y invo<ing repressed desires from childhood that the Uncanny specialises in% this audio9visual art form can strive to offer the spectator 'a pure voyance% a pure act of seeing% a conscious set up 9 untroubled 9 for spectacle) *;erc< 1 ,+#,-.

)onclusion Throughout this piece I have strived to insert a consistency into the wor<s I have analysed in relation to the Uncanny and primarily the notion of The Eouble. From the cinematic and technical effects %ran&enstein may have on the viewer in relationship to the monster% to the thematic implications 'la!e ("nner has in relation to Koy $atty and Eec<ards dreams and finally to the 8acanianOFreudian metaphors 0am and his clone represent within )oon, I have attempted to assemble three filmic texts that reveal the immense possibilities for the Uncanny as film history has progressed. In doing so% I feel I have reopened potential discussions of the Uncanny as a more widely regimented and applicable theory. Though we are currently experiencing a difficult and problematic binary of opposing cognitive and psychoanalytic theories within our filmic practice% the revitalised outloo< of the Uncanny and the wor<s of ;et4% 8acan and of course Freud that this essay hopes to reignite should not be underestimated. Through the relevant channels% our film practice should consistently continue to reposition

itself in relation to texts as different cosmopolitan values% ideals and beliefs shift with it. In this sense% I hope that the re9emergence of the Uncanny will encourage the spectator to consume cinema to see< out possible new texts that offer a personal emotive response to the individual.

:s the Hollywood machine continues to provide new texts at a rapid rate% further texts will continue to provide new psychoanalytic material to confront. However% as ;et4s wor< has slowly been less influential and more scrutini4ed over past decades% a revitalised suggestion of the psychoanalytic potential all cinematic texts hold for the viewer will hopefully reignite debates on the technicalities of his complex yet eternalised wor<. Through Freud% 8acan and ;et4 a relationship of cinematic viewing and the conscious and unconscious drive of the spectator can be examined and the immense interrelations the three theorists have reveals the individual importance they hold in providing answers to film theory. Freuds Uncanny% 8acans social realms and ;et4 film9as9mirror discussions have combined and assisted in assembling an argument for cinemas ability to invo<e the repressed desires of the individual through both specific texts and the act of film viewing as a whole. The Uncanny itself is a powerfully confrontational sensation that can be evo<ed by the audio9visual methods of cinema in relation to specific repressed desires. In evo<ing these desires% most prominently via the use of the Eouble% cinema consistently has the ability to explore and dissect the deepest conscious and unconscious realms of the individual spectator.